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Meeting industry needs

Managing the integrity of engineered assets – to

achieve operational excellence, maximum performance
and the highest safety and environmental standards,
while simultaneously minimising costs – is complex and
challenging for today’s industrial operators.

In response to this, TWI offers world-leading asset

integrity management services based on more than 50
years of accumulated experience in engineering R&D,
deployment and consultancy.

Over 150 engineers, technicians and consultants work in

collaboration to conceive and implement asset integrity
management strategies designed to avoid engineering
failure, ensure compliance and optimise operating and
maintenance expenditure. We offer a full range of services
including tailored inspection, component testing and
failure investigation.

Using our state-of-the-art laboratories, we provide

mechanical and non-destructive testing for structures
and components of all shapes, sizes and specifications,
in ambient and aggressive environments. We continue to
invest in new equipment and facilities in order to exploit
the opportunities provided by evolving technologies and

As an Industrial Member company of TWI, you can draw

on our multi-disciplinary teams of experts for independent
and impartial advice and solutions to technical issues. We
undertake single client projects as well as joint industry
projects where several Member companies join forces to
address a particular industrial or sector-based issue.

TWI sits on many European and international standards

committees, giving us a unique insight into the dynamic
needs of industry. Our integrity management services
are utilised across major industries including oil and
gas, aerospace, nuclear, defence, wind energy, power,
automotive, rail and construction.

Advanced non-destructive testing

TWI provides advanced and conventional non-destructive testing (NDT) services for the inspection of structures, both
on and off-site, including pipelines, storage tanks, risers, rail tracks, ship hulls, wind turbines and more. We develop and
optimise inspection systems to meet industry needs and our field services are in demand worldwide.

Our expertise includes developing techniques and procedures for: array ultrasonic methods such as phased array and full
matrix capture; long-range guided wave methods; digital radiography; eddy current arrays; and electro-magnetic acoustic
transducer based methods. In addition, we have developed a method for long-term testing of polyethylene pipe joints.

TWI can also help review inspection procedures for clients from across all industry sectors and provide an independent
critical assessment. Where required, we can generate novel techniques to meet pre-determined criteria as well as
formulate and implement new procedures.
Non-destructive testing for additive NDT robots toward the final technology readiness levels Non-destructive testing product Clear ultrasonic imaging software
and are on course to commercialise at least two robotic
manufacturing NDT systems. One mobile system will operate in oil and
Crystal™ by TWI is a real-time, versatile, ultrasonic, full
petrochemical storage tanks to detect corrosion and matrix capture/total focusing method inspection software
We have a long history of new product development
We undertake X-ray computed tomography (XCT), a pitting on the floors and walls while submerged in liquids. package. Built around a robust, scalable architecture, it
based on NDT research and collaboration with
powerful non-destructive testing technique highly suited The other will climb on wind towers to inspect blades can be deployed in a wide variety of industry scenarios
international industry partners. This combined knowledge
to additive manufacturing (AM) part inspection, for using shearography. from small-form-factor systems comprising a laptop and
and capability enables us to take NDT technologies to
clients in our own laboratories. It provides volumetric portable pulsar/receiver, through to factory solutions
higher technology readiness levels (TRLs) and provide
3D density data on the entire internal structure of the utilising rack-mounted hardware with support for up to
support for fast-track innovation, enabling pioneering new
scanned object and can output detailed, 2D cross- three pulsar/receiver units. We provide services using
NDT products to reach commercial readiness and achieve
sectional images. Alternatively, we can deploy ultrasonic TWI’s Crystal™ and it is also available to purchase
market success. An example of this is TWI’s PolyTest™ –
techniques on large additive manufactured parts and separately.
a portable system for the volumetric NDT of electrofusion
during manufacture on site. Surface defects can be
and butt fusion joints in polyethylene pipe.
reliably detected using eddy current inspection and dye
penetrant techniques. Qualification and validation
Robotics and automation TWI’s qualified personnel provide help, advice and
information on the complete testing qualification
TWI’s 6-axis industrial robot system, for the automated process, including selection of appropriate standards
inspection of complex geometries, deploys advanced and codes, preparation of technical justifications and the
ultrasonic testing sensors and can automatically inspect manufacture of qualification trials specimens.
pre-programmed components in a fraction of the time
it usually takes. As a result, we offer clients timely Third party inspection
services in offline scan path planning using CAD input;
pulse echo and through transmission; phased array and We undertake third party oversight in all NDT inspection
full matrix capture; and water squirts or full immersion. techniques, overseeing levels of qualification up to EN 473
The system is scalable to suit component size and and ASNT NDT Level 3.
incorporates a full suite of acquisition and analysis tools
with 3D data display. In exciting developments, we are
now engineering wall-climbing and swimming prototype
Condition and structural Condition monitoring Instrumentation and monitoring Life-cycle assessment
health monitoring Condition monitoring facilitates intervention in the
early stages of machinery deterioration. We look at
TWI has a substantial track record in the design
and installation of instrumentation and data logging
We help companies take a through-life-cycle approach
to their assets and support run-inspect-repair-replace
TWI provides complete monitoring solutions for plant components on an individual basis, using a variety of systems for the measurement of service-loading or decision making. Our life-cycle assessment process
and components, helping companies and organisations different technologies such as acoustic emission or stress histories. Client services include the design and addresses each asset as a system, taking into account
to reduce inspection and maintenance costs, increase guided wave and vibration analysis, to gather data which application of monitoring systems; data recording such environmental factors and long-time horizons, thereby
efficiency and improve safety and reliability. can be analysed for signs of change. This is particularly as during trial, hydro-tests and other services operations; helping clients to calculate component life-cycle costs.
beneficial for machines not suited to regular inspection and the analysis and interpretation of data. We have
Structural health monitoring is concerned with the overall access, such as offshore wind turbines or those in assessed a wide range of structures and components
structure of assets, for example wind turbines, bridges, continuous service. including pressure vessels, process plants and earth
cranes and offshore platforms. Condition monitoring deals moving equipment.
with machinery; mainly moving components such as gears We are currently developing digital twin technology for
and bearings as well as boilers and heat exchangers. condition monitoring of wind turbines, building on our The CrackFirstTM fatigue sensor system is an alternative
The monitoring outputs provide owners and operators longstanding experience in the wind energy sector. method of monitoring steel welded structures for long-
with objective and reliable data that shows any changes A condition monitoring system encompasses the entire term fatigue usage. It enables the estimation of remaining
to the structure or component; an assessment can be physical wind turbine, providing ongoing structural health fatigue life and the setting of usage-based inspection
made of its overall health and it provides a tool for safely analysis. Simultaneously, this is mirrored virtually using a intervals. When attached adjacent to a fatigue-critical
extending useful life in the future. Unplanned shutdowns 3D model of the wind turbine in the form of a digital twin, detail, the sensor responds to the cyclic loading, changing
can therefore be avoided and the life expectancy of plant including input from different sensors positioned across its output in proportion to the cumulative fatigue damage
and machinery more accurately calculated. the physical entity, to continually feedback monitoring for a typical fillet welded joint. We can advise on the use
data. The output is a fully comprehensive, real-time of CrackFirst sensor systems for new structures or those
Structural health monitoring assessment of the structural condition of individual wind already in service.
turbine assets. In the longer term, we will expand our

Risk based inspection

Our structural health monitoring service involves application of digital twin technology into other industries.
observing a complete structure over time, periodically

sampling response measurements from an array of
sensors, extracting damage-sensitive features from TWI works with clients to develop inspection plans

the measurements and making a statistical analysis to based on knowledge of the risk of failure of structures
determine current state of health. This process enables and equipment. We assess the likelihood of failure
early intervention and may prevent catastrophic failure due to damage, deterioration or degradation and the
from corrosion, fatigue, or cracking. consequences of such failure. The outcome is a cost- Our experts carry out fitness-for-service assessments,
effective inspection process, centred on the API 580/581 in accordance with API 579-1/ASME FFS-1, to determine
TWI’s Acoustic Emission Hydrogen Induced Cracking standards and safety compliance, which can be used with the structural integrity of plant and equipment and judge
detection system (AEHIC) provides a means of identifying confidence for making risk-based decisions. Using an its suitability for continued service. These incorporate
whether hydrogen induced cracking is going to occur, or established methodology and TWI’s RiskWISE® software, fracture and fatigue management approaches such
is already in progress, including how it is evolving. The we also develop tailored maintenance and replacement as designing to minimise failure; assessment of flaws;
resulting information can then be applied to limit the solutions and provide guidance on assess management, joint and structural performance assessment using
potential for pipework damage or failure, giving greater from individual component studies through to turnkey, TWI’s IntegriWISE® fitness-for-service software; and
control over a plant’s operation and performance. plant-wide projects. TWI’s RiskWISE plant inspection experimental and computational stress analysis. TWI’s
and maintenance software is integral to our risk based IntegriWISE software is also available to purchase
The Vibration Monitoring and Risk Analysis System for inspection services and is also available to purchase separately.
Process Piping (VARA) from TWI uses vibration analysis separately.
to detect structural damage. It gives operators vital data
to inform their process piping maintenance strategy;
providing a link between vibration analysis of pipework
and the likelihood of the occurrence of fatigue crack
Engineering critical Corrosive environment testing

TWI has specialist equipment for testing materials in
corrosive environments such as the mooring chain test
rig, with a 6000kN load capacity and a dedicated facility
Engineering critical assessment (ECA) uses fracture for fatigue endurance and fatigue crack growth tests in
mechanics principles to determine the defect tolerance of high-pressure gas. Many of our large and small-scale
structures or components due to brittle fracture, fatigue, mechanical, fracture and non-destructive tests can be
creep or plastic collapse. Our engineers have in-depth adapted to provide simulated service situations including
knowledge of ECA codes (BS 7910 and R6) and provide sour (H2S) and sweet (CO2); brine; seawater; high pressure;
a prompt and accurate response to fracture related and high or low temperature. Data from the tests we
problems. We use TWI’s fracture and fatigue assessment conduct provides designers and engineers with additional
software CrackWISE®, developed in accordance with BS assurance of fatigue integrity before materials or
7910, which is also available to purchase separately. components are exposed to cyclic loading.

Full-scale pressure testing

We operate a purpose-built pressure pit test facility,
designed, built and commissioned in-house, that can
be used to test components up to 10m in length and
weighing up to 10 tonnes. Applications include full-scale
burst, wide plate, biaxial and pipe bend testing. The
facility has inbuilt CCTV for recording and monitoring
tests remotely via video and clients receive a copy of
their test footage.

Standard testing
Standard tests we undertake include Pellini, Charpy,
hardness, tensile and bend testing. Our express testing
service for standard types of fracture mechanics
specimen can provide results as test certificates with a

Specialist mechanical fast turnaround.

We also offer training in fracture toughness testing.

Fracture toughness testing is a key input for fitness-for-

service assessments, encompassing routine tests that
require fast turnaround times through to bespoke, non-
standard fracture mechanics tests.

TWI’s knowledge of fracture toughness tests is based

on extensive involvement in standards committees,
fracture research and the design and build of customised
test facilities for ambient and aggressive environments.
We interpret complex results, such as fitting tearing
resistance curves, and explain low results or tests that do
not fully meet qualification criteria including whether the
data can safely be used.

Our services cover standard and custom fracture and

fatigue testing, including high and low-cycle fatigue tests;
resonance testing for pipelines; high speed fracture tests;

Fatigue integrity
fracture toughness tests at high or low temperatures;
and fatigue crack growth tests. Bespoke test rigs can

be designed and built at TWI, tailored to clients’ specific
mechanical testing needs.

We also provide environmental testing of polymers Fatigue is relevant to all industries because it is the most
and non-metallic materials, which are increasingly common mode of failure in structural and mechanical
being selected for deployment in harsh locations. This components. If unchecked, it can lead to major breakdown
includes developing custom tests, interpreting results and with potentially severe consequences to plant, equipment,
evaluating products. the environment and human lives.
Numerical modelling to examine stresses in mooring chain links
TWI’s fatigue specialists draw on more than 50 years’
worth of research and expertise in fatigue analysis, design,
assessment and testing. They regularly work with clients Weld modelling and distortion prediction
in the oil and gas, power, construction and other industries
on the monitoring and life extension of components such TWI has an extensive track record in developing and
as girth welds in pipelines and risers, joints in offshore and analysing weld models to predict residual stresses,
bridge structures and road and rail vehicle parts. distortion and metallurgical evolutions. These models range
from multi-pass girth welds to ship panels comprising
hundreds of single pass welds. In conjunction with state-
of-the-art optimisation routines, TWI can identify optimal
process parameters and weld sequences to minimise
distortion and residual stresses, ultimately enhancing the
performance and flaw tolerance of fabricated structures.

Material performance in aggressive

Numerical modelling and environments

optimisation Leveraging multi-scale and multi-physics simulations, TWI

simulates damage accumulation and propagation across
Numerical modelling, optimisation and, in particular, Finite multiple length-scales, enabling accurate predictions of
Element Analysis (FEA) enable innovation, provide cost fatigue crack growth; wear mechanisms; environmental
savings and guarantee reliability via simulation of the degradation; and progressive failure in composite
behaviour of structures under static, dynamic, thermal and aerospace parts, subsea equipment in the presence of
cyclic loads. corrosive fluids and nanostructured coatings.

Fatigue consultancy TWI’s Numerical Modelling and Optimisation team provides Modelling support for additive
modelling as an integrated engineering solution for
Whether you are developing a small component or building consultancy, long-term R&D and failure investigation, manufacturing
a major structure, fatigue assessment at the concept adding great value across the oil and gas, power,
or early design stage can provide you with significant construction, transport, electronics and other industries. Through collaborative R&D programmes, TWI provides
savings. It helps to minimise the risk of design errors, Comprising engineers, mathematicians, physicists and modelling support for the development and adoption of
avoids the need for design changes and re-working and NAFEMS-certified Professional Simulation Engineers, it additive manufacturing (AM) technology across multiple
can subsequently prevent costly fatigue failures. offers expertise in a number of areas. industry sectors. Projects include topology optimisation;
Our fatigue engineers carry out in-depth analysis and light-weighting and design-for-AM; process simulations for
testing of structures. They identify the areas in which selective laser melting; direct energy deposition and wire-
fatigue is likely to occur, provide information on the fatigue fed AM; and the integration of metallic micro-lattices to
life improvement of existing structures and advise on support the development of novel medical devices.
current international standards for fatigue design and
assessment. Simulation of inspection and testing
TWI is represented on many standards committees and procedures
plays a lead role in the development of industry standards,
some of which are BS 7608, BS 7910, Eurocode 3 and IIW Combining analytical and numerical models with
guidance documents. experimental validation, TWI models non-destructive
testing procedures such as guided waves and ultrasonic
We also provide expert witness for litigation cases and inspection methods to optimise the location of sensors
arbitration for disputes concerning liability. and inspection intervals, leading to improved input for
engineering critical assessments.

Fatigue lifespan prediction

In many fatigue assessments, the most difficult and
critical step is characterising the in-service loads. Once
these are known, further analysis can be carried out Fracture and fatigue integrity
to assess the expected fatigue life. Measured strains
can be used directly for fatigue lifespan prediction. For structures ranging from fire-damaged pressure vessels
Alternatively, instrumentation to measure applied forces to petroleum road fuel tankers, TWI can analyse complex
and displacements in relevant locations on a structure 3D cracks under multi-axial loading conditions to identify
allows for a realistic input into finite element analysis the safe operating life and defect tolerance of safety-
(FEA) models or other methods of analysis, resulting in critical components. The outputs of these simulations
more accurate predictions of fatigue life. support advanced fitness-for-service and engineering
critical assessment by providing code-compliant fracture
mechanics simulations.
Ultrasonic inspection of complex geometries
in immersion tank
About TWI
TWI is one of the world’s foremost independent research
and technology organisations, with expertise in solving
problems in all aspects of manufacturing, fabrication and
whole-life integrity management technologies. Established
at Great Abington, Cambridge, UK in 1946 and with
facilities across the globe, the company has a first-class
reputation for service through its teams of internationally
respected consultants, scientists, engineers and support
staff. The company employs more than 900 staff, serving
700 Member companies across 4500 sites in 80 countries.
TWI also houses a professional institution, The Welding
Institute, with a separate membership of over 6000

TWI offers a single, impartial source of service for joining

engineering materials. Technical services range from
initial design, materials selection, production and quality
assurance, through to service performance and repair.
TWI Ltd, Cambridge, UK

TWI Ltd, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge CB21 6AL, United Kingdom
1493. 09/17

Tel: +44 (0)1223 899000 Fax: +44 (0)1223 892588 E-mail: twi@twi-global.com Web: www.twi-global.com