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Composite Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruct

GFRP laminates

G. Catalanotti a,⇑, P.P. Camanho a, P. Ghys b, A.T. Marques a

a

DEMec, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal

b

ALSTOM Transport, Rue Albert Dhalenne, 48, 93482 Saint-Ouen, France

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: An experimental and numerical study of the fastener pull-through failure mode in glass–ﬁber reinforced

Available online 2 July 2011 plastic (GFRP) laminates using both phenolic and vinylester resins is presented. It is shown that the type

of resin does not affect the mechanical response of the joint when a pull-through test is performed

Keywords: because similar values of the sub-critical initial and ﬁnal failure loads are obtained. Moreover, consider-

A. Hybrid structures ing that the joint is considering to fail when the sub-critical failure load is reached, a methodology to pre-

B. Bolted joints dict the pull-through failure mode is proposed. It is observed that the main failure mechanism is the

C. Pull-through

delamination of the plies; therefore, the prediction of the sub-critical initial failure load is performed

using a three-dimensional ﬁnite element model where cohesive elements are used to simulate delamina-

tion. The predictions agree remarkably well with the experimental results.

Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

failure, namely: the geometry of the fastener head, the thickness of

GFRP laminates are used in marine, railway and automotive the laminate, and the stacking sequence. It was observed that the

industries in non-structural parts and, more recently, in the main failed specimens exhibit intralaminar damage similar to that

load-carrying structures. The use of composites leads to a reduc- shown in composite panels when a low-velocity impact is applied

tion of the weight (and consequently of the cost of the transporta- in the transversal direction. In fact, the damaged zones (intralam-

tion), a reduction of manufacturing costs (simpliﬁcation of the inar and interlaminar damage) are distributed conically with re-

design and reduction of the costs required for the assembly), and spect to the axis of the fastener.

to a reduction of the recurring cost (composites require less main- Banbury et al. [9] performed numerical analysis to study the

tenance than metals). pull-through damage mechanism. The ﬁnite element (FE) analysis

Due to their high speciﬁc stiffness and strength and to the ﬂex- indicated that:

ibility in their use, GFRP are nowadays used together with metals

in the design of hybrid low-cost train structures [1]. Hybrid struc- shear stresses in the vicinity of the bolt head are responsible for

tures are interesting for the railway industry because they may re- the intralaminar matrix cracking in through-the-thickness

sult in a mass reduction of about 12–24% and in a cost reduction of direction;

about 20% [2]. One of the main design requirements of the railway tensile in-plane stresses are responsible for the ﬂexural defor-

industry is the calculation of the strength of hybrid bolted joints, mation of the material in particular in low-modulus laminate;

which correspond to the critical regions of the structures. matrix cracking was observed to be the primary failure mecha-

While the prediction of the strength of composite bolted joints nism while delamination (caused by the high interlaminar

under in-plane failure mechanism has been throughly investigated shear and peel stress) was the secondary mechanism.

in the literature [3–7], few attempts have been made to predict

out-of-plane failure mechanism, such as fastener pull-through Moreover, a numerical procedure to simulate the progressive

[8–11]. damage in the material was proposed. A progressive damage mod-

Banbury and Kelly [8] investigated the pull-through failure of el together with the maximum principal strain criterion were used

carbon laminates manufactured using both plane weave and unidi- and a good agreement between the experiments and the numerical

rectional prepregs. An experimental campaign was performed to predictions, both in terms of failure load, damaged zones and dam-

age mechanisms, was obtained.

⇑ Corresponding author. Kelly and Hallström [10] performed an experimental and

E-mail address: giuseppe.catalanotti@fe.up.pt (G. Catalanotti). numerical investigation of a laminate subjected to transversal

0263-8223/$ - see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2011.06.021

240 G. Catalanotti et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2011) 239–245

loads. Different geometries, materials and lay-ups were investi- The laminates were manufactured using the technique of resin

gated. The damage onset was observed to occur at a load of infusion and they have the quasi-isotropic lay-up reported in

approximately 20–30% of the failure load, and the different failure Table 1. The mechanical properties of these laminates are reported

mechanism were identiﬁed. As mentioned in previous investiga- in Table 2 where: Ei is the Young’s modulus in i direction, mij is the

tions [8], the damaged zones show both interlaminar and intralam- Poisson’s ration in i–j directions, Gij is the shear modulus in i–j

inar matrix cracking. A three-dimensional ﬁnite element method directions, XT is the longitudinal tensile strength, XC is the longitu-

was proposed to predict the ﬁrst-ply failure. dinal compressive strength, YT is the transverse tensile strength, YC

Elder et al. [11] proposed a simpliﬁed three-dimensional ﬁnite

elements model to model pull-through failure of composite lami-

nates. It was concluded that simpliﬁed models allow to obtain a

Table 1

good prediction of the pull-through failure for quasi-isotropic lam-

Orientation pattern for GF-vinylester/phenolic composite.

inates even if additional efforts are required to properly deﬁne the

cohesive parameters used in the numerical model. Ply Type of product Name Supplier

Fastener pull-through is particularly important for train struc- 14 ±45° – 610 g/m2 EBX 600 SELCOM

tures where several hybrid connections are present: 13 90° – 600 g/m2 Roving UD 600 CHOMARAT GAZECHIM

12 ±45° – 610 g/m2 EBX 600 SELCOM

11 90° – 600 g/m2 Roving UD 600 CHOMARAT GAZECHIM

the connection between the main frame and the ﬂoor; 10 ±45° – 610 g/m2 EBX 600 SELCOM

the connection between the carbody shell and the top ﬂoor (in 9 0° – 1246 g/m2 UNIE 1200 SELCOM

the case of a double deck carbody shell); 8 ±45° – 610 g/m2 EBX 600 SELCOM

the connection between the main frame and the carbody shell; 7 ±45° – 610 g/m2 EBX 600 SELCOM

6 0° – 1246 g/m2 UNIE 1200 SELCOM

the connection between the carbody shell and the roof.

5 ±45° – 610 g/m2 EBX 600 SELCOM

4 90° – 600 g/m2 Roving UD 600 CHOMARAT GAZECHIM

Fig. 1 represents the connection between the main frame and 3 ±45° – 610 g/m2 EBX 600 SELCOM

the side of the carbody shell. This connection uses two different 2 ±90° – 600 g/m2 Roving UD 600 CHOMARAT GAZECHIM

materials because the internal panel cannot be toxic, while the 1 ±45° – 610 g/m2 EBX 600 SELCOM

external panel must have a good ﬁre resistance [12]. For this rea- Isoftalic poliester gelcoat GCI S90000 VM10 SAF 1 POLYPROCESS

son, the internal panel is manufactured using phenolic resin, while

the external panel is manufactured using vinylester resin.

The aim of this paper is to experimentally study the fastener

pull-through failure mode in GFRP laminates and to propose a

Table 2

numerical technique to predict the response of a bolted joints un- Mechanical properties of GF-V and GF-P UD laminate.

der out-of-planes loads. Taking into account that in industrial

Materials GF-vinylester GF-phenolic

applications several resins are used to satisfy the current legisla-

tion (in particular about the ﬁre behavior [12]) the study presented E1 (MPa) 42,830 35,200

E2 = E3 (MPa) 1530 3000

here concerns two different resins: phenolic and vinylester.

m12 0.35 0.35

m13 = m23 0.3 0.3

2. Experiments G12 (MPa) 2800 3400

G13 = G23 (MPa) 2800 3400

XT (MPa) 350 355

2.1. Materials

YT = ZT (MPa) 35 35

XC (MPa) 300 300

The composites investigated in this study are: YC = ZC (MPa) 30 30

ST (MPa) 10 19

SL (MPa) 22 14

Fiber glass-vinylester composite (GF-V).

q (kg/m3) 1863 1900

Fiber glass-phenolic composite (GF-P).

G. Catalanotti et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2011) 239–245 241

strength, SL is the longitudinal shear strength and q is the density.

The material was tested after a heat aging treatment according

to the AFNOR norm [13].

D7332 – Standard Test Method for Measuring the Fastener Pull-

Through Resistance of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite

[14].

This test method proposes two procedures, A and B. Procedure

A is used to enhance the fastener design while procedure B is used

to study other design variables. Both procedures use ﬂat test spec-

imens with a circular hole in the center where the fastener is in-

stalled. In procedure A two specimens are joined using a fastener Fig. 3. Equipment set-up for PT test.

and one plate is rotated of 45° with respect to the other. Each test

specimen contains four additional holes at the corners where the

the other with a 10 mm diameter hole. In the following, each

fasteners are installed to connect the specimens to the test ﬁxtures.

specimen was indicated with the denomination PT-M-D where M

In procedure B, the load is applied to the test specimen using a

indicates the material (P for phenolic and V for vinylester) and D

yoke as shown in Fig. 2. Since procedure A is more complex and

indicates the diameter in millimeters (6 or 10).

has inherent problems associated with the ﬂexural stiffness of

the specimen to test, procedure B was used.

2.3. Derived properties

The test was conducted using an INSTRON-4208 test machine.

Fig. 3 shows the experimental set-up used. The test machine was

The load–displacement for a pull-through test is used to iden-

equipped with a 100 kN load cell. The speed of the machine (dis-

tify three important characteristics of the joints that are:

placement controlled test) was 2 mm/min. The temperature of

the room was 23 °C and the relative humidity was 50% for all the

the initial sub-critical failure load: the load at the ﬁrst sub-crit-

duration of the tests.

ical failure of the specimen;

After each test the damaged specimen was examined and the

the initial sub-critical failure displacement: the displacement at

type of failure was identiﬁed.

the ﬁrst sub-critical failure of the specimen;

The test results depend on Clearance Hole parameter (Cb). This

the failure load: the maximum load attained in the test.

is the diameter of the plate that it is used in procedure B of the test.

In the tests performed Cb was taken as 30 mm. The dimensions of

The specimen shows a ﬁrst failure mode (generally delamina-

all test specimens, the ratio of the Clearance Hole Diameter Cb to

tion) at a relatively low load. After delamination, the specimen is

Fastener Hole Diameter d, and the ratio of the Fastener Hole

able to support increasing loads. This point is identiﬁed in the

Diameter to the thickness of the specimen (h) are reported in the

curve by a load-drop, which is followed by a decrease of the stiff-

following points. The test specimens are square plates with a

ness of the test coupon.

length of 105 mm. Three specimens were tested for each conﬁgu-

ration and for each material: one with a 6 mm diameter hole and

2.4. GF-phenolic specimens

metric parameters of the equipment used. Fig. 4 shows the load

vs. displacement curves for the phenolic specimens. The derived

properties for the specimens tested are reported in Tables 4 and 5.

It should be noted that some specimens (see Tables 4 and 5)

exhibited bolt failure. The bolts used for these tests were general

purpose bolts (D933 8.8).

metric parameters of the equipment used. Fig. 5 shows the load

vs. displacement curves for vinylester specimens. The derived

properties for the specimens tested are reported in Tables 7 and 8.

Table 3

GF-P specimens’ dimensions.

PT-P-6-1 6 5 6.80 0.882

PT-P-6-2 6 5 6.80 0.882

PT-P-6-3 6 5 6.80 0.882

PT-P-10-1 10 3 6.60 1.515

PT-P-10-2 10 3 6.80 1.471

PT-P-10-3 10 3 6.50 1.538

Fig. 2. ASTM D7332 – procedure B.

242 G. Catalanotti et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2011) 239–245

Fig. 4. Pull-through test; load vs. displacement for GF-phenolic specimens. Fig. 5. Pull-through test; load vs. displacement for GF-vinylester specimens.

Table 4 Table 7

Pull-through test, results for PT-P-6 specimens. Pull-through test, results for PT-V-6 specimens.

Specimen In. sub-crit. Failure load In. sub-crit. Specimen In. sub-crit. Failure load In. sub-crit.

failure load (N) failure displ. failure load (N) failure displ.

(N) (mm) (N) (mm)

PT-P-6-1a 12,340 17,348 1.228 PT-V-6-1a 11,200 17,184 1.127

PT-P-6-2a 11,752 17,236 1.301 PT-V-6-2 11,404 17,624 1.315

PT-P-6-3a 12,384 17,132 1.360 PT-V-6-3 11,340 17,204 1.463

Average 12,158 17,238 1.296 Average 11,314 17,337 1.302

STDV 352 108 0.066 STDV 104 248 0.168

a

Bolt failure. a

Bolt failure.

Table 8

Table 5 Pull-through test, results for PT-V-10 specimens.

Pull-through test, results for PT-P-10 specimens.

Specimen In. sub-crit. Failure load In. sub-crit.

Specimen In. sub-crit. Failure load In. sub-crit. failure failure load (N) failure displ.

failure load (N) (N) displ. (mm) (N) (mm)

PT-P-10-1 19,140 32,460 1.462 PT-V-10-1 18,448 34,172 1.447

PT-P-10-2 18,528 32,780 1.403 PT-V-10-2 18,920 32,864 1.440

PT-P-10-3 17,976 31,608 1.492 PT-V-10-3 18,876 39,692 1.477

Average 18,548 32,282 1.452 Average 18,748 35,576 1.455

STDV 582 605 0.045 STDV 260 3624 0.020

penetrated by the washer. The delamination occurs abruptly when

Fig. 6 shows the photos of a specimen tested up to failure. Both the sub-critical initial load is reached. It is not possible to exactly

sides of the specimen are visible. The bottom side, Fig. 6b, shows identify the location of the ﬁrst delamination, even if it seems

delamination near the hole. As explained before, delamination oc- plausible that they occur at the interface with the thick 0° plies

curs at the begin of the test when the load is relatively low (initial due to the high interlaminar stresses promoted by the thick plies.

sub-critical failure). If the load increases, the intralaminar fracture

in the material starts and, at the end, the specimen is totally 2.7. Comparison of the PT test results

Fig. 7 shows the failure loads of the two materials tested. As ex-

Table 6 pected, increasing the hole diameter increases both the initial sub-

GF-V specimens’ dimensions. critical failure load and the ﬁnal failure load of the specimens. The

Specimen Diameter (mm) Cb/D h (mm) D/h results indicate that the two materials tested exhibit only slight

PT-V-6-1 6 5 7.00 0.857

differences in the values of the two failure loads considered.

PT-V-6-2 6 5 7.15 0.839 It should be also noted that increasing the diameter also in-

PT-V-6-3 6 5 6.80 0.882 creases the ratio between the initial sub-critical failure load to

PT-V-10-1 10 3 7.00 1.429 the ultimate failure load. This means that larger holes exhibit an

PT-V-10-2 10 3 6.70 1.493

initial sub-critical failure load that is relatively lower when

PT-V-10-3 10 3 7.20 1.389

compared to the ultimate failure load.

G. Catalanotti et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2011) 239–245 243

Fig. 6. Pull-through specimens after loading.

crack, s, and the corresponding displacement jumps, D, reads:

si ¼ ð1 dÞkDi ½di3 dkhD3 i ð1Þ

where d is a scalar damage variable and k is the penalty stiffness.

The displacement jump D3 is related to mode I, whereas the dis-

placement jumps D1 and D2 are related to shear modes of loading.

The operator hxi is deﬁned as hxi ¼ 12 ðx þ jxjÞ, and dij is the

Kroenecker delta.

Specimen Fastener

the design load. This load corresponds to the onset of delamination

that is likely to propagate under fatigue loading.

Based on the previous remarks, a numerical model, based on the

Finite Element Method, is developed to predict the delamination

onset load. This load is taken as the design load.

The ﬁnite element model was created using Abaqus 6.8 [15].

The mesh is shown in Fig. 8. The specimen and the bolt (screw

and washers) are represented as deformable bodies, while the steel

plate used for the pull-through test is modeled as an analytical ri-

gid surface. Frictionless contact is considered between the different

parts. Fig. 9 shows the FE model as viewed from the bottom.

The test specimen, shown in Fig. 10, was modeled using 8-

nodes linear brick reduced integration elements (CRD8R) with a

typical element size of 1 mm.

Cohesive ﬁnite elements, implemented as an Abaqus Users’sub-

routines (UMAT) [15], are used to predict delamination. These

elements are used in all interfaces between plies with different ﬁ-

ber orientation angles.

The detailed deﬁnition of the cohesive model is presented in

[16]. For the sake of completeness, the main aspects of the consti-

tutive model are outlined in the following paragraphs. Fig. 9. FE model of the pull-through test (bottom view).

244 G. Catalanotti et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2011) 239–245

Table 9

Critical values of SERR (N/mm) [18].

II

II

Test G/Ic G/IIc Gc

0.25 MMB 1.14 0.38 1.52

0.5 MMB 0.97 0.97 1.94

0.75 MMB 0.6 1.81 2.41

1 ENF 0 3.6 3.6

Fig. 10. FE model, elastic and cohesive elements (in red). (For interpretation of the

references to color in this ﬁgure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of

this article.)

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

k¼ hD3 i2 þ D2sh ; Dsh ¼ ð D1 Þ 2 þ ð D2 Þ 2 ð2Þ

The damage activation function for general mixed-mode loading is Fig. 11. Predicted load vs. displacement curves.

deﬁned as:

F ðD; dÞ ¼ LðDÞ d 6 0 ð3Þ

where To reduce the complexity of the model (and the time needed for the

( ) analysis) the cohesive elements were used only in the vicinity of the

Df ðk Do Þ bolt as shown in Fig. 10.

LðDÞ ¼ min ;1 ð4Þ

kðDf Do Þ The relevant parameters for the deﬁnition of the cohesive ele-

ments are obtained using experimental data previously measured

and: for a similar material [18]. The material properties used are shown

dt ¼ maxf0; max½LðDt Þg; 0 6 s 6 t; 8t P 0 ð5Þ in Table 9.

s Using these values the exponent for the B–K criterion [17] is cal-

The displacement jumps corresponding to delamination onset (Do) culated using the least-squares method as g = 1.98. The penalty

and to delamination propagation (Df) under mixed-mode condi- stiffness, k, is taken as 106 N/mm3. The interface strengths are cal-

tions are obtained using the Benzeggagh and Kenane criterion culated using the engineering solution proposed by Turon et al.

[17] for delamination propagation under mixed-mode loading, [19] resulting in so3 ¼ 28:8 MPa and sosh ¼ 48:8 MPa.

yielding [16]:

n h 3.2. Numerical results

2 2 2 i o1=2

Do ¼ Do3 þ Dosh Do3 Bg ð6Þ

Taking into account that no major differences were found be-

1 h i tween the delamination onset loads for the two materials tested,

Df ¼ o Do3 Df3 þ Dosh Dfsh Do3 Df3 Bg ð7Þ the numerical simulations are conducted only for the GF-P

D

specimens.

where g is the mixed-mode interaction parameter used in the Ben- Fig. 11 shows the load–displacement relation predicted by the

zeggagh and Kenane criterion [17] and B is a local mixed-mode ratio numerical model. The predictions for the initial sub-critical failure

deﬁned as: load and the experimental values are reported in Table 10. A rea-

Gsh D2 sonable agreement between the numerical predictions and the

B¼ ¼ sh ð8Þ experimental data is obtained. The maximum error, 10%, is ob-

Gsh þ GI k2

tained for the PT-P-10 specimen. It is also observed that the

Do3 and Dosh are respectively the displacement jumps corresponding load-drop identiﬁed in the experiments is also captured by the

to delamination onset in mode I and in shear mode: numerical model.

so3 sosh

Do3 ¼ ; Dosh ¼ ð9Þ

k k

where so3 and sosh are the pure mode interlaminar strengths. Table 10

Df3 and Dfsh are respectively the displacement jumps correspond- Initial sub-critical failure load: experiments and predictions.

ing to delamination propagation under mode I and in shear mode: Specimens Experimental value (N) Numerical prediction (N) Error (%)

2GIc 2GIIc PT-P-6 12,158 11,922 2%

Df3 ¼ ; Dfsh ¼ ð10Þ PT-P-10 18,548 16,700 10%

so3 sosh

G. Catalanotti et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2011) 239–245 245

4. Concluding remarks [4] Thoppul SD, Finegan J, Gibson RF. Mechanics of mechanically fastened joints in

polymer–matrix composite structures: a review. Compos Sci Technol

2009;69:301–29.

An experimental and a numerical study of the pull-through [5] Hart-Smith LJ. Mechanically-fastened joints for advanced composites –

damage in GFRP laminates is presented in this paper. Two different phenomenological considerations and simple analysis, Douglas paper

6748. McDonnell Douglas Corporation; 1978. p. 1–32.

material system (GF-phenolic and GF-vinylester) and two geome-

[6] Hart-Smith LJ. Design and analysis of bolted and riveted joints in ﬁbrous

tries (diameter of the hole 6 mm and 10 mm) are investigated. It composite structures, Douglas paper 7739. McDonnell Douglas Corporation;

is concluded that: 1986. p. 1–15.

[7] Camanho PP, Lambert M. A design methodology for mechanically fastened

joints in laminated composite materials. Compos Sci Technol

increasing the diameter of the bolt increases both the sub-crit- 2006;66:3004–20.

ical initial failure load and the failure load; [8] Banbury A, Kelly DW. A study of fastener pull-through failure of composite

larger holes exhibit a sub-critical initial failure load that is rel- laminates. Part 1: Experimental. Compos Struct 1999;45:241–54.

[9] Banbury A, Kelly DW, Jain LK. A study of fastener pull-through failure of

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[13] French Norm NF T 57-107:1986. Glass–ﬁbre-reinforced plastics –

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[15] Abaqus 6.8 documentation. Dessault Systèmes; 2008.

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