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I

APPLICATION OF BIOROCK FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER


TREATMENT

UMI SA’ADAH BTE ABD GHAFAR

A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the

requirements for the award of the degree of

Bachelor of Chemical Engineering (Bioprocess)

Faculty of Chemical Engineering

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

JUNE 2013
VI

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, there are many types of water treatment system being used
throughout the world. The application of biorock wastewater treatment (BWT) is a
new alternative method that being developed rapidly. The objective of this study is
to investigate the effectiveness of biorock system in improving the quality of
domestic wastewater. It is expects that this kind of low cost technology is effective
applies for wastewater treatment. The BWT is contributing in reducing pH in
wastewater, remove organic matters and improve effluent water quality. The
treatment will be carried out on wastewater samples that collected from a Siput River
in Segamat, Johor that use biorock treatment. The effluent that enters the biorock
will flow through a filter which uses layers of stone fibre and be treating in exactly
same way as nature treats effluent in the soil. Bacteria will grow in the stone fibre
and digest the organic materials. The effluent has passed through the filter will be
discharged as clear and odourless. The parameters that will analyse are showing
significant reducing after undergoes the treatment using biorock and will be
compared with the parameters from DOE. The results of removal pollutants has
shown a significant reductions of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical
Oxygen Demand (COD), turbidity, concentration of nitrate, sulphate and phosphate
in the range of 10%, 56%, 25%, 40%, 29% and 21% respectively. It can be
concluded that the biorock system is effective to remove and reduce the pollutants
that contain in domestic wastewater.
VII

ABSTRAK

Pada masa kini, terdapat pelbagai jenis sistem rawatan air yang digunakan di
seluruh dunia. Penggunaan „biorock‟ dalam rawatan sisa air adalah satu altenatif
baru yang sedang berkembang pesat. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk melihat
keberkesaan penggunaan sistem „biorock‟ dalam meningkatkan kualiti air sisa
domestik. Teknologi kos rendah ini dijangka berkesan dalam rawatan sisa air kerana
ia mampu mengurangkan kadar pH dalam air sisa, membuang bahan organik dan
meningkatkan kualiti air sisa. Rawatan sisa air akan dijalankan ke atas sampel air
sisa yang diambil dari sistem perparitan yang menggunakan kaedah rawatan biorock
di Segamat, Johor. Air sisa yang memasuki sistem „biorock‟ akan mengalir melalui
penapis yang menggunakan lapisan serat batu dan merawat dengan cara rawatan
yang sama untuk merawat air sisa dalam tanah. Bakteria akan membesar di lapisan
serat batu dan akan memcerna bahan organik yang terdapat dalam sisa air. Air sisa
yang melalui lapisan serat batu akan dilepaskan sebagai air yang bersih dan tidak
berbau. Parameter yang akan dianalisis menunjukkan pengurangan yang selepas
menjalani rawatan air sisa menggunakan „biorock‟ dan akan dibandingkan dengan
nilai parameter yang telah ditetapkan oleh DOE. Nilai-nilai pengurangan
pencemaran dalam air sisa yang diperolehi untuk Biochemical Oxygen Demand
(BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), kekeruhan air, kepekatan nitrat, sulfat
dan fostat adalah 10%, 56%, 25%, 40%, 29% dan 21%. Kesimpulannya, sistem
biorock adalah berkesan untuk membuang dan mengurangkan pencemaran dalam air
sisa domestik.
VIII

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ITEM PAGE

TITLE I

DECLARATION II

DEDICATION IV

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT V

ABSTRACT VI

ABSTRAK VII

TABLE OF CONTENTS VIII

LIST OF TABLES XI

LIST OF FIGURES XII

LIST OF SYMBOLS XIII

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Research background 1

1.2 Problem statement 3

1.3 Objective 4

1.4 Scopes 4
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2 LITERATURE REVIEW 5

2.1 Introduction 5

2.2 Biorock Technology 6

2.3 Principles of Biorock Wastewater Treatment 8

2.4 Characteristic of Sewage 9

2.4.1 Turbidity 10

2.4.2 Temperature 10

2.4.3 Odor 10

2.4.4 Suspended Solid 11

2.4.5 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) 11

2.4.6 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 12

2.4.7 Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 12

2.4.8 pH 13

2.4.9 Fecal Coliform Count 13

2.4.10 Bacteria 14

2.5 Water Quality Index (WQI) 14

3 METHODOLOGY 15

3.1 Introduction 15

3.2 Sampling of wastewater 15

3.3 Determination of pH 16

3.4 Determination of Turbidity 16


X

3.5 Tests for Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) 17

3.6 Tests for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 18

3.7 Determination of Nitrate Concentration 18

3.8 Determination of Sulphate Concentration 19

3.9 Determination of Phosphate Concentration 19

3.10 Fecal Coliform Counts 20

4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 21

4.1 Analysis of pH 21

4.2 Analysis of Turbidity 22

4.3 Analysis of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) 23

4.4 Analysis of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 24

4.5 Analysis Sulphate Concentration 25

4.6 Analysis of Phosphate Concentration 26

4.7 Analysis of Nitrate Concentration 26

4.8 Fecal Coliform Counts 27

5 CONCLUSION 28

5.1 Conclusion 28

REFERENCES 29
29

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