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Kutered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year IRSI. '^y


in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of Pennsi'vani**.


In reproducing the present work, various additions have been thouglit desirable. For

reasons adduced in his Preface, Mr. Long inserted no boundaries in the m:ips. Impos-

sible as it may be, at this distance of time, to determine with al^solute accuracy the

limits of contiguous territories, it yet was felt that without some indication of their

position, as generally received by classical scholars, the student would frequently feel

the want of an assistance to which he had become accustomed; and they have accord-
ingly been introduced from standard authorities.

The interest attaching to the gradual development of geographical knowledge

among the ancients, has seemed to render desirable the introduction of the charts col-

lected on Plate 1, showing at a glance the progress of information from the earliest

times, and enabling the student to comprehend and appreciate the ideas of the writers
of successive periods. Plate 26 has likewise been added, presenting topographical
plans, on an enlarged scale, of various places of interest, which may serve to elucidate

passages in numerous classical authors. These additions have been selected from leading
authorities, such as Kiepert, Forbiger, and Johnston.

With the view of rendering the work a convenient text-book for the student, a

condensed sketch of Classical Geography has been prefixed, compiled and adapted
principally from the recent manual of Professor Pillans, of Edinburgh. In this the

object has been, not to present a complete enumeration of places, but merely to furnish
sucli supplementary infonnatioii us cannot be embodied in the n.aps. No allusion Las

been made to Sacred Geograpliyj a subject too extensive and too important to be dis-

missed witbin the limits necessarily assigned to the sketch. In revising the Index, the

o!)portunity has occasionally been found of marking the quantity of a syllable left un-

accented by Mr. Long; and this has been done whenever practicable. In many in-

stances, however, places of little note, whose names do not occur among the poets, are

necessarily uncertain.

Every care has been taken throughout to obtain entire accuracy, in the most careful
revision of both maps and text by the gentleman who has made the additions and
superintended the press. The publishers trust that their efforts have not been misdi-

rected, and that they will be found to have succeeded in producing an Atlas in every
way suited to the increasing requirements of the improved classical scholarship of the


Philadelphia, Augusf, 1856.


TuE Mai^js in this Atlas have been constructed by William Hugues from the best

authorities ; and they have been engraved under his superintendence. The original

drawings and the engraved maps have been revised by George Long. No pains have

been spared to make the maps correct ; and though it is impossible to avoid some errors

in a work of this kind, it is hoped that there are not many. Such as may be discovered

will be corrected.

I The distribution of the subject-matter of this ancient Atlas differs from that of other

Atlases in several respects. The map of the Roman Provinces is one example of this;

and there are several other maps which will not be found in the common Atlases. This

Atlas is intended for the use of students both at schools and at college ; and though it

does not contain every name, it contains everything that a classical student can want.

No attempt has been made* to show the exact boundaries of the political divisions

and subdivisions of countries, which cannot be done, in small maps at least, -with

sufficient accuracy ; and in many cases it cannot be done at all. A student must learn

what these boundaries are, so far as they can be ascertained, either from works on

Ancient Geography, or from the instruction of a teacher. The best method of teaching

Geography in schools is by oral instruction on the Map, followed by examination.

* See American Publishers' Notice.


The world according to Homer (b. c. 900).

The world according to Hecataeus (about b. c. 500).

The world according to Herodotus (about b. c. 440).

The world according to Eratosthenes and Strabo (from about e. c. 200 to a. d 20)

Western Europe according to Strabo.

The world according to Ptolemy (about a. d. 160).

India ac€('RDIng to Ptolemy.

Great Britain according to Ptolemi

2. THE WORLD AS KXOWN TO THE ANCIENTS (with tub bound.vry of the Persian

Empire under Cyrus).

3. THE EMPIRE OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT, wrrn the adjoining Regions.


P> I

8. ITALIA (Northern PartV
9. ITALIA (Soutifern Part).

Corsica and Sardinia


n. PART OF ITALY, embr.^cing the Roman Territory, and the adjoining Country, on an

euliirgud scale.

13. SYRACUSAE, on an enlarged scale.

The Bay of Naples, and adjacent Part of Carapanla.

The two Ports of Brundubium.

14. MACEDONIA, TIIRACIA, ILLYRICUM, and the Provinces on the Middle and

Lower Danube.
15. GllAECIA, INCLUDING Epirus and Thessalia, wiTii Part of Macedonia.


eiilnrged scale.

Athens and its Harbors.

18. PELOPONNESUS, wrni Attica and Part of Boeotia.


21. PALAESTINA, with Part of Syria.

Plan of Jerusalem.

22. ASSYRIA, and the adjacent Countries.


Continuation of the African Coast, from the Syrtis Minor to Egypt

Enlarged Plan of the Carthaginian Territory.

24. ARABIA PETRAEA AND PART OF EGYPT, including the Delta. .

25. GERMANIA MAGNA, with ttie Provinces on the Upper Danube.







Route of Xenophon and the Ten Thousand GRES&a.




Thracian Bospoaug,


Ancient Oeoor^-Phy is almost exclusively confined easternmost parts, produced by the conquests of

to the countries around the Mediterranean sea, in Alexander. (See Empire of Alexandei, AIap 3.)
the period of the power of Greece and of Borne, Thus far, the history of geography shows an em-
the shores of that ocean being the scene of the life pirical aggregation of facts. After this, the scienti-

and actions of classical antiquity. In the course of fic or systematic treatment of geography begins, the

time, the centre of action moves from the eastern characteristic feature of which we may find in the

parts of the Mediterranean, or rather the seas ad- use of astronomy for geographical purpose3. Hi2>
joining it in the east, to regions farther west ; and parchus, of Nice, about b. c. 230, stands first among
at the same time geographical knowledge follows those who combined geography with astronomy. He
the arms of victorious legions, radiating in all di- determined latitudes and longitudes of places from
rections from the Mediterranean, as the centre. celestial observation, and was engaged in the mea-

(Map 2.) surement of the earth and in determining its figure.

In Map 1 will be found a series of charts illus- The first who produced a whole geographical
trating the geographical views entertained at diffe- system was Eratosthenes, about b. c. 200. He
rent periods, as expressed by prominent authorities. attempted the measure of the earth's circumference,
These rude sketches, besides their interest as mani- and introduced into his maps a regular parallel of
festing the gradual extension of human knowledge, running of which was of course imper-
latitude, the

possess a value to the student when their progressive fect, and at variance with the actual positions of
development is considered in connection with the places.

march of historical events. Thus, with Homer, Sti-aho, a Greek geographer, a. d. 20, endeavored,

B. c. 900, the world is a circular plain, around which with but partial success, to collect and to systema-
the river Oceanus flows. He is familiar with Euro- tize the geographical knowledge which flowed in
pean and Asiatic Greece, as well as with Aegypt upon the Romans from their military expeditions in
in the west he places Elysium on the edge of the
: so many parts of the then known world. (See Roman
plain dwell the Aethiopes and Pygmaei beyond the : Empire, Map 4.)

Oceanus in the north are the Cimmerii. In Heca- Ptolemy, a. d. 160, corrected old errors, gathered
taeus' view of the world, about b. c. 500, the western new information, (see his charts of India^and Britain,
countries of the Mediterranean have assumed form Map 1,) and gave ancient geogi'aphy that final shape
and proportion, while the eastern boundary of know- which it retained during the long period of the Em-
ledge has made some progress. pire of the Occident and of the Orient, and through
Herodotus, the "Father of History," B.C. 440, the Middle Ages, until Columbus and Yasco de Gama
also added largely to the stock of geographical struck out new and wider courses of geographical
knowledge, having travelled over a great part of the knowledge and mathematics, combined with physical

eastern world. Democritus, B.C. 300, shows an science, taught us the true positions and relations Oi
increase of geographical information, chiefly in the geographical objects.
2 (9)


Great Britain was known to the ancients under Most of the Rivers have been naned in the aboTe
tbe names of Britannia and Albion. The coast of enumeration of the aestuaries. We may, however,
Ccrnwall and the Gasdterides (Scilly Isles) were add Alaunus, the Tweed, Tisa, the Tees, Antona,
visited by the Carthaginians. Among all the clas- the Nen.
sical Greek writers, down to Alexander the Great, Of Tribes and Provinces, we find the Cantii in
Aristotle alone makes any allusion to the British Isles. Kent southwest of them the Regni. West of these

The Romans were indebted for their knowledge of were the Belgae, and further west the Damnonii.
the country to the wars of Caesar and his successors. Further north we find the Trinobantes, in Essex and
Julius Caesar made two hostile Incursions into Middlesex, the Brigantes, in Yorkshire, Durham,
Britain, B. c. 58 and 55 ; but they were short in Lancaster, Westmoreland, and Cumberland, the Icmi
duration, and confined to the country between the in Norfolk and Suffolk, the Silures and Ordov'ices,
strait of Dover and the Thames. The only locali- in Wales. North of Hadrian's wall, in what is to-
tieshe particularizes are Taviesis (Thames) and day Scotland, were the Otadeni, Gadeni, Selgovae,
Cantium (Kent). Once, also, he simply enumerates Novantae, Damnii, and Epidii. Mona is the island
six British tribes, withoutany data for fixing their of Anglesey Towns, we find the name Camalodu-
: of
boundaries. Strabo, who Augustus and
lived under num, Verulamium, near St. Albans, Lon-
Tiberius, does little more than repeat the vague dinium, which is described by Tacitus as a place of
generalities of Caesar his brief chapter on Britain
: great wealth and traffic, though not a Roman colony,
concludes, after some inaccurate general descrip- and by Ammianus Marcellinus, who wrote 300 yeai's
tion, without the mention of a single mountain, later, as an ancient town, which in later times had
river, town, district, or people. He declares that received the name of Augusta. Juvenal alludes to
the island is not worth the trouble of conquering. Rutupiae, (Richborough or Sandwich,) on the
Pytheas, a merchant of the Greek colony of Massi- Kentish coast.
lia, (Marseilles), visited Britain about the time of Of Ireland, we learn nothing from the classics
Alexander, and gave an account of it, which, though but the name, Hibernia, Juverna, or lerne. Its
very correct, was little credited by antiquity. relative position is incorrectly given.
The Mountains of Britain are slightly noticed by Ptolemy is the first who gives any detailed account
the ancients. The chief Promontories on the east of the geography of Britain. He enumerates a va-
coast were Ocellum, or Spurn Head, some distance riety of subdivisions, tribes, and towns, and attempts
north of the Humber, and Cantium Promontorium, or even a map of the island (See Map L)
North Foreland. On the south was Ocrinum, Lizard Britain was divided, under the Byzantine empire,
Point, and Bolerium, or Antivesfaeum, Land's End. into four provinces, the relative position of which it
Upon the west coast were Herculis Promontorium, is difficult to determine. Perhaps we may place them
or Hartland Point, Ociapilarum, or St. David's thus : I. Britannia Prima, below the aestuaries of

Head, Canganorum Promontorium, at the extre- the Severn and the Thames II. Britannia Secunda,

mity of Carnarvonshire, and Novantum, or the Mull comprising Wales III. Flavia Caesariensis, ex-

of Galloway. tending from the Thames to the Humber on the east,

The Aestuaries, following the same order, were and from the Lower Avon to the Mersey on the west :

Tava Aestu., the Tay, Bodotria, or the Firth of Forth, IV. Maxima Caesariensis, from the Humber and
Ahus, or the Humber, Metaris Aestuarium, or the Mersey to the wall of Severus.
Wash, and Tamissa Aestuarium, the mouth of the We will now briefly mention the Roman walls,
Thames. On the south, Tamarus was Plymouth roads, and camps, in Britain.
Sound and on the west, Sabriana or Sabrina Aes-
; From Bowness on the Solway Firth, two lines of
tuarium, the Bristol Channel, Segeia or Seteia, the defence ran eastward, nearly parallel, and close to
mouth of the Dee or the Mersey, Belisama, perhaps each other. We can trace them still as they cross
the Ribble, Moricambe Aestuarium, Morecambe the Irthing, and pass by Carlisle, (Luguvallium),
Bay, Pxina Aestuarium, the Solway Firth, and Clota Glenwhelt, Rowchester, and Newcastle, terminating
Aestuarium, thf Clyde. on the north side of the Tyne, three and a half miles

Dclow the town last naued. The distance from one Pius, carried a rampart and ditch from sea to sea,
exiremity to the other is seventy-three Roman miles, to connect the forts of Agricola, and to complete the
equivalent to sixty-eight and a half English. Be- defensive works, a. d. 144.
tween the two lines of defence was a military way, Roman Britain, under the later empire, was pene-
and the whole three were crossed at right angles by trated in all directions by military roads. London
at least one great road, Watling Street, near the was a point of intersection for many of them. The
modern village of Corbridge. Along the wall there most remarkable were Watling Street, which, start-
were military forts (castella) and military stations ing from Rutupiae, Richborough, in Kent, ran through
(castra stativa), which are now generally named Canterbury and, passing by Rochester and London,
Chesters, e. g. Hunnum, Haltou Chesters. through St. Alban's, Dunstable, and Wroxeter, to
Between the Firths of Clyde and Forth, a rampart the north, as far as the wall of Agricola.
and ditch extended eastward from Douglass, on the Iknield Way ran across the island from a point
Clyde, two miles west of old Kilpatrick, to Carri- near Great Yarmouth (country of Iceni) over the
den, between Abercorn and Borrowstowness, on the Thames at Streetly to the Fosae Way.
Forth, a distance of thirty-four and three-fourths The Fosse Way extended from Moridunum, or
English miles. Along this line, the first defences Seaton, through Corinium, or Cirencester, and Rat?e,
were made (a. d. 81) by Agricola, who seems to have to Lindum, or Lincoln, and thence to York.
erected a praetentura, or chain of forts, between the Fromthis, above Corinium, branched off Ryknield

two seas, at this narrowest part of the island, with Way, passed Derbentia and Little Chester, and
a view to secure his conquests against the Caledo- joined Fosse Way again below Dauum, Dancaster.
nians, leaving them to the enjoyment of their savage The encampments, of which slender remains may
liberty in all the country beyond. Adrian contracted still be traced, are numerous but the remains are ;

the limits of the empire, and erected about a. d. 120, fast disappearing, with the exception of monuments,

the new line of defence between the Tyne and Solway altars, coins, weapons, which are preserved in various

whilst Lollius TJrbicus, the lieutenant of Antoninus collections.

Gallia (Gaul) and the Galli (Gauls) extended Seine, the Meuse, and the Rhine. The basins of these
farther than France and the French of the present day. rivers account for the whole superficial contents of Gal-
The Romans made the distinction of Gallia Cisal- lia Transalpina, except the country watered by the
pina and of Gallia Transalpina. The first became, ,Sa?n«ra (Somme) and Scaldis (Scheld). "We have then,
in later times, Upper Italy, (Italia Superior), and 1. The basin of Rhodanus, the Rhone. This
we speak of it as a part of Italy. Gallia Trans- river, springing from the side of St. Gothard, makes
alpina comprised, besides the present French ten-i- its way between two lofty ranges of the Alps through
tory, Rhaetia, (Switzerland,) large tracts of South- the Yalais, where it passes the city of the Seduni,
western Germany and Belgium. now Sitten or Sion, and Octodurus, Martigny. Then,
The mountain ranges of Gaul which are lofty enough forcing way through the gorge of St. Maurice, it
to deserve the name, are the following: 1. Cevenna, expands into Lacus Lemanus,^ and, having deposited
the Cevennes, stretching N.N.E. from the Pyrenees ; there the soil of the melted glaciers, it re-appears at
2. An group in Auvergne, (Arx^erni,)
extinct volcanic the city of Geneva in the form of a majestic river
the highest points of which are the Cantal, Mont Dor, of a deep transparent blue. In pursuing its course
and Puy-de Dome; 3 Fosf^/ws, the Voges, running westward, it disappears and flows under ground for
parallel with the Rhine from Bale to Coblentz 4. Jura, Meeting at last with the ob-
a quarter of a mile.
which formed the boundary between the Helvetii and struction of the Cevennes, it turns abruptly to the
Sequdni; and, 5. All that portion of the Alpine range south. At the angle, it is joined from the north by
which lies to the W. and S. of the Upper Rhine, and On this tributary stood Cabillo-
Arar, the Saone.
sends the waters produced in its summits and slopes and 3Iatisco, now
num, now Chalons-sur- Saone,
either into the Rhine or into the Rhone.
Macon, both towns of the Aedid; and on its feeder,
Gallia may be regarded as composed of the
Dubis, (Doubs,) was Vesontio, now Besan^on. At
basins of the Ruone, the Garonne, the Loire, the '
Also Leinanuus
the point of junction of the Arar and lihodanus, Maas or Maes — in French, Meuse,) on which, as w»
stood Lugdunum, ^.vhich gave '.ame to the Augustan descend the river, we come to no place o'l note in
division of Gaul, Lu(jdunensi&. From Lyons, the ancient times.
Rhone continues its rapid course directly south, pass- 6. The Basin of Riienus, the Rhine. This river
ing various towns, among which may be mentioned rises in the central Alps, and is enclosed in its early
Acenio, Avignon, at the junction of the Drxientia, course between Alpine ranges, until it expands into
the Durance, and ArelCde (Aries). Lacus Bingantinus v. Venetus, the lake of Constance.
2. The Basin of Garumna, the Garonne, a river Thence it flows westward (forming at SchafThausen
which rises in the Pyrenees, and flows N. W. into the most noted waterfall in Europe, and passing
the Sinus Cantabricus, the Bay of Biscay. This Augusta Rauracorum) till it reaches Basilia (Basel
basin is bounded by the Pyrenees, the Cevennes, the or Bale). Meeting there with an obstruction in the
mountains of Auvergne, and by the dos or high ground high ground between Jura and the Voges, it turns
that extends thence to the sea. Within these limits, abruptly to the north. In the subsequent part of
it includes the minor basin of Aturis (the Adour). its course, it passes successively the walls, 1. of
In descending the Garumna, we find Toldsa, Tou- Ilogontulcum, the capital of Germania Superior,
louse and farther down, on the left bank of the
; now Mainz in German, Mayence in French : 2. of
river, stood BurdujCda, the modern Bordeaux. It Gonjiuentes, corrupted into the modern Coblentz, at
was the birthplace of the poet Ausonius. Lower the confluence of the Rhine and Mosa or Mosella
down, the Garonne receives the Dordogne, and widens (Mosel or Moselle) : and, 3. of Colonia Agripplna,
into an acstuary which is called La Gironde. capital of Germania Inferior, now C^ln or Co-
3. The Basin of Liger, the Loire. The Loire logne.
rises in the Cevennes, flows first northward, then In the English Channel, on the N. W. coast of
westward, and fiills into the Atlantic after a course Gaul, over against Britain, are Fortus Bins, whence
of 500 miles. Among the towns on its banks most Caesar first set sail for Britain, and the three islands,
worthy of mention was Gendbum, which owes its now belonging to Great Britain, Riduna, Alderncy,
modern name of Orleans to the people Aureliani, Sarnia, Guernsey, and Caesarea, Jersey : facing the
whose capital it was. Farther down the Loire were Atlantic Fortus BrivCdes, the harbor of Brest at
is :

the Turdnes and Andes v. Andegdvi, tribes which the mouth of the Adour, Lapurdum, Bayonne.
give the modern names Tours, Angers, and Anjou. On the Southern or Mediterranean coast was A^arfto
iNear the embouchure of the Loire dwelt the tribe Martius, Narbonne, which gave name to one of the
Namnetes, whence the name of the modern city of divisions of Gaul, Narbonensis. Ten leagues east
Nantes. On the Arroux, a tributary of the Loire, of the Rhone mouth was Massilia, (Marseilles,) said
Bibracte v. Augustodunum, Autun, capital of the to have been founded at a very remote period by a
Aedui. colony from Fhocaea, a city on the coast of Asia
4. The Basin of Sequana, the Seine.
This Minor. Telo Ilariius, Toulon, is the great naval
1 Lin-
iver rises in the table-land of the Gallic tribe station of the French on the Mediterranean, as Brest
gones, now called the Plateau de Langres, and, soon is on the Atlantic. Off Toulon are the Stoechades
after its junction with Matrona, (the Marne), encloses Insulae, the Isles d'Hieres, Forum Julii, birthplace
an islet called Lutetia Parisio7'uvi, now in the very of Agricola, now Frejus, Nicaea, the last Gallic city
centre of the capital of France. Between Paris and towards Italy, now Nice.
the sea is Rouen (Botomugus). Near the source
was Alesia, taken by Caesar after a long siege, w^hich ancient divisions and tribes of GAUL.
he describes minutely in the Vth book of his Com- At
the time of Caesar's invasion, there was already
in Gaul a Frovincia Romana, lying between the
The comparatively small and very flat Basin of Cevennes and the Alps. The rest of Gaul is de-
Samara, the Somme, was the seat of the tribe Am- scribed by him as divided into three parts, according
bidni, whose chief place was Samarobr'iva, of which as it was inhabited by the Aquitdni in the south,
mention occurs in Caesar and Cicero, as well as in Belgae in the north, and Celtae in the middle. But
Ptolemy ; but the name of the people survives only the truth is, that Gallia Comata (as all beyond the
in that of the modern city Amiens. Roman province was then called) was occupied by
5. We next arrive at the Basic of Mosa, (in Dutch, numerous independent tribes or peoples, generallj

costile to Some of these have been

each other. In the Basin of the Seine, south side, lived the tribe

already named — the

Lingvnes and Parisii in the Carmdes: near their chief city Autricum, (Char-
Basin of the Seine, the Aureliani and Namnetes in tres), was the residence of the Arch-druid of Gaul.

that of the Loire, and the Sedani in the Valais. A The AUobrdges dwelt between the Rhone and its
few shall now be added as occurring most frequently left-hand tributary Isura, the Isere. The Treveri
in Caesar's narrative of his campaigns in Gaul and ; or Treviri occupied the space between the Meuse
the locality of each tribe named will be indicated by and the Rhine, and the lower Basin of the Moselle.
the river-basin in which they dwelt. Their chief city was that now called from the name
The Aedui occupied the territory between the of the tribe, in German, Trier, in French, Treves.
Loire and the Saone on a tributary of the former
: Through their country ran the extensire Silva Ar-
was Bihracte, their capital, subsequently called Au- duenna, the forest of Ardenne. To the west of the
gustoddnum (Autun). The Sequani dwelt in the Treviri, in the Basin of Sahis, the Sambre, and the
upper part of the Basin of the Saone, and the whole upper course of the Scheld, dwelt the Nervii, a gal
of that of its feeder Duhis, the Doubs, a river which laut people of German extraction, who fought a great
winds round their chief city Vesonlio (Besanqon). battle against Caesar.


Spain was called Iberia by the Greeks, and by the like spinal processes, from the side of the central
poets Hesperia, as the farthest land toward the west, range fronting the east.

with the addition of ultima, to distinguish it from In tracing the rivers just enumerated, from foun-
Italy. tain-head to the mouth, we fall in successively with
An elevated ridge of mountain and table-land ex- the following towns and localities :

tends from X. to S., forming the water-shed of the 1. On the Durius, near the source, and not far
country, and giving origin to all the great rivers, from the modern town of Soria, stood Numanlia,
some of which find their way to the Mediterranean, which Florus calls Hispaniae decus. It sustained a
and others to the Atlantic. To this crest or back- fourteen years' siege against the Romans, and was
bone, as it were, of the peninsula, are attached, on taken at last by Scipio Africanus Minor. At the
the sias facing the west, ranges of mountains and mouth stood Cale, or Portus Calensis, (Oporto,)
high ground, running in a S.W. direction and nearly whence the kingdom of Portugal derives its name.
parallel to each other ; and these enclose, on two In the Basin of the Durius were also, on the north
sides, the basins or tracts of country through which side,Asturica Augusta, Astorga, and Legio vii ge-
the rivers and their tributaries flow. mina, Leon. On the south side of the basin, Sal
The main rivers that rise on the western slope of mantica, Salamanca, and Segovia, famed for au
the central ridge and fall into the Atlantic, are four aqueduct said to have been the work of Trajan, and
in number : 1. Durius, the Duero, (in Spanish,) still, with its double tier of arches, in good preser-
Douro, (in Portuguese,) the vast basin of which, vation.
bounded by the Cantabrian and Asturian mountains 2. On the Tagus, ToUtum, Toledo, Norha Cae^
on the north side, and by those of Castille on the sarea, where was a famous bridge over the river, now
south, includes the less considerable valley of Minius, Alcantara, Scaldbis, Santarem, Olisipo, now Lis-
the Miuho Tagus, famed for the gold found in
; 2. bon, the capital of Portugal.
its sand 3. Anas, the Guadiana
; and, 4. Baetis, ; In the Basin of the Tagus, north side, were Com,'
the Guadalquivir {%. e. in Arabic, "the great river. ") plrdum, Alcala, on the Henares, where Cardinal
The main rivers that rise on the eastern slope of Ximenes founded a university, and where he pub-
tne water-shed and fall into the Mediterranean, are lished, in 1515, the famous Polyglot Bible commonly
also four, but, excepting the last, of much shorter called Biblia Complutensia.
course ; 1. Tader, the Segura; 2. SucRO, the Xucar: 3. On the Anas, half-way down, Iletelllnum,

3. TuRiA, the Guadalaviar and, 4. Iberus, the ; founded by Caecilius Metellus, now Medellin, birth-
Ebro and the basius of these rivers are enclosed in
; Emcrita Augusta, a set-
place of Fernando Cortez,
like manner by lateral ranges of hills which start off, tlement provided by Augustus for his disbanded
veterans, (emeriti,) once the capital of Lusitania, of Columna, from an ancient tower ninety-tro feet

now Merida. high, still standing, said to have been built by Her-
4. Ou the Baetis, near the source, Gastulo, of cules. At the S. W. angle of the Peninsula, between
which was a native, now Caz-
IIaiuiil>ars wife Imilce the mouth of the Baetis and the Fretuni Herculeum.
loua; the foiest-land around —
the saltus Gastulo- (Strait of Gibraltar,) stood the very ancient town of
nensis of Livy —
is part of 3Ions Marianus, the Gadir, founded and so named by the Phoenicians.
great table-land now called the Sierra Morena, the The Romans called it Gades, and considered it as the
scene of the fabulous adventures of Don Quixote. extreme point of the earth westward, in like manner
Farther down the river Corduba, (Cordova), birth- as the Ganges was reckoned the farthest point east-
place of Lucan and the two Senecas Ilalica, birth- ;
ward. Gadir is the modern town and harbor of
place of the Emperor Trajan, and, some think, of Cadiz.
Hadrian also and the poet Silius Italicus ; Hisjjulis, Within the strait is CaJpe, (the Rock of Gibral-
Seville. tar,)which the poets feigned to be one of the pillara
The Basin of the Baetis was occupied in the Mid- erected by Hercules as his meta laborum, and as the
dle Ages by the Vandals, and was then called Van- western terminus of the habitable globe.
dalitia —a name which appears now in the altered Proceeding along the shore of the Mediterranean,
form of Andalusia. we find, a little inland, Munda, where Caesar de-
5. Tader, the Segura, (the farthest south of those feated the two sons of Pompey, b. c. 45, (a. u. c, 708).
main rivers which fall into the Mediterranean,) after Then comes Nova Carthago, (Cartagena,) the capital
passing the modern city of Murcia, flows through of the Carthaginian possessions in Spain, till it was
the Campus Spartarius, a plain so called from its taken by Scipio Africanus Major, a. u. c. 542, B. c.
abounding in spartum, (esparto), a reed much used 210. A little north of Valencia was Saguntum,
by the ancients for the cordage of ships, and various the storming of wliich was Hannibal's first act of
economical purposes. aggression in the second Punic war. Out of its
6. SucRO, the Xucar, had at its mouth a city of ruins was built a modern town, thence called Mur-
the same name. viedro, i. e. 3Iuri Veleres. Between the mouth of
t. At the embouchure of Turia, (Guadalaviar, the Ebro and Pyrenees were Tarraco, (Tarragona,)
was Valentia, a lloman colony, now the capital of chief city of the Roman province Tarraconensis,
Valencia. and Barclno, (Barcelona,) with its citadel, Mons
8. On the Iberus, half-way down, stood Saldiiha, Jovis, (Monjuich,) said to have been built by Ha-
afterwards Caesaraugusta, now Zaragoza. The milcar Barcas, father of Hannibal.
broad Basin of the Ebro, lying between the Pyrenees Off the coast of Valencia is the group of Baleares

and the Central Ridge, is watered, from the heights Insulae, IJaJor and 3Iinor, famed for furnishing
of both, by numerous tributary streams, the most corps of slingers to the Roman armies ; and the
remarkable of which are, on the north side, the Sicu- Pityusae, EhUsus, Iviga, and Ophiusa, Formentera.
ris, on which stood Ilerda, (Lerida,) where Caesar The capes of the Peninsula are Promontorium
defeated Pompcy's generals, Afranius and Petreius, Trileucum, (Ortega!,) the most northern point on ;

A. u. c. 704, (b. c. 49,) and on the south side, Salo, the W. Nerium, (Finisterra,) Magnum, (Rock

(Xalon,) on which stood Jiilbllis, the native town of of Lisbon,) Barbarium, (Espichel,) Sacrum, (St.
the poet Martial. Vincent,) Junonis, (Ti'afalgar.)
After thus following the course of rivers, if we The Peninsula, in the time of the Roman Repub-
next take the line of coast for our guide, we shall lic, was divided into Buae Eispaniae, Citerior and
come upon towns which have been indebted for their Ulterior, by the under Augustus, inio
river Iberus :

importance and notoriety, in ancient or modern times, three provinces Tarraconensis, comprising all
: 1.

to the convenience of harborage, and their facility of the north and north-east parts, from the Durius and
access and resort to commercial and colonizing fo- Tader to the Pyrenees, in which were the native
reigners. tribes Gallaeci, AstUres, Gantdbri, Goseldni, Carpe-

In this tour of the coast, startingfrom Cape Finis- tani, Lergetes, Celtibiri, etc. 2. Baetica, the;

ten'a, the N. "W. angle of the Peninsula, and going southern extremity, as far north as the Ayias, in
south, we find the harbor of Corunna {Portus which were the Turdctuni, Bastiili, Turdilli, etc.

^Tagnus). 'Corunna' is thought to be a corruption and, 3. Lusitania, the western and central part^

betTfecn the Anas, the Durius, and the Atlantic, in Rhoda, now Rosas, and Emporiae, now Amp arias,
which division were the VettOnes and the country in the N. E. corner of the Peninsula, The Cartha-
called Guneus. Most of the tribes named above are ginians, coming next, built Tarrdco, Barcino, and

mentioned by Livy. Nova Carthago, and held possession of a great part

The Phoenicians were the first civilized people of the country till they were expelled by the Romans
who visited Spain, more than 1000 years before who, after contending for the possession of Spain for
Christ : they founded Gadir, Maldca, etc. After- a period of 200 years before Christ, remained master*^
n-ards the inhabitants of Maasilia, in Gaul, built of it during the first four centuries of the Christian er?

ITALIA.-(MAPS 8, 9, 10, 11. 12, 13.)

Italy was called Resperia by the Greeks, as being dance of streams, but they are all, even the Tiber,
we?t of Greece. In poetry,it was sometimes called of comparatively short course, having each its own
Oenotria, from an Arcadian prince named Oenotrus, little basin and lateral feeders, and falling directly
son of Lycaon, who settled in Lucania ; and Auso- and independently into the sea.

nia, from the Ausones, a people of Latium. The To begin with the northern section. The huge
epithet Saturnia was applied to it, as the fabled Basin of the Po was, during the republican times, no
residence of Saturn, after his expulsion from heaven part of Italy, but known to the Romans as Gallia
by Jupiter. Its common appellation of Italia was CiSALPiNA and Liouria. If we trace the Padus
Bupposed, by the natives, to be derived from a prince from its source in Mons VesUlus (Monte Viso) to
named Italus but this name was confined by the
; its mouth, we shall find, on the river itself, Augusta

Greeks originally to a small district at the southern Taurinorum, taken by Hannibal on his descent from
extremity of the country, and was gradually extended the Alps, now Turin, (Torino,) capital of the king-
to the whole territory, which is fenced off from the dom of Sardinia, Placentia, a Roman colony, now
rest of Europe by the mountain-barrier of the Alps, Piacenza, and Cremona.
and surrounded on all other sides by the sea. On the north side of the Basin of the Po, which,
Italy, when contemplated under its physical aspects, from its position in regard to Rome, was called Gal
presents itself as composed of two portions, nearly lia Transpaduna, we find the river joined by nume-
equal in extent, but widely different in natural cha- rous streams from the Alps, among which the most
racter. The one is the peninsula of Italia Propria, notable are, 1. theDuria Minor, on which was
surrounded by the waters of the Mediterranean and Segusio, Susa, and 2. Duria Major, on which wero
Adriatic on all sides, except where a straight line Augusta Praetoria, Aosta, and Eporedia, Ivrea 3. ;

drawn over land, and connecting the little streams the Sess'ites, near which was Vercellae, where Marina
Macra and Rubicon in lat. 44°, forms the isthmus. defeated the Cimbri; 4. Ticmus, (Tessino,) issuing
The other main portion of Italian soil is the great from Lake Verhdnus, Maggiore, on the banks of
Basin of Padus, called also by the poets Eriddnus, which Hannibal first defeated the Romans in a skir-
the Po. Between these two territories, the contrast mish of cavalry 5. Addua, (the Adda,) issuing from

is striking. In the northern division, throughout its Lake Larius, (Lago di Como), W. of which was
whole length, we find a river flowing in the lowest Medioldnum, Milan and, 6. Mincius, issuing from

level between the Alpine and Apennine heights, which Lake Bendcus, (Lago di Garda,) and investing 3Ian-
are its boundaries. In the southern or peninsular tua, a citywhich Silius Italicus calls musarum do-
portion, the reverse is the case. The central line of mus, as being the birthplace of Virgil, though it is
the peninsula is not, as in Northern Italy, the lowest, believed that the poet was born at Andes, a neigh-
but the most elevated part ; being, in fact, the crest boring village.At the southern extremity of Lake
of the loftyand continuous chain of the Apennines, Bendcus was the peninsula Sirmio, the residence of
while the boundary line on both sides is the lowest the poet Catullus. Athesis, a river which the Ger-
of all levels, the sea. The one region is penetrated mans call Etsch, and the French Adige, may be said
by a single river, swollen by the contributions of to belong to the Basin of the Po, though it falls

innumerable streams from the opposite sides of the direct into the Adriatic. On this river are the towns
basin. The peninsula, on the other hand, has abun- of Tridentum, Trent, and VerOna, birthplace of
Catullus, which retains its ancient name, with a 4. In the Basin of the VuUurnus, on the left sid*

Roman amphitheatre in tolerable preservation. To of the river, stood the following towns ; Alllfae,
the north of Verona were the Colles Euganei, famed famed for its pottery, Capua, chief city of the Gam-
for wool. Farther along is 3Ieduacus, Bacchiglione, pCini, and the rival of Rome itself (hence called
on which is Fatavium, birthplace of Livy, now '
altera Roma') till towards the close of the 2d Punic
Padua. war, when, having sided with Hannibal, it fell with
The soulh side of the Po basin, as being that his falling fortunes, Venafrum, famed for its olives,
nearest to Rome, was called Gallia Gispaddna. It Gales (-turn), for its vines, {Venafranum, sc. oleum,
is permeated by numerous streams from the Apen- and GaUnum, sc. vinum, signified oil and wine of
nines, the most memorable of which are the Trehia, the first quality). Beneventum, a town of Samniuvi
on whose banks the Romans sustained a second and on the Via Appia, stood at the point of junction of
more severe defeat from Hannibal, and Rhenus, Sabcitus and Galor, whose united stream falls into
Reno, on which was Bononia, Bologna. In an theVuUurnus. On that river itself stood Gasill-
island on this 'little Rhine,' the second triumvirate, num, (on the modern Capua,) which
site of the
Antony, Lepidus, and Augustus, met to portion out gained credit with the Romans by
its long and ob-

among them the Roman world. stinate resistance to Hannibal. Between Beneven-
In the peninsula of Italia Propria, the only tum and Gapua lay Furcae Gaud'mae, a defile where
rivers of considerable length are the Arnus, Tiberis, a Roman army was hemmed in by the Samnites, and
Liris, VuUurnus, all falling into the Ilare Inferum forced to pass under the yoke.
V, Tyrrhenum, and the Aufidus and Aturnus, which 5. In the Basin of the Aufidus, not far from the
flow into the Mare Superum v. Adriaticum, v. Ha- right bank of the river, were Ganusium and Gannae
dria, the Gulf of Venice. near the latter was gained the last and greatest of
1. In the Basin of Arnus (Valdarno and Vallom- Hannibal's victories, and to Ganusium the remains
brosa) were, on the river itself, Florentia, now Flo- of the Roman army retreated after the disastrous
rence, capital of Tuscany, and near the mouth, Pisae battle. Higher up the valley, at the foot of Mt.
(Pisa). Three miles N. E. from Florence, Faesulae, VuUur, was Veniisia, birthplace of Horace, on the
where Galileo made his observations, and farther debatable land between Apulia and Lucania.
north, Pidoria, where Catiline was defeated and slain. Here also, not at Horace's farm, was the Fons Ban-
2. In the Basin of Tiberis, the Tiber, (in Italian, dusiae.
Tevere,) were, 1st, on the river itself, Perusia, near 6. In the Basin of the Aternus, on the river itself,

Lacus Trasymenus, (now the Lake of Perugia,) was Amiternum, birthplace of Sallust the historian,
where, for the third time, Hannibal routed the Ro- and Gorfinium, the rallying point of the Leaguo
man army under Flaminius Fidinae, beyond 3Ions ; against Rome in the Social War. At some distance
Sacer, between the Tiber and Anio, Roma, Prin- south from the bend of the river stood Sulmo, Sul-
ceps Urbium, and at the mouth, Ostia, the port of mona, a town of the Peligni, birthplace of Ovid.
Rome ; 2d, on the right side of the Basin of the To the geographical position of other towns and
Tiber, Clusium, the city of Porsenna, upon the tri- localities not connected with the six main rivers, a
butary Glanis, and on the Tibur (Tivoli)
left side, clue will be found if we follow the line of coast, with
on the Anio (Teverone). At Tibur, Maecenas had special reference at the same time to the principal
a villa, in which Horace (whose Sabine farm lay at subdivisions or provinces of Italia Antiqua. Theso
no great distance on the Digentia, a feeder of the provinces were either maritime or inland. Of the
Anio) was a frequent guest. former class, six bordered on the Mediterranean, viz.
In the Basin of Liris (Liri at first, and then Ga- LiGURiA, Etruria, Latium, Campania, Lucania,
rigliano) were, on the left side, Arp'mum, birthplace and the Bruth, and five on the Adriatic, viz. : Apu-
ofMarius and Cicero, the famous Buo Arpincdes, lia, Daunia, and Messupia,
including Japygia,
Aqulniim, birthplace of Juvenal at the mouth, near :
PiCENUM, Frentani, Umbria, Gallta Gispadana
the marshes where Marius took refuge, Minturnae. and Transpadclna, the latter including Venetia,
On the right side, the Liris was joined by the Fibre- Garnia, and Istria. The inland provinces, were
nus. On the banks of the latter, and on the little Samnium and the highland districts of the Marsi,
jsland at the junction which belonged to Cicero, was Peligni, and Sabini.
lield the dialogue De Lejiribus. 1. On the coast of Liguria, proceeding eastward
from the small river Varus, which flows from Alpes neum and Pompeii, discovered and partially disin-
Maritlmae, we find, at the head of the bay called terred within the last and present centuries. Not
Sinus Ligustlcus, Genua, a city more famous in far off, inland, was Nola, at the siege of which Han-
history under its modernized name of Genoa. nibal first received a check. It was at Nola that
2. Crossing the Macra, we enter Etruria, and Augustus died.
arrive first at the town of Luna and its harbor Por- 5. On the coast of Lucania was Posidonia v.
lus Lunensis (Gulf of Spezzia). Not far off are Paestum, famed and its ruined temples.
for its roses
the quarries of Carrara, which still supply statuary On that part of the Lucanian coast which is in the
marble to Europe. As we approach the mouth of Sinus Tarentinus, were Metapontum, the residence
the Tiber, we come upon the ancient Agylla, subse- for a time of Pythagoras and of Hannibal, Hera-
quently called Caere, a town rewarded with the ch'a, the place of assembly for the deputies from the
honorary freedom of the city, for its fidelity to Rome states of Magna
Graecia, Syburis, proverbial for
at the time of the Gallic invasion. the luxury and eflfeminacy of its inhabitants. In the
3. On the coast of Latium, the tovms we meet bay, but beyond the limits of Lucania, was To.ren-
with on crossing the Tiber are, Laurentum, the city tum, on the brook Galesus, famed for the fine quality
of King Latinus, Lavinium, and Antium, the capi- of the wool raised on its banks.
tal of the Volsci. Over the Antiates the Romans 6. In Ager Bruttius, on the Fretum Siculum.,

gained their first memory of which

victory at sea, in (Strait of Messina,) was a rock with a cave under it,
they fixed the beaks (rostra) of the ships they had supposed to be the residence of the fabled monster
captured in front of the tribune from which the ora- Scylla farther along, in the narrow part of the

tors harangued the people. Antium was famed in strait,was the town of Rhegium (Reggio). Near
Horace's time for a Temple of Fortune. Eight miles the Lacinian promontory, Croto, where Pythagoras
inland was Ardea, the city of the Rutuli and of long resided, and taught his doctrines the birthplace :

Turnus, and Gorioli, the taking of which gained for also of the famous wrestler Milo, hence called Cro-
Caius Marcius the title of Coriolanus. Farther along toniates.
the coast were Palddes Pompt'mae, the Pontine T. On the Adriatic coast of Apulia, after doub-
Marshes beyond is Anxur v. Terrac'ina.
: Next ling prom. Japygium, (C. Leuca), we find Hydras
come the town and promontory of Circeii, the town V. Hydruntum, (Otranto), the nearest transit to
Amyclae, the town, promontory, and harbor of Greece, but less frequented for that purpose than
Cajeta, which took that name, according to Yirgil, Brundusium, (see plan on Map had an
13), which
from the nurse of Aeneas near it was Cicero's For-
: excellent harbor, and was the terminus of the Via
mianum, where he was murdered by order of Mark Appia, the great high road from Rome to Greece.
Antony. Here commences, and is continued into Brundusium and Dyi^rhachium, on the opposite
Campania, the district in which the choicest wines coast, were the Dover and Calais of the ancient

of ancient Italy were produced, the Formiani world. This part of the Apulian coast Wf^s inha-
Colles, Mons Massicus, the ager Falernus, Caecu- bited by a people called Caldbri, whose townRhudiae
bus, Calenus, Setlnus. was the birthplace of the poet Ennius. Next comes
4. On the coast of Campania were Gumae, which the projection of the land occupied by Mt. Gargar'<»
Yirgil makes the landing-place of Aeneas in
first and its oak forests ('querceta Gargani').
Italy, and the abode of the Sibyl who conducted him 8. On the coast of Picenum occurs a smaller pro-
to the shade of his father Anchises, in the abodes of jection of the land, which, from the form it takep,
the dead, Baiae, a favorite watering-place, Puteoli, was likened to the human elbow, ayxui', and hence
(Puzzuoli,) and Parthenope, subsequently Neapulis, the town built on it received the name of Ancon t.
(Napoli, Naples,) one of the numerous Greek colo- Ancdna,
nies planted along the southern shore of the penin- 9. On the coast of TJmbria were two to^vns of

sula, which procured for it the name of Magna note, 1. Sena, to which the epithet Gallica was add-
Graecia. At a little distance across the bay on ed, as well to denote the fact of its being originally
which Naples stands, is Vesuvius, a volcano, of which a Gallic settlement, as to distinguish it from Sena
the first eruption upon record took place A. d. 79. Julia, an inland town in Etruria — the former is now
At the base- of Vesuvius, and overwhelmed by its Sinigaglia, the latter Sienna; and, 2. Arimmum,
eruptions, were the now^ buried cities of Hercula- (Rimini,) the storming of which was Cuesar's firnt
overt act of war after crossing the Rubicon.
civil proverbial use of the modern line :
Incidit in Scyl-

Between those Umbrian towns flows the small river lam, qui vult vitare Charybdin.' to the E. A little

Metaurus, where Asdrubal, the brother of Hannibal, was the town of Zancle, afterwards Messdna, now
was defeated and slain by the consuls Livius and Messina. We next pass Cat'ma v. Catdna, Catania,
Nero, A. u. c. 546, (b. c. 207.) which has sufTei'ed much and repeatedly from the lava
10, IL On the coast of Gallia Cisaljnna, south of Aetna — the burning mountain, equally famed in
of the Po, stood Ravenna, near which Augustus con- fable and in history ; and crossing SimaeChus, the
structed a station for his fleet on the Mare Superwn, river of longest course in the island, we aiTive at
as he did at 3Iistnum, near Naples, to guard the Syracusae, (see plan on Map 13,) the renowned
Mare Inferum. Ravenna is now four miles from metropolis of ancient Sicily. In front of the harbor
the sea ; and it may be observed, generally, that in is the island of Ortygia v. Nasos, and in it the foun-
the lower course of the Po, the Goimata (i. e. cumu- tain Arethusa, of poetical celebrity.
lata, successive deposits of soil in the channels of On the coast between Pachynus and Lilybaeum
rivers, consequence of floods and artificial em-
was Agrigentum, or in the Greek form, Acrdgas, the
bankments) has already raised the bed of the river
above the level of the adjoining plain.
second city in ancient Sicily — an early rival of Car«
thirty feet
thage, and noted for a Temple of Jupiter, of which
North of the Po lay the districts called Venetia,
some gigantic fragments still remain. The ancient
(on the shore of which is the modern city of Venice,)
name survives in the modern Girgenti.
Carnia, and Idria, extending to the little stream
Between Lilybaeum and Pelorus, on tlie northern
Arsia, the eastern boundary of Italy. Along this
shore of the island, the notable localities are, Dre-
coast, the chief ancient
geste, now Trieste,
towns were Aquileia, Ter-
and Pola.
punum, (Trapani,) Eryx, a town and mountain —
the latter surmounted by a Temple of Venus Erycina

ITALIAN ISLANDS. and off the shore Aegdies Insulae, where the Romans
gained a naval victory which put an end to the first
Off the coast of Etruria lies Ilva v. Aethalia,
Punic war. Panormus, now Palermo, the modern
(Elba,) famed of old for the richness of its iron ores,
and not far W. is Corsica. Off the coast of Cam-
capital of Sicily, and S. W. from it Segesia, with its

temple almost entire.

pania are the islands of Prochyta, (Procida), Ina-
rlme, (Ischia) and on the opposite side of the bay,

Before quitting Italy and the Italian islands, it

Capreae, the retreat of Tiberius and on the other ;

Bide of the prom. Minervae, the three rocky islets,

may be add a few notes on the Alps, and on
well to

S'irenusae. Directly S. of Corsica is Sardinia, some other peculiarities of the country which have
called Ichnusa by the Greeks, from its supposed not come under our notice in the geographical de-

resemblance to the impress of the human foot (xfo?,

tail, but with which it is proper the classical student

vestigium). should be acquainted.

To the S. E. of Sardinia, near the extremity of The great range of mountains called the Alps
Italy, lies the group of volcanic islets called 7ns.
{Alpes) extends nearly 600 miles in the form of a
Vulcaniae, crescent, between 5° and 18° E. Long., and 44° and
Aeoliae v. (Lipari Islands), of which
one only, Strong yle, (Strombjli,) is still active. 41 j° N. Lat., with various indentations and sinuosi-

South of group lies Sicilia, (Map 12,) called

this ties, from the Var to the Adriatic, presenting gene-
also Sicania, Trinacria v. Triquetra Tellus. The rally an abrupt face towards Italy, and sloping more
three promontories (rpia azpa, trina cornua, Ov.) at gradually on the other side. Its diff"erent parts were
the three corners of the triangular island were, N. E. anciently distinguished by different epithets, most of
Pelurus, S. E. Pachynus, and W. Lilyhaeuni. which are retained.
still These were 1. Alpes Mo- :

In the strait, Fretum Siculum, which separates ritimae, Maritime Alps, extending from the
Italy from Sicily, the poets describe a whirlpool Mediterranean to Mons Vesulus, Monte Viso the —
called Charybdis, opposite to Scylla, on the Italian mountain, as we have seen, which gives origin to the
side. These were the two dangers of ancient navi- Po. 2. Thence to the modern Mt. Cenis were Alpes
gators, between which it v/as thought so difficult to Cottiae, including Mt. Genevre. This portion of the
Bteer, that in avoiding the one was hardly possible
it chain took its name from a Gallic chief who had
not to fall a i)rey to the other. Hence came the early made his peace with Augustus, and as.«isted

him in subduing Itie Alpine tribes whose names are from Naples, are the ruins of three beautiful temples, of
enumerated on the triumphal arch erected at Susa. the simplest Doric order, and of great antiquity. At
3. The Alpes Graiae extended from Mt. Cenis to Narnia, are the remains of a bridge built by Augustus.
Mt. Blanc. There is strong ground for believing On the road from Naples to Puzzuoli is the Cryjjta
that the pass of the little St. Bernard, which is iu Neapolitana, Grotto of Pausilippo, a gallery or tunnel
this portion of the Alps, was that by which Hanni- through a hill, 2323 feet in length, described by Se-

bal effected his march over the Alps. 4. From Mt. neca, and of unknown antiquity.
Blanc to St. Gothard {Adidas) were the Alpes Pen- The most remarkable ancient remains and localitiea

n'lnae v. Summae, the central and highest of the are in Rome itself. (Map 10.) To begin with the
whole range. Then follow eastward Alpes Rhaeti- seven hills, viz. : the Capitoline, Palatine, Aventine,

cae, Carnicae, Juliae, whose respective limits it is Caelian, Esquiline, Viminal, and Quirinal. 1. On
not easy to define, till they reach the Sinus Flanati- the Capitol were the temples of Jupiter Feretrius

cus, the gulf of Quarnero. and Jupiter Capitol inas, and the Tabularium, or
register-ofi&ce. 2. The Palatine, on which Rome was
Of this huge mountain chain, Adrda (St. Gothard)
may be regarded as the centre or nucleus; for though originally built, (thence called Roma Quadrata, from

not the loftiest summit, Mt. Blanc being higher, it

the form of that hill,) was afterwards almost entirely

occupies, with its surrounding group of mountains, covered with the palace of Augustus and the Temple

the most elevated ground of the whole range, as of Apollo, with the library attached to it : of all

plainly appears from the circumstance that the rivers which nothing remains but a few substructions. 3.

ivhich rise there flow towards every point of the The Aventine, the seat of the robber Cacus, and long

compass. held unlucky from the fate of Remus, contained after-

The chief lines of Roman road in Italy were wards the Temple of Diana, built by Servius Tullius,
Via Appia, (regina viarum,) leading at first from the Temple of Juno, vowed by Camillus at Veil,
Rome to Capua, and continued onwards to Brundu- whence the statue of the goddess was brought, and
sium, Ihe great high road to Greece Via Flaminia,
the Temple of Bona Dea, consecrated by the vestal

by Ocriculum to Arimlnum: Via Aurelia, along Claudia on the east slope of this hill were the Baths

the coast of Etruria to Pisae. • continued afterwards of Caracalla, the ruins of which still remain. 4.

to Savona, and at last to Areldfe, Aries : Via Aemi- On the Caelian, called also Querquetulanus, stood

LIA, first from Ariminum to Bononia, then through the palace of the Laterani family, presented to the
Placentia to Mediolanum, Verona, Patavium, and Church by Constantine, and now called the church
Aquileia: Via Cassia, through Etruria, between of St. John Lateran: near which stood the statue
the Aurelia and Flaminia : Via Valeria, through of Marcus Aurelius, since removed to the Capitol.

the country of the Sabini, Aequi, and Marsi, into Here also is the remnant of a noble portico, supposed
that of Peligni: Via Latina, through Tusculum, to be part of the Curia Hostilia. Between the Pa-
Anagnia, Vena/rum, and Tednum Sidicini to Ca- latine, Esquiline, and Caelian, lies the amphitheatre

silinum, where it joined the Via Appia. of Vespasian, called the Coliseum. 5. On the Es
Italy so abounds in antiquities, that a few only quiline, the baths and palace of Titus, among the

of the most remarkable can be added here to those ruins of which was found the famous statue of Lao-
already mentioned. At Capua, Casinum, Puteoli, cJon, and the mansion and gardens of Maecenas, on
and Verona, are ruins of amphitheatres that of the :
what was once a burying-ground. 6. To the east of
last-named was built to accommodate 30,000 specta- the Viminal Hill, which, from the levelling and filling
tors, and has suffered so little from time as to have up, it is more diflicult to trace than any of the rest,

been used on several public occasions in modern stood the baths of Diocletian : still farther eastwaid,

times. It is 1416 feet in circumference: the Coli- beyond the Agger of Tarquinius, was the Praetorian
Boum at Rome is 1719. Numberless ancient remains Camp. 7. On the Quirinal Hill, now Monte Cavallo,
have been uncovered and dug up at Herculaneum and stood the temple of the deified Romulus, Sallust's
Pompeii, two towns on the Bay of Naples, which house and gardens, which extended over the Pincian
were overwhelmed iu an eruption of Mount Vesuvius, hill or Collis Hortulorum, the Campus Sceleratus,
A.i). 79, the former by a stream of lava, the latter by and baths of Constantine.
t shower of hot ashes. At Paestum, twenty leagues These seven bills were all on the left bank of the
Tiber : on the right or Etrurian side were the Jani- Other remarkable places in Rome w^ere,

culum and 3Ions Vaticanus. 1. Forum Eomanum, the great centre of business,
Between the Quirinal and Capitoline was Trajan's commercial and political, lying between the Capito-
Forum, in the centre of which stands tlie Columna line and Palatine hills. Here stood, 1. the temple

Trajana, representing his Dacian conquests. of Jupiter Stator. of which three pillars still remain-

The Campus Martins was a plain inclosed by a ing are supposed to be part Temple of Con-
: 2. the

bend of the Tiber, and bounded by the Capitoline cord, where the Senate usually met 3. the Temple :

and Quirinal hills. It was originally used as a place of Jupiter Tonans, or rather of Saturn, at the foot

of exercise and for the meetings of the people, but of the Clivus Cajntolinus : 4. the triumphal arch of

towards the end of the republic it began to be oc- Septimius Severus, still pretty entire : near which was
cupied with buildings, and was enclosed by the Em- the 3Iilliarium Aureum {umbilicus Romae) : and, 5.

peror Aurelian within the walls. Amongst those the Comitium. The Via Sacra led from the Forum
buildings were, 1. The mausoleum of Augustus, the towards the Coliseum
first distinguished tenant of which was young Mar- 2. Circus Maximus, between the Capitoline and
cellus, son of Augustus' sister Octavia, and heir of Aventine, for the exhibition of chariot races, and
the empire, whose premature death is so pathetically other contests of strength and agility
lamented by Virgil : 2. The Antonine pillar : 3. 3. Veldbrum, the low ground between the Pala-
Septa Julia, or Ocilia, inclosures for the people to tine and the river
vote in —
rude at first, and wattled with twigs, like 4. The bridges over the Tiber in Rohio, geven in

s/jeep-hurdles ; when the people had no

afterwards, number Pons Sublicius, called afterwards, when

free voice, made of marble 4. The Temple of Mi- : built of stone, Aemilius ; Fabricius and Cestius

nerva, built by Pompey out of the spoils of thirty leading to and from Insula Tiberina, the island of Aes-
years' successful war 5. The Pantheon, Rotonda,
: culapius ; Palatinus or Senatorius, now Ponte Rotto
the best preserved of all the ancient temples : 6. Vaticanus or Triumphalis; these five are more or
Circus Agonalis: 7. Pompey's theatre, whence were less destroyed ; Janiculensis, now Ponte di Sisto

visible the Janiculum and 3Ions Vaticanus, on the and Aelius, built by Adrian to give access to his
Tuscan side of the Tiber. The latter hill was added magnificent mausoleum, now the bridge and castle of
to modern Rome by the popes, and contains the church St. Augelo.
and dome of St. Peter, and the Vatican library.


CM AP 7.)
Between and the Danube lay the countries
Italy and the Murus, which flows into
affluent of the Inn,

of Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, Illyricum. the Drave in Pannonia. Its principal cities were

RuAETiA occupied the Central Alps, together with Lauriacum, (Lorch,) a Roman naval station on the
their northern and southern valleys, from the sources Danube, luvavum, (Salzburg,) Noreia, (Neumarch,)
of the Rhone to those of the Dramis (Drave) and near the Mur, and Celeia, (Cilli,) near the Save.
Plains (Piave). Rhaetia comprehended, therefore, This country was famous for its iron, and for the skill

the Grisons and great part of the Tyrol, besides some of the inhabitants in working it.

Italian valleys. The people seem to have been of East of Noricum, lying along the Danube to the
Celtic origin. mouth of the Save, was Pannonia, first reduced to a
Noricum extended from the Inn to the line of Roman province by Tiberius, and subsequently di-
hills which abut upon the Danube above Vienna, vided into Superior or "Western, and Inferior or
called by the Romans lions Cetius, a prolongation Eastern Pannonia. It occupied a part of Hungary
of the Alprs Noricae, or Styrian Alps and from ; and Croatia. 3Ions Pannonius (Bakonyer Wald)
the Danube to the Carnian Alps and the river Savus was the principal mountain range. The Danube,
iSavt,). It was watered by the luvavus, (Salza,) an with its tributaries, the Dravus (Drave) and Saviu
(Save), were the most important rivers. We should was Sarmizegetusa, now Gradisca, the ancient resi«
not omit to mention two great lakes in this country, dence of the Dacian kings.
Peiso Lacus (the Neusiedler See) and Volcea Falus South-east of Illyricum was Macedonia, situated
(Lake Balaton) between the countries just enumerated and Greece
In Pannonia Superior was Vindohona (Vienna) ;
proper, and participating in the nature of both.
but its chief city was Garnuntum, (Altenburg,) near Macedonia was bounded on the south by Thessalia,
the modern Presburg, but on the right bank of the on the east by Thracia, from which it was separated
river. Roman fortresses on the Danube were Arra- by the river Nestus, on the north by Moesia and
bona (Raab) and Acincum (Ofen or Buda). On Dardania, on the west by the Adriatic the Aegean ;

the opposite side of the river here, lay Contra Acin- bounded it on the south-east, running up into two
cum (Pesth). upon the Save, near the
Siscia stood great gulfs, the Sinus Strymonicus and Thermaicus,
confines of Illyricum and lower down, on the same
; between which were the peninsulas of Acte, Sithonia,
stream, Sirmium, a place of great celebrity and im- and Palltne. Near the Thessalian frontier and the
portance in the latter ages of the Roman empire. sea is Mons Pierius, and in the peninsula of Acte,
South of Pannonia, bounded on the west by the 31ons Athos.
Adriatic and on the east by Moesia, lay Illyricum, The chief rivers were the Haliacmon and Axius,
occupied by various tribes. The Dinaric Alps, (Vardar,) flowing into the Thermaic gulf; the Stry-
under the names of 3It. Albanus and Bebii Monies, mon, into the gulf which bears its name; and the
formed the principal range. The Golapis (Kulpa) Nestus, which falls Aegean.
into the

and Drinus (Drino), tributaries of the Save and Of cities, we have to mention Pydna, where Per-
the Naro (Narenta), are the chief rivers. In Dal- seus was baffled in his last efi"ort against the Romans,
matia was Salona, near the modern Spalatro, the B.C. 168. Farther north, on a lake fifteen miles
birthplace and retreat of Diocletian and below it ;
from the sea,, was Pella, the capital of Macedon,
Epidaurus, or old Ragusa. Below Epidaurus are where Philip, the father of Alexander, resided.
Scodra and Lissus; the former was called Scutari, Pursuing again the line of coast, we come to Thes-

the latter Alessio. salonica, at the head of the Sinus Thermaicus. It

Moesia bounded on the west by Pannonia and

is was to the Christians of that city that St. Paul ad-
Illyi'icum on the south, it was divided from Mace-
dressed his two epistles to the Thessalonians. Near
donia and Thrace by 3It. Scordus and Haemus, the the mouth of the Strymon we find Stageirus or Sta-

ranges of Gliubotin and the Balkan on the east, it ;

geira, the birthplace of Aristotle. In the country
reaches to the Euxine and on the north, to the
between the Strymon and Nestus, at some

Danube —thus occupying the present Servia and distance from the sea, was the battle-field of Philippi.
Bulgaria. In Moesia Superior the principal river On crossing the Nestus, we find ourselves in

was the Margus (Morava). At the confluence of Thracia, a country the coast of which extended
the Danube and Save was Singidunum, now Bel- from the Nestus along the shores of the Aegean, the
grade. Somewhat lower doAvn the river was a ridge Hellespont, the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus,
of rocks, forming a cataract in the Danube —the spot and the Euxine sea, as far north as Mt. Haemus,
at which the river was reputed to change its name which was its northern boundary.
from Danubius, above, to Ister, below. A little Along the seaboard, from the Nestus eastward, we
above this spot was the famous stone bridge of come upon Abdera, the inhabitants of which formed,
Trajan. Below it is Eatiaria, the ancient metropo- on account of their alleged stupidity, the laughing
lis of Dacia, and the station of a fleet upon the Danube. stock of antiquity; it was the ^l/thplace of Demo*

In the interior is Naissus, (Nissa,) the birthplace of critus.

Constantine the Great; and south-east is Sardica, Farther east, we reach the mouth of Hebrus, con-
the metropolis of Dacia, and celebrated for a Chris- nected with the myth of Orpheus.
tian council. East of the river Giabrus was Moe- Next comes the Thracian peninsula called Cherso-

sia Inferior. nesus, on the eastern side of which is the strait named
North of the Danube was the vast province of Hellespontus. The Hellespont widens into tne sea>
Dacia, bounded by this river on one side and by the lake called Propontis, and at the side of Byzan-
Carpathian mountains on the other. Its chief city tium, it contracts again into that which was callea
the Thracian Bospurus, (Strait of Constantinople, under the name of the Symplegades. (Thracian
Map 26,) which, after keeping the two continents Bosporus, Map 26.)
narrowly asunder, opens out again into Pontus Among the Greek colonies on the shore of the
Eux'inus (the Euxine or Black sea). At the northern Euxine, belonging to Thrace, we mention Salmy-
extremity of the strait are some rocky islets, known dessus and Apollonia.

GRAECIA.-(MAPS 15, 16. 17, 18, 19.)

The name Graecia was not used by the Greeks runs from N. to S., till it terminates at the bluff
themselves. They called themselves, generally, Hel- promontory of Taenarum, (Matapan,) the southern
lenes, and their country Hellas. From this generic point of Greece, where Yirgil places one of the
name, the Macedonians and Epirotes were jealously approaches to the infernal regions : 5. Stymphcdus,
excluded it was with some hesitation that the Acar-
; a mountain, town, and lake, where dwelt the vora-
nanians, Aetolians, and Thessalians, were included cious birds Sty mpJial ides, that fed on human flesh,

under though among these last lay the original

it, the destruction of which was one of the twelve labors
seat of the little tribe of Hellenes, from whom it was of Hercules : 6. Erymanthus, the haunt of the boar,
actually derived. Homer mentions the Hellenes once to destroy which was another of the prescribed tasks
only, and then as a specific tribe of Greeks ;
when of Hercules.
he speaks of the Greeks collectively, he calls them The chief Rivers
of Peloponnesus were the two
Achaei, (Lat. Acliivi,) Danai, and Argaei, (Lat, following Alpheius, by much the largest and
: 1.

Argivi,) names which also belong properly to par- longest. On its right bank, not a great way from
ticular tribes. the embouchure, was the town of Pisa, and near it,
Taking Greece in its most extended sense, including the plain of Olympia, where the most famous of the
all the northern semi-Greek countries, we may com- Greek games were celebrated the first month of every
pare it to a triangle, having the mountain chain of fifth year —a period of time which was called an
Haemus for its base, the coast lines of the Aegean Olympiad, and formed the basis of Greek chrono-
and Ionian seas for its sides, and Cape Taenarum, logy. Here also was the sacred grove Altis, planted
(Matapan,) the southern extremity of the Pelopon- by Hercules, and adorned with the renowned statue
nesus, for its apex. This triangular space is nearly of Jupiter by Phidias. The Alpheius, in its course,
bisected by the chain of Pindus and its adjuncts, disappears under ground for a time, which gave rise
which constitute the water-shed of the whole country, to the fiction of the river-god making his way under
separating the rivers on the eastern side, which flow the sea to meet his Arethusa in the Sicilian island
into the Aegean, from those on the western, which Ortygia. The Alpheius is joined, on the right side,
flow into the Ionian sea. by the Helisson, on which was Megalopolis, birth-
place of the historian Polybius and of Philopoemen,
PELOPONNESUS — MOREA. — (MAP 18.) 'the last of the Greeks ;' and by the Ladon. Among
The leaf-shaped peninsula so called is almost en- the mountains where Alpheius rises, was Mantineia,
tirely covered with mountainous elevations and the (Map 26,) the scene of the second great victory of
well-watered valleys between them. This is particu- the Theban Epaminondas over the Lacedaemonians,
larly the case with the central region, Arcadia, and of his death :

which, on this account, was assigned to the god of 2. The other river of note was the Eurotas. It
shepherds, and is identified in our language with rises not far from the Alpheius, on the opposite slope
images of pastoral life and rural simplicity. bounded
of the water-shed, and flows through a basin
Among the Mountains, the most noted were, 1. on the W. by TUygHus, on the E. by Mts. Parnon
Cyllene, reputed by ancients and moderns to be the and Zarax. On its banks was the city of Sparta
highest of them all, and fabled to have been the V. Lacedaemon, the great rival of Athens, not in
birthplace of Mercury : 2. Lycaeus, and, 3. Mae- arts, but in arms.
nalus, both favorite haunts of Pan : 4. Taygeius, The other localities in the Peloponnesus worth
the resort of Spartan maidens, a range of mountains noting will be best learned in connection with the
now called, from its five peaks, Pcutedactylon, which six little departments five maritime and one inland

—into it was divided, viz.

whicli 1. Achaia, bounded
: temple of Minerva Sunias, the pillars of which
on N. by Sinus GoHnthidcus, (Gulf of Lepanto,)
tlie still standing give name to the modern Cape
and including Gorinthia and Sicyonia; 2. Elis 3. ; Colonne.
Messenia; 4. Laconia; 5. Argolis; and, 6. Ar- 2. In Boeotia the low country was proverbial for
cadia. its thick atmosphere and the pingue ingenium of its

1. In Achaia, on the Isthmus, was GoHnthus. It inhabitants ; but the mountains Githaeron and Heli-
bad a port on each side of the Isthmus, Lechaeum con, with its fountain Hippocrme, and the hills which
OH the Corinthian gulf, and GenchrCae on the Saro- enclose the plain, were all of a character so opposite,
ii:c —hence the epithet bimaris. The Citadel was on that, under the general name of Aonia, they were
t!ie summit of a rock called Acrocorinthus, whence celebrated by the poets as the favorite haunts of the
sprang the fountain Pirtne. Muses, who were hence called Aonides, Aoniae })uel-
2. In .Elis, besides Pisa and Olympia, on the lae,and Heliconldes v. Heliconiddes. In Boeotia
Alpheius, was Pylus, one of three towns of that name were the towns of Thebae, the capital, birthplace of
which claimed to be the city of Nestor, the sage of Epaminondas and Pindar ; south of it, Plataeae,
the Iliad. (Map 26,) where the confederated Greeks defeated
3. In Messexia, in the basin of the stream Pami- the Persians under Mardonius ; and Leuctra, (Map
sus, was Messene and its citadel Ithome, called by 26,) where Epaminondas gained his first victory over
Philip of Macedon one of the 'horns of the Pelo- the Lacedaemonians, b. c. 371, (a. u. c. 383). On
ponnesus,' Acrocorinthus being the other. the narrow strait calledEurlpus, which separates
4. On the Laconian coast were the two promon- Boeotia from Euboea, was Aulis, where the Grecian
tories, Taendrum, already mentioned, and Malea, or fleet destined for Troy was detained by contrary

Malea, a cape dangerous to mariners. winds, till Agamemnon consented to the required
5. In Argolis were Argos v. Argi, a favorite city sacrifice of his daughter IphigenTa.
of Juno, and Mycenae, the city of Agamemnon, 3. Of Phocis, the remarkable features were, 1.
Tiryns, the reputed birthplace of Hercules, Lerna The fountain-head and early course of the Gephissus,
and its marsh, the abode of the many-headed Hydra, (major,) whose lower basin formed the northern por-
which it was one of the twelve labors of Hercules tion of Boeotia
2. Mt. Parnassus, sacred to

to destroy, and Nemea, the haunt of the Nemean Apollo. Between the two peaks wasfons Gastalius,
lion, the killing of which was another of those labors. and farther down, on the Pleistus, of which the Cas-
In the inland Arcadia, besides the places men-
6. talian spring is a feeder, stood the Temple of Apollo,
tioned above, was the town Tegea. Gleitor with its and in it the Tripod of the Pythia, and the Delphic
fountain, said to render those who drank of it averse Oracle.
to wine. 4. Aetglia was famous in early Greek story as

graecia propria. — (map 16.)

the country ravaged by the Caledonian boar,
was slain at last by Meleager. Achelous, the long-

The isthmus of Corinth connects Peloj^onnesus est and largest of Grecian rivers, and fabled by the
with Greece proper, the notable localities of which poets to have been the first created, forms the bouu'
will be best indicated by referring each to the ancient dary between Aetolia and
division, as well as to the river, where there is one, 5. Acarnania, (Map 15,) a district which liei
on which it v/as situated. These divisions were between AcheliJus and the Ambracian gulf. At the
Attica, Megaris, Boeotia, Phocis, Doris, Locris, entrance of this gulf, near the promontory Actimn,
Aetglia, and Acarnania. the naval battle was fought between Augustus and
1. In Attica stood Athenae, with her Acropolis Marc Antony, which secured to the former the un-
and its Parthenon, and her triple harbor (Peiraeus, disputed sovereignty of the Roman world, b. c. 31,
Munychia, and PhaUrum) ; Eleusis ; the plain of Between the Ambracian gulf and the Acroce-
RiarCdhon, memorable for the defeat of the Persians, raunian promontory lay the extensive region o/
263,) (Map. 26) Mt. Pentelicus,
B. c, 490, (a. u. c. ; Epirus, famed for its breed both of horses and of
(Mendeli,) which furnished marble for the building watch-dogs, — the latter called Molossian, from J/o-
of the Parthenon ; the silver-mines of Laiirium; and lossis, a district of Epirus, — and still more famous
the southern promontory Sunium, crowned with the for the most ancient of all the Greek oracles, Dod('f4i
Having now reached the western limits of Greece, died ; Aegina, once the
rival of Athens at sea ; and
we return eastward to the Aegean shore, and find in front of theharbor of Athens, Saldmis, off tha
(lying to the N. of Greece proper, and separated east end of which the fleet of Xerxes was defeated
from it by Mt. Oeta, which is an offset from the by the Athenians, b. c. 480. In continental Greece
Pindus chain) the country called by the ancients were the Sinus Malidcus, (Zeitoun) Pagasaeus, ;

(Volo,) so called f4rora the to\vn Pagdsae; and along

THESSALIA. — (MAP 15.) the coast of Macedonia, Sinus Thermaicus, (Salo-
Physically considered, Thessalia is made up of nichi,) Toronaicus, Singiticus, and Strymonicus.
the basin of the river Peneius. It is a territory The most noted islands pertaining to Greece are
containing 4000 square miles of surface, and is sin- I. In the Ionian sea — 1. Corcyra, (Corfu,) thought
gular in being encompassed on all the four sides, to be the Homeric Scheria, the island of the Phaea-
even the side facing the by ranges of mountains
sea, ;
cians, where lived the suitors of Penelope 2. Ithdca, :

on the west by Pindus; on the north by 3Iontes the home of Ulysses : 3. Zacynthus, (Zante,) a colony
Gambunii and M. Pierus ; on the south by M. Othrys ; from which is said to have peopled and given name
and on the east and north-east by Pelion, Ossa, and to Saguntum : 4. Off the west coast of Peloponne-
Olympus, the three hills by the piling of which, one sus the rocks called Strophddes, (Strivali,) the hannts
upon the other, the fabled giants attempted to scale of the harpies. To the south of the Laconian pro-
the heavens. To the continuity of this mountain-chain montory Malea, was Cythera, an island sacred to
there is but one interruption —a rent in the rocky Venus still farther south is Creta, with the cities

barrier between Olympus and Ossa, and through it of Gnossus, the capital of King Minos, Gortyna,
the single main river of Thessaly proper finds its way and Gydonia, all three famed for archery. Of its
to the Aegean. This outlet of the Peneius bore the mountains, Ida was the loftiest, and on Dicte Jupi-
name of Tempe, a valley which in some places is so ter was said to have been reared, and fed upon honey
narrow as barely to allow the river to pass between and the milk of the goat AmalthCa. The sea around
the opposite cliffs. the island was called Greticum.
On one of the tributaries of the Peneius called II. Of the islands lying to the east of Greece and
Apidanus, where it is joined by its feeder Enlpeus, in the Aegean sea, we shall name first those worthy
lies the field where the battle of Pharsalus was fought of mention which are situated to the north of the
between Caesar and Porapey, b. c. 48, (a. u. c. 105). 38th parallel of latitude. They are,

On the Peneius itself, below the point where the Api- Euhoea, an island stretching 150 miles along

danus falls into it, stood Larissa, which some describe the coast of Boeotia and Attica, and approaching so
as the city of Achilles ; but that honor belongs rather near the continent in the channel called Eurlpus,
to another Lay'issa, not within the limits of the great that a bridge is said to have been at one time thrown
basin, but in that south-eastern portion of Thessaly across. On this channel was the chief city of the
called Phthiutis, the country of the Dolupes and the island, Ghalcis, opposite to Aulis in Boeotia. la
3Iyrmid6nes. doubling Gaphdreus, a promontory at the south-east
Owingto the deep indentations, numerous projec- extremity of Euboea, the Grecian fleet on its return
tions,and great irregularity of the line of coast, the from Troy was overtaken by a storm, which partly
headlands and bays make an important feature of the destroyed and partly dispersed it
geography of Greece. Samothrdce, where the Corybantes practised the
Of the former, Taeniirum, Malea, Sunium, and ritesand mysteries of Cybele :

Caphdreus, have been already mentioned to which ; 3. Lemnos, an island sacred to Yulcan :

may be added prom. Rhium (south) and Antin-hium 4. Tenedos, an island in sight of Troy :

(aorth), which nearly block up the entrance of the 5. Directly south is Lesbos, birthplace of Alcaeus
t^inus Corinthidcus ; Araxus, the north-west point and Sappho, the two great lyric poets of Greece :

of Peloponnesus Chelonates, the farthest west and

; ,
6. Ghios, (Scio,) one of the seven places which
AcrUas in Messenia. contended for the honor of giving birth to Homer.
The bays and gulfs connected with Peloponnesus Ghios was also noted for its wines.
Were Sinus Corinthidcus, 3Iesseniacus, Laconi- The numerous islets in the Aegean, in latitudes
cus, Argolicus, and SaronTcus : in the last of these lower than 38°, are generally classed under two de-
were the islands of Calauria, where Demosthenes nominations, Gyclddes and Sporddes.

I. The Cyclades, a group vvliicli cluster round includes a great part of Doris and Boeotia. The
Delos —
that floating island which Neptune fixed river, arriving at low and spongy ground, spreads
with his trident as a resting-place for Latona to give out into the lake Copdis, now Topolias, whose waters
birth to Apollo and his twin-sister Diana. find their way to the Aegean sea by subterranean
Of this group the most noted, after Delos, were, passages :

1. Paros, famed for its statuary marble, and the 5. The Basin of the Alpheius, in the Peloponnesus,
birthplace of Phidias, the sculptor who made the though the course of the river is westward, may be
noblest use of it enumerated as a fifth. The Alpheius, rising on the
2. Geos, off the promontory of Sunium, birthplace confines of Laconia, collects in its course all the
of the elegiac poet Simouides : streams produced on the interior summits and sides
3. South of Delos, Naxos, an island that figures in of the mountain chain that encircles Arcadia.
the history of Bacchus and Ariadne : The basins on the west side of Pindus are longer
II. The scattered islets to the east and south-east and narrower, and, owing to th-e position of the moun-
of the Cyclades were called from that circumstance tain ridges, extend generally in a north-east and south-
Sporades. They extended as far E. as Icaria, which west direction. In Greece proper are the Basins of
took its name, as did the sea around it, from the fabled the Achelous and Evenus those farther to the north

fate of Icarus, the son of Daedalus, and as far S. E. are less memorable.
as Carpathos, (Scarpanto,) which in like manner gave The Mountains of Greece are almost entirely lime
to the watersround it the name of Garpathium Pela- stone,which assumes the shape, in some places, of
gus. Between Icaria and the continent was Samos, long, sharp, continuous ridges in others, of round

birthplace of Pythagoras, and a favorite island of craggy summits, with strata highly inclined. It is
Juno. to this physical conformation of the soil and surface
of Greece that she owes many of her natural features
and peculiarities as, the numerous caverns,
The chain of Pindus, of which we have already fountains, katabothra, or under-ground river coursse,
spoken as dividing the waters that fall into the Ae- hot springs, stalactitic incrustations, and gaseous ex-
gean from those that fall into the Ionian sea, has halations, which, among a people of lively fancy and
numerous lateral branches, which on the east side abounding with traditionary story, served to nourish,
go off nearly at right angles, like ribs from the spine if they did not give birth to, much of the popular
such are the mountains of Argolis, of Attica, and superstition and beautiful mythology of the Greeks.
those which form the northern and southern bounda- The height of the principal mountains has not been
ries of Thessaly ; while on the ivest side these offsets accurately ascertained. Orbelus, now Argentaro, is
are disposed in ridges nearly parallel to Pindus itself. covered with perpetual snow, and must therefore,
The lateral branches which are on the east side of being in the latitude of 42°, have at least 8000 feet
Pindus inclose a great number of basins, the most of perpendicular elevation. The range of Pindus is

remarkable of which are as follows, beginning from considerably lower, probably from five to six thousand
the north : feet at the highest. Mount Athos rises to the height
1. The Basin of the Strymon, including the Mace- of 4350 English feet.
donian plain of Serres, distinguished by the fertility The Rivers of Greece, with the exception of thoso
of its soil and the abundance of its products, par- that form the basins enumerated, and some of their
ticularly of cotton tributaries, are of short course, and often little more
2. The Basin of the Peneius, forming the country than winter torrents, (xi'-i^o-^'fOi,)whose channels are
of Thessaly. Being nearly circular, and not open- dry in summer. Such, for example, is the famed
ing wide to the sea, like most other basins, it has Ilissus at Athens.
every appearance of having once been a great lake, A distinguishing feature of Graecia Propria and
whose waters were at last discharged, either by the Peloponnesus, and one which had a considerable in-
sudden disruption, or by the gradual wearing down, fluence in the first moulding of its political condition,
of the narrow ravine called the Yale of Tempe : is the frequent occurrence of rich plains, overlooked
3. The valley of the Sperchius, inclosed by the and commanded by abrupt insulated rocks rising in
mountain ranges of Othiys and Oeta the middle or at one end of them, and bounded at
4. The Basin of the northern Cephissus, which no great distance by mountains. These plains and
natural fortresses, presenting facilities for subsist- the spot where the contest between Minerva and Nep-
ence, defence, and retreat, attracted population, and tune was supposed to have taken place, the PandrO'
encouraged the forming of small independent com- seion, in honor of Pandrosos, daughter of Cecrops
munities. Such were Thebes, Argos, Messene, and On the plain below the Acropolis, the Temple ot

Corinth. Theseus, Theseion; and near it, the comparatively

Antiquities. — Some curious specimens of the co- modern arch of Hadrian, and the Temple of Jupi-
lossal architecture called Cyclopean, much more an- ter Olympius, Olympieion, b'egun by Pisistratus,

cient than the classical times of Greece, still remain and dedicated 100 years after by the Emperor
at Mycenae, Argos, Tiryns, etc. : it is rude in its Hadrian.
form and gigantic in its dimensions, and probably In the city of Athens and its suburbs, (Map 1Y,)
thework of the same people, who have left still more the most remarkable points were — the Areopagus,
numerous and striking examples of it in Italy. Of the Pnyx, v/here the assemblies of the people were

the classical age, the remains are principally temples, held, the theatre of Bacchus, the Ceramlcus, including
and the most remarkable of these are in and about the Agora or Forum, Prytaneum, the Schools, viz.,
Athens. On the Acropolis are still to be found the the Lyceum of Aristotle, the Academia of Plato,
ruins of the Propylaea, the Parthenon, Temple or the portico called Sroa UoixiXri, in Latin, Poecile,
of Minerva, that of Victory, the united Temples of where Zeno the Stoic taught, and Cynosarges, fre-

Neptune, Erechtheus, and Minerva Polias, built on quented by Antisthenes and the Cynics.


The country which we call Asia Minor was called taken by Lucullus, and birthplace of Diogenes the
by the ancients Asia simply, and has now the name Cynic
of Anatolia. Surrounded on three sides by the sea, Carambis, a promontory opposite to another in the
it has something of the character of a peninsula. It Crimea called Criumetopon, (ram's forehead,) at the
is bounded on the north by the Pontus Euxinus distance of 150 miles across the Euxine
(Euxine or Black Sea) and the Propontis on the ; HeracUa, —
surnamed Pontica to distinguish it
west by the Aegean and on the south by the Me-
; from numerous cities of similar name in the ancient
diterranean. On the east, it is separated from the world —
chief town of the Mariandyni, and said,
main continent of Asia by the river Euphrates and like the others, to have been founded by Hercules
the range of the Taurus. The mouth of the Sangarius v. Sagaris, which
Commencing in the north-east, we find the follow- rises in Mt. Dindymon
ing towns and localities of interest All these localities are in the provinces of Asia
The town Trapezus Greek settlement of
-untis, a Minor called Pontus, Paphlagonia, and Bithynia.
^reat antiquity, which, under the modern form of The other maritime provinces of the peninsula are
Trebizond, was a place of considerable note during six in number. Of these, three are on the Asiatic
the Eastern Empire shore of the Aegean, viz. 1. Mysia, including Phry-

Cerdsus, whence Lucullus transplanted the tree gia Minor and the Troad (Map 26) 2. Lydia v. ;

which bears its name in Latin (cherry) ;

Maeonia, including Ionia, which was the seaboard of
The mouth of the river Thermodon, whose basin Lydia, and thickly planted with Greek colonies ; and,
and town, Theniiscpra, were assigned as the dwelling- 3. Caria, including the district of Doris. The other
place of the fabled race of female warriors called three are on the Mediterranean. 1. Lycia ; 2 Pam-
Amazons PHYLIA, including Pisidia and Isauria; and, 3. Ci-
The river Halys, eastern boundary of the Lydian LiciA. In all these six provinces, there are lo alities
kingdom of Ci'oesus, the crossing of which proved with whose names and positions every studen< ougbt
fatal to him in his contest with Cyrus, king of to be made familiar. For example :

Persia 1. In Mysia, it is sufficient to name TiwjJA or

Sinope, on a peninsula that juts into the sea, said Ilion, situated on an eminence between the Himois
to have been as old as the Argonautic expedition, at i
and Scamander. The city was overlooked Wy Mt.
one time capital of the kingdom of Pontus, till I
Ida, and itself overlooked the plain of Trov. Here

also was the river Granlcus, on whose banks Alex- rounding the Prom. Sacrum, we 'find Mons Chi-
ander the Great gained his first victory over Darius, maera.
B. c. 324, (Map 26). 5. In Pamphylia, the only point of interest is the
Li Lydia flowed the r'lYer Hermus, famed for the
2. town Phaselis.
gold found in the sand of its channel near it was : 6. CiLiciA extends from the eastern limit of Pam-
the site of Sardis, at the foot of Mt. Tmolus, the phylia to the Sinus Issicus and Mt. Amanus, and
capital of Croesus, king of Lydia. A little way S. has the mountain chain of Taurus for its northern
of the Hermus was Smyrna, on the Meles, one of boundary. The western portion of Cilicia is rough
the cities which contended for being the birthplace and hilly, and was thence called Tracheia: the
of Homer. Among the twelve cities that formed the eastern, being more level and fertile, was called
Ionian league, besides Smyrna, were Teos, birthplace Pedias. On the coast of the latter, as we approach
of Anacreon, and Ephesus, birthplace of the weeping the river Cydnus, we pass through Soli. We then
philosopher Heraclltus, and of the painter Parrha- come by ascending which we arrive at
to the Cydnus,
sius. It was situated at the mouth of the Caystrus, Tarsus, the capital of the province, and the birth-
famed among the poets for its swans. Farther south place of St. Paul. The last town in Cilicia, situated
is Mt. Mycale, off which the Greeks gained a signal at the head of the Sinus Issicus, was Issus, (Map
victory over the Persians, the same day, it is said, on 26,) where Alexander gained his second great victory
which Mardonius was defeated at Plataeae. "We next over the Persians, and made
prisoners of war the
cross the Ilaeander, a river of great length, and so wife, mother,and infant son of Darius. In this
remarkable for its windings as to have furnished an neighborhood were also the Pylae Amamcae and
English word descriptive of a similar character in Pylae Syriae, narrow passes or gorges in Amdnus,
other streams. South of the Maeander, but still to the mountain range which runs north-east from the
be reckoned an Ionian city, was Miletus, from which bay of Issus till it joins Mt. Taurus. Fronting the
went most of the Greek colonies that fringed the bay of Issus is Cyprus, the favorite island of Yenus,
border of the Euxine Sea. It was noted also for its and hence the numerous epithets applied to the god-
wool, and was the birthplace of Thales, the earliest dess which are derived from towns and temples therein
of the Greek philosophers. — such, for example, are CyjJria, Paphia, Idalia,
3. On the coast of Caria stood Ealicaivrassus, a Amathuntia v. -thusia, and Salaminia.
city memorable as the birthplace of the great histo- The inland provinces of Asia Minor were :

rians Herodotus and Dionysius, and for the sepulchral 1. Phrygia, in the centre of which was Synndda,
monument of Mausolus, reared by his queen Artemisia. noted for its quarries of variegated marble, which
On the opposite side of the bay stood Cnidus, where was a costly article of ornamental architecture at
was a statue of Venus, reckoned the master-work of Rome. In this province, on the confines of Caria,
Praxiteles and at the entrance of this bay, mid-way
; and not far from the sources of Maeander, were also
between Halicarnassus and Cnidus, lay the island the cities of Laodicea and Colossae, the seats> of early
Cos, birthplace of the famous physician and medical Christian churches, and Celaenae, where mytliologi-
writer Hippocrates, and of Apelles, the most cele- cal history places the scene of the flaying of Marsyaa
brated of Grecian painters. Cos was noted also for by Apollo :

its wines, and for the manufacture of fine cloth. Off 2. Galatia V. Gallograecia, (both terms alluding
the coast of Caria is another island much larger and and settling there of a body
to the fact of the invasion
more noted than Cos, viz., Bhodos, Rhodes, in the of Gallic emigrants,) comprehended the upper por-
capital of which, of the same name, was the brazen tions of the river-basins of Halys and Sangarius,
statue of the sun, called Colossus, 70 cubits high, and the cities of Pessinus, Ancjjra, (Angora,) and
which bestrode the entrance of the harbor. Gordium. 1. The first of these towns, situated at
4. Moving eastward, along the Cariau shore, we the foot of Mt. Dindymon, was noted for the worship
enter Lycia, and pass under the wooded Cragus, one of Cybele. 2. At Ancyra, a temple was erected to
of the extremities of Mt. Taurus, and a favorite Augustus during his lifetime. 3. Gordium, before
resort of Diana. Having crossed the Xanthus, we the invasion of the Gauls, was the capital of Phry-
arrive at Patdra, the winter residence, according to gia, — ^the city of Gordius, the father of Midas, — and
the poets, of .Apollo, Delos was his favorite
as famous for the story of the Gordian knot
dwelling-place in summer. Farther east, after 3. In Cappadocia, the point of grealest interest
Is Mt. Argaeus, with 3Iazaca, the capital of the pro- branch called Amnnus to the south west, and skirts

vince, at the foot of it the course of that river, of which it alters the direc-

4. West of Cappadocia was the province of Ly- tion. Another branch of Taurus runs more directly
CAONiA, with its capital Iconium, the scene of the E., bounding to the N. the maritime provinces of
labors of St. Paul and Barnabas, as recorded in the Pamphylia and Cilicia. The northern chain connected
Acts of the Apostles : with Antitaurus, and running W. parallel with the
5. To the N. E. of Cappadocia lay Armenia Black Sea, is more broken and scattered than Taurus,
minor, in which Poinpey founded a city which he and has not therefore been distinguished by a general
called Nicop^dis, in memory of a decisive victory he appellation, but it may be traced westward in the
gained there in the Mithridatic war. successive ranges of Paryadres, Olgassys, the two
Physical Aspects. — The mountain range called Olympi and Ida. The central plateau, comprehend-
Amnnus forms the S. E. boundary of Asia Minor, ing the four inland provinces already mentioned, is

separating from Syria, in like manner as the Eu-

it distinguished by a number of lakes without issue,
phrutes and part of Mt. Taurus separate it on the most of them salt, and of rivulets that never reach
N. E. from Armenia major. The Asiatic peninsula the sea — facts which attest the general levelness of
of which we have done little more than trace the sea- the sui'face.That part of Phrygia called anciently
board of low rich land that skirts the shores of the Katakecaumene, (i. e. combusta,) abounds in appear-
Euxine, Propontis, Aegean, and Mediterranean seas ances of scorching and sterility, which Strabo con-
— exhibits a central belt of elevated land, abutting siders as indications of frequent earthquakes and
on mountain ranges, which slope downward to the volcanic eruptions.
respective seas that form its northern and southern Antiquities. —Although Asia Minor, especially the
boundary. The southern chain is so marked and coast of the Aegean, was in ancient times the seat
uninterrupted, that it was early designated by a of many noble cities, adorned with splendid monu-
general name. All ancient geographers agree in ments of art, time and barbarism have either entirely
calling it Taurus but some trace it eastward from
; destroyed even the ruins, or left them in such shape-
Cape Trogilium and Mt. BIycale on the Aegean less, and mutilated masses, as to convey
while Strabo, whose authority is high in what con- but little information. Not only are there no re-
cerns this peninsula, of which he was himself a mains of the famous Temple of Diana at Ephesus,
native, makes it commence from a precipitous and but the very site of the town is disputed. The exist-
lofty ridge which runs northward from Prom. Sacrum ence of former civilization is attested by fragments,
and Mt. Climax in Lycia. Thence making a sweep curious and interesting indeed, but not singly of im-
to the E., and taking, in one part of its course, the portance enough to be enumerated in so general an
name of Antitaurus, it proceeds in a N. E. direction outline as this.
until, as it approaches the Euphrates, it sends off the

Palaestina, Phoenicia, and Judaea, were parts point, the Hermon of Holy Writ, and the high ground
of what was, in classical times, called Syria, the tract adjoining, may be traced the sources of the three
of land which forms the eastern boundary of the principal, and indeed only rivers, the Orontes,
Mediterranean, between Asia Minor and Aegypt. Leontes, and JordCmes.
The physical characteristic of this country is an 1. The Orontes, (see Map 20,) after flowing north-
almost continuous range of mountains, stretching wards during the greater portion of its course, makes
from north to south in a direction parallel to the a bend to the west, traversing a wide valley between
eastern shore of the Mediterranean, and nowhere far Mons Pierius on the north (the termination of
distant from it. Though it assumes different local Amanus) and Mons Cassius on the south (the com-
appellations, the chain may be called by the general mencement of Libiinus). On the left bank, twenty
name of Lib'nus, (the Lebanon of Scripture,) and miles from the mouth, stood Antiocheia, long the

the liighest part of the range is where it diverges into capital of Syria, and celebrated for the luxury of ita

two branches, Zibcinus and Antilibanus. inhabitants.

To that

2. The Leontes, rising at the point of divergence proach the mouth of the Leontes, in Si don, and soon
of Lihdnus and Antilihanus, flows south through a after crossing it, in Tyros, both of which cities are in
widening basin, enclosed between these two ranges, Phoenicia. They were the earliest, most enterprising,
which, from its physical aspect, was called Goele-Syria. and wealthiest of all ancient states. Nearly on the
3. J:>rddn€S, the Jordan, springing from Mt. Her- same parallel of latitude as Sidon, but considerably tc
mon, near Faneas, afterwards Caesarea Fhilippi, the east beyond the chain of Antilibdnus, was Da-
flows almost due south, forming in its course succes- mascus. Farther south, on the coast, was the town
sively, 1. the Lake SamochonUis ; 2. the Lake Tibe- called Accho in Scripture, afterwards Ptolemais, and
rias, known also in the New Testament as '
the Sea the modern St. Jean d'Acre.
of Tiberias,' 'Galilee,' or * Gennesaret, ' on which The last memorable point in Phoenicia is Carme'
was situated the city of Tiberias -(now Tabarieh), so lus M., soon after passing which we enter Palaes-
named by Herod Antipas in honor of Tiberius Cae- TiNA, and reach the town and port of Caesarea, so
sar ; and, 3. the Lacus AsphaltUes, or Dead Sea, a named in honor of Augustus, more anciently Turria
bituminous lake without issue, in which the Jordan Stratonis, the capital of Samaria under the Romans
is lost. The banks of this lake are the lowest inha- south-eastward we find Sebaste, the old Samaria;
bited land known, being 1312 feet below the level of and returning to the coast, we pass successively
the Mediterranean. Joppa and Ascalon, places of note during the Cru-
About half-way between the head of the Dead Sea sades. The last point of classical interest near the
and the Mediterranean, on the brook Kedron, stood coast was Gaza, which had a port on the sea.
Hierosolyma, Jerusalem, (see plan Map 21,) the
metropolis of Palestine, northeast of which is Je-
richo. To the east of the Jordan, in the valley of The connection of Palestine with Sacitd History
Gerasa and PhiladelpMa. not coming within the scope of the present sketch,
the Jabbok, were
no allusion has been made to the innumerable points
Proceeding from the north along the coast, and
of interest which it presents in relation to the Scrip-
passing Berylus, (Beirut,) — a Roman colony in the tures —
a subject too important to be treated in so
reign of Augustus, — we find ourselves, as we ap- limited a space.


With regard to the vast continent of Asia, which the left side of the Araxes, and overlooked by Mt.
stretches eastward beyond that peninsular portion of Ararat on the right, was the capital Artaxdta.
it that we have been examining, it was so imperfectly 2. In Mesopotamia, whose name indicates the
known to the ancients in the brighter periods of their nature of a country formed by the alluvial deposits
literary history, that but few notices of it are re- of the two large rivers that enclose it on either side,
quisite. The great basins of the Euphrates and were Carrhae, memorable for the defeat and death
Tigris, embracing part of Armenia and of Media, of Crassus, and Nislbis, on the tributary Mygdonius,
and the whole of Mesopotamia, Assyria, Susiana, a frontier city of Imperial Rome.
and Babylonia, are important in themselves, and 3. Assyria is the left side of the Basin of the
contain points of considerable interest. Both these Tigris during the latter part of its course. On the
rivers rise in Armenia, the Euphrates in Abus, and river itself stood Ninus, Nineveh, the metropolis of
the Tigris in Niphdtes, the two eastern terminations the Assyrian Empire. The site and vicinity of this
of the range of Taurus and Antitaurus ; and after a ancient city have been the scene of recent excava-
course, the Euphrates of 1530 miles, the Tigris of tions and discoveries, which promise to throw light
1000, having
run nearly parallel to each other, upon the early records of our race. A little east-
they unite their waters and fall into the Sinus Per- ward were Gaugamela and Arbela, the scene of tho
simis. battle with Alexander which sealed the fate of Da-
1. Armenia major was chiefly composed of the rius and of the Persian monarchy.
Basin of the Araxes, a river which rises in Anti- 4. Babylonia and Chaldaea occupied the lower
taurus, a few miles from one of the sources of the part of the Basin of the Euphrates down to its junc-
Euphrates, and after joining the Cyrus, which is the and onward to its mouth in the
tion with the Tigris,
northern boundary of Armenia, they flow with united Sinus Persicus. The most noted localities were tho
stream into the Mar'e Caspium v. Hyrcdnum. On following on the Euphrates, and bisected by it,
J3ABYL0N, one of the most renowned among the cities that defeat, began the retreat of the Ten Thousand
of remote antiquity. In the latest joeriod of its an- Greeks, described by Xenophon. (Map 26.)
nals, itwas the scene of the death of Alexander the The Basin of the Choaspes, a tributary of the Eu-
Great. Farther up the river was the plain of Gunaxa, phrates, was the country called Susiana, from its
where the younger Cyrus was defeated and slain by his capital SusA, on the river itself.

brother Artaxerxes; and whence, in consequence of East of Assyria is Media.

AFRICA. -(MAP 23.)

The northern coast of Africa extends westward dicus, which prepared the way for Marius to finish
about 2000 miles, from the frontiers of Egypt to the the war and carry Jugurtha prisoner to Rome. The
Pillars of Hercules, that is, from long. 25° east, to last western division of this African coast was Mau*
6° west bounded on the north by the Mediterranean
: ritania, the kingdom of Bocchus and of Juba
on the south by the deserts of Lil)ya and Sahara, and bounded on the N. by the Mediterranean, on the W.
by the mountain range of Atlas. Mauritania Tin- by the Atlantic, and on the S. by the lofty range of
gitana stretches further to the southwest, beyond the Mt. Atlas, which protects it from the encroachments
Pillars of Hercules, to where the Atlas M. approaches of the ocean of sand that lies beyond. As we ap-
ihe Atlantic Ocean. proach the Atlantic, we come in sight of Ahjjla
As we advance westward from Alexandria, we (Rock of Ceuta) and Calpe (Rock of Gibraltar), the
arrive at Paraetonium, the frontier town of Egypt, two Pillars of Hercules, on opposite sides of the
two degrees south of which is the most famed of the Fretum Herouleum. *

oases which rise like islands, at rare intervals, out

of the ocean of arid sand that stretches across the
continent of Africa. In this oasis was the Temple The two most remarkable features of this country

of Jupiter Ammon, which Alexander the Great went are, the Great Desert, and the mountain range of

to consult. Returning to the coast, we meet with Atlas. The former, the largest continuity of barren

nothing of classical interest except the Catabathmus, surface in the known world, extends, under different
names, from the shores of the Atlantic to the banks
or great declivity, which Sallust improperly describes
RS the boundary between Egypt and Africa, till we of the Nile, interrupted only by a few oases.

reach Cyrme. In the latter days of Greece, Cyraie The mountain range of Atlas, which is the north-

was a flourishing colony, where and philosophy

art ern boundary of the desert called Sahlra or Zaara,

were cultivated but at the present day not a vestige

stretches from Fezzan to the Atlantic. It rises in

of it remains. Farther along, Berenice is mentioned successive terraces from the most northern, which
ns a town near which were the Gardens of the Hes- does not exceed 580 or 600 yards in height, to the
perides; but Yirgil places them in Mauritania. farthest south, which, if it be covered with perpetual
This brings us successively to the shallows and whirl- snow in lat. 32*^, as some travellers affirm, cannot be
pools called Syrtes, major and minor. Near the less than 11,000 feet high. The lower elevations are
Syrlis minor was the Lake Tritdnis, obscurely con- calcareous ; and among them was found the Numi-
nected with the mythological history of Minerva, who dian or Gaetulian marble, an article of luxury in
is often called Tritonia Yirgo. great request among the Romans. The successive
From this pointcommences a region of great natu- gradations are connected by transverse branches run-
ral fertility, which was long the granary' of Rome,
ning north and south, among which are plains and
and rich in historical recollections. First,we have valleys, watered by streams without issue, and con-
A*^rica propria, the proper domain of Carthago, stituting the 'Country of Dates.' Atlas extends
(Carchedon,) the great rival of Rome; and twenty- eastward from the Atlantic to the Regio Syrtica,
seven miles west, on the Bagrddas, was Utica, where forming a bulwark against the moving sands of the
the second Cato, rather than submit to Caesar, put a southern desert.
period to his life, and hence he is distinguished from The streams that descend from the northern side
Cato Major by the epithet Uticencis. In the interior of Atlas water that belt of land, from 60 to 160 milea
is Zama, where the elder Scipio defeated Hannibal. broad, which was long the granary of the Roman
We then enter Numidia, the country of Jugurtha, empire, and is now the country of Tunis, Algiers,
and the scene of the first exploits of Metellus Numi- and Morocco.

Egypt is tlie nortli-east portion of the great penin- rated into different channels, by
all of which its waters

sular Africa, situated between the

continent of found their way to the sea. Of these channels the
Tropic of Cancer (23° 30') and 31° 30' N. latitude, ancients enumerated seven the most noted are the

and between 30° and 35° E. longitude. two extreme ones, the Ostium Canopicum W. and
There is perhaps no part of the world, out of Pelusidcum E. These two diverging branches, with
Italy and Greece, to which allusion is more frequently- the sea-coast line between them, form the sides and
made by the poets and orators of antiquity than to base of the triangular space Delta, so called from its

I'Jgypt ; but no ancient writer who is not a professed resemblance to the capital form of that letter in the
geographer goes much into detail, or mentions more Greek alphabet; and by these two channels alone
than one or two of towns and localities.
its The the water of the Nile is now discharged. Twelve
eiugalar nature of the country, the immemorial exist- miles west from the Canopic embouchure was Alex-
ence of the pyramids, the dim traditions of a very andria, so named after Alexander the Great, who
remote antiquity, the absence of rain, the mighty founded it on his way back from the Oasis and Tem-
cataracts and periodical inundations of the river, ple of Jupiter Ammon — a great city in ancient
and, above all, the unexplored and, as the ancients times, as it is now under the same name. (Map 26.)
thought, inexplorable fountain-head of the Nile — all The annual overflow of the Nile, and the deposit
combined to throw a charm of sublimity and interest by this of a rich stratum of earthy matter, was the
over the whole. chief cause of the great fertility of Egypt. There
Of the towns so thickly planted on the banks of were artificial canals, sluices, and a large receptacle
the Nile, we only mention Memphis, on the left bank called Lake Moeris, for the distribution of the water.
of the Nile, with the pyramids in its immediate neigh- Arsinoe was the capital of the richest portion of
borhood. Fifteen miles farther down, the Nile sepa- Egypt, and near it was the celebrated Labyrinth.

Germanta, in the most extended sense of the (Ems,) Visurgis, (Weser,) Viadrus, (Oder,) and
terra, reached from the Alps to the North and Baltic Vistula, (Weichsel). The Alhis, (Elbe,) rising in the
Seas, and from the Rhine to the Vistula. Viewed Sudeti Montes, and receiving the Sala or Saale on
physically, this vast parallelogram may be divided the left, divided ancient Germany north of tha
into two nearly equal portions — of which the south- Danube into two nearly equal portions, east aud
ernmost comprises the great valley of the Danube, west.
and the other is watered by the rivers which flow The chief political divisions of Germania norll. of
into the northern seas. We
have spoken already of the Danube were these of the tribes adjacent to the

the tribes between the Danube and the Alps, and Danube, the principal were the Qicadi, the Ma.rco-
consider here only the other part. manni, and the Hermunduri. All these, together
Of mountains, we find, besides the Alps, the Jura, with the Suevi, (who formerly lived in the eastern
Mt. Abnoha, or the Black Forest, the Monies Sudeti, parts of Germany — in later times, in the south-west-
or Riesengebirge, and the Carpates M. From the comprised under the general name of Her-
ern,) are
Jura to the Carpathians, that is, from the Rhine miones. The Istaevones inhabited the western re-
to the sources of the Vistula, range this northern gions bordering on the Rhine, and the Ingaevones
was covered in ancient times by a vast forest, occupied the low countries from the mouth of that
under the general name of the Silva Hercynia, river to the Cimbric Chersonesus. The Lygii seem
which, according to Caesar, extended sixty days' to have been a considerable people, between the
journey in length. Its breadth was, in some parts, Viadrus and the Vistula.
nine days' journey. From its northern flanks Between the Rhine and the North Sea wc find the
Issued the waters of the Moenus (Main) and Nicer Frisii: their country was intersected Vy a canal
rNeckar), which fall into the Rhine — of the Amisia, made by Drusus, which carried a portion ol the waters
of the Rhine into the Lacus Flevo (now Zuyder the old tribes of these regions. Behind the Sicambri,
Zee). The channel of Drusus is now the Yssel. about the sources of the Visurgis, lay the Ckatli,
North-west of the Frisii were the Chauci: beyond (Hessians,) a tribe of the Hermiones.

the mouth of the Elbe were the Angli, Saxones, and Passing eastward from the valley of the Uppet
Cimhri — the two first of whom crossed over in a later Rhine, we come to the Hermunduri east of them, :

time into Britain. South of the Chauci were the on the bank of the Danube, were the Narisci, about
Angrivarii and Cherusci, who, under Arminius, Ratisbon : north-east of these, the Boii, or Boio-
overthrew Varus and his three legions in the Silva hemi, in Bohemia, whose country was seized by the
Teutohergiensis, near the sources of the Lippe and Ilarcomanni. North-east of them were the Osi,
Ems. Gothini, and Buri, in Silesia north-west of w\iom

Ascending the Rhine from the coast of the Frisii, were the Marsigni, and farther to the north-w<Jst,
we arrive at the Brucleri, on the Yssel, and the the Semnones.

Marsi, on the Lippe, The Usipetes and Tenctheri Among the Lygian tribes between the Yiadrns and
were driven across the Rhine by more powerful neigh- Vistula, we mention the Arii, Helvecones, Manimi,
bors. On the Luppia, (Lippe,) the Eura, (Ruhr,) Elisii, and Naharvali.
and Sigus, (Sieg,) lived the Sicambri. The 3Iat- On the shores of the Baltic, and to the south of it,

tiaci lay between the Sieg and the Moenus, (Main,)

we find —
Vandal tribes as the Varini, Rugii, LemO'
vii, Eeudigni, and the Langobardi.
and occupied the Mons Taunus. Southward from
hence, the district betweeu the Rhine, the Main, and The Baltic Sea was known to the Romans as Sinus
the Upper Danube, was called by the Romans Agri Coddnus, or 3Iare Suevicum. Tacitus mentions the
Decumutes, from the tithe which they had to pay to Suiones and Sitones (in Sweden and Norway). All
theRomans. In this region we find afterward the the country east of the Vistula was comprised under
Alemanni, which was probably ouly a new league of the name of SarmcUia.
7^ abbreviation F. i'« %tied for Fluvius — or Ins. /or Insula — M. for Mons — P. for Portus — Pr. or Prom, /or Promontoriain
I. •

i. /or Binus — n. for Near — r. for Ruins — G. /or Gulf — B. /or Bay — /or Formerly.

Names o/ Countries, Districts, etc., are distinguished by Capitals — Names o/ Tribes or People by an Asterisk prefixed. The ilodern
Names are in Italics. The note o/ interrogation attached to a name signifies that the site is uncertain.

The latitudes are in all cases North, unless otherwise distinguished : the longitudes, East o/ the meridian of Greenwich, excepting
inhere the letter W. (West) is attached. In the case o/ Eivers, the latitude and longitude given is that o/ the place where the lama
Happens to be written on the Map.

names; lat. LONG.

Ab.icaenura, Tripi 38°.I'
Abae, r. n. E.rarkho 38.34
Aballaba, Watch-cross... 54.57
Abassus 38.58
*Abastani 31.30
Abbaitis 39.15
Abdera, Abra ^ 36.44
Abdera 40.56
Abel-beth-maacbah,.A6i7 33.19
AbftUa, Avella 40.57
Abellinum, Avellino 40.54
Abelterium. Erra 39.3
Abia, n. Mandinia 36.58
Abila((if Lysanias),A'e6-
hij Abel, n. Es-Sook... 33.42

Abila? Yebla 32.42

Abilune 33.40
Ahnoha. 11., Black Forest 48.15
Aboccis, or Abuncis, Ip-
oamboul 22.20
Abddiacuin, Ep/uch 47.55
Abolla? Avola 36.55
Abone? Sea Mills, n.
Bristol 51.28
Aboniteichos, aft. lono-
polis, Ineboli 41.57
Abravanniis F 54.54
Abrettene 39.45
*Abrineatui 48.40
Abrostola? 39.1
Ab.«orus, or Apsorrus?
Osero 44.42
Absyriides Ins., Cherso
<k L'lasini 44.40
Abuncis, or Aboceis, Ip-
samboul 22.20
Abus M., Ak Dagh 39.30
Abus F., Hamber 53.35
ADU.-'ina, Newitadt.. 48.49
Abydos, Arabat el-Mat-
/oon 26.13
Abydos, Aidos 40.11
Abyla, Geuta 35.54
Abyla M., Fr. o/ Ceuta 35.54
Acacesium 37.23
Aoademia, Ahnlhimia... 37.59
Acalaudrus F.,(7fWaH(fro 39.53
Acalandrus P.? Salan-
drella 40.26
Acamas Prom., G. Ar-
nauti 35.7
icutupsis F. (Apsatus?)
Joruk Su 41.0
AdDracones? 35°. 8'
Addua F.. Adde 45.40
Ad Duos Pontes, Poiite-
vedra 42.24
Adeba 40.43
Adellum, Eldn 38.32
Ad Ensem, Sche<j(jia.... 43.24
Ad Fines, Finn 43.26
Ad Fines, ArUaega 45.27
Ad Fines, AvilUnio 45.4
Ad Fines? Pa>/ma(jo.... 37.49
Ad Forniiilos, Vcrloza... 45.53
Ad Gallinas (Saxa Ru-
bra), Prima Porta.... 42.1
Ad Graecos, Tojono 43.18
Ad Hereiilcm ? Sassari 40.44
AdHorrea? Naj^oide... 43.32
Adiabkne 36.45
Ad Ladios? Bunialuuka 44.46
Ad Laminas 42.2
Ad Lippos 40.39
Ad Malum? 45.34
Ad Miu-tis, Oidx 45.2
Ad Martis, Muim 42.46
Ad Matrices, ilostar 43.20
Ad Medias, Sdiiiofjf/ia... 44.34
Ad Medias (Carbantia)?
Cdliinno 45.6
Ad Medias, Sedilo 40.10
Ad Meilias, Mesa 41.23
Ad Mensiilas, Monte Al-
cino 43.5
Ad Merctiri? 35.34
Ad Mereurios? Al-Man-
aorioh 33.46
Adinedera (Madaura)?
Ai/edrah 35.30
Ad Morum, Velex Uubio 37.35
Ad Nonas, n.LayoMvrto 42.6
Ad Nonum 43.23
Ad Nonum, Annone 44.53
Ad Novas 41.29
Ad Novas, Monte Pid-
ciano 43,8
Ad Octavum, liivoli 45.4
Ad Palatium, Ala 45.48
Ad Pictas 41.46
Ad Pirum F., Oeanno... 43.45
Ad Pirum, Adehberg... 45.47
Ad Pontem 36.25
Ad Pontem, /'arurfon, »».
Neie^rk 53.3
Ad VorUuw, Empol! 43.43
Ad PubliL-unOf, L' Uopi-
tal 45.41
Ad Puiiii-uui, Santa Ma-
rindla 42.2
AdPutea? Cuenga 40.4
Ad Quercuin 45.55
Ad Quin tanas, n. Co-
lon na 41.52
Adraa (Edrei), Dran.... 32.43
Ad Radices? n. Ka-
brova 42.50
*AdramItae, Coaat of
J^dramaut 15.0
AflPtnj'ttenus Sinus.... 39.30
Aojamyttium, Adrnmyti 39.35
Adrana F., Eder 51.10
Adrana, or Adrans, St.
Oswald 46.10
Advanum, or lladranum,
Adcrno 37.38
Adranus F., Aderno 37.45
Alrapsa, or Drapsaca,
Iiidemid) 35.43
Ad Regias ? Mo/han, or
Afkan 35.15
Adrin, or Hadria, Atri... 42.34
Ad Rubras, Gahiizas Bit-
bias 37.42
Ad Rubras? Madroma.. 35.1
AdnmStum, Suaah 35.50
Agrigentuui, or Acra-
giis, Girijenti..., 37°. 16 13°.35'
Agriniuui ? 38. 48 21.29
Agrippias, or Antlie-
don? 31.27 34.25
Agrippina, or Colonia
Agiippinensis, Co-
lor/nc 50.56 6.57
Agryle(Upperand Low-
er) B. at foot of

HymettHS 37.57 23.44

Aguntum, Innichen 46.44 12.18
Agylla, aft. jCaere, Cer-
vetri 42.1 12.3
Agyrium, S. Fillppo
d'Arcjiro 37.38 14.32
Ai ?..,.'. 31.54
*Aii 10.0
Ajalon, Yalo 31.51
Alaba, or Allava? 37.27
Alabanda, Arab Hisfiar 37.36
Alahastra, or Alabas-
tron-polis? 28.21
Alabus F., Lo Cnntaro,
or ilolinello 37.15
Alaesa, or Halesa, n.
Tusa 37.57
Alaesus, or Halesus, F.,
Peltlneo 37.55
Alagonia? ^rt/-)iato 36.55
Alalcomenae (Boeotia),
SiUinari 38.22
Alalcomenae (in Ith-
aca)? 38.22
Alalia, or Aleria, Aleria 42.7
Alalis, Abu Herarah.... 35.50
Alander F 39.20
*Alani 42.0
Aliinton, Lete .. 42.50
Alatrium, or Aletiiuin,
Aiatri 41.46
AlAuna,, Kier 56.10
Alauna, Alciume, n.
Valognet 49.31
Alaunium 43.53
Alaunus F.? Ahie 55.24
Ahiunus F., Axe 50.43
Alazon F., Alnsan 41.40
Alba, Ahla 37.14
Alba? 42.50
AlbaF., Ter 42.0
Alba Fucentia, or Fu-
centis, CuHe di Albe.. 42.4
Alba Helvioruin, Apa,
or Alps 44.33
Alba Longa 41.46
Alba Pompeia, ^/6a 44.41
Albana, X'erte/u/ 42.5
Albania 41.30
AlbaDiae or Caspiae Py-
lae. Pass of Berbend 42.0
Albanus F., Saamuur.,.. 41^8
Albanus L., Lago di
Albano 41.45
AlbanusM., J/o)i<e t'auo 41.45
Albanus, or Albius M... 44.30
Albianuin, Knfstein 47.35
*Albici 43.50
Albiga, Alby 43.57
A\h\n\'ji'E.,Albeyna 42.34
Albis F., Elbe 53.20
Albium Intemelium,
Viiilimiylia 43.45
Albium Ingaunum, Al-
beiiga 44.4
Albius, or Albanus M... 44.30
Albona, ^/6o)ia 45.5
Albonica, Puerta da
Daroca „ 41.7
41bucella (Arbucale, or
Arbacala)? 41.46
Amphiareium, Mavro-
BhiUssi 380.17'
Amphicleia, or Amphi-
caea, Dhadhi 38.38
Amphilochia 39.4
Amphimalla 35.21
AmphiiKigus Prom. ? 0.
Bianco 39.21
Ampliipolis, Neokhorio 40.48
Amphissa, Snlona 38. .32
Amphitrope, Metrophta 37.47
Amphitus F 37.16
Araphrysus F 39.10
Ampsaga F., Wady el-
Kehir 36.45
Amsanctus Lacus, Le
Mofete 40.59
Amyelae 41.16
AinyclA^, Agios Kyriaki 37.2
Amyrus F 39.34
Amyrus? Kastri 39.34
Amyzon 37.34
Anabucis (or Automa-
lax?) 30.16
Anactoriun: 38.54
Anaea, Arnear 37.47
Anagnia, Anngni 41.46
Anagyrus, Vari 37.50
AnaitIca, or AciLiSENE 39.20
Analiba, Herhcmeh 39.31
Anamis F., Ibrahim 27.10
*Ananes 44.50
Anaphe I. and Town,
Anafi 36.22
Anaphlystus, Anavyso.. 37.43
Anapus F. (Acarnania) 38.35
Anapus F., Annpo, or
Fiume di Sortino 37.5
Anas F., Giuultana 38.27
Anassus F., Eevoncht... 46.0
Anastatiopolis, Dara... 37.10
Anatho, Aniicth 34.30
Anatis F. ? Wady Ooni-
er-berjh 33.10
Anaua L. (or Ascania?)
L. of Clirirdnk, or
Hndji Touz Ghieid... 37.53
Anaunium, Non 46.18
Anazarbus, Ain Zarha.. 37.18
•Ancalites 51.20
Anchcsraus M. (Lyca-
bettus), Hill of St.
George 37.59
Anchiale? Mound n.
Karaduinar 36.48
Aneliialus, AMolou 42.34
Anehisa M., j4rme?ii'a.., 37.42
Ancon Pr., G. Tchalti... 41.22
AncSna, Aiicona 43.37
Anc^ra 39.11
Ancyra, Angora 39.56
Ancyron-polis ? 29.9
Anda.hi\\s,Enki Andaval 37.56
Andaca? VuUeyof Lugh-
mnn 34.38
AxiAa,ma,,Eliniko-kastro 37.17
Andecavi, Angers 47.28
Andematunuin, Lnngres 47.51
Anderida? Pevensey.... 50.49
Anderitum, Anterrieux 44.50
*Andes, or Andecavi.., 47.30
Andes, Pietola 45.7
Andretium 43.43
Andriace, Audraki....i. 36.13
Andrius F 39.52
Andropolis 30.37
Andros, Palneopolia 37.49
Andros I., Andro 37.50
Anetno F., Lamone 44.10
Anomoreia ? 38.27
Aneinurium. Anumour.. 36.1
4.ngele? Papa Anglie-
iakl 37.68
ApSni fons, or Patavi- Aquila major, n. Te-
nae Aquae, Barjtn touan 35°.37' 5°.17'
(TMbano 45°.22' 11°.46' Aquila minor, Ca«ri7/ejo 35.45 5.21 w
Apoi^tSna? 27.5 53.2 Aquilaria, ^ictr?'/yc/( 37.4 10.58
Apji aria, Tabiin 43.55 26.14 Aquileia, Aqnihia 45.46 13.22
Appii Forum, Foro Aquileia, /lici'ga 43.41 11.29
Appio 41.28 13.1 Aquilonia, Lacedogna... 41.4 15.25
Appiola? n. Ponte delle Aquincura, or Acincum,
Stregke 41.47 12.36 Alt-Buda 47.30 19.3
Apros, or Apri, Ainad- Aquinum, Aquaria 44.16 10.44
jik 40.54 27.11 Aquinum, .^jMJiio 41.30 13.41
Aprusa F., yl»sa 44.2 12.38 «Aquitani 44.0 0.30 w
Ap.-'arus F. Aquitania.. 45.0 1.0
Jonik Su 41.0 41.46 Ar of Moab, or Rab-
-Apsilae 43.0 41.10 bath-moab (Areopo-
SApsinthii 40.50 26.30 \\s,) Eabba 31.22 35.45
Ap-us F., Ohe.r vesta 40.50 19.35 Ara Augusti, or Lugdu-
Ajita Julia, .4;;« 43.52 5.25 nensis 45.46 4.50
Aptera, Paleokastro 35.27 24.7 Ara Jani, i?!"ano 42.7 12.32
«:Apuani? 44.27 10.0 Ara Ubiorum, Godes-
Apulia 41.0 16.0 bei-g 50.40 7.9
Apuluin (CoioniaNova), Arabia 25.0 45.0
Karhhnrg 46.5 23.35 Arabia Deserta 32.0 40.0
Aqua Crabra, Marrana 41.53 12.32 Arabia Felix, Yemen.. 17.0 45.0
Aqua Viva, Majerje 46.21 16.11 Arabia Petraea 29.0 34.0
Aqua Viva, .icc^Kdi-u'a.. 42.18 12.25 Arabiae Emporium, or
Aquae, Berza-Palanka 44.27 22.30 Adane, Aden 12.46 45.8
Aquiia, Baaden 48.1 16.11 Arabicus S., or Mare
Aquae Albulae. 41.59 12.44 Rubrum, Red Sea.... 20.0 39.0
Aquae Apnllinares,-Bogr- *Arabii 36.30 66.30
ui di Stitjliano 42.11 12.1 Arabis F., Purali 25.40 66.25
Aquae Augustae, orTar- Arabissus, Howschin.... 38.7 36.42
bellioae, Dax 43.43 1.2 W Arabrica, or lerabriga,
Aquae Balissae? 45.33 17.20 Alenqner 39.2 8.56^
Aquae Bilbitanorum, Arace, Behesneh 37.40 37.57
Alhama 41.20 1.54 w Araceli, Huarte Araquil 42.53 2.5 w
Aquae Borbonis, Bour- ArachnaeusM., .4rna... 37.39 23.2
bonne-les-Bains 47.57 5.45 Arachosia 32.0 66.0
Aquae Bormonis, Bour- Arachotos, Urghundaub 32.12 66.22
bon I'Arehnnhault.... 46.36 3.2 Arachthus or Arethon
Aquae Caeretanae, Bag- F.. Arta 39.20 21.7
nidiSapo 42.4 11.59 Aracillum, ..4rarf(7/os.... 43.3 3.55 TV
Aquae Calidae, n. Ghift- Araeynthus M., Zijgoe.. 38.30 21.25
lik Khan 37.27 34.46 Arad. Tell Arad 31.19 35.9
Aquae Calidae, Hum- Aradus(Arvad),7fHf(rf/. 34.50 35.52
main Merigah 36.25 2.22 Avadus I., Maharag 26.14 50.43
Aquae Calidae, Ham- Arae Hesperi, or Solia,
mam Tunis.. 36.42
I'Eiif, n. 10.18 .S". Lnrar la Mayor... 37.24 6.2 W
Aquae Calidae, FiVAy... 46.7 3.25 Arae Mutiae, Monte
A<iuae Celeuae, Caldaa Musino 42.7 12.25
de Rey 42.34 8.38w Arae Philenorum... 30.20 18.54
Aquae Convenarura, Arae Sestianae? 0. Vil-
Baijnlres de Biyorre 43.4 0.9 lano 43.8 9.8 \r
Aquae Ferentinae, n. Araegenus, Argentan... 48.44 0.1 w
San Jiocca 41.47 12.41 Aragus F., Aragua 42.20 44.46
Aquae Flaviae, CAacc*.. 41.55 7.30 w Aram Naharaim, or
Aquae Gratianae, Ai'x.. 45.42 5.54 Padan Aram (Meso-
Aquae Mattiacae, Wies- potamia), Al Jezireh 36.0 41.0
baden 50.5 8.15 Arandi, or Aranni, Ou-
Aquae Noapolitanae, n. riqne 37.41 8.10 W
Sardara 39.37 8.47 Arane? 39.1 37.49
Aquae Neri, Nen's 46.16 2.40 Aranni, or Arandi, Ou-
Aquae Nisineii, Bour- riqne 37.41 8.10 W
bon I' And 46.37 3.46 Arapben, Rafina 38.1 24.0
Aquae Originis? 42.10 8.27 w Arar, or Sauconna F.,
Aquae Passeris, Ba- Sa6ne 46.20 4.50
cucco....._ 42.27 12.3 Ararat M., Agridagh... 39.41 44.16
Aquae Pisanae, Bagni Ararus F. ? (Alutas),
di Pisa 43.46 10.26 Aluta 44.30 24.15
Aquae Populoniae 42.58 10.38 Ararus F.? Sereth 46 30 26.50
Aquae Querquennae?... 42.12 8.12 w Arasaxa, Seresek 38.42 35.40
Aquae Segeste, Fer- Arauraca 39.55 39.35
Hires 48.2 2.35 Arauris F., Herault 43.40 3.30
Aquae Segete? 45.25 4.18 Arausio, Orange 44.8 4.49
Aquae Sextiae, ^fx 43.32 5.27 »Aravisei 47.30 17.30
Aquae Statiellae. Acqiti 44.40 8.27 Araxa, Oven 36.45 29.25
Aquae Solis, i?«^A 51.23 2.21 w Araxkne 39.15 45.0
Aquae Tacapitanae, El- Arasos F., Aras 39.15 47.10
Hammat-el-Khabs 33.50 9.45 Araxes F., Bendamir... 29.40 53.0
Aquae Veti.!oniae, Fe- Arn.\es F. (of Xeno-
tnlla 43.6 10.33 pbon). Khabour 35.17 40.40
Aquae Voctoiai, Caldaa Araxus Prom., C. Kalo-
In. GeroiAi) 41.53 2.51 gria 38.13 21.22
/Irgida? 39°.48'
/Vrgilas 40.45
Arginusae Ins 39.0
Arj;itliea, Knisovo 39.25
Jriulan 32.54
Argolicus S., G. of
Naiiplia 37.20
ArgOlis 37.40
Argos, Argos 37.38
Arsos Amphilochicum,
Neokhori 38.55
Argos Oresticum ? 40.33
Argyra 38.18
*Argj'rini 40.7
Argyrippa,or Arpi,.4rpa 41.31
AuiA 35.0
AniACA, Concan 18.0
Ariana 32.30
Ariaspae? 31.0
Ariassus 36.55
Aricia, Lariccia 41.43
Ariconium, Weston, n.
Rons 61.55
Ar'gaeum? Nuwut/ee, or
N<io<jhi 34.47
*Arii, or Ilarii 51.0
Ariiuathaea? Ramlek... 31.55
Ariinazes (Rock of) ?
Kuhectnn, n. Derbend 38.59
Ariiiunura, Rimini 44.4
Ariininus F., Jhirecchia 44.0
Arindela, Ghurtmdel.... 30.47
Ariiilica? Arc-soiia-
Cicon 47.3
Ariolica, beticeen Roure
and La Cartelas, n.
St. Jtwt en Chevalet... 45.54
Arisbe 40.10
Aristera 1 37.26
Aristonautae, Ji. A''amari 38.5
Aritium Practorium,
Beiievente S2.58
Arlape, or Arelate?
Muelk 48.13
Arinauria, Tajiadevi, or
Amavir 40.6
Arinaxa, Pallass 39.0
Arme ne, Aitaschin 41.12
Armenia 40.0
Akme.nia Minor 40.0
Arineniae Pylae, Ger-
fjen KnUth-si 37.58
Annenium, Mngula 39.27
Arminia F., Fiore 42.25
Armorica 48.20
Armutria, Motru 44.32
Ariia, Civttella d'Arno.. 43.8
Arnae 40.27
Arne (Cierium), Mata-
ranga 39.23
Arnon (Kiver), Wady
Mojih 31.29
Armis F., Arno 43.40
Aro F., Aione 42.0
Aioanius M., KheJmos.. 37.58
Aroanius, or Olbius, F.. 37.57
Aroanius F 37.54
Aroanius F., Katzana... 37.52
Arooha F., Croechio 39.0
Aroer, Arnrah 31.13
Aroer, Ara'ir 31.29
Aroer, Aireh 32.1
Aroniata Prom. (Notu
Keras?) C.Gerdafoon
(Guarda/ni) 11.41
ArSsis, or Oroatis F.
(Zarotis), Tab 30.20
Arpi.or .Argyrippa.^c^jrt 41. ."^.1

Ariiiiuuii, Arpino 41.39

Arrabii? Kormoiid 47.0
Arrabo F., Raab 47.18
A-rtaVou*, Raab 47.41
Astbra, Ton-e di Astura 41°. 23'
Astura F., Coiica 41.30
Astura F., Jilsla 41.46
»Astures 43.0
Asturico, Augusta, As-
torga 42.28
Astycus F., Vravnitzn... 41.40
Astypalaea I., Astropa-
laea, or Stnmpalia..., 36.35
Astypalaea Pr 37.43
Astyra 40.1
Astyra? 39.36
Atabyris M., Atairo, or
Attayard 36.12
Atabyrium, or Itaby-
rium (Mt. Tabor),
Jchel et-Toor 32.42
•Atacini 43.0
Atagis F., Eisnch 46.47
Atalante I., Talaiita.... 38.39
Atarbechis? 30.21
Atarneus, Dikili Keiii.. 39.4
Ataroth, Atara 32.1
Atax F., Aude 43.14
Atella, S. Maria di
Atella 40.58
Aternum, Pescara 42.27
Aternus F., Pescara 42.14
Ateste, Este 45.13
Athamania 39.24
Athanagia? Agramuiit., HAT
Atbenae, Athens
(Athina) 37.58
Atbenae (Pontus),^<i»ia 41.9
Atbenaeum, n. Apano
Porta 39.27
Athenaeum? 36.31
Athenas Teicbos, Psa-
tho Pyrgo 38.19
Athenopolis? Napoxde.. 43.32
Athesis F., Adige 45.15
Athinonum, Jlanisi 38.4
Athos M., Agion Oros,
or Moute Santo 40.10
Atbribis, Tell Atrib 30.30
Athyras F 11.0
Atiliana, Calzada 42.22
Atina, Atena 40.27
Atintania 40.15
Atlanticum, Externum,
or Magnum Mare, or
Oceanus Hesperius,
Atlantic Ocean 40.0
Atlas Minor? 0. Blanco
(North) 33.9
Atlas Mons, or Dyrin,
Mt. Atlas 31.20
Atrax, Sidhiro-j)eUko...39.39
»Atrebates 50.20
«Atrebatii 51.30
Atria, or Hadria, Adria 45.3
Atropatene, or Media
Minor 37.0
»Attacotti 56.10.
Attacum, Atecn 41.24
Attaleia, Adala 38.36
Attaleia, Adalia 31.53
Attea, Ayasma 39.13
Attegua, reftn 37.6
Attelebusa I., Raschat
Ada 36.47
Attene 25.0
Atteva, or Attoba, Oshe,
or Doshi 20.30
Attica 38.0
Attoba, or Atteva, Oshe,
or Doshi 20.30
Aturia 36.30
Aturia F.? Oria 43.10
llturis F., Adonr 43.44
tudum Pr. ? C. Carbon,
or Mas Metxukoub 36.46
Baetis F,, Gnadalqmvir 38°.0'
Eaetulo, Castle of Mon-
gat 41.30
Baetulo F., Bcsos 41.30
Baktuhia 38.40
Bagacuiu, Bnvay 50.18
Bngis. or Bage, Sirghie 39.34
Bagisara ? Ras Aruhah 25.14
Bagislana, Baghlatan,
cr Besitun 34.16
Bagrada, or Bagradas
F. (Macaras), JSfeJer-
dah 36.22
Bagradas P., Nahon 27.45
Baguauandene 39.45
Baiae, Boiae. 40.49
Baiae, Bnyas 36.45
*Baiocasses 49.10
Balanea, Baneas 35.11
Balbura, Katara 36.56
Baleares Insulae, or
Gyninesiae, 2Iajorca,
<KT 37.30
Balearicum Mare 40.0
Balearis Major, or Co-
Xnmha,, Majorca 39.30
Balearis Minor, or Nura,
Minorca 40.0
Baletium, or Valetium.. 40.33
Baloinus, Raa Shemaul
Bunder 25.12
Balsa, Tavira 37.7
Balsio, Borja 41.55
BalyraF., J/rtt)rozi«»ioHo 37.15
Balzanuin, Botzen 46.31
Bambyoe, or Hierapo-
lis, MembidJ, or Bam-
houj 36.32
Bannsa (Valentia)? Ma-
mora 34.16
Bandusiae Fons, Fon-
tana Grande 40.52
Bantia, Banzi 40.50
Bajihyras F 40.8
Barace I., Peninsula of
Ciitch 23.0
Barbalissus, Kalaat
Balis 35.59
Barbana F., Mnratska... 42.30
Barbaria, or AzANiA,
Ajan 5.0
Barbariilna, S. 3/urtin
de Berberanii 42.12
BarbarTous S., or Mare
Azanium 0.0
Barbarium Prom., G.
Espichel 38.24
Barbesula F., Guadiaro 36.30
Barbesuia, r. on li,
Guadiaro 36.18
Barbosthencs M 37.2
Barbyse.s F 41.10
Barca, Kl- Medinah 32.31
Barcino, Barcelona 41.22
Barderate, Bra 44.42
Barduli, Barletia 41.19
Barca, Vera 37.13
Bargasa? Port Giova... 37.3
Bargyiia 37.12
Bargylietcs S., orlasius,
G. of Mendelyah 37.15
Bargylus Mons, Jehel
Ntisairiyeh 35.15
Baris? Isbarta 37.46
Baris, or Veretum, S.
Maria di Vereto 39.52
Barium, Bari 41.8
Barna? Gwadel 25.10
Barygaza, Baroche 21.42
Barygazenus S., <?. of
Camhaij 21.0
Barza, Berozeh 36.1
Barzalo, Geryer 37.58

Pibrax? lilevie 49°.32'

• Bibroci 51.20
i;i(la, BUda 36.29
Jiiilaiuni, AUennuirlct... 48.0
Uidis ? S. Giovanni di
Bibino 37.5
Pienna, or Biennus,
Vianos 35.3
Bienum 35.16
*Bigerriones 43.10
Bigestae, Gabella 43.5
WWhlWi, GcdotayiidVieja 41.25
Bilecha F., Belik 36.20
Bilitlo, Bellhizona 46.13
Billaeus F., Filiyas 41.7
Bingiurn, Biiiyen 49.57
Biuia? Porto Pino 38.57
Biroe 44.52
Birtha, Birehjik 37.2
Birtha? Tekreet 34.36
BiSAi.TiA 40.50
Bisanthe, aft. Rhaedes-
tus, Modnsto 40.59
Biscargis, Berrus 41.18
Bisto'nis Lacus, L. Bou-
rou , 41.4
BiTHYNIA 41.20
Bithyniuin, aft. Claudio-
polis? Boli 40.42
Bitter Lake 30.17
Biturgia, on Biver Am-
hra 43..32
Bituriges, Bouiges 47.5
*^Bituriges-Cubi 47.0
*Bituriges-Vivisei 45.0
Bizya, Viza 41.36
Black Mountains, Jehel
Sondan 29.0
Black Mountains 29.0
Blaexe? 41.20
Blanda, Blanes 41.40
Blanda, Maratea 39.56
Blamliana 45.56
Blandona? Vrana 43.58
Blandus 39.24
Blariacuin, Blerick 51.21
Blatum Bulgium, Mid-
dlehy 55.5
"BUuAmsI Bolat 39.33
Blaundus, Suleimanhj... 38.24
Blavia, B/nye 45.7
Blendiuni ? Suntander.. 43.10
Blera, Bieda 42.18
Blestium, Monmouth 51.49
Bletisa,Ledesma 41.17
Boactes F., Vara 44.12
Boiigrius F 38.45
B.-aria, Toro 38.52
Bocanum? Morocco 31.40
Boderia (or Bodotria),
Aestuarium, Firth of
Forth 56.0
*B()<liontici 44.10
Bodotria (or Boderia),
Aest., Firth of Forth 56.0
Boeae? ."
BoEATicE 36.30
Boeaticus S., Vatika
Bay 36.30
Boebe.. .. 39.29
Boebeis L., Karla 39.30
BoEOTiA 38.20
*Boii 44.20
«Boii 46.40
*"Boii, aft. Marcomanni 49.30
Boii, Bouges 44.35
Boiodurum, Innstadt.... 48. .34
BoiOHE.MOM, Bohemia... 49.40
Boium, r. n. Mario-
lato 38.39
Bola, P„1I 41.53
Bolax, Volnntzn 37.38
Bclbe L., iJesiXria 40.40
Burrium (Bullaeum?),
Usk 51°.42' 2°.53'w
BurtuJizus? E>iki Buba 41.30
Basiris, Ahnusir 29.54
Busiris (Delta), Abou-
sir 30.56
Buthrotum, »i. Biitrinto 40.44
Buthrotus F., Novito... 38.18
Buto? 30.54
Butrium? 44.29
Butua, ludtia 42.14
Butuntutu, i?i7oH^o 41.7
Buxentum, or Pyxus,
Policasfro 40.1
Biizaras M 35.30
Bylazora, Vele«a, or
Velosgo 41.35
Byllis ? Grudista, or
^Graditza 40. .33
Byrsa 36.52
Bythias 41.5
BvzACiUM 35.30
Byzantium, aft. Con-
.stantinopolis, Stnm-
boitl, or Constantino-
ple 41.1

Cabalta 37.0
Cabellio, Cavaillon 43.50
Cabillonum, Chcdons-
sur-Suone 46.47
Cabris? 25.25
Caburro, Cavor 44.47
Cabusa ? 30.40
Cabyle, or Calybe ? Kar-
nabnt 42.40
Cacbales F 38.35
Cacyparis F., Cassibili.. 36.58
Cacyriisn, Casnaro 37.5
Cadi, Ghediz 39.5
Cadmus M., Baba
DiHjh 37.40
•C.-idurei 44.27
*Cadusii 37.10
Cadyanda? 36.43
Caecina F., Cecinn 43.22
Caecinum, Satn'ano 38.43
Caecinus F., Anpinale... 38.44
Caena? Nunte Allegro.. 37.22
Caeiiae? 35.25
Caenepolis, or Taena-
ruin, Kiipnriso 36.27
Caenina, Ciano 42.2
Caonopoli.'i, Beneyhdem.. 32.41
Caenys Prom., Punta
del Pezzo 38.41
Caopionis Turris, Chi-
piona 36.40
Caere, for. Agylla,
Cervctri \ 42.1
Caeretfinus, Vaccina..,. 42.2
Caesar's Bridge 50.25
Cae.-ar's AVall 46.10
Ciiesarauirusta, for. Sal-
duba, Sarw/onsa 41.46
Caesarea I., jeriey 49.14
Cacsarea, for. lol, Sher-
ehell 36.37
Caesarea, for. Mazaca,
Knixariyeh 38.43
Caesarea-Philippi, or
Pnneas, Banins 33.16
Caesarea, or Tingis,
T<nif/ier 35.47
Caosarea (for. Turris
Stratonis), Kaisari-
yeh.. 32.32
Caesariana, Nogy Var-
•niij/ 46.59
Caes.iriaiia, Cusahxirn.. 40.12
"nosaroduMum, aft. Tu-
rones, T^ht$ , 47.23
HAurn. LAT. LOSfl.
Can5bus, or Canopus?
r. n. Aloukir 31°.22'
Canonium, n. Kelwdon 61.50
OanopicMouth (of Nile),
Madieh Mouth 31.21
*CantabrL 43.15
Cantanus, r. n. Kha-
dros 35.15
Cantharium Prom., C.
Katnhatis 37.44
Canthi S., G. of Cutch.. 22.30
*Cantii 51.10
Cantilia, Chnntelle 46.15
Cantium, Kent 51.10
Cantium Prom., North
Forehnid 51.23
Canusiutn, Canoaa 41.12
Capara, Ventas de Ca-
p<aia 40.10
Caparcotia, Kefr Rood 32.27
Capena, Ma'rfhw
,S'. 42.12
Capenas F. Grammi-.'

chia 42.13
CapernaunJ ? Khan Min-
yeh 32.54
Caphar-digon, Beit-
dejan 32.0
Caphareas Prom., C.
Doro, or Xylnfngo.... 38.9
Capharsaba (Antipa-
tris), Kefr Saba 32.13
Caphyae 39.45
Capidava? 44.24
Capitium, Capizzi 37.49
Capitolias ? 32.44
Capitoniana? Ghiesa di
Gapella 37.24
Capitulum, II Piglio.... 41.49
Cappadocia 38.20
Cappadox F. ? Kalichi-
«« 39.20
Capraria (or Casperia)
I.? Forfavenfura 28.30
Capraria I.? Gomera.... 28.10
Capraria, or Aegilon I.,
Cuprnja 43.2
Capraria I., Cabrera. ... 39.5
Cnprasia, Tnrsia 39.35
Capreae. Capri 40.33
Caprus F., Little Zab.... 35.30
Caprus I., Kafkana, or
Liblada 40.37
Capsa, Ghafsah 34.15
Capua, Santa Maria di
Capua 41.6
Caput Anac, Osa la
Montiel 39.0
Caput Thyrsi, Oriine... 40.19
Caput Vada (or Bra-
ehodes Pr.), G. Ka-
poitdiah 35.10
Caput Vada, r. on C.
Kapoudlah 35.10
*Carncates 49.45
*Caraceni 41.45
Carae, Cariaena 41.25
Caralis, OaglSnri , 39.13
Caralitfinuiu Pr.(Pliny),
C. Corbnnnra 39.6
Caralitanum Pr. (Pto-
lemy), C. S. EUas.... 39.11
Caralitanus S., G. of
Cn;,Jiar{ 39.5
Caralitis L., L. of Bey-
ehehr 37.45
Caralitis L., S'lirt
Ghienl 37.5
Carallia, Kereli 37.55
Carambis Prom., C.
Kerembeh 42.1
Carana, or Theodosio-
polis, Erzeronm 39.55
Caranicum, Guitcrli 43.10
Castra Pyrrbi? Osta- Celaenae, r. 11. Dineir... 38°.3' 30°.14' 20

uiji 40°.10' 20°.51' 15 I

Celeia. Cilli 46.15 15.18 14
Castra Trajana 44.48 24.14 14 Celenderis, Chelendreh.. 36.9 33.22 20
Castriraonium,J/coino.. 41.47 12.41 11 Cele'trum, Knstnria 40.38 21.23 15
Ciistrum Cepha? Hosn Cclina? n. S. Lucia 46.1 12.32 8
Kalfa 37.43 41.6 22 Celius Mons, Kellmunz.. 48.6 10.10 25
Castrum Inui ? 41.32 12.32 11 Celonae? Siru-av 33.30 46.37 22
CastruQi Minervae, Cas- Celsa (Cobinia Victrix
tro 40.0 18.26 9 Julia), Xc/«a 41.26 0.28 w
Castriitn Novum, Torre «Geltae 47.30 2.0
di Chifiruccia 42.2 11.48 11 Celti? 37.48 5.30 w
Castrura Novum, Giulia »C«ltiberi 41.0 1.35 w
uoca 42.45 13.58 8 ®Ceitiei 37.45 6.0 w
Castrum Truentinum, Celticum Prom.? G.
Porto d'AscoU 42.55 13.53 8 Finixterre 42.53 9.15 w
Castulo, Onzlona 38.1 3.45 W 7 Cenaeum Prom., C.
Casuaria, Cesan'eux 45.47 6.14 6 Lithnd'i 38 49 22.49
Casuentus F.,i?f(»i'e»fo.. 40.34 16.20 9 Cenchroae (Ar2:eia),Pa-
Casystes? Port Latzata, lea Sknfidhaki 37.34 22.36
or Eijrylar 38.15 26.25 19 Conehreae (Corinthia),
Catabathmus Major, Kekhries 37.52 23.0
Ahtboh el-Kehir 31.30 25.0 23 Ceneta, Ceiieda 45.58 12.20
Catabathmus Minor, «Cenimagni 52.18 1.0
Aknbiih es-Soughair.. 31.0 27.45 23 Cenion F. ? Falmouth
CATACECAUMEyE 38.35 28.50 20 Bmj 50.10
Cataoa I., Keish, or Ceno, Rudera 41.26
Kenii 26.32 54.0 3 Cenomani, Le Mans 48.0
*Catabiuni 48.50 4..''.0 6 •Ceno man i 45.25
Cataonia 38.0 30.30 20 Centrltes F., Bohtan
Cataract (of Nile), Tchai 38.0
Greater, Wndi/ Haifa 21.58 31.10 3 *Centrones 45.24
Cararact (of Nile), Centum-cellae, Civita
Little 24.0 32.55 3 Vecchia 42
Cataractonium, Catte- Centuripae (or Centu-
rick Bridge 54.23 1.38 w 5 ripa), Ceiitorbi 37.35
Catarrhactes F., Sud- Ceos, or Cea, I., Zea.... 37.35
sitro, or Ziizzura 35.2 25.20 19 Cepnsiae, Spresiano 45.46
Cathaei 30.30 74.0 3 Ceperaria, Kefr Urieh.. 31.46
Calina, or Catana, Ca- Ceplialae Prom., Mas
t<n,ia 37.27 15.3 12 Misratah 32.26
Catobriga, or CaetCbrix, Cephallenia I., Cepha-
^etiibal 38.30 8.54 w 7 lonia 38.15
*Catti, or Chatti 50.45 10.0 25 Cephaloedium, Cefnlu... 38.0
*Cattigara? Cantoit 23.10 113.15 2 Cepheisia, or Cephisia,
Caturiges, jBar-/e-X'((c... 4S.45 5.10 6 Kivisia 38.6
*Caiuiiges 44.40 6.20 6 Cephi.'si.s, or Copais L.,
Catusiacum, Chaours.... 49.42 4.0 6 L. Topolias 38.25
®Catyeuchlani 52.0 0.35 w 5 Cephissus F. (Argolis).. 37.44
Cauca, Coca 41.14 4.28 w 7 Cephissus F. (Attica)... 38.3
Caucana? Porto Lonijo- Cephissus F. (Attica),
bardo 36.46 14.34 12 Sarfiiidiiforo 38.9
Caucasa Prom.? C. Cephissus F. (Boeotia).. 38.30
Aminta 38.16 25.53 19 Cerami'^cus, or Doris
Caucasiae Pylae, Past S., G. of Kos 86.55
of Dariel 42.44 44.41 22 Ceramus? Keramo 37.2
Caucasus M 42.30 45.0 22 Cerasus 41.4
*Gauci, or Chauci 53.20 9.0 25 Cerata M., Kerata 38.3
*Cau tones 41.25 32.0 20 »Ceraunii 40.10
Caudium ? 41.3 14.34 13 Cerausius M., Tetrazi... 37.22
Caulon? 38.27 16.30 9 Cerbalus F., Cervaro.... 41.20
Caunus? 36.50 28.40 19 Cercas 38.23
Caus? Sarinena 41.46 0.9 W 7 Cercasora, El-Arhas.... 30.5
Cans 37.43 22.0 18 Cercetium M., Khnnsia 39.30
Causennae, Ancaster.... 53.0 0.31 w 5 Ceroidius F. ? Fiume di
«Cavares 44.30 4.50 6 Porto 42.15
Caviclum, yl/»ii(Hecar... 36.45 3.46 w 7 Cercina I. (Cyraunis?),
Caystri Pedion? 3S.4O 31.2 20 Ramhih 34.45
Caystrus F., Kuchouk Cercitittis, or Prasias,
Mendere..... 38.8 28.0 19 L., Tokhyno 40.55
Cea, or Ceos, I., Zea.... 37.35 24.20 19 Cercinitis L, Gherbah... 34.38
Ceba, Ceva 44.14 8.1 8 Cerdylium M 40.48
Cebrene, r. n. Bara- Ceres, Temple of 37.35
mitsch 39.49 23.41 19 Ceresius L., Luijo di
Cebrus, or Ciambrus F., Liif/ano 45.58
Zibru, or Zibritza 43.30 23.25 14 Ceressus, Paleopana-
Cebrus, or Cibrus, Zibru ghia 38.12
Palaiika 43.47 2-3.30 14 Ceretapa? Chardnk 37.51
Cecandros I., Buaheab.. 26.48 53.20 3 Cerfennia, Coll'Armeno 42.4
Cecilionieum? 40.38 5.57 W 7 Cerillae, Girella 39.38
Cecryphaleia I., Kyra.. 37.42 23.16 18 Ccrinthus .38.49
Codris F., Cedrino 40.18 9.30 9 Cerne? Argnin 20.30
Cel:.,iuoSueI"., J/e/nrfa, Ceronia, Kyrenia 35.21
&e 44.15 14.50 14 1
*Cerretani 42.15

Charadrus F. (Messe-
nia) 37°.15'
Charax (Kir of Moab),
Kerak 31.15
Charax-spasiui? Mo-
kammerah 30.23
Cbarideiui Prom., C. de
Gala 36.43
Charmande? 33.29
Ch.arybdis 38.11
*Cha.suarii 51.30
*Chatranjotitae, Coast
of Hadramaut 16.0
«Chatti, or Catti 50.45
*Chauci, or Cauei 53.20
Chebar F. (or Chabo-
ra.s), Khahour 36.30
Clieiinarrhus F 37.35
Clieimeriuin Prom., C.
Varlam 39.2C
Chelidoniae 1*°., Cele-
don or Shelidai
, 36.9
Cbelouates Prom., C.
Toriie^e 37.54
Chelydoria M., JIavron
Oros 38.2
Chemmis, Ekhmitn 20.32
Chersonesns, Capo Teu-
kidn 38.52
Chersonesus, Kheraone-
«o» ....._. 35.17
Jutland 57.0
Chersonesus Magna,

Baa et-Ti/n 32.35
Chersonesus Pr. (Aeto-
lia), Point Bakari.... .38.17
Chersonesus Pr. (Creta),
G. Keronisi 35.27
Chersonesus Pr. (Eu-
boea), C. Oktrntia 38.31
Chersonesos Rhodio-
RDM ...^ 36.40
Chersonksus (Thra-
cica) 40.20
• Cherusci 51.30
Chimaera, Kiniera 40.4
Chiuiaera JI., Yanar... 36.26
Chinalaph F., ShcUlf... 35.52
Chios, Kastro, or Khio.. 38.22
Chios I., Khio, or Scio.. 38.25
Chliat? AkJilat 38.46
Chdiispes F. (Ariaua),
River 0/ Ghlznee 34.O
Choaspes F. (Susiana),
Kerkhah 33.0
Choatras M 37.30
Choba? Boujayah, or
Bougie 36.46
Chobus, or Cobibus F.,
Chopias 42.20
Choerades 1^°., S. Pietro
e S. Paulo 40.26
Choerius F 36.57
Choes F.? Aliahiiuf/ 35.IO
Cholle? Ain el-Koom... 35.10
ChoUidae, Grotto of the
Nijmphs, n. Vari 37.52
Choma? 36.34
*Chorasmii 42.0
Chorazin, Gerazi 32.57
Chorienes, Furtress of?
Hiasar, or Shad man.. 38.10
Ch orsa, A'ars 40.37
Chorseus F., ^ohr Ko-
radje, or El-Belka.... 32.40
Chorze.ve 40.30
Chr.vsa I.. Gardero
Chrysas F., Dittaino....
Chryse 39.35
Chryse, or Sminthium.. 39.38
Cbrysoceras 41.1
Clirysopplis, Scalari.... 4I.O

C'ocassus, or Cucusus,
Qogsyn 38°.7'
Cocytus F., Vuvo 39.17
Codanus S., Kattegat.... 67.0
Coela 38.35
Coele-Syria, El-Bu-
kan, &c 34.15
Coelia, Cegiie 41.4
Coeliiinuin, Stigliano ... 40.25
Coeliuii), CegH'e 40.39
Coenyra? Kynira 40.50
Coequosa, Caussiqite 43.59
Coeu.s F. (Balyra), il/f(i>-

yozniiioiio 37.15
Cogamus F 38.28
Cohilius. or Chobus, F., 42.15
Coiflza(Cyiza), Chouhnr 25.16
Colania, Lanark 55.41
«Colchi 40.50
Colchis 42.0
Coliacum Prom
Colchicus S
Colias Pr., Trixpyrgi.... 37.56
CoUatia, OuUalina 41.46
Collatia? Castel del
'Oxa 41.54
CoUops Magnus, or
Cullu, Collo 37.0
CoUops Parvus, or Sul-
luou, Tiigodcite. 30.59
Coldliona. Tnihejena.... 36.50
Colonia, Kuhh Hhsar... 40.9
Colonia, or Camulodu-
nuni, Colchester 51.53
Colonia Agrippinensis,
or Agrippina, Cologne 50.56
Colonia Equestris, or
Noviodunum, Nyon... 46.23
Colonia Trajana, Kelln 51.48
Colnniilcs? Kastelia 30.50
Colonis I.? Spezzia
Pnln 37.13
Colonos 38.0
Cdi.oi'icNE 39.46
Colophon 38.2
Colossae, r. n. Khoiios... 37.50
Colta? 25.13
Coluhraria, or Opbiiisa
I.. Columbretcs 39.54
Colubraria I. (Ophiusa
of Strabo), Forinen-
tera 38.42
Cohnnba I., or Balearis
Major, M'ljorcn 39.30
Columbaria I., Pnhna-
joln 42.42
Columbarium Prom.,
Cnpo Fignri 40.59
Columna, in Cafoun.... 38.11
Colyergia Prom.? 37.24
Comana (Cappadocia)?
Al-Rostan 38.6
Comana Pontica, Gu-
menek 40.19
Comaria (Town and
Prom.), C. Gnmorin... 8.4
Coniarus Portus, Go-
maro 39.0
Conibaristum, CombrS... 47.46
Conibreia 40.16
C<)ml)retonium, Burgh.. 52.8
Comidava? n. Ni/amtz.. 47.10
Cominium Ceritum, Cer-
refo 41.16
Compitum Annu'ninum,
Oxterindelln Foiitrina 41.45
Cnmplutica? Triiiidade 41.19
Complutum, AlcaUi de
Ifeii'uei... 40.27
Comp.sa, Coiiza 40.52
Uomum, or Novum Co-
mum, Conw 45.48
(o8s», or Cosa (Etru- Crocodllos ? Lahm-el-
ria), Anxedonia 42°.13' 11°.19' Himnr 30°.35' 19°.54'
Cossa (Lucania), Civitd, Crocolanum, Brough, n.
n. Oassano 39.46
- 16.18 Newark , 53.7 0.45 w
*Cossaei 33.30 49.20 Crocylea I.? Arkudi.... 38.33 20.43
Cossio, Bazaa... 44.27 0.12w Cromi, Samara 37.19 22.8
Cossyra I., Pantella- Crommyon, St. Theo-
r!a 36.47 12.0 dora 37.55 23.9
Cote.s, orArapelusia Pr., Crommyon Prom., C.
C.Spartel 35.47 5.56 w Kormakiti 35.25 32.56
Cothon 36.51 10.18 Cromna 41.50 32.42
Cotilius M., Zakkuka.... 37.28 21.54 Crotalus F., Corace 39.0 16.30
Cottiae, Oozzo 45.12 8.36 Croton, Cotrone 39.8 17.10
Cottiara, Cochin 9.58 76.19 Cruni, or DionysopClis,
Cottiaris F.? St-Kinng 24.0 110.0 BaJjik 43.25 28.11
Cotyaeum, Kntayah 39.24 30.14 Crustumerium, Monte
Cotylaeum M., Koly- Rotondo 42.5 12..37
I'aion 38.26 2.3.50 Crustumius F., Conea... 44.0 12.43
Cotyora, Ordoii 40.56 37.52 Crya 36.42 28.55
Cragus M. (Cilicia) 36.10 32.30 CtesTphon, Tank Kes-
Cra^us M. (Lycia) 36.23 29.12 rah 3.3.4 44.40
Crambu.sa I. (Cilicia) ? Ctimene ? 39.6 22.4
Pfxpndou/a 36.7 33.35 Cuarius F., Kholo 39.15 22.45
Crambusa I. (Lycia), Cuarius F., So/adhi-
Oarabusa 36.14 30.31 tiko 39.12 22.2
Cranae I., Maratho- Cuecium, Scharengrad.. 45.15 19.15
ni8i 36.44 22.35 Cuefilura, Cncullo 42.3 13.44
Cranae, Maoris, or He- Cucusus, or Cocussus,
lene I., Mnkronisi.... 37.41 24.7 Gogsyn 38.7 36.15
Craneia 39.17 21.10 Cularo, aft. Gratiano-
Cranii, Krania, n. Ar- pfilis, Grenoble 4.5.11 5.43
gostoli 38.9 20.30 *Culicones 46.10 9.30
Cranon, or Crannon, CuUu, or Collops Mag-
Paha Larissa, n. nus, Collo 37.0 6.34
Hadjilnr 39.29 22.17 Cumae, Cuma 40.51 14.3
Crassum Proin.? Capo Cumaeus S., B. of Fog-
di Pecora 39.27 8.21 gia Nova 38.46 26.53
Crastus? 37.40 13.21 Cumanus, Campanus, or
Cratas Mons 37.45 13.15 Puteolanus S., B. of
Crater, or Catupanus S., Naples 40.40 14.10
B. of Naples 40.40 14.10 Cume 38.45 26.57
Crathis F., Ahrata 38.4 22.15 Cumerium Pr., Jlonte
Crathis F., Ctati 39.30 16.14 Camera 43.38 13.31
Crathis M 37.57 22.15 Cunaxa? 33.22 43.48
Gratia, aft. Flaviopolis, Cunetio, 3/ildenhall 51.26 1.41 w
Keredi 40.43 32.20 CuNEUS, Algarve 37.15 8.30 w
Crauni Prom 36.7 33.36 Cuneus Aureus, Splti-
Creniera F., Formello.... Al.b 12.21 gen 46.33 9.17
Cremna, 6'imeA 37.32 30.48 Cuneus Prom., G. St.
Cretiiona, Cremona 45.8 10.2 Mary 36.57 7.60 w
Crenie, Armi/ro 38.54 21.10 Cunici? Alciidia 39.50 3.9
Creiiides, aft. Philippi, Cuniculariae P"., Santa
Fillhi 41.4 24.22 3faria, RassoU, dec... 41.18 9.22
Crepsa? Cherno 44.58 14.24 Cnnicularium Pr., Capo
Creta I., Candin 35.15 25.0 di Pula 38.59
Creticum Mare 36.0 25.0 Cunistorgis, or Conis-
Cretopolis? 37.13 30.31 torsis ? Silvea
Creusa, or Creusis, r. Cnppae, Colitmhatz
on Port Livndostro... 38.12 23.7 Cupra Maritima, Grot-
Critnisa, Ciro 39.23 17.5 tamare
Crimisa F., Fiiinienica.. 39.26 17.0 Cupra Montana? Ma-
Criraisa Prom., Capo saccio
dell' Alice 39.23 17.10 Cures, Correse
Crimlsus F. ? Bellici Curia, Borthwick
destro 37.50 13.5 Curia, Chur, or Coire...
Orissa, .fiTrmo 38.28 22.28 Curianum Pr., Pointe
Crissaeus S., B. of Sa- d'Arcachon
lonn 38.23 22.27 Curias Prom., C. Gata..
Crithote Prom 38.32 21.1 Curica ? Gala
Criu-Metopon Prom., Curicta L, Veglia
G. Krio 35.14 23.34 *Curiosolitae
Criu-Metopon Prom., Curium, r. n. Episkopi..
C. Aia 44.25 .3.3.39 Curium M
Crius F., Vloijokitiko.... 38.5 22.21 Curubis, Kurhnh
Croceae, n. Levelzova... 36.52 22.35 Cusum, Pelericardein....
<>ocela? 2J.50 66.57 Cutiliae, Civitd Ducale..
Crociatonura ? Caren- Cutina, Aqudna
tan 49.19 1.15W Cyamon Pr., C. Melek..
Crocodile Lakes, Birket Cyamosorus F., Solso...
Temsi-h 30.33 32.8 Cyane Fons, La Pisma
Croco'lilnpolis, or Ar.<i- Cyaneae
noc. r. in Vallet/ of Cyaneao I"
f'liou't .".
29.25 31.4 CyaneuB
Deccnn 20°.0' 7S°.0' 2
Dacia 46.0 24.0 14
Darlastana 40.14 31.15 20
Paries Prom., Point
Dndes 34.52 33.39 20
Dneilala 36.45 29.2 20
Piigaseira? C. i)/»it8n... 25.37 68.14 3
Dagdu.ana, Tadvan 38.32 42.10 22
Dai.x: F., Jaik, or Ural. 51.40 55.0 2
3)alluntum, or Dilun-
tuin? 42.49 17.46 14 28.24
Dalmatia 43.30 17.0 14
Dalminium, or Delmi-
nmm? Almissa 43.26 16.43 14
I»amascus,^s^-.S'/(dm... 33.33 36.22 21
*namnii 56.0 3.43 W 5
*Daranonii 60.45 4.0 W 20
Daranonium, or Ocri-
nuin Prom., The
Lizard 49.58 5.11 W 6
Damtiras, or Tamyras,
F., Nahr cd-Damour 33.41 35.30 21
Dan, or Laish, Fell el-
Kndy 33.17 35.38 21
Daiiaitris, or Tyras, F.,
Dniester 48.0 28.40 14
Panubius, or Ister, F,,
Dottati, or Danube.... 46.30 19.0 14
Panum, Doncaster 53.31 1.7 W 5
Paphne, Beit el-Ma 36.9 36.7 20
Daphne (Tahpanes, or
Hanes), Tell Defen.
ueh 30.52 32.3 24
Paphnus.. 38.44 22.51 16
Daphnus? 38.23 26.57 19
Daradax F., Abu Ghal-
gal 36.5 38.4 20
Darantasia, Moutiers de
Tarantaise 45.29 6.32 8
Daras, or Daradus, F.?
Senegal 16.20 15.0 W 2
Pakdania 42.35 22.30 14
Pardanus 40.5 26.23 19
Pargamanes F. ? Koon-
dooz 36.0 68.55 3
Dariorigum, aft. Veneti,
Vannes 47.40 2.45 W 6
Parna? 35.7 46.26 22
Parnis, Dernah 32.47 22.41 23
Pascyirum? 40.18 28.41 19
Paulis, Bhavlia 38.30 22.44 16
Paitnia 41.30 15.45 9
Paximonitis 40.12 36.30 20
De:\,Die 44.46 6.24 6
Pead Sea (L. Asphal-
tites), Dead Sea, or
Bahr Ldt 31.30 35.30 21
Pebeltus, Zagora 42.25 27.19 14
«=Peceates 43.40 6.50 6
Peceleia, Tatoy 38.10 23.48 16
Decempagi, Bieuze 48.50 6.44 6
Decen-novius 41.26 13.3 11
Decetia, De'ci'ze 46.50 3.25 6
Deeumates Agri 48.10 9.0 25
Dclas, or Silla, F., Bi-
yalah 34.0 44.50 22
Deluos, Berkos 41.18 28.40 14
Delgovitia? JA7^'h^<o»i.. 53.57 0.45 w 5
Delium, Bhtlissi 38.19 23.40 16
Del minium, or Dalmi-
nium? Alminsa 43.26 16.43 14
Delos I. (Ortygia),
Beloa 37.23 25.17 19
Delphi (or Pytho),
Kastri .38.28 22.31 18
Delphinium, Beljino 38.29 26.9 19
Delphinium Portus?.... 38.17 23.51 16
Pki.ta, Loxoer Egypt... 31.0 31.0 24
*Demetae '.

52.0 4.0 w 5
Deiiietnas? 31.5 67.10 3
Deinetriap, Goritza 39.23 22..')9 15
I>eudrobosa? 25.14 C2.S I 3
Drymusa I., Tchttstan, 1 Ecdippa (Achzib), Ez-
or Miikronini 38°.30' 26°.44' ztb 33°.13' 35°.6'
*I)ry6pes 39.0 21.50 Echedameia 38.21 22.35
Dubis, or AMuasdubis Echelldae ? 37.57 23.38
¥., Uoubs 47.0 5.20 Echetla, Occhiala 37.12 14.33
»Dulgibini 51.55 9.30 Echidorus F., Mana, or
Dulopolis, Bubassus, or Galliko 40.45 22.48
Acanthus 36.46 28.11 Echinades I"., Petala,
Dunium, 3faiden Castle, d'C 38.25 21.0
n.Dorchester 50.42 2.28 TV Echinus (Acarnania)?.. 38.54 21.0
Dunum? Duwnpatrick., 54.20 6.41 w Echinus (Phthiotis),.^^
Dunuin S.? 54.30 0.35 w chino 38.53 22.41
Dura? Door 34.22 43.46 Eclanum, or Aecula-
Duranius F., Dordogne 44.50 0.0 num, Le Grotte, n.
Duria F., Dora 45.7 7.10 Mirabella , 41.1 15.0
Duria Major F., Dora Ecnomus M 37.6 13.51
Daltea 45.40 7.40 Ecregma? 31.8 33.0
Duriae, Dor»o 45.9 8.58 Edessa, or Aegae, Vod-
Durius F., jDouro 41.5 8.20 w hena 40.47 22.2
Diirnovaria, Dorchester 50.43 2.26 W Edessa, or Callirhoe (Ur
Durobrivae, Water Neio- of the Chaldees?),
ton 52.34 0.22 w Uifoh 37.10 38.50
Durobrivae, Rochester... 51.23 0.30 Edeta (Liria), ZVrm 39.37 0.39 w
Durocasses, Dreux 48.44 1.21 *Edetani 41.0 0.45 TV
Durocatalaunutn, Chd- *Edi
lons-snr-Marne 48.53 4.22 EnoM 30.20 35.40
Durocobrivae, Maiden Edonis 40.57 24.0
Bower, )i. Dunstable.. 51.53 0.33 TV Edrum, Idro Alto 45.46 10.27
Durocornovium, or Co- Eetioneia 37.56 23.38
rinium, Cirencester... 51.43 1.58 W Egdavama ? 38.37 32.53
Durocortorum,aft.Remi, Egesta, or Segesta, n.
liheims 49.15 4.1 Segestn 37.59 12.54
Durolevuin, Judde Hill, Egeta, Gladova 44.36 22.40
n. Ospringe 51.18 0.51 Egira, Bauja 42.10 24.0
Durolipons, Godman- Eglon, Ajldn 31.33 34.46
Chester 52.20 0.10 TV Egnatia, Torre S. Igna-
Durolitum, n. Romford 51.35 0.13 zio 40.54 17.25
Duronia, Civitd Veechia, Egyptian Copper-mines,
n.Molise 41.38 14.26 Sarbotit el-Khadim... 29.2 33.27
Duronum, Estreiing la Eidomene 41.12 22.28
Chnnssee 50.4 3.58 Eiduuiania F.? Month
Durostorus, or Duros- of Blaclcicater , 51.46 0.55
tolum, Silistria 44.10 27.13 Eion, r. at 3fouth of
Durotriges 60.50 2.30 w Knra-sii 40.46
Durovcrnum, Canter- Eira?
bury 51.17 1.4 Eira M.? Kutra
Dusae, Dusdsheh 40.46 31.21 Eiros M., C. Monze
Dyme, or Dymae 38.10 21.28 Ekron, Akir
Dyras F., Giiri/o 38.49 22.20 Elaea (Aeolis)
Dyrin, or Atlas Mons, Elaea(Epirus)
Mt. Atlas 31.20 7.0 w Elaea Pr., C. Elea
Dyrrachiuin, for. Epi- Elaeum ? Liosia
daninus, Durazzo 41.21 19.29 Elaeus (Aetolia), Meso-
Dystus, Dhysta 38.20 24.11 longhi
Elaeus (Chaonia)? Ji.
E. Argiro Kastro
Ebal, Mount 32.16 35.14 Elaeus (Thracia)
Ebellinum, S. Juan de Elaeus S., G. of Sun-
la Pena 42.26 0.40 w darlik
Eblana, Dublin 53.21 6.25 W Elaeussa I., Alessa
Eboda, El-Abdeh,orEl- Elaeussa I., St. George..
Aujeh 30.52 34.32 Elah, Valley of, Wadi/
Ehoia, .Eiora 38.38 7.39 w Snmt
Eburacuin, or Ebura- Elataea, or Elatria?
cum, York 52.57 1.5 w Elateia, Lefta
Ebrodunum, Embrun... 44..34 6.28 El a tela, H/akrikhori
Ehrodunuin, Yverdnn... 46.46 6.39 Elath (Aelana), Akaba
Ebudae 1"., Hebrides... 57.0 7.30 W Elatus M., Mount
Ebura, S. Lucar de Skopo
Barrnmeda 36.43 6.19 TV Elaver F., Allier
'Ehur\,Evoli 40.36 15.3 Elea, Hyele, or Velja,
'Eh\xrohT\?:,ti,St.Florentin 48.0 3.44 Cnstellamare della
Ehurobritium? Evora... 39.30 8.59 TV Bruca
»Eburone.s, aft. Tungri 50.50 6.0 Elealeh, El-Aal
Eburovices, Eureux 49.1 1.9 Electra F., Messara
Ebiisus, hizn 38.55 1.27 Electra F., Vasiliko
Ebu'sus I., /I'/za 39.0 1.25 Elees, or Heles F.,
Ecbatana, or Agbatana Alento, or Venere
(Achmetha), Hamn- Elegia, Bidsha
dan 34.43 48.33 22 Elephantaria, Oschiri...
Ecbatana (of Atropa- Elephantine I., Jeziret
ten-e)? Takht-i-Sulei- el-Sng
maun 36.28 47.8 Elephas M., Rat Filuk
Bpamaiidiiodurum, Eryniander, or Frvman-

Jf,„„le,(re 47°.27' 6°.47' 61 tiius, F., Hehnnnd.... 31 ".0'

•Ep:interii 44.10 8.0 8| Eryuianthus F., IJoana 37.40
Epciacuin, Laiichester... 54.50 1.44 \T 5 Ervraanthus M., Kalli-
Epciuin, Sinerna 37.33 21.41 18 Joni 37.59
Epliesus, r. n. Aiaaa- Erytlirae (Boeotia), t.
Inok 37.57 27.23 19 n. Kntziila 38.14
Eiiliialtiuin Proiu. ? C. Erythrae (Ionia), Ritri 38.24
Akroteri 35.23 27.12 19 Erythrae (Locris)? 38.23
Ei.hj-ra I.? Spezzia 37.15 23.8 IS Erythrae (Locri-Ozo-
Epiiyrc, Monastery of lae)? 38.23
St. John, n. Porto Eiythraca 34.58
Fanari 39.16 20.32 15 Erythraeura Alare 15.0
Eiiidaiiinus, Dyr-aft. Erythraeura Prom., G.
rachium, Dnrazzo 41.21 19.29 14 Lnxijndhn 34.56
Ei'inAintiA 37.38 23.7 18 Ery.x, or Erycus 38.4
Epidauriis, Epiduvro, Ery.x Mons, Monte S.
or PIdluivro 37.38 23.10 18 Giiilldnn 38.4
Ejiidauriis, 'Jiogtisa- Esdraelon (Jezreel), Ze-
Vccrliia 42.35 18.13 14 reen 32.34
Epidauriis Liinera, Pa- Efhtenioa, EH-Semua... 31.25
l,'o Jfouemvfinia 36.44 23.2 18 Esuris, Ctmtromarin 37.11
Epideliiiin Prom., C. Etanna. Yenne 45.43
h'omili 36.32 23.9 18 Eteia, Settia 35.13
*;Epi(lii 56.0 6.30 w 5 Eteonus. or Scarphe ?.... 38.14
Epidium Prom., JHull Eiham, Desert of. 29.45
i,f Cinttiie 55.17 5.46 w 5 Ethara, Thoum, or
Epidotium? 45.0 15.20 14 Pithom (Paturaos?),
Epiphania (Ilaiuath), r. n. Ahaxsieh 30.28
Hamah 35.13 SB-.-^S 20 Etis, Ki/purivin 36.31
Epiiius 39.40 20.40 15 Etocetum, Wall, n.
Epitalium, ^(/ii^iHtVza.., 37.37 21.30 18 Lichfield 52.39
Epuineus M., Monte di Etonia? Aladaha 40.8
Son Nicola 40.44 13.54 13 Etruuia 43.0
Eporedia, Ivrca 45.28 7.51 8 »Etrusci 42.4
Epusuin. Cariijnan 49.38 5.10 6 Euarehus F., Kirkget-
Equaliona, Coynn 38.35 9.4 W 7 schid Tchai 41.43
Eijuus Tuticus, S. Eleii- Euboea? Licodia 37.8
terio 41.17 15.7 9 Euboea I., Eijripo, or
Erana? Filiatra 37.9 21.35 18 Ncqropont 38.30
Erasinus F., Kefniari... 37.36 22.42 18 Euca'rpia? 38.37
Erbessus, or Herbessus ? Eudagina 39.7
Orotte 37.14 13.41 12 «Eudoses 5.3.35
Erbessus, or Herbessus? Eudoxia, Tokaf 40.15
Piintalica 37.8 15.0 12 "•Euganei 45.45
Erote, or Ercta, M., Euliydriura 39.21
Monte Pel/et/rino 38.10 13.21 12 Eulaeus, or Pasitigris
Erebantiuin Prom ,Capo F., A'uran 31.0
ddla Texfa 41.14 9.8 9 Eulepa, Uarsema 38.50
Eroch, Iral:, or Ma.... 31.27 45.40 22 EumenJa, hhekli 38.19
Eiesiis, r. H. £/-es«o 39.8 25.56 19 Euonyinus I., Panaria 38.38
Erotenus F., ^VHo 45.20 11.23 8 Eiipalium 38.24
Eretria, New (Euboea), Eupatorin, Kozlov, or
A'lW,-/ 38.22 23.49 16 Enpatoria 45.11
Etretria, Old (Euboea), Eupatoria (MagnopS-
n.Vnthy 38.22 23.56 10 lis) 40.46
Eretria (Thessalia), Euphorbiuni, Emir Has-
TznnfiU 39.15 22.35 15 aiin Keui 38.25
Eretum? Rimane 42.7 12.41 11 Euphrfites F. (Phrat),
Erirasteria, Kodja Gu- Euphrates, or Frat... 35.0
niiHch Mudnn 39.42 27.35 19 Euripus, Strait of
Ergavica, or Ergavia?.. 40.23 2.52 w 7 Erjripo 38.26
Ergitium, S. Severo 41.42 15.23 9 Euristus 40.68
Eriboea? 40.9 21.0 15 Euroea 39.30
Eii.>risa I., Alicudi 38.33 14.16 9 Euronuis, r. n. Tnkly.... 37.22
Ericusa I., Merlera 39.53 19.32 15 Europus (Syria)? 36.49
Eridanus F. (or Padus), Europus (Thessalia) 39.42
/'" 45.0 8.45 8 Eurotas F., Vasilo, or
Erigon F., Tjerna 41.0 21.47 14 Iri 36.57
Erincus (Achaia), Lam- Eurvniedon F., Kopri
hiria 38.18 21.59 18 Su 37.20
Erincus (Doris) .38.42 22.24 16 Eurynienae (Epirus).... 39.27
Erineus F., Finme di Eurymenae (Thessalia) 39.44
Avola, or Miranda... 36.55 15.7 12 »Eurytanes 38.50
Krinon 37.36 25.10 19 Eusene, Kuru Bulnr.... 41.23
liritium, Paleokastro... 39.54 22.3 15 Eutresis 38.15
Eliza, Derekcui 37.26 29.28 20 Euxinus Pontus, Black
Eliza, Erzingan 39.32 39.56 20 Sea 44.0
Ermine Street 52.50 0.35 W 5 Eva, Plntano 37.19
I)! niicluruio, St. Am- Evandria ? 38.54
'"»'*e 46.59 2.8 6 Evaspla F.? Kooner 36.0
I]i;iiiuin, C«»^er" 5u/-</o.. 40.55 8.42 9 Evenus F 39.15
(".uli (or Foruli. ? 42.26 13.15 9 Evenus F., Fidhari 38.25
Florentia, Firenze (Flo-
rence) 43"'.47' 11°.15'
Floriana? 47.35 18.15
Flusor F., Chienti..r..... 43.17 13.40
*Focunates 46.0 8.20
Forentum, Foretizn 40. 5C 15.51
Formiae, Muhi di Gaeta 41.15 13.36
Forinio F., Risaiio 45.32 13.50
Forocrea, Sauta Croce.. 42.34 13.10
Fortunatae I''^, Canary
Islnnds 28.0 15.30 w
Foruli (or Eruli)? 42.26 1.3.15
Fiirum Allieni, Ferrara 44.50 11.37
Forum Appii, Foro
Applo 41.28 13.1
Forum Aurelii, ii. 3fon-
tcdto, on R. Fiore 42.18 11. .35
Forum Cassii, Vetralla.. 42.21 12.2
Foruni Cigurrorum ?
Piieiite Biheij 42.25 7.24 w
Forum Clodii, Oritwlo., 42.12 12.5
Forum Cornelii, Itnola.. 44.22 11.43
Forum Domid?. 43.30 3.40
Forum Flaminii, S.
Giovanni pro Fiamma 43.2 12.49
Forum Fulvii, orValen-
tinum, V(denza 45.1 8.37
Forum Gallorum, Castel
Franco 44.37 11.4
Forum Gallorum, Gitr-
rea 42.4 0.45 w
Forum Julii, Cividad di
Frixdi 46.5 13.25
Forum Julii, Frejus 43.26 6.44
Forum Licini? Lecco... 45.51 9.25
Forum Ligneum? 42.54 0.35
Forum Livii, Forli 44.14 12.3
Forum Novum, Buonal-
hergo 41.14 15.0
Forum Novum, For-
novo 44.42 10.8
Forum Novum, S. Ma-
ria di Vescoi'io 42.22 12.36
Forum Popilii, Forlim-
popoli 44.13 12.8
Forum Segusianorum,
Feur 45.28 4.33
Forum Sempronii, Fos-
siinibrone 43.41 12.49
Forum Trajani, Fordon-
gianns 39.59 8.49
Forum Vibii? Castel
Fiori 44.41 7.17
Forum Voconii? Le
Canet 43.25 6.19
«Fosi 52.15 10.30
Fossa Maddalena.... 41.14
I., 9.24
Fo.?sa of Corbulo 52.10 4.25
Fossa, or Taphros,5f*'ai<
of Bonifacio 41.20
Fossae Cluiiiae 41.51
Fossae Marianae, Foz
leu Martifjnes 43.26
Fossae Papirianae, Via-
reyfjia 43.51
Fossae Philistinae 45.2
Fosse AVay 61.30
Fra.xinus 37.59
Fraxinus, Villa Velha.. 39.40
Fregellae, r. n. Gepe-
rnno 41.34
Fregenae, Maccarese..,. 41.52
*Frentrini 42.0
Frento F., Forlore 41.40
FrigMae, Old Mamora.. 35.56
Frigidus F 45.50
*Frinirues ? 44.35
KFrisii 53.0
Frusino, Frosinone 41.39
Frustemae 42.16
Fucinus L., Lngo di
Celnno, or Fiiciiio 42.0
Fulginium, Foli<jn 42.58
Okrmania Inferior, or
Skcunda 51°.0' 6°.0'
Geumania Superior, or
Prima 49.0 7.30
Geraiiinicla, Jfarnah.,,, 37.36 36.56
Gernianicopolis, Erme-
7>ek 36.41 32.51
Germanicopolis, orGan-
gra, Kank-ari ,. 40.35 33.40
Genne 39.6 27.35
Geronthrae, GlieralcL... 36.59 22.43
Gerontia I.? lonra 39.23 24.10
Gonha, El-Kotiff. 26.33 50.3
*-Gerrhaei 27.30 48.30
Gerruin 30.57 32..34
Gerunda, (/erowrt 42.1 2.49
Geruniuni, Girone 41.45 14.54
Gesdae, Sezanne 44.58 6.45
Gesoriaeum, aft. Beno-
nia, Boulogne 50.44 1.36
*Gotae 45.40 28.0
GW^con, El-Jeeh 31.51 35.11
Gicluhis, or Githis,
Jeress 33.30 10.44
Gijronus 40.22 22.56
Gigomis Pr., Panomi,
or Apanomi Point.... 40.22 22.55
..•ilboa, Mount, Jelel
Fiikiiit 32.31 35.26
Gil^al? 31.50 35.30
Gilva? Takumhn't 35.19 1.29 w
Ginnea (En-gannim),
Jeneen 32.28 35.20
Gindarus, Jindarit 36.23 36.40
Gir F
Girba I. (Lotophagitis,
or Mcninx), Jerbnh... 33.45 11.0
Girgiri M., Mountains
of Tarlconrnah 32.20
Giscbala. El-J>«h 33.2
Gitanae? Marf/ariti 39.25
Glanoventa, Ellenboro' 54.43
Glaucus F., Lafka 38.12
Gbiiicus F.? dlli-SH 40 30
Glaucus F., 42.32

Glaucus S.. G. of llakri 36.40

Gleraona, Gemona 46.16
Glevutn, Gloucenter 51.52
Glisas, r. at foot of
Mount Siamata 38.22 23.25
Glycys Portus, Porto
F'lnari 39.14 20.31
Glympia, or Glyppia,
Kasiro Lt/mhiada 37.11 22.42
Gobaeum Pr., Pointe
iSt. Matthieu 48.20 4.46 -w
Gobannium, Aberga-
venny 51.49 3.0 w
Gngana, Congoon 27.48 52.10
GOGARENE 41.0 4.3.0
Golan? 32.55 35.50
Gomphi, Episkopi 39.26 21.43
Gonnus, or Gonni, Ly-
hostomo 39.48 22.27
Gophna, Jofnu 31.57 35.12
GophnItica 32.0 35.15
Gorditanum Pr., Capo
Falcone 40.59 8.10
Gordiuni, Juliopolis 40.4
aft. 31.35
Gordyaei M., Jehel Judi,
Ac 37.40 42.0
Gorgon, or Urgo L,
Gorgona 43.26 9.55
Gorneas, Karlini 40.7
Gortyna 35.5
Gortynius F., River of
Dhiinitzana 37.33
Gorty.*, n. Atzikolo 37.32
*Gothini 50.0
*Gothones 54.0
Oraecia 3S.0
Grripcuri.s, Corclhi 42.7
*Graioc5Ii 45.14
Holene, Maoris, or Cra- Herblta? Citadelln 37°.25' ]4°.29' 12
nae I., Makronisi 37°.41' 24°.7' Herculaneam, n. Rexinn 40.49 14.21 13
Helenopolis, for. Dre- Herculeuni, or Gadita-
pane 40.41 29.33 num, Fretum, Strait
Heles, Hales, or Elees, of Gibraltar 35.57 5.30 w
F., Alento, or Venere 40.10 15.7 Herculis Arenae 31.0 20.20
Ileleve tones, or Helve- Herciilis Castra? Gran 47.48 18.45
cones 51.45 20.30 Herculis Fanum, Mas-
Helice 38.13 22.9 sarosa 43.52 10.20
Helice, Ichlhunn 42.19 24.0 Herculis I., or Scom-
Helicon F., OUveri 38.2 15.0 braria, Escomhrera... 37.34 0.55 w
Helicon M., Pahovouni 38.18 22.54 Herculis I"^, Asinara... 41.5
H-'licranum, Z>t/i-i>o.... 39.56 20.13 Herculis Portus 38.41
II liopolis (Baalath), Herculis Prom., Capo
licioJbek 33.57 36.1 Spartivento 37.56
II (Rameses, or
-liopolis Herciilis Prom., Hart-
Both-shemesh), Ma- land Point 51.1
t'trieh 30.8 31.20 Herciilis Templum? n.
Ilelisii, orElisii 51.30 17.0 C.Roche 36.19
llelisson F 37.58 22.40 Hercyna Fons 38.26
Helisson F., Davia 37.^7 22.13 Hercynia Silva 50.40
Helium Ostium, ilonth Herdonia, Ordona 41.18
of J/eitse, or Maas..., 51.57 4.10 Hermaeum Prom., Capo
Hellana, Agliana 43.55 11.2 dclla Caccia 40.34
Hellespontus, Darda- Hermaeum Prom.,Ponit
nelles 40.15 2(5.30 Placo 35.11
H(;lorus, or Helorum.... 36.51 15.5 Hermaeus S., G. of
Helorus F., Abisso 36.52 15.0 Si,ij/rna 38.40
Helos? 36.49 22.46 Herminius Mons, Sierra
Helvecones, or Heleve- d'Estrella 40.10
tones 51.45 20.30 Hermione, or Hermion,
*Helvetii 47.0 7.40 Kastri 37.23
*Helvii 44.38 4.30 Hermionicus S 37.23
Helvillum, or Suillum, Hermionis 37.26
SifiiUo 43.20 12.45 Hormon, Mount, Jebel-
Kelvinus F., Salinello... 42.47 13.55 esh-Sheikh 33.23
Henna, or Enna, Castro Hermonassa, Platana... 41.2
Giovanni 37.33 14.17 Hermopolis,£'«AHioi(He;'(i 27.45
Hephaestia (Lemno.s)... 39.54 25.21 Hermopolis Parva?
llephaestiadae, Arnl-U.. 38.4 23.46 Rhamanieh 31.6
HkptanOmis, Vostani, *Hermundiiri 50.0
or Middle Ef/i/pt 29.-0 31.0 Hermus, r. ;i. Khaidari 38.1
Hcraclea (Aeoiis) 39.17 26.42 Hermus F., Gediz Tchai 38.32
Heraclea (Athamania).. 39.16 21.10 -Hernici 41.50
Heraclea(Cephallenia)? Herodiura, /"/-ntH/iT Moun-
liaL-li 38.10 20.42 tain 31.40
Hiraclea fClialcidice)... 40.35 23.19 Heroopoli.' (Hahiroth ?),
Heraclea (Ionia). 37.31 27.33 r. in Valley of the
Heraclea (Lucania), Seven Wel'ls {Seba
Policoro 40.12 16.39 Biyar) 30.33
Heraclea-Lyncestis, n. Heroopolites S., G. of
Filiirina. cr Fiorina 40.50 21.27 Siirz 29.0
Heraclea Minoa 37.22 13.16 Heshbon. Hesban 31.46
Heraclea (Pieria), Pla- Hesperides, aft. Bere-
tamona 39.38 22.36 nice, Benffhazi 32.7
Heraclea (Pisatis),,Sf/-e/? 37.40 21.34 •Hesperii Aetliiopes.... 8.0
Heraclea-Pontica, Hestiaeotis, or His-
Erekli 41.17 31.29 TIAEOTIS 39.31
lleraclea-Sintica, Zer- Hesudrus, or Zaradrus,
vokhori 40.54 23.30 F.. Sutlej. 31.0
Heraclea (Syria) 35.36 35.45 Hetriculum, Lattarico... 39.28
IL.M-aclea (frachinia)... 38.47 22.23 HiBERNiA, Ireland 53.0
Ileracleius F 38.16 22.52 Hicesia I., Basihizzo ?.. 38.39
Heracleopolis Magna, r. Hiera, Therasia, or Vul-
n. Anasieh 29.10 31.8 cani I., Vulcnno 38.23
Heracleopolis Parva, or Hiera, or Maritima, I.,
Heracleum ? 30.59 32.2 Maretiino 38.0
Heracleotie Mouth (of Hier.T Sycarainos, Wady
Nile), liosetta Mouth 31.29 30.27 3lnharrakuh 23.4
Heracleum 35.21 25.13 Hieracon 27.16
Heracleura, or Hera- Hierapolis, Pambouk-
cleopolis Parva 30.59 32.2 Kaleh 37.55
Heracleum Prom 41.18 36.58 Hierapolis, or Bamb3'ce,
Heraea , 37.36 21.52 Membidj, or Bamboiij 36.32 37.57
Heraei Monies? 37.10 15.35 Hierapytna, I/ierapetra 35.3 25.44
Her^ium 37.42 22.47 Hierafus, or Porata, F.,
Heraeum Pr., C. Me- Pnith 47.0
Iruif/avi 38.2 22.51 Hieratis ? 28.48
Herbanum, Orvieto 42.44 12.9 Hiericu.'! (Jericbo), n.
Herhessus, or Erbessus? Er-Riha 31.51
Grotte 37.14 13.41 12 Hieromia.x F., y«r»ioiiA-,
^erbessu.'. or Erbessus? or Sheriat el-Maud-
^aularca 37.8 15.0 12 hour 32.46 35.50
Hyiira Prom., Utch- lassiorum Municipium?
Keucheh 38°.49' 26°-5-t' Jassy 47°. 5' 27°.24'
Ily.liamum. Bhramia... 35.21 24.21 lasus, or lassus 37.17
HvilniOtes F., Ravee.... 31.0 73.30 latinum, Meaux 48.58
Hvdreii I., Hi/dra 37.20 23.30 latrippa, Yathrib, or
Hydrus F., f<lro 40.8 18.26 Medina 25.0
llydrus, or Hydruntum, latrus F., Jantra 43.12
Otnnito 40.8 18.29 •lazyges Metanastae... 47.30
Hydrui?s.a I., Praano 37.50 23.45 *Iberi
Hyele, Elea, or Velia, Iberia 42.10
CiiHttlnmure della IberiaePylae? n.Mncheta,
Bruca 40.8 15.8 N. of Tiflis 41.50
Hyettus 38.31 23.5 Ilierus F.,'Ebro 41.18
Hvetussii I., Gaidaro.... 37.28 27.0 Ibes, Ibi 38.30
Hyla, orHvda 36.43 28.11 Ibium? 28.15
Ilylaethus F., Morno... 38.30 22.10 Ibliodurum, Hannon-
Ilyle? Paleokastro 38.25 23.15 ville an Panaage 49.17
llyliasF.? 39.34 16.42 Ibora 39.53
Ilylica L., Senziiia, or learia I., Nikaria 37.35
Llvndhi 38.23 2.3.15 Icarium Mare 37.12
ITyllalcus Portus 39.35 19.55 Icarthon M 38.7
*ny!li 44.0 15.35 Icauna F., Ynnne 47.50
llvllis Peninsula? Sa~ -Iceni, or Simeni 52.25
'bloncello 42.53 17.30 Ichana? Jchana, or
Ilyiuettus Mons, Telo- Seibino 36.45
vHiii 37.58 23.49 Ichnae 40.41
Hypaea Titan
I., 43.1 6.27 Ichnae, Konais 36.10
Hypaipa, Tcpntjn 38.13 27.54 ••Ichthyophagi 25.45
Ilypanis F., Bong 48.20 30.0 ••Ichthyophagi Ae-
Ilypanis F., Kouban.... 45.5 39.0 thiope? 8.0
Hyparodes 41.8 29.2 Ichthys Prom., C. Kata-
Hypata, A'eo/)flr^ra 38.52 22.12 l-olo 37.38
Hypatus M., Sdniata.... 38.23 23.25 Icidmagus, Yxtiingeaux 45.9
llyperborei (or Riphaei) Iconium, Konii/eh 37.53
Montes, S. part of Icos I., PeflHte'ri 39.10
Uinl 58.0 60.0 Icosium, Algiers 36.48
Hypertcleatum 36.39 22.54 lotis I. (of Diodorus),
iryphanteiura M 38.33 22.55 St. Slichnel'n Moniit... 50.7
Hvpliasis F., Garra, or Ictumulorum Vicus ?.... 45.46
'Sntlej 30.0 73.0 leulisma, Angonleme.... 45.38
'i\y\na.'M.,Twhila Dagh 41.0 31.30 Ida Mons (Greta), Psi-
Ilypius F., Milan Su.... 41.0 31.0 loriti 35.13
Uypooreinnos 38.19 26.40 Ida Mons (Troas) 40.0
Jiypsas F., Bellici 37.40 12.52 Ide.x F., Idice 44.27
llyj.sas F., 2>/a^o 37.16 13.34 Idimura, Hassan Pasha
Hyi..n? 30.41 22.29 Palanka 44.16
Hypsirisma I., Kappari 36.56 27.10 Idoniene, Paleoktdin... 39.3
llypsus, Stemnitza 37.33 22.5 Idrias, aft. StratonicEa,
Hyrcania 36.20 56.0 Eski-hissar 37.17
Ilyrcannin (orCaspium) Idiibeda Mons, Sierra
M., Caxpian Sea 40.0 52.0 jl/oncaijo, &c 41.0
Hyria, Conope, or Lysi- InUMAEA 31.0
inachia, L., Zygns, or Idyros, Egder 36.36
Aiigeloh-n^tro 38.34 21.23 lena Aest., Wigton Bay 54.50
Hyria, or Uria, Oria..., 40.29 17.38 lerabriga, or Arabrica,
llyrmina, Khlemutza, Alenqner 39.2
or Kastro (
Oastel Ieuxe, or Ivernia
Tornese) 37.53 21.9 Ictae? 37.53
Hysaees F Igilgilis, Jiljcl,or Jijeli 36.50
HVsii.e (Arj,'olis) 37.31 22.35 li,'iliura Giglio
I., 42.20
Hysiae(Boeotia) 38.13 23.22 Iguyium, Gnb'bio 43.21
Hyspriatis 40.20 41.0 Ila? Jilla Abad 26.46
Hyssus Portus, Surme- Ildum, Torre Blanca.... 40.16
'neh 40.57 40.5 20 Ilei 37.25
*Ilercaones 40.40
Ilerda, Lerida 41.40
\:u\era,. Zarn 44.6 15.13 »Ilergetes 41.40
lalysiis, Prileo-Rhodoa.. 36.24 28.11 Ilici, Elche 38.18
lamho, Yembo 24.5 -38.5 Ilieitanus S 38.0
lainniuin Pr., iSV. John's IlTpa 37.40
Point 54.14 5.40 w Ilipa, Niebla 37.24
liipis F 38.3 23.26 Ilipula M., Sierra Ne-
»tapydes 45.0 15.20 vada 37.8
Iapvgia, or Messapia 40.30 17.40 Ilissus F 37.58
Iapyt;iura, or Salenti- Ilium, orTroja(Cestria),
num. Prom., Capo di Palea Venetia 39.34
Lenca 39.48 18.22 Ilinra-noyum, Hlsnarjik 39.57
layiyguin tria Prom., O. liliberis, n. Granada.... 37.18
CoHlelhi, 0. Rizzuto, Illiberi.s, aft. HelSna,
C. della Nave 38.56 17.0 EIne 42.36
rar.laniKs F 35.27 23.53 liliberis, or Tichis, F.,
[a.*ius, or P.argylieles S., Tech 42.35
G. of Mind'e.lyah 37.15 27.25 19 Illiturgis, Andnjar 38.1
trine Yp^il!
I., 37°.26' 23°.0' 18 Jamno, or Jamna, Ciit- Kan ah F., Nahr eU
Iris F., Y'rshU frmnk... 41.0 36.38 20 dadela 39°.59' 3°.53' Araouf 32°. 18' 34°.55'
Irrhesia I.? Psathoura 39.29 24.10 19 Japhia, Yafa 32.41 35.18 Kedesh, Kedea 33.9 35.31
Is, or Aeopolis, Hit 33.36 42.52 22 Jarmutb, Yarmook 31.42 34.58 Kerioth. El-Knryetein., 31.22 35.11
U&ca F., E.ce 60,38 3.27 w 5 Jasonium Pr., C. Jaaon 41.7 37.39 Kersus F., Merkez Su... 36.39 36.11
Isnnnavatia, or Bena- .Jattir, Atteer 31.21 35.5 Kidron, or Cedron, F.,
venta, Burrow Hill, Jaxartes F., Sir, or Wady er-Rahib 31,44 35.20
n. Dnventry 52.16 1.8 W Sihoon 44.0 68.25 Kir of Moab (Charax),
Ipara F., here 45.5 5.10 Jazer, n. Aiii Hazeir.,.. 32.3 35.46 Kerak 31.15 35.46
Isara F., Oise 49.30 2.50 Jenysus, Khan Yunaa... 31.18 34,18 Kirjath-arba (Hebron),
•Isarci 45.46 8.45 Jericho (Hierieus), n. El-Khuleel 31.33 35.9
Isarus F., /sar 48.30 12.0 Er.Riha 31.51 35.28 Kirjath-jearim, or Baa-
^AURiA 37.30 -32.30 Jerusalem, El-Kooda... 31.47 35.14 lah, Kuryet el-Enab.. 31.49 35.7
Igaurus, Dr Pisaurus, F., Jezreel (Esdraelon), Kishon F., Nahr Mu-
Foglia 43.47 12.30 Zereen 32.34 35.21 kutta 32.47 35.6
Isca Datnnoniorum, Jonnaria 44.7 16.25
Exeter 50.43 3.32 W Joppa, Jaffa'. 32.3 34.45 L.
Isca (Silurum), Caer- Jordan F., Nahr el- «Labeates 42.0 19.40
leon 51.37 2.57 w Kebir 32.10 35.36 Labeiitis L., L. of Sku-
lachAVis, IlcheKter 51.0 2.40 W Jordan, Plain of ( Aulon, tari 42.5 19.20
Iscina, r. at Raa Benja- or Magnus Campus), Labicum, Colonna 41.51 12.46
wnd 30.50 18.10 El-Ghor 32.20 35.35 Labranda 37.25 27.50
Isinisca, Aschhach 48.5 11.55 Jotapata, Jefdt 32.51 35.17 Lacedaemon, or Sparta,
I.sionda 36.57 30.22 Jovia, Apathia 46.16 16.30 n. Miatra 37.5 22.26
l?.\s ¥., Tacholoki 41.54 41.50 Jovis Urii Templum.... 41.9 29.10 *Lacetani 42.0 1.50
Tslum 29.23 31.15 Jovisura, Eggnnfelden... 48.24 12.47 LaceterPr., C.Kephala,
Isium M 21.10 36.30 Jddaea 31.40 35.0 or Krokilo Ft 36.40 27.0
Ismarus Julia, Tachai 38.38 31.5 Lachish? 31.32 34.59
Ismenus F 38.20 23.19 Julia Augusta (for. Ae- Laciacum, Vocklamarkt 48.0 13.51
Isoinantus, or Hop- mona), Laybach 46.4 14.31 Laciadae? 37,59 23.43
lias, F 38.22 22.54 Julia Constantia, or Laeinium Prom., Capo
Issa, Lissa 43.4 16.10 Zilis, Arzilla 35.29 6.1 w delle Colonne, or C.
IssTcus S., G. of Scan- Julia Fidentia, Borgo Nao 39.5 17.13
deroon 36. -lO 35.50 S. Donino 44.53 10.6 La.c'ipen, Deleitota 39,35 6.35 W
Issus? 36.56 36.8 Julia Gemella (Acci), Lacippo, Alecippe, n,
Ister (orDanubius) F., Guadix el-Viejo 37.22 3.19 TV Caaarea 36.25 5.18 w
Donau, or Danube. ... 44.0 26.20 Julia Gordus, Gordiz... 38.56 28.28 Lacmon M., Metzovo.... 39.53 21.30
Isthmus, lathmua of Co- Julia Joza, aft. Trans- Lacobriga, Zfr(jro« 37.9 8.38 w
rinth 37.57 23.0 ducta, Tarifa 36.0 5.37 w Lacobriga, Villa Laco.. 42.30 4.34 w
Isthmus (Doris) 36.47 2S.5 Julia Libyca ? Puig- Laconia 37.30 22.40
Istoiie M.? 39.44 19.50 cerda 42.26 1.56 Laconicus S., G. of
ISTRIA, or HiSTRIA, Julia Myrtilis, Mertola 37.40 7.28 w Kolokythia 36.40 22.40
litrxa 45.15 14.0 Juliacum, Jnliera 60.56 6.21 Lacotene? FiVan .SAeAr 38.6 38,9
Istron 35.8 25.44 Julias (Bethsaida), Et- Lacron F,, Lezero
Istropolis, Korgnliuk... 44.25 28.48 Tell 32.58 35.40 Vedra 42.26 8.30 w
l8tros I., FrtZ/ 36.40 27.10 Juliohona, Lillebonne... 49.31 0.31 Lactodorum, Towceater 52.8 0.59 w
Isurium, Aldborongh..., 54.6 1.22 w Juliobriga, Reynoaa 43.0 3.57 w Lactura, Lectoure 43.56 0.38
Isus? 38.27 23.28 Juliomagus, aft. Ande- Lacus Lausonius, Lau-
Itabyrium, or Ataby- cavi, Angera 47.28 0.33 w eanne 46,32 6.38
rium (Mt. Tabor), .Juliopolis, Ibol 38.10 39.15 Lacus Prilis, Logo di
Jebel et-Toor 32.42 35.25 Juliopolis, or Gordium.. 40.4 31.35 Caatiglione 42.46 11.0
Italta, Itali/ 43.0 12.0 Julium Carnicuni, Zu- Lade 1 37.32 27.14
Italica, San'tiponce 37.29 6.51 w g'io... 46.27 1.3.3 Ladoceia 37,24 22.10
Itanum Pr. ? C. S<ila- Juncaria, Junqnera 42.24 2.53 Ladon F 37.50 21.32
mon, or Snlmone 35.10 26.19 Junonia I.? Palma 28.45 17.50 w Ladon F., Rufa 37.40 21.51
Itanus, Itdijnia 35.8 26.16 Junonis Fontea, Cal- Laea, or Aphrodite, I.,
Ithaca I., Ithaca 38.25 20.40 diero 45.23 11.14 Al-Hiera 32.50 22.34
lthome,Fanari 39.24 21.27 Junonis Laciniae Tem- Laerta 36.28 32.11
Ithoria, Si. Elian 38.30 21.16 plum .,... 39.5 17.11 *Laevi 45.15 8.50
Itiuia Prom., C. Gris Junonis Pr., C. I'rafal- Lagana F., Lahn 50.20 8.0
Nez 50.52 1.35 9""' 36.11 6.1 TV Lagania 40.4 S2.1
Itius Portus, Wissant... 50.53 1.40 Jupiter, Temple of Lagaria, Nocara 40.6 16.27
Iton, or Itonus 39.8 22.41 (Aegina)? 37.45 23.32 Lagina, Lakina 37.21 28.18
Itiice, or Utica, Bou- Jupiter Palenius, Tem- Lagusae I«? 39.56 26.5
ahater 37.9 10.2 ple of, Campo di Laii 38.21 26,0
Ituna Aest., Solicay Giove 42.0 14.3 Laish, or Dan, Tell el-
Firth 54.55 3.25 w Jura(orJurassus) Mons, Kady 33.17 35.38
Itiiraea, El-Jeidoor.... 33.10 36.0 Mt. Jura 47.0 6.40 Lalassis 36.40 32.30
InWs, Zea 37.38 24.21 Justin6polis,for.Aegida, *Laletani 41.40 2.30
IvERNiA, or Ierne Capo d'latria 45.32 13.44 Lamate? 44.36 17.20
Ivia, or Juvia, F., Juttah, Yutta 31.28 35.9 Lambasa, L'erba, or
Juhia 43.32 8.5 w Juvavum, Sahhurg 47.48 1.3.4 Tezoul 35.1 6.15
Ixia, Lanathi 36.1 27.58 Juvia, or Ivia, F., Juhia 43.32 8.5 w Lambrus F., Lambro.... 45.20 9.21
Lametia, S. Evfemia... 39.3 16.14
J. K. Lanietus F., Lamato.... 38.55 16.17
Jnbadii, or Sabadii, I"? Kadesh (in Paran), or Lamia, J^eiVoiMi? 38.54 22.24
Java, &c ... 7.0 110.0 Kndesh-barnea, Ain Laminiura, Bon Sancho 38.57 3.4 T
}a.hhokY.,NahrZnrkn 32.14 35.50 Kadea 30.34 34.28 24 Lamos, Lamas 36.34 34.17
Jabesh-gilead ? In Wady Kadesh (in Zin) ? Ain- Lamotis 36.37 34.0
Yabea 32.29 35.44 el-Weiheh 30.41 35.22 24 Lampe, or Lappa 35.19 24.20
Jacoa, ./rtca 42.31 0.31 w Kaloi Liniencs, Fair Lampeia M., Olonoa 37.58 21.51
•.laccctrini 42.30 0.30 w Havena 34. "6 24.48 Lampsacus, Lamaaki... 40.20 26.40
Jauiiiia, Yehna 31.51 34.45 Kauah, Kdna 33.16 S.i.lS Lamptra inferior 37.49 23.51
Lamptra superior, La-
morika 37°.52' 23°.52'
Lancia? Ctistro 42.38 5.27 W
•Langobiirdi 52.45 11.0
Langobriga, Sabral 41.3 8.36 w
Lanuvium, Civitd La-
vinia 41.39 12.43
Laodicca, Eski Htssat , 37.49 29.9
Laodicea, Latikiyeh... . 35.30 35.47
Laodieea (ad Libanum)?
Jiifi/ 34.22 36.21
Laodicea Coiubusta,
Ladik 38.13 32.39
Laodtckse 34.10
Lapatlius, n. linpsani.., 39.54
Lapctlius, r. n. Laptn... 35.21
Laphystium M., Gra-
nitza 38.25
Lapidaria, n. Zillis 46.38
Lapithus M., Smerna... 37.33
Lappa, or Lampe 35.19
Lapiirdum? Bayonne... 43.29
Lavanda, Karaman 37.11
Largiana? 47.11
Larinura, Lnrino 41.48
Larisium M 36.45
Larissa(Acrop.of Argos) 37.38
Larisssa (Aeolis), Bu-
rnndjik 38.38
Larissa Cremaste, n.
Gardlnki 38.58
Larissa (Ionia) 38.7
Larissa (Eesen 1), Nim-
roud 36.0
Larissa (Syria), Kalat
Seijar 35,17
Larissa (Thessalia),
Yeni-shehr, or La-
risfa 39.37
Larissus F., Mnna 38.7
Loj-ius L., Logo di
Como 46.0
Larnum F., Tordera..,. 41.48
Larymna, r. on Port
Larnies 38.32
Larymna (Upper) 38.31
Las 36.43
Lasea? 34.57
Lasion, Lala 37.42
Latera 43.33
Lathon F 32.7
*Latini^..,^„ 41.45
L ATIUM 41.40
Latmus M 37.25
Latmus S., Aki'z Tchai,
or L. Benizli 37.30
Lato 35.14
*Latobrigi 47.53
Latopolis, Esneh 25.17
Latris L, Zealand 55.30
Lauinellura, Lumello..., 45.7
Laurentuni, Torre Pa-
teruo 41.39
Lauriacum, Enns 48.13
Lauriuui M., St. Elias.. 37.42
Lauron 39.8
Laus 39.43
Laus F., Lao.... 39.45
Laus, or Laus Pompeia,
Lodi Vecchia 45.18
Laus S., 6r. of Poli-
castro 39.50
Lautulae 41.17
Lavatrae, Bowes 54.32
Lavinium, Pratica 41.39
Lavinius F., Lavino 44.35
Lavisco, Lannen, n.
Yeniie 45.43
Lebadeia, Livadhia 38.26
Lebedos 38.5
Lcbena 34.55
Lobinthos L, Levitha... 37.0
]je\oDa.h, Ei-Lnbbdn.... 32.5
Litanobriga, Pont S.
Mfhvencc 49°.1S 2°.31
Liternuin, Pntria 40.66 14.1
.Litubiuni (Ritubium ?),
Retorhio 44.56 9.5
Livias (Beth-haran),Br-
Itameh 31.49 35..39
liixus, Al-Ava\sh 35.13
Lixus F., Wady al-Khos 35.4
LocanusF.? Locano.... 38.21
Locarieum ? Calatafimi 37.55
Locra F., Talavo 41.46
*Locri Epicnemidii 38.42
Locri Epizepbyrii 38.15
*Lccri Opnntii 38.35
«LocriOzolae 38.30
LocRis 38.40
Logia F., Mouth of R.
Lnc/an 54.35
LonJinium, aft. Augusta,
London 51.31
Longanus F., F. dell'
Aranci 38.5
Longaticum, Lohitsch... 45.55
Longianum, Lngnano... 41.47
Longones, Ozieri 40.35
Loriura, Lorio 41.54
Loryma 36..34
Losa, Bois de Licogaa... 44.25
Lotojihagltis, or Me-
ninx, I. (aft. Girba),
Jerhah 33.45
Loucopibia? Wigton.... 54.53
Luca, Lucca 43.51
Lucentum, Alicante 38.22
Luceria, Lucera 41.30
Lueretilis M., Monlc
Genn'o 42.5
Lucrinus L., Logo
Lucrino 40.50
Lucus Angitiae, Lnco... 41.57
Lueus Asturum (Ove-
tum?), Oviedo 43.22
Lucus Augusti, Luc-en-
Dioh 44.38
Lucus Augusti, Lugo... 43.1
Lucus et Oraculum
Fauni, Solfatnm 41.42
Lucus Feroniae, Pietra
Santa 43.57
Lucus Feroniae, or Fe-
ronia, Felonica 42.16
Lucus Jovis Indigetis... 41.37
Luentinura, Llanioisaf,
n. Tregaron 52.11
Lugdunuui, Leyden 52.9
Lugdunuun, Lynnn 45.46
Lugdunura, aft. Conve-
nae, St. Bertrand de
Commiiigea 43.0
Luguido, Monti 40.43
Luguvallium, Carlisle... 54.54
Luna, I^iini 44.4
Lunae Portus, Gol/o di
Spezzia 44.4
Lunarium Pr., C. Car-
voeiro 39.21
Lupiae, Lecce 40.22
Luppia F., Lippe 51.40
Lusi, Si.Jhena 37.59
*Lusitaiii 40.0
Lussunum, Foldvar 46.49
Lutetia, Paris 48.52
Luteva, or Forum Ne-
ronis, Lodive 43.45
LuxiaF., Odiel 37.25
Lycabettus M. (or An-
chesmus), Hill of St.
Qtorge 37.59
Mantua, Mantua 45°.9'
Maon. J/ri'i). 31.25
Maracanda, Scmarcand 39.56
Marah? Ain Hawarah.. 29.23
Marandard 39.11
M'lratha 37.32
MarathesiuiD, Skala
i\u-n-a 37.52
Marathon, Vrana 38.7
Marathon, Plain of 38.13
Marathus, ». /Ii'h e^-^^e 34.48
Mnrathus, Sidhiro-Kaf-
khio 38.22
Mareelliana, La Sala... 40.23
Marcianopolis ? 43.15
Marcina, Vietn' 40.39
Marcoinagiis.j>/(jc«)(t(/en 50.34
"Marcomaimi, for. Boii 49.30
•SMar.li 36.20
iVIare Acgaeum, Aixhi-
jielago 38.0
Mare Atlanticuni, or
E.\ternuin, Atlantic
Ocean 40.0
Mare Azafliuiu, or S.
BarHarTcus 0.0
Mare Carpathiuui 36.0
Mare Caspiuin (or Ilyr-
canum), Canpiun Sea 42.0
Mare Cretieuin 36.0
Mare Erythraeum, In-
dian Ocean 15.0
Mare Germanicum, or
Oceanus Geniianicus,
German Ocean 55.0
Mare Hadriaticum, or
Superum, Adriatic
Sea 44.0
Mare Internum, Medi-
terranean Sea 35.0
Mare Myrtoum 37.20
Mare Pii,'ruin (0cc3nu3
Septentri(inulis) 66.30
Mare Suevicuui, Baltic
Sea 56.0
JSIare Tliraeiuin 40.0
Mare Tyrrhoiuim, or
Inferutn 40.0
jMarea, or Palaemaria,
El-Ranheat 30 56
Mareotis L 31.10
Maresha (Marissa) 31.35
Margana? Pyrgo 37.40
Margiaxa '38.0
Jlartjidunum, n. Mast
Undijeford 52.58
Margus 44.40
Margus F., Moorghauh.. 37.0
Margus F., Morava 44.0
Mariaba, Mareb 15.45
Mariana, A/cubillaa 38.58
*Mariandyni 41.0
Marianae Fossae, J'oe
/c9 Martiguea 43.26
Marianuiij ? 41.35
JIarianum, Marano 45.45
Marianus M., Sierra
Moreno 38.20
Maride, Mardin 37.20
Maridunum (or Muridu-
num), Caermarthen... 51.51
Marinianae 45.46
Marissa (Mareshah) 31.35
Marisus F., Mama 46.4
Maritima, or Hi6ra, I.,
Maretimo 38.0
Marius, Kato Mart 37.1
Marmara? r. ii. Tchan-
deer 36.47
Marmarica 31.30
^f 'irmariutn, Marmari... 38.4
Maronea, Marrah 35.41
MAMES. LAT. LOSG. names. lat. LONG. MAP.
Miliaria, Hiuojusa {rle Metapontum, Torre a
Cordoba) 3S°.25' 5°.4'w Mare 40°. 21'
Mellisuri^is, MfJUfmr.jus 40.37 23.12 Metaris Aest., The Waah 53.0
Melodumitn, J/,'/-(,. 48.31 2.40 Metauruni, Gioja 38.25
Melos, J/(7o 36.42 24.29 Metaurus F., Marro 38.25
Melos I., J///o 36.40 24.30 Metaurus F., Jfetauro... 43.50
Melotis 40.7 20.48 Metelis? 31.15
Melphes F., Molpa 40.5 15.7 Metellinum, Medellin... 38.54
Melsus F., Narcca 43.17 6.30 w Methana, or Methone,
Melta, Loftcha 43.12 24.49 • Ifer/alo Khorio 37.35
Meuinonis Tumulus 40.18 27.35 Methone, or Mothone,
Memphis, J/e<n(/ie)niy... 29.52 31.15 Mnthoni 36.49
Menae, Mhieo 37.14 14.41 Methone (Pieria), Elef.
Menapia, Porthmawr, n. thero-khori 40.25
St. David's 51.-54 5.17W Methone (The.ssalia)..., 39.20
Menapia, We.r/ord 52.21 6.27 w Methurides P'., Jievi-
*Menapii 51.25 4.30 toitza, (kc 37.58
Mrnaiia I., i/e/om 43.34 10.12 Methydriura, »i. Nem-
Mende, n. C. Posidhi... 39.58 23.22 nit'za 37.38
Mendes? 31.4 31.33 Methyrana 35.30
Mendesian Mouth (of Methymna, Molivo 39.22
Nile), Dihe Month.... 31.20 31.59 Metropolis (Acarnania),
Mendiculeia? Alcolea... 41.42 0.5 Lijrjovitzi 38.38
Menelaus Portus 31.54 24.56 Metropolis (Amphilo-
Menesthei Portus, Har- chia) 38.58
bor of Cadiz 36.34 6.20 w Metropolis(Ionia), Yeni-
Meninx, or Lotophagi- keni 38.5
tis, I. (aft. Girba), Metropolis (Phrygia)?
.Jerbah 33.45 11.0 Diighan Ainlan 39.13
Menlascus F., Didassoa 43.15 1.40 w Metropolis (Thessalia),
Menneianae, Bodegraje 45.25 17.12 PaleokoHro 39.18
MenobaF 37.25 6.5 w Mettis, Metz 49.7
Mentesa Bastia, S. Mevania, Bevagna 42.56
Tome 38.6 3.20 w Mevaniola, Galeata 44.0
Mentonoraon S Miacuin, Torre Lodones 40.35
Menuthias I., Zanzibar 6.0 39.18 Mifhmash, Miilihmas... 31.53
Mercurii Pr., C. Bon.... 37.5 11.4 Midaiuin, Hnrab Ewreii 39.30
Mergablum, Conil 36.17 6.4 w Midea 37.36
Mergana? 37.46 13.31 Mideia 38.25
Merinum, <S'. Jiferiiio 41.54 16.6 »Midianites 28.30
Merobrica.orMirobriga? Miletopolis, Miialitach., 40.12
Santiacjo de Cacem... 38.3 8.44 W Miletopolltis L., L.
Meroe ? El-Bekruuwi- ]lfanil/as 40.10
yah 16.50 33.42 Miletus, Palatia 37.32
Meroe r 16.0 35.0 Miletus (Creta), Milata 35.17
MiTom, Waters of (Sa- Miletus F 35.16
mochonitis L.), Bulir Milichus F., Biver of
el-Honle 33.5 35.38 Si/keua 38.16
Merula F., Arosia 44.4 8.0 Mii'yas 36.50
Mesambria 40.51 25.42 Milyas, Milli 37.23
Mesambria, Bnshire 29.0 50.47 Miuias M., Kara Boxir-
Mosanites S., Khor non Dagh 38..39
Abdullah 29.55 4S.15 Mina? in Wody Mina.. 35.42
Mese I., PoWeros. 43.0 6.24 Minariacnm? Merville.. 50.39
Meseaibria, Missivri 42.40 27.45 Mincius F., Miitcio 45.20
Meskne 33.55 44.0 Minervae Pr., Gampa-
«Mesmtes 46.17 9.7 nella Point 40.34
Mesobatene 33.30 46.45 Minervium, Manerbio... 45.21
Mesochorion ? 40.27 17.27 Minio F., 3Tignone 42.12
Mesogaea 38.0 23.55 Minius, or Baenis, F.,
Me.s6la 37.4 22.0 Minho 42.0
VIesopotamia, Al-Jezi- Minnodunum, Moiidon.. 46.41
reh 36.0 41.0 Minoa (Araorgos), Ta
Uespila (Ninus), Nebbi Kntapnla 36.50
Yunns 36.21 4.3.11 Minoa (Creta) 35.30
Messa, Mezapo 36.33 22.23 Minoa (Creta) ? Custel
Messana, MeHiina 38.11 15.34 Mirahello 35.11
Mrssapia, or Iapygia 40.30 17.40 Minoa (Laconia), Mo-
Messapia, Meanfjite 40.33 17.50 Dcmvasia 36.41
Mes.'sapium M., A'li/pa.. 38.26 23.30 Minoa (Piphnos) 36.59
Messene 37.10 21.56 Minthe M., Alvena 37.30
Messenia 37.8 21,50 Minturnae 41.15
Mc^iseniacus S. (Asi- Mirobriga, Puebla de
iiaeus S.), (r. of Kala- Alcn.'<er 38.43
mata 36.45 22.5 Mirobriga.orMerobrica?
Messogis M., Keatane Santiago de Cacem... 38.3
Da,,h, <f:c 38.0 28.0 Misenuni Pr., G. Miseno 40.47
Mostriana? 47-10 17.2 MLsio F.. inmcone 43.26
Me.syla 36.21 43.11 Mi.^us F., J/ ("so 43.36
Metagonites (or Meta- Mizpeli, Neby Samweel 31.49
gonium'i Pr 35.15 2.45 w Mneinlum Pr., Ra»
Metalla, fghxiaa 39.19 8.32 Roway, or C. Calinez 21.0
Metapa? 38.36 21.31 Mnizus, AJaach 40.2


4.0 w
2.52 w

4.19 w
3.4 w
3.16 w



Nicium? Mit Salameh.. 30°.2O'
Nieoinedia, for. Oibia,
/zfi.-iV/ 40.48 :

Nicopolis (Aegyptus)... 31.14

Nicoijolis (Epirus), Pa-
leo-j>revena 39.0
Nicopolis (Pontus), En-
deres 39.57
Nicopoliii 41.6
Nicop51is (Tbracia), iVi-
kopoli 41.7
Ni'"'polis ad latrum,
.^iknp 43.20
NioopSlis (ad Istrum),
Nihopol 43.45
Nicotera, Nicotera 38.32
Nidum, Neath 51.40
Nigaraa, Ner/apatam.... 10.48
Niger F., J<Jiba 13.0
Nigira? Timbuctoo 17.22
«Nigritne 14.0
Nileus F.? 38.33
Nilopolis 29.7
Nilus F., .V(7e 21.20
Nineveh, Nthbi Yunua,
JCoiii/uiijik, &c 3G.21
Ninus (Mespilaof Xeno-
phon), or Nineveh,
Nebhi Ytintis 36.21
Niphates M., Ali-Dagh,
&c 38.30
Nisaea, Ninsa 37.50
Nisaea, r. >i. S. Nikolao 37.59
Nisaean Plains 34.0
Nisibis, or Antiochia
Mygdonia, Ninibin... 37.1
Nisyros? 35.42
Nisyros I., Ni»ero 36.35
Nithine? 30.49
*Xithi)nes, or Vithones 52.50
*Xitiobriges 44.30
Nivaria, ilojudot 41.27
Nivaria I., Teneriffe 28.15
Nivernum, Nevers 46.58
Noae, Xoarn 37.58
Nnega, Gljon 43.35
Nola, Nola 40.55
Notnentura, MenUina... 42.4
Nona'cris, Solo 38.1
Norba, Coiicerijano 40.57
Norba, Xorma 41.34
Norba Caesarea, Alcan-
Uira 39.41
Nnreia? Neumarkt 47.4
NoRicuM 47.30
Notium Prom., Mizen
Head 51.26
Nova, Dohra 44.36
Nova Sparsa 35.43
Novae, Gourabeli 43.39
Novana, Novi 42.59
*Novantae 55.15
Novantuna Chersonesus 54.50
Novantum Pr., Mull of
Gallown)/ 54.38
Novaria, Novnra 45.27
Novesiuin, Neiisa 51.11
Noviodunuin, Karhtadt 45.30
Novioiiunuin ? Neuvy
stir Bnranjon 47.19
Noviodunuui ? Toidtcha 45.10
Noviodunuin, aft. Dia-
blintes, Juhleins 48.17
Noviodunuin, aft. Ni-
vernum, Neverg 46.58
Noviodunuin, aft. Au-
gusta Suessionuni,
S'lifsont 49.24
Noviodunum, or Colonia
Er|uestri.», Nyon 46.23
Novioniagns ? Holwood
Hill, II. Kenton 51.21
Novioinagus, Xciimtif/en 49.53
Olives, Mount of, Jebel Opus Prom 3S°.19 22°.32'
Toor 31°.47' 35°.15' Ora? 34.12 72.23
Olizon 39.7 23.14 Okbalisknk 40.0 38.25
Ollius F., Oglin 45.55 10.14 Orbehis M 41.16 23.40
OlineiusF.? Zag«ra.... 38.20 23.4 Orearles I""., Orkxcy
Olmiae Pr., C. Olmia... 38.4 22.58 Islands 59.0 3.0 w
Olmoncs? 38.28 23.0 Orcas, orTarvedum, Pr.,
Oloetodariza 40.2 38.49 Dtinnet Heod 58.41 3.24 w
Oli.phy.xus, Khilandai-i 40.20 24.8 Orchoe, Mogeiycr 30.47 46.4
Olpae, Arapi 38.57 21.9 Orchomenus (Arcadia),
Olpac (Locris) 38.26 22.12 Kalpaln 37.44 .• 22.19
Oltis F., Zo? 44.40 2.30 Orchomenus (Boeotia),
Oinrus, Xi/h>-l-nstro 38.4 22.38 r. Skripn
ji. 38.29 22.59
Olus ? Porto di Spina Oreistus, Alehinm Jaila 39.14
Lou<ja 3.5.16 25.44 Ordessus, or Ardiscus,
Or.VMPENB 39.45 29.0 F., Arjlsch 44.23
Olyinpia 37.38 21.38 *Ordo vices 52.48
Olympus, Tichiraly 36.24 30.30 Ordymnus M 39.14
Olympus M. (Bithynia), Orestis 40.31
'Kheshish Dttfih 40.0 29.20 Orestium, Marmaria.... 37.23
Olympus M. (Cyprus), *Oretani 38.30
Oros Trondos 34.56 32.52 Orethus F., Orelo 38.6
Olympus M. (Ionia), Oretum 3S.50
m>iji Dof/h 38.22 27.22 Oreus (Ilistiaea), Oreos 38.57
Olyuipus M. (or Ormi- Orexis M 37.51
uium), Aln Dagh 40.20 32.0 Orgia, Orr/ain/a 42.13
Olympus M. (Thessalia), Orgus F.,'0»-co 45.25
Lacha 40.5 22.21 Orieum, or Oricus,
Olynthus, Agia Maria, EriHo 40.22
or AioMamas 40.16 23.21 Orippo, Alcala de Giia-
*Omanitae, Omann 23.30 57.0 daira 37.16
Omh\, Koom Ombo 24.28 32.59 *Oritao 26.0
Omirras F. (Euphra- Oriundus F.. Boyana... 41.50
tes?),3[urad Tchai.. 38.50 40.30 Oriza? Es-Suhlmeh 34.44
Omphaliuui .T 35.13 25.6 Orminium M. (Olym-
Omphaliura? 39.56 20.28 pus), Ala Dagh 40.20
On, or Onion ? (Vieus Oniene 37.47
Judaeorum), Tell el- Oinithopolis ? Ad/dn... 33.24
Yelnid 30.22 31.28 Oman da? Arwau 37.14
Onceium? 37.41 21.52 Oroatis, or Arosis, F.,
Oiichesmus, Santa Qua- Tab 30.20
ranta 39.53 20.2 Orobiae, Rovies 38.48
Onohestus 38.21 23.9 «Orobii 45.55
Onche.'^tusF 39.33 22.31 Oiobis, or Orbis. F., Orb A?,M
OneiaM... 37.52 22.56 Orolaunum, Avion 49.40
Oneum? 43.29 16.39 Orontes F., Nahr El-
Onisial.? 35.11 26.18 Ahsy 35.50
Onoba, i/!(e/6(j 37.15 6.50 w Orontes M., Elwinid 34.45
Onobrdas F. (Acesines, Oropus, Oropo 38.17
OT Amines), Cantara... 37.50 15.10 Orospeda Mons, Sierra
OnochonusF.? 39.23 22.6 A/caroz, d-r 39.0
Onthis L., L. of Bok- Orra, or Uria Locrorum,
hnri 38.21 21.35 Polozzi 38.8
Onugnathus I., Cervi, Onsi?NR 39.20
or Elafonisi 36.28 22.58 Ortliopagum, or Thu-
Onuphis? Mit Ghamr... 30.44 31.14 rium, M 38.28
*Ophionenses 38.37 22.0 Orthosia ? 34.38
Ophir? 13.20 45.0 Ortona. Ortonn 42.21
Ophius, Of. 40.59 40.19 Ortopula, S.Marco 44.16
Opliiusa, or Colubraria Ortnspana? Caubool 34.28
I. (of Strabo), For- Ortygia, Siracitna 37.3
mentera 38.42 1.25 Ortvgia I. (or Delos),
Ophiusa, or Colubraria, Belon 37.23
I., Columbretes 39.54 0.45 Orviura Prom., 0. Sil-
Ophius.sa I., A/sia 40.30 27.30 leiro 42.5
Ophrynium 40.1 26.21 Oryx, or Halus, ii. Pod-
Opinum, Oppido 40.44 15.59 hogora 37.46
Opis? 34.10 43.52 Osa F., Osa 42.32
Opitergium, Oderzo 45.47 12.31 Osaea? Bocca dello
Opizus? 42.2 25.32 Stagno 39.49
Oplonti, Torre dell' Osea, or Vesca, ffitesca 42.9
Annunciain 40.45 14.27 Oscela, Domo d'Oxiiolo.. 46.7
Opone, Hnfoon 10.26 51. IS Oseelis, Orihiiela 38.8
Oppulum Novum, El- Oscineium, J/o)(//)j d'Es-
Kadurah 36.9 2.9 cinjot 44.13
Oppiflum Novum, jVo^/e 43.11 0.16 w «0.-i 49.30
Ojitatiana, Sznmosujvar, •Osismii 48.20
or Arnienieiistndl 47.1 23.50 Osmus F., O'lnm. 43.0
Ovnntu^ls.,Mt.Khlomo, Osopum, Osojjo 46.15
>c 33..35 2.3.0 OsnoENE 37.20
Opus (Elis), n. SIciadha 37.52 21.41 Oiisa M., KisHovo 39.48
l)pus (Locris), Kardhe- Osset 37.25
nitta....^ 38.36 23.4 16 Ossonftba, Faro 30.59
Palnia, Falmu 39°.35' 2°. 39'
Palniaria I., Palmnvnla 40.56 12.52
mor 34.18 38.14
Palmyrene 34.40 38.30
Palus Maeotis, Sea of
Azov 46.0 37.0
Palus Stentoris, G. of
Enos 40.43 26.5
Palus Tritonis, Al-Sih-
kah 33.30 8.45
Pauibotis L., L. of
lanina 39.50 21.0
Paiiiisus F. (Messenia),
Pirnatzn 37.6 22.0
Pamisus F. (Thessalia),
Bliuri, or Piliuri 39.27 21.50
Pamphylia 37.0 31.0
P.anachaicus Muns, Voi-
dia 38.12 21.52
Panactura? 38.11 23.35
Panaetolium M., Viena 38.40 21.30
Pandataria I., Vando-
teua 40.47 13.25
Pandosia (Bruttiorum),
n. Mendocino 39.17 16.11
Pandosia (Epirus), -£"08-
tri 39.18 20.36
Pandosia (Lucania),
Anfflona 40.16 16.31
Paneas 33.15 35.47
Paneas, or Caesarea-
Philippi, Banias 33.16 35.42
Panephysis? 31.8 31.50
Pangaeus M., Pilaf
Tepeh 40.53 24.6
Panhormus, or Panor-
inus, Palermo 38.7 13.21
Paiiioniuui ? 37.44 27.17
Panium 33.17 35.41
Pannonia, Lower 47.O 16.0
Pannonia, Upper 46.0 18.0
Panopeus 38.29 22.48
Panornius, or Panhor-
mus), Palermo 38.7 13.21
Panorrnus (Acliaia) 38.19 21.49
Port Vislntrdho 38.27 20.34
Panornius (Creta) 35.25 24.29
Panornius (Ionia) 37.56 27.18
Panornius Portus, JCa-
rnjia Agatfch.. 36.50 28.30
Panorrnus Portus, J/a>'«a
Sollom 31.29 25.11
Panornius Purtus, Pa-
norinio 37.41 24.4
panornius Portus, Port
Palermo 40.5 19.42
Pantagias F., Poreari... 37. 18
Pantanus L., Lugo di
Lesina 41.53
Panticapaeuni, Kertsch 45.22
Pantichium, Pandilc... 40.54
Pany.sus F., Pravadi... 4.3.10
PaphlagoniA 41.10
Paphos, Buffo 34.45
Pappa? 37.28
Papua M.? 37.3
of El-Burz, or Cas-
pian M" 36.0
Paraetacene ? 38.30
*Paraetaccni 33.0
Paraetonium, Ifarsa
Labeit 31.21
Paralia 37.50
Paran, Desert of, £1-
T:h 30.30
Parapotamii, r. 11. Be-
lissi 38.33
ParaFopia, Plain of .38.15
Paravaea 40.26
PardostLa 39.50

pERStS 30°.0' 52°.0' Pharax, Koudinh 30°.45' 18°.20' 23 Phoeliae, or Phytia,

Perta, Ujuk }\»,i(,t 38.21 33.36 Pharia, see Pbarus Porta 38='.41' 21°.ll'
Pertusa," Pc'rtiwii 41.57 0.1 w Pharis, Vojio 27.1 22.29 18 PnoEsicE 34.0 35.40
PcTxisia,Perugia 43.7 12.23 Pharmacussa I., Far- Phoeniee (Chaonia),
Posslnus, Bala Hismr.. 39.20 31.45 mnko 37.17 27.7 Fiiiiki 39.50 40.12
Pessiuui (Contra Acin- Pharmatenus 40.56 38.11 Phoeniee (Creta), /,ii«)-o 35.12 24.0
cuni), Pesth 47.30 19.6 Pharnacia, Kerasoun..,. 40.56 38.24 Pboenicium, Phiciuni,
Petaliiie I"'., PeUdies I'. 38.0 24.18 Pharos I., Faro, or or Sphingium, M.,
Pctavonium? 42.5 6.30 W Lighthouse of Alex- Faga 38.23 23.12
Peteon? 38.24 23.21 andria 31.12 29.55 Phoenicum Oppidum,
Petilia, StrongoU 39.17 17.5 Pharsalus, Fersala 39.16 22.23 Mowilah 27.40 35.30
Petiliana 37.21 14.0 Pharus, or Pharia, I., Phoenicus (Cythera),
Petinesca, Bienne 47.8 7.15 Lesina 43.10 16.40 Arlemona 36.13 23.5
Petitarus F 38.52 21.19 "'Pharusii 16.0 15.0 w Phoenicus (Ionia)?
Petra (Arabia), r. in Pharygium Prom., O. Tchesmeh 38.20 26.20
Wachi Momn 30.25 35.38 Puiida 38.20 22.41 Phoenicus Portus 36.49 21.49
Petra (Colchis), Ziched- Phaselis, Tekrova 36.32 30.36 Phoenicus Portus 36.15 29.26
shari 41.44 41.43 Phasiane 40.6 42.0 Phoenicus Portus,
Petra (lUyricum), on Phasis, Poti 42.8 41.38 Ghatfa Bay 31.8 27.55
C. Poll 41.25 19.25 Phasis F., Rion 42.10 41.50 Phoenicus Portus, Porto
Petra (Macedonia), Pe- Phasis F.(ofXenophon)? Vindicari 36.58 15.5
troritKch 41.26 23.15 Aras 40.14 43.0 Phoenicusa I., Filicuri 38.35 14.30
Petra (Pieria) 40.11 22.16 Phatisane, Fatsa 41.3 37.27 Phoenix P.? Salmeniko 38.15 21.56
Petra (Sicilia), JBuon- Phatnitic, or Pathme- Phoenix M 36.39 28.10
pietro 37.44 14.6 tic, Mouth (of Nile), Phoezon 37.36 22.26
Petra Magna 31.45 25.6 Bamietta JIfoulh 31.30 31.41 Pholegandros I., Poly-
Petra Parva, Ras el- Phaura I., Phleva 37.46 23.46 kandro 36.38 24.55
Toum 32.14 23..38 PhazANIA, Fezzan 27.0 14.0 Pholoe M 37.45 21.45
Petra Pertiisa, Pietra Phazeiiion, Mersiwan... 40.50 35.36 Phorbantia, or Bucinna,
Pertima 42.2 12.30 PHAZEJfONiTlS 40.50 35.40 I., Levanzo 38.3 12.19
Petra Pertusa, or Inter- Pheia, Pondiko Kastro 37.39 21.19 Phorbia Pr., Pt. Euro... 37.28 25.28
eisa, II Fuilo 4.3.36 12.41 Phelleus M., Mavronoro 38.14 23.56 Phorcys Portus? Afri-
Petrae 45.50 23.4 Phelloe, Znkhnli 38.5 22.24 kis Bar/ 38.28 20..38
Petriana, Castlestcads... 54.57 2.45 W Pheneiis, Fonia 37.54 22.19 Phoron Portus 37.57 23.;i6
Petrina? 37.41 14.1 Pherae? 38.18 23.35 Photinopolis 41.25 26.33
«Petrocorii 45.0 0.40 Pherae, Velentino 39.24 22.43 Phra, Furrah 32.23 62.8
Petrocorii, for.Vesunna, Pherae, Verria 37.11 22.32 Phricius M 38.45 22.26
Perigueu^ 45.11 0.44 Pherae, or Pharae, Ka- Phrixa, Paleo Fanaro.. 37.38 21.43
Petromantalum,5f.C/«iV 49.12 1.40 lamata 37.2 22.8 Phrygia 39.0 30.45
Petuaria ? Brough on Pherendis? Plraii 38.21 40.5 Phrygia-Epictetus.... 39.36 30.30
Number 53.44 0.33 w Phiala L 33.15 35.50 Phrygius, or Hyllus, F. 38.46 27.40
Peuce I., J/oM 45.0 29.30 Phieium, Phoeniciura, Phtuiotis 39.6 22.35
Peueela? Pushkalnvati 34.12 72.16 or Sphingium, M., Phycus 32.56 21.38
Peucetia 41.0 16.40 Faga 38.23 23.12 Phycus Pr., Ras Sem,
«Peucini 45.15 29.15 Phigiilia, or Phigaleia, or El-Razat 32.56 21.38
*Peucini, or Bastarnae 48.30 21.0 fi. Pavlitza 37.24 21.51 Pbvlace (Laconia),
Phaciuin? 39.35 .22.0 Phigamus F., Bscherwis krya Vrysi 37.20 22.26
Phacusa, Tell Falchous 30.46 31.44 Bere 41.0 37..30 Phylace (Pieria), Ser-
Phacussa I., Z'aro 36.53 25.40 Phila? 39.55 22.40 via, or Voluatana 40.13 21.58
Phaedriades 38.30 22.30 Philadelphia (Rabbath- Phylace (Thessalia), r.
Phaedrias? 37.21 22.4 amraon, or Kabbah), V. GMdek 39.13 22.38
Phae.Hus 35.3 24.49 Anividti 31.58 86.0 Phvle 38.9 23.-39
Phaestus? AUfttka 39.34 22.10 Philadelphia, Allah- Phyllus 37.37 22.68
Phaestiis, Vithari 38.21 22.21 shehr 38.21 28.35 Phyrites F 38.10 27.20
Phalacriuin Prom., Capo Philae I., Jeziret Anas- Physcus, Marmarat, or
Jiiisocohno 38.18 15.31 el- Wo/'oud 24.1 32.54 Marmarice 36.52 28.19
Phalii'crum Prom., C, Philia Prom., C. Ka- Physcus F., Adhem 34.20 44.29
Brasti 39.48 19.38 liovjik 41.2J5 28.28 Pliyteum, A'uye/f) 38.36 21.35
Phalanna, ji. Kavajoli... 39.45 22.20 Philippi, for. Crenides, Phytia, or Phoeliae,
Phalara ".
38.53 22.30 Filibi 41.4 24.22 Porta 38.41 21.11
Phalarus F 38.24 22.58 Philippopolis, Filippo- Picentia, Vicenza 40.37 14.54
Phalasarna 35.31 23.34 poli 42.2 24.55 *Pieentini 40.40 15.0
Phalerura 37.56 23.39 Philippopolis, Oermaun 32.34 36.54 Pieentinum, Brod 45.9 18.2
Phalerura Portus, Porto •Philistines 31.35 34.40 PiCENUM 43.0 1.3.35
Fanart... 37.56 23.40 Philocalia 41.3 39.5 Piciniana? 37.24 13.35
Phaloria 39.36 21.38 Philomelium, Ak Shehr 38.23 31.36 PictSvi, Poitiers 46.35 0.20
Phamothis, El-Khreit... 31.2 29.51 Philotera, Old Cos- *Pietones, or Pictavi... 46.40 1.0 •«
Phanae Prom., C. J/o«- seir 26.13 34.14 Pieria 36.30 36.0
tiko 38.9 26.1 Philyrsis I 40.59 38.36 PiRRiA 40.15 22.20
Phaijagoria, n. Taman., 45.15 36.45 Phinea, or Phinopolis... 41.10 29.4 Pierus M 40.10 22.5
Phanaroea 40.46 36.30 Phintias, Alicata, or Pietas Julia, for. Pola,
Phara 38.38 20.37 Licata 37.4 13.55 Pola 44.52 1.3.50
Pharae 38.5 21.44 Phintonis I.? Caprera.. 41.13 9.27 Pinara 36.30 29.17
Pharae, or Pherae, Ka- Phliasia 37.50 22.37 Pinarus F., Beli Tchai 36.50 36.10
Inx'-i.ta 37.2 22.8 Phlius, Pohjfengo 37.50 22.39 Pindus M 40.0 21.25
Pharaga, Makam 31.8 66.8 Phlya, Knvara 37.49 23.58 Pineptimi (False Mouth
Pharan, Feiran 28.42 33.38 Phoeae, Port Skropo- of Nile 81.34 31.10
Pharan Prom, (or Posi- neri 38.29 23.20 Pinetus? Piiihel 40.46 7.1 W
dium) ? Ras Moham- Phooaea, Fougcs, '
or Pinna, Civitd di Penne 42.25 13.59
oned 27.44 54.15 24 Foggia 38.41 26.46 Pintia? 41.45 4.20 w
Plinrasp.a, Gaza, or Piiocis 38.30 22.40 Piquentum, Pinguente.. 45.25 13.59
(fazaca, Tnkht-i^Su- Phocusae I"., Moulrou Pirae? n. Bedroni 38.7 21.36
feiinuun 80.28 47.8 Rocks U.25 27.6 Piresiae, Vlokho 39.30 22.1
Pirina? 37°.51' 13°.6I' 12 Pollentia (Picenimi),
Pirum, Buhharest 44.28 26.8 14 Mnnte Moline 43°.16' 13°.22'
Pisa 37.40 21..S9 IS Polyaegos I., Poliuo.... 36.45 24.39
Pisae, Pisa 43.43 10.23 8 Polyanthes F., River
PiSAEA, or PiSATis 37.43 21.38 18 of Livizza 40.16
Pisaurura, Pesoro 43.55 12.55 8 Polybotus, Bulwudun... 38.43
Pisavae, Pellisane 43.38 5.10 6 Polyrrbenia 34.27
PisiDiA 37.30 31.0 20 Polytimetus F., Zeraf-
Pisiuirus, or Isaurus, F., shan 40.0
Foc/lia 43.47 12.30 8 Pompeii 40.45
Pisoraca F., Pisnergn... 41.50 4.30 W 7 Pompeiopolis, or Soli,
PistDrium, or Pistoria, Mezetli 36.44
Pistoja 43.58 10.56 a Pompeiopolis, Tash Ku-
Pistyros 40.52 24.38 19 pri 41.28
Pitane, Snndarlik 38.56 26.27 19 Pompelo, Pamplona, or
Pitch Springs (of Za- Pampehtiia 42.48
cynthus) 37.41 20.50 IS Pomptinae Paludes,
Pitbeciisa, Aenaria, or Pontxv.e Ilfarshes 41.25
Inarime, I., Ischia.... 40.44 13.54 13 Pons Aelii, Newcastle on
Pithom, Thoura, or Tyne 54.58
Ethain, (Patuinos?) Pons Aliitae, Slatina.... 44.25
r. n. Ahassieh 30.28 31.35 Pons Aufidi, Ponte S.
Pitonius F., Gioveiico... 41.59 13.40 Venere 41.5
Pitya 40.26 27.10 Pons Augusti 45.29
Pityonnesus I., Angiatri 37.42 23.21 Pons Aureoli, Ponti-
Pityus, Pitznnda 43.10 40.17 runlo 45.35
Pityus.ae I"«., Iviza and Pons Drusi 46.31
Formeiitera 39.0 1.25 Pons Dubis 46.55
Pityus&a 1 37.26 23.32 Piins Liquentiae, La
Pityussal.,/)f()ia.4(/a«»i', 3Iotta 45.46
or ProveiiQal 1 36.11 33.48 Pons Milvius, Ponte
Placentia, Piacenza 45.3 9.43 3Iolle 41.57
Plagiaria? El-Cuman- Pons Nartiae (Martia?),
dante 39.7 6.45 w 3fonteceda 42.58
Planasia I., Pianosa.... 42.33 10.8 Pons Naviae, Navia de
Planesia I., P?/(nn 38.10 0.27 w Suortia 43.9
Plataeae, Zb7.-?« 38.12 23.16 Pons Oeni, Wasserbiirg 48.4
Platamodes Prom 37.9 21.34 Pons Saravi, Snrre-
PlK-tanistus 36.3 32.42 boiirg 48.44
Piatanistus Prom., G. Pons Servilii, ji. Sturga,
Spathi 36.23 22.57 or Stnigo 41.13
Platanum 33.41 35.28 Pons Sociorum ? 46.22
Platea I., Bomba
32.23 23.15 Pons Vetus, Kosia 45.16
Plateia. Plnl-a 36.4 26.26 Pontes, Poiiche 50.20
Plavis F., P/rtwe 46.20 12.22 Pontes, Staines 51.26
Pleistus F., Xeropotamo 38.28 22.30 Pontes Tessenii, on
Plemmyrium 37.1 15.17 River Loisnch 47.43
«Pleraei 43.0 18.15 Pontia I., Ponza 40.54
Plera, Grnvina 40.46 16.24 Pontinus M 37.33
•j*Plestinia? Penchio A«8e- PoNTUS 40.30
rolo 41.49 13.44 Pontus Eu.xinus, Black
Pleuron, Castle of Irene 38.25 21.26 Sea 44.0
Plinii Villa, Plimana.... 45.52 9.10 Pontus F., Radovitz 41.26
Plinthlne? 30.54 29.28 PONTUS Poi.EMONIACUS 41.0
Plintliinetes S., Arabs Populonium 43.0
Gitif 31.0 29.20 Populonium Pr., Capo
Plumbaria 1 38.46 0.14 di Canipana 42.57
Plmnbaria (or Enosis?) Porata, or Hierasus, F.,
I., .S*. Antinco 39.0 8.23 Prnfh 47.0
Plumbinaria,P('»i23<'''a»'a 41.44 13.2 Porcifera F., Polcevera 44.26
Pluvialia I.? Ferro, or Porolissus, Bistritz 47.8
Hierro 27.45 18.0 w Porphyrion, .^eii yu)i«« 33.37
Podalia „ 36.47 29.54 Porsulae 40.58
Podandus 37.22 34.54 Porticen.=es 39.32
Poecilasium 35.14 23.48 Portus Adurni? Aldring-
P.ieflle Petra 36.24 34.2 ton 50.50
»Poedicfili 41.10 16.30 Portua Argous, Porto
Poetovio, Pettau 46.25 15.51 Ferrajn 42.48
Pogla, Fidln 37.16 30.19 Portus Augusti, Porto.. 41.46
Pogon, Port Vidhi 37.31 23.25 Portus Brundiilus,i?ro»i-
P'jiessa 37.35 24.18 doio 45.10
Pola, aft. Pietas Julia, Portus Classis? 44.22
f^ola 44.52 13.50 Portus Cossanus, orHer-
Polaticura Pr., C. Pro- culis, Porto d'Frcole 42.12
montoire 44.46 13.54 Portus Delphini, Porto
Polemonium, Pulemati.. 41.1 37.30 Fino 44.19
Poliehne, Reonda 37.15 22.46 Portus Divinus? 35.44
Polichne 37.17 21.54 Portus Domitianus,
Polifhiie? Sknla 38.22 26.47 Porto S. Stcfnno 42.26
Polimartium, Bomnrzo.. 42.30 12.14 Portus Dubris, Dover... 51.8
Politorium, La Giostra 41.46 12.35 Portus Eilro 45.15
Pollentia, Pullenzn 44.41 7.55 Portus Faleria, Porto
Pollentia, Pollenza .^9.52 3.5 FaUse 12.56
Posirlotiiuin, Posi-
or Psapon Pr., C. Spnda... Zb^AV 23°.44' 19 Pyrrba (Lesbos) 39°.9' 26°.18' 19
(li 'lira Pr., C.Posidhi, Psamathus Portus, Port Pyrrba Prom., C. An-
or K,i8i<indrn 39°.57' 23°.21' Kaio 36.26 22.30 18 yhistri 39.19 22.57
Posidonium, Port Kis- Psapbara. or Antigonea 40.20 23.6 15 Pyrrbasus, n. Kokkina 39.18 22.60
tenics, or Aaomata.... 36.24 22.29 Psapbis, Kalamo 38.16 23.53 16 Pyrrbiflius, n. Kavalos 36.39 22.26
Potarai 41.58 34.50 Pselcis, Dakke 23.12 32.46 3 Pytbis Prom., Raa el-
PoTAMtA 40.50 3.'5.0 P.silis 36.42 28.44 19 Hazeit 31.23 27.24
Potamos, Pnho Kattro 37.47 24.2 Psilis F 41.5 30.0 20 Pytbiuin 40.3 22.14
Potentia, Poteiizn 40.37 15.47 Psopbis, Tn'potamo 37.52 21.54 IS Pytbo (Delpbi), Kaatri 38.28 22.31
Potentia, S. Maria di Psycbium 35.6 24.41 19 Pyxltes F., Vitzeh Su... 41.10 41.16
Potenzn 43.24 n.^9 Psygraos, Gulwaini {or Py.\us, or Busentum,
Potentia F., Potenza..., 43.25 13.39 Great L.) 11.59 50.45 2 Policast.ro 40.1 15.32
Potidaca, aft. Cassan- Psylli 1 Pyxus F., Bncento 40.5 15.31
drla, Pinaka 40.11 23.20 Pfyra I., Panra 38.35 25.36 19 Pyxus Pr., Capo degl'
Potniae? 38.17 23.18 Psyttaleia I., i)>so 37.56 23.35 16 Infreschi 39.56 15.25
Praeneste, Palestriua... 41.51 12.55 Pteleuin? 38.30 26.25 19
Praesidiiim ? 41.58 9.24 Pteleum, Pteleo 39.1 22.57 Q.
Praesidiuin ? 41.8 7.45 w Ptolemais (Accho), St. «Quadi 49.0 16.30
Praesidiiim? S. Estevan 42.26 7.48 W Jean d' Acre 32.56 35.5 21 Quadrata, Verginmost... 45.21 15.53
Pniesidium, S. Lucar de Ptolemais (Cyrcnaica), Quactis P., Qnieto 45.20 13.40
Gnndi,i„a 37.20 7.16 \f Tolmeitn 32.43 20.55 23 Qiierquetiila ? Cappan-
Praesidiiim Julium, or Ptolemais Hermii, El- vcllo 41.56 12.47
Scalabis, 6'rt)i^/ce»i... 39.16 8.38 w Memhieh 26.28 31.48 3 Quintiana, Landau 48.40 12.44
Praesidiiim Pompeii, Ptolemais Theron ? Erih Quiza? 35.50 0.28 w
Bonlovun 43.30 21.32 hJand 18.8 38.30 3
Praesus 35.7 26.7 Ptoum M., Sfnitzina.... 38.27 2.3.17
Praetoria Augusta 45.56 27.0 Ptyehia I., F?rfo 39.38 19.55 16 Rabbab, or Rabbatn-
Praetoriura 45.7 22.21 Pueinum, Caxfel Dnino 45.46 13.27 S ainmon (Philadel-
Praeforiiim 46.4 1.35 Pulcbrum Prom.? G. pbia), Ammdn 31.58 36.0
Praetorium, Ihigiiifjllnna 43.31 16.7 Zebceb 37.17 10.1 23 Kabbath-moab (Areo-
Praetoriura, Grniio/lera 41.38 2.20 Pullariae I'^, Brioni, polis. or Ar of Moab),
Praetorium ? n. Hun- d;c 44.54 1.3.45 liabba 31.22 35.45
manby 54.11 O.lSw Pullopice, Finale 44.11 8.20 Radis, or Ratis, I., /.
Praetorium, Riwmk 45,4 24.23 Pulora I, Po?»or 26.17 54.38 de Ri 46.10 1.25 w
Praetorium Agrippinae, Pumentum, Oerenzn 39.16 16.49 Ragandum, Windisch
n. Zwieten 52.8 4.32 Pupulum, Villamasar- Feistritz 46.25 15.35
Praetorium Latovieo- gia 39.17 8.38 Rama, Rame 44.45 6.32
rum, Neustadtl 45.48 15.13 Puteolanus (or Cam- Ramab, Er-Ram. 31.51 35.15
»Praetutii 42.35 13.35 panus) S., Bay of Rambacia? 26.10 66.20
Pramnos M., MelUm... 37.33 26.5 Naples 40.40 14.10 Raineses, or Betb-sbe-
Prasiae, r. on Porto Puteoli, Puzzuoli 40.49 14.7 mesh (Heliopolis),
Itafti 37.52 24.2 Pycnus F 35.36 23.58 JIfaiarieh 30.8 31.20
Prasiae, or Brasiae ? St, Pydna, Kitro 40.22 22.33 Ramidava? Riinnik 45.17 27.9
Andreas 37.22 22.47 Pygela 37.54 27.18 Ramotb-gilead, Jelaad 32.10 35.48
Pr.asias, or Cercinitis, Pygmaei Rapbia, Re/ah 31.17 34.14
L., Tahhyno 40.55 23.50 Pylae Albaniae, or Cas- Rarapia, Fcrreira... 38.6 8.0 w
»Prasii 26.0 83.0 \>\a,e, Pass of Derhend ^2.(i 48.16 Ratae, Leicester 52.38 1.8 w
Prasuiu Prom., G. Del- Pylae Amanicae (of Rataneum 43.15 17.5
gado 10.20s 40.20 Arrian) 37.0 36.23 Ratiaria, or Rhaetiaria,
Premnis, Jhrim 22.40 32.0 Pylae Caspiae, Pass of Widin 43.57 22.55
Prepesinthos I., Despo- Gadiik 35.50 62.56 Ratiatuin 47.0 1.53 w
tiko 36.57 25.0 Pylae Caucasiae, Pass Rauda, Roa 41.43 3.58 W
Pria, or Iria Flavia, El- 'of Dariel...: 42.44 44.41 Raudii Campi? 45.27 9.0
Padron 42.38 8.38 w Pylae Ciliciae, Golek *Rauraci 47.40 7.20
Prian.<<us? 35.1 25.18 Boyhaz 37.14 34.50 Rauranum, Rom 46.17 0.5
Prifipus 40.25 27.20 Pylae(()fMesopotamia)? Ravenna, Ravenna 44.25 12.14
Priene, Sarmoiiii 37.40 27.19 Aiibar 33.30 42.59 Rente, Rieti 42.24 12.53
Prif'ernum, Aixerrfio 42.23 13.32 Pyl.ae Persicae? Kaleh *Rod6nes 48.0 1.40 w
Priveriium, u. PijJeriio.. 41.29 13.11 'Se/ced 30.16 51.50 Redoncs, Rennes 48.7 1.40 w
Probalinthus 38.6 23.59 Pylae (Pontus), Kula- Regama? Raa al-
Probatia F 38.26 22.51 bat Boyhaz 40.37 39.36 Khainia 25.47 56.5
Pn.ehyla I., Prncida... 40.45 14.1 Pylae Syriae, Pass of Regeta 41.19 13.10
Frvcolitia,, Carrawbiirgh 55.2 2.11 w Beilan 36.29 36.10 Regia? Armagh 54.21 6.39 w
Proconnesus I., Mnr- Pylae Svriae-Ciliciae, Regia Altera, Limerick 62.41 8.38 w
vwra 40.37 27.35 Sakal Tvtan 36.39 36.11 Rogiana, Reyna 38.11 6.2 w
Proerna, Gfiynekokiislro 39.13 22.16 Pylae Zagri (or Mediae), Regillus L., Cornufelle 41.50 12.43
Prolaqueum, Pioracco.. 43.8 13.1 Tak-i-Girrah 34.25 46.20 Reginum, Regensbitrg,
Promona 44.0 16.12 Pylus 37.0 21.40 or Ratisbon 49.1 12.e
Proni, n. Limenia 38.8 20.47 Pylus, or Coryphasium, Regium Lepidi, Reg-
Prophtbasia, Peahawu- Paleo Avarin 36.57 21.40 9^0 44.42 10.36
roon 31.50 61.48 Pylus (Elis), «. Krdugli 37.50 21.33 *Regni 51.0 0.0
Propontis, Sea of Mar- Pylus (Trypbylia), Bia- Regnum, Chichester 50.50 0.46 w
mora 40.45 28.0 kini 37.29 21.41 Eegulbiura, Reculver.... 61.23 1,11
Proschium 38.28 21.22 Pvra M 38.50 22.1 Reii, Riez 43.50 6.5
Prosymna 37.35 22.57 Pyramids (Great) 29.58 31.5 Remesiana, Mousa Pa-
Prote I., Porqiierollea... 43.0 6.13 Pyramus F., Jaihdn 37.18 36.0 sha Palanka 43.12 22.26
Prote I., /'»-o<! 37.3 21.34 Pyrantbus, Pyrathi 35.6 25.11 *Remi 49.30 4.0
Prusa, Bruaa 40.10 29.8 Pyrenaei Ms., Pyrenees 42.40 0.0 Remi, Rheims 49.15 4.1
Prusias, or Cierus, Ua- Pyrenaeum Prom.,' G. Repbidim ? in Wady
kiib, or Eaki Bagh.... 40.50 31.21 Greuse 42.19 3.20 Sheikh 28.41 34.1
Prymnessus? Seid el- Pyrgi 37.24 21.42 Rerigonium? Stranraer 54.54 5.1 w
Ghazy 39.23 30.55 Pyrgi, Santa Severa 42.1 11.55 Rerigonius S., Loch
iVytauis F., Kala Ucre 41.0 41.10 Pyrrba (loiiia) 37.30 27.22 Ryan 55.0 5.4
Resaena, aft. Tlieodo-
siopolis,, Rfis el-Aiii.. 3fi°.52' 40°.l'
Rcsapha, Resnfnh 35. 3i
Resen (Larissa) ? Nim-
roud 36.0
Respa, Mnlfetta 41.12
Retina, n. Resina 40.48
»Reudigni 53.20
Revessium, S. Paulien 45.8
Rha F., VoI:,a 60.0
Rha F. East' branch of),

Kama 56.0
Rhabon F., Sch,/l 44.30
Rhaedestus, orBisanthe,
Rodosto 40.59
Rhaetia 47.0
Rliaetiaria, or Ratiaria,
Wid{,i 43.57
Rba<;ae, Veramii) 35.37
Rharanus, Orriohastro.. 38.12
Rharnnus Portus, Sto-
mio 35.23
Rhaptum Prom.? 2.0s
RhaptusF.? 2.0 8
Rhato.stathybius F.,
Tnff 51.30
Rhaucus 35.15
Rhausium 42.42
Rivit Kaleh
Vi\\6ha.s, 41.14
Rhegium, Reggio 38.6
Rheiti 38.1
Kheitrum Portus, G. of
Molo 38.23
Rbeitus, »i. Galataku... 37.51
Rhenea I., Rhenea 37.25
Rhenus F., Rhine 49.0
Rhenus F., Reno 44.15
Rhesus F.. Karatli 40.11
Rhezius, Riza 41.4
Rhigodunurn, or Coc-
ciiim, Ribchester. 53.49
Rhinocolura, or Rhino-
corura? El-Arish 31.6
RntiiM.. 36.50
Rhium Prom., Copo di
Feno 41.58
Rhium Prom., Kaatro
Moren 38.18
Rhizon, Ri'sano 42.32
Rliizus? 39.40
Rhoda, Roans 42.18
Rhodanus F., Rhone.... 44.20
Rhodius F 40.8
Rhodope M., Despoto
Dagh 41.30
Rhodos, Rhodes 36.26
Rhodes I., Rhodes 36.10
Rhoduntia 38.45
Rhodusa I., Linosa 36.46
Rhoeteum 39.59
Rhoet-eum Prom 40.
Rhoge I., St. George.... 36.9
Rhossus, Ai-HooB 36.23
Rhossus Mons, Jebel
Keserlk 36.20
Rhotanus F., Tavignano 42.13
Rhudiae (lapygia)? 40.29
Rhudiae (Peucetia), ^u-
drUt 41.12
Rhygniana 36.5
Rhvndacus F., Mua-
I'itt^h 40.18
Rhyphae (or Rhypes)? 38.16
Riciria, 44.23
Riduna I., Alderney 49.43
Rigoniagus, Reinmagen 50.34
Rigoinagus, Rinco 45.3
Riobe, Orhy 48.30
Ripa Alta?'. 46.31
Rintiaei (or Ilyperbo-
rei) Monte.s, S. part

qf Ural 58.0
Balmantica (Elman-
tlca ?), Salamniica..,, 41°. 6'
Salmone, Krehuki 37.40
Balmorudis, or Halmy-
ris? 44.50
Saluiydessus, Midiah... 41.40
Salo F., Xa/o>i 41..'50

Salodurum, Soleure 47.13

Sal';N 40.40
Saluna, Sulona 43.32
Salsovia, Jiaba Dagh... 44.55
Salsulae, Sulces 42.50
Silsuin Fluincn 37.20
Salt, Valley of, El-Ghor 31.5
Saltici, Sisante 39.30
Saltus Castulonensis.... 38.40
Salurnum, Sulunio 46.17
Salves 43.30
Baiuara F., Somnie 50.0
SAMAniA 32.10
Sainnria, aft. Sebaste,
Scbnstieh 32.18
Siiinarobriva, aft. Am-
biani, Ainiena 49.54
Sainhina? Seimarrah... 32.57
Sainbracitanus S., St.
Tr./j)ez, or Grimnud D. 43.17
Sambulos M., SuubuJah 34.15
Same, Samos 38.14
Samlcum 37.32
Saminthus? Kntzopodhi 37.41
Samnium 41.30
Samochonitis L. (Waters
of Merom), liahr el-
Houle 33.5
Banionium Prom., or
Sahiione? C. Sldero.. 35.20
Samos 37.42
Samos I., Sumo 37.45
Samos, or Cephallenia,
I., Cephalonia 38.15
SamosJita, Snmosat 37.32
Saraothrace, Pahnpoh'.. 40.30
Samothrace I., Samo-
tJiraJci 40.26
Sanderva 42.42
Sane 40.6
Sane (UranopSlis?) 40.22
Sangala? 31.0
Sanj^arius F., 40.0
Sanina, jifof/han 39.38
Sanisera, Alajor 39.53
Sanora, Sclicmknr 40.43
Santicum, n. Vi/lnch.... 46.38
*Sant6nes, or Santoni.. 45.45
Santones, Sm'ntes c. 45.45

Santonum Portus, La
liocheUe 46.10
Santonum Prom 46.16
Sapianae, Fuii/kirchen,
or Pecs 46.5
Sapis F., S'lvio 43.54
Sapphe, or Bezabde,
Jezireh Ibn Omar.... 37.17
Saragana, Sinkar 36.54
Sar.\mene 41.20
Saranga 26.0
Sarapana, Scharupa)n... 42,6
Sardiea, Sophia 42.37
Sardis, Sart 38.28
Sardo, or Sardinia,
Sardinia 40.0
Sarepta (Zarephath),
Surdfeud 33.57
Sargarausene 39.23
Sarmatia 54.0
Sarmatia AsiatIca 46.0
Sarmatici Ms 49.0
Barmatlcus Oceanus, or
Mare Suevicum, Bal-
tic Sen 57.0
larmizegetusa (Col.
UIpLi Trajana} 45.30
NAMKS. l^Ai.
Bogobodium, Sereiij. 47°. 34' 5°. 45'
Scgobriga, Segorbe 40.24
Begodunum.aft. Ruteni,
lihodez 44.21
Segontia, Epiln 41.41
Segontia, Siyuenzn 41.4
*Segontiaci 51.6
Segontium, Ca<;r Seiont
(Caernarvon) 53.9
Segora, Segre 47.42
Segosa. Escuiirse 44.10
*Segovellauni 44.50
Begovia, Segovia 41.1
*.Segusiani 45.40
Pegusio, Siisn 45.7
t^egustero, Siaferon 44.12
Peir Mt, Jebel esh-
Sherah 30.30
Sejrae, Lopesi 37.52
Sela , 37.6
Sela F., Laiigovardko... 37.6
Selambina. Salohrena... 36.45
Selcmnus F 38.16
Seleucia 33.4
Seleucia? 33.3
Seleucia (Cilicia), Selef-
keh 36.23
Seleucia (Pamphylia)... 36.51
Seleucia in Pieria, ji.
Siiadeiah 36.6
Seleucia Sidera, Eger-
dir 37.54
Seleucis 36.15
Selge, Snrk 37.19
»Selgovae 55.20
Seliniana? Eatrica 41.56
Seusitis 36.20
Selinus, Kosmas 37.5
Selinus, Pileii 37.36
Seiinus. or Tnijanopo-
lis, Selinh, .36.16
Selinus F., Madiani 37.36
Selinus F., Vostitzo 38.5
Selinus Portus. Esmnrh 31.29
Sellasia, St. Soranda... 37.7
Sellium, Seijo 39.46
Selymbria 41.5
Seuiirus F., Simmari... 39.0
*Senin6nes 52.10
Sena F., Cesano 43.39
Sena Galliea, Sinigag-
lin 43.43
Sena I"., /». de Sein.... 48.4
Sena Julia, Sienna 43.22
*Sen6nes 48.0
*Senones 43.50
Senones, Sena 48.11
Sentiee, Coatroverde 40.51
Seniinum, Sentina 43.26
Senus F., Shannon 53.15
Sepelaci, Caatellon de la
Plana 39.59
Sepia M 39.54
Sepias Prom 39.10
Sepinum, Sepino 41.26
Sepouiana, Oniago 45.25
Sepphoris, nft. Diocae-
sarea, Sefurith 32.45
Septem Maria 45.0
Sepfem Fratres, Jehel
Mouaa 35.54
Septempeda, ^. ^ferertHO 43.15
Si'ptimaiica, Simancaa.. 41.35
Sequana F., Seine 49.0
*Scquani 47.0
Ser«nu.=a 40.27
Serapaeum 41.9
Serapeum (Banl-
zeplion ?), r. below
Birlct Temaeh 30 24
Serapis I., Maaaera 20.30
Borl)oni.< \incu$, Sabak(tt
Btxrduwal 31.5
BitoraSgus, Dunwich.... 52°.ir 1°.36' 5 Spiraeum Prom., C. «Suessotani ?...., 39°.30' 0°.30' w
Sittace 33.17 44.2G 22 Spin' 37°.48' 23°.ll' *Suessiones 49.10 3.20
SiTTACENE 33.20 44.30 22 Spoletium, Spoleto 42.45 12.48 Suessula, Sessola 41.1 14.22
Sivel, or Suel, Cast, de Stabatio, Monsetier 44.58 6.30 *Suctri 43.50 6.30
Frangerola 36.33 4.37 W 7 Stabiae, Cantelldmare.... 40.41 14.29 «Suevi 61.20 14.0
Smenus F., Arna 36.43 22.33 18 Stabula, Ottmnraheim... 47.47 7.30 Suevicura Mare, or
Sminthiuin, or Chryse.. 39.38 26.10 19 Stabulum Novum, Sit- Sarmaticus Oceanus,
Smyrna, Smyrna 38.26 27.10 19 ja« 41.15 1.49 Ballic Sea 67.0 20.0
Smyrna Antiqua 38.28 27.10 19 Staehir, or Trachir, F., Sufasar? Medeya 36.17 2.45
Soastris. Keiiprikeui..., 43.1 27.26 14 Gnmhia 13.30 15.0 w Sufes, Esbibah 35.22 9.7
Socoh, Exh-ShuweiL-eh.. 31.25 35.4 21 Stageirus, or Stageira? 40.35 23.48 Sufetula, Sbelilah 35.1 9.15
SonucENE 39.40 45.30 22 Stanacum ? 48.26 13.51 Suillum, or Helvillum,
*S(.s;ai 28.20 69.30 3 Staneclum? 43.28 18.47 Sigillo 43.20 12.45
SOGDIANA 40.0 64.0 3 "*Statielli 44.37 8.25 Suindinum, aft. Ceno-
Solentii I"., Zirone, &c. 43.26 16.10 14 Steiria, r. on Porto mani, Le Mans 48.0 0.11
Soli, Solia 35.9 32.51 20 Rnfti 37.53 24.1 Suinus F., Salino........ 42.22 14.0
Soli, or Pompeiopolis, Stelae 35.6 25.13 *Suiones 60.0 15.0
Mezetl! 36.44 34.34 20 Stenae, Rotherthurm..., 45.35 24.14 Suissa 39.55 39.53
Solia. or Arae Hesperi, Stknyclerhs 37.13 22.0 Suissatio? Vittoria 42.62 2.42 w
S. Lucnr la Mayor... 37.24 «.2 W 7 Stepbane, htifnn 41.57 34.34 Sulcense Prom., Punta
Solimariaca, Soidonse... 48.24 5.44 6 Stiris, r. n. Kyriahi 38.22 22.46 Sperone 38.68 8.23
Solimnia I., Pelago 39.20 24.5 vl9 Stobi, Stohi 41.10 21.50 Sulci? Bari 39.51 9.38
S.. Ilium 38.48 20.52 15 Stoeobades I"., Isles Sulci, Porto Botte 39.3 8.33
Si.loeis Pr.? 0. Spnrtel 35.47 5.56 w 23 d'Hieres 43.0 6.25 Sulgas F., Sorgue 44.0 5.0
SoloeisPr.? C. Canth,.. 32.35 9.15 w 2 Stomalimne 36.46 27.2 Sulia Prom., C. St. Paul 35.7 24.31
Soloeis, or Solventia, *Stoni 46.6 10.45 Sulis? 47.45 3.15 w
Pr.? a Blanco 20.50 17.8 w 2 Stratae-burgus, Stras- Sulloniacae, Brockley
Solomaeum ? 44. .''4
0.51 W 6 b/nirg 48.35 7.45 Hill, n. Slanmore 61.38 0.18 w
Solona, Cittd del Sole... 44.13 12.0 Stratonicea, or Idrias, Sullucu, or Collops par-
Solonium? Snilonaz 45.50 5.28 Eshi-hixsar 37.17 28.11 vus? Tagodeite 36.69 7.36
Solus, or Soluntiura, Stratus, r. n. Lepenit.,,. 38.40 21.22 Sulmo, Sermoneta 41.33 13.3
Cfiatello d{ Solanto... 38.5 13 31 Stravianae, Nassicz 45.20 18.8 Sulmo, Sidmona 42.3 13.56
Solvgia, Gnlat'i 37.51 22.59 Strongyle I-. Stromholi 38.47 15.13 Summuntorium, Kuh-
Solj?ma M., Taktalu 36.40 30.30 Strophades I'^.,Stro/ad- bach 48.30 11.15
Sontia, Sanza 40.13 1.5.24 hin 37.15 21.0 Summus Lacus, Samo-
Sontius F., honzo 46.0 13.40 Struthus Portus, Vottr- laco 46.16 9.24
Sonus F., Sone 24.30 83.0 lia Bay 37.28 23.2 SummusPennTnus,ff)'«>at
SoPiiENE 38.30 39.30 Stryme 40.52 25.36 St. Bernard 45.53 7.9
Sophon, S'ibandscha.,.. 40.43 30.15 Stryraon F., Struma, or Suuiraus Pyrenaeus 42.46 0.33 w
Sora, Sora 41.43 13.38 Jiarn-sii 42.0 23.17 Summus Pyrenaeus,
Sorabile, Mfimojnda 40.13 9.17 Strvmonicus S., G. of Bellegarde 42.30 2.50
Soracte M., Monte S. iiufani 40.35 24.0 Summus Pyrenaeus,
Oreste 42.17 12.30 Stucia F., Dovey 52.33 4.0 w Roncesvaux 43.1 1.19 «r

Gorbiodunum, Old Sa- Stura F., Stura 44.19 7.20 Suna? Nerola 42 13 12.49
rum 61.6 1.48w Stympbalus, n. Khionia 37.52 22.27 Suniura, r, on C. Co-
•Sorji, or Sordones 42.30 2.30 Styra, Stmira 38.9 24.13 lonna 37.39 24.2
Sorck, Valley of, Wadi/ Styx F., Mavro Neria.. 37.59 22.14 Suniura Prom., C. Co-
es-Surar 31.48 34.50 Suana, Sovana 42.38 11.36 lonnn 37.39 24.2
Soroba, Sonmmlc 38.52 35.37 *Suanetes 46.0 9.47 Sunium Prom. (Paros).. 37.18 25.19
Sossius F., Fiume di *Suani 42.55 42.30 Superum, or Hadriati-
Mnrsnln 37.48 12.30 *Suardones 54.0 10.30 cum, Mare, Adriatic
Sostomagus, Cantelnau- . Sub Lanuvium, Sati Sea 44.0 H.O
dmy 4.3.20 1.59 Gennnrello 41.40 12.45 Sura 31.50 45.0
Sostra? 42.68 25.11 Sub Lupatia, Anticag- Sura, Suram 42.2 43.36
*S(.tiates 44.6 0.0 lie 40.40 16.43 Sura, Snrieh 35.54 38.48
Solium, SoK 44.3 0.9 Sub Muranum, Castro Snrius F., Tvhenisskali 42.21 42.20
Southern Horn (of Villa ri 39.46 16.11 Surrentum, Sorrento..,, 40.37 14.22
JIanno)? Sherhoro' Sub Radlce 42.39 25.10 Susa (Shushan), Soos... 32.0 48.25
S'.nnd 7.40 12.50 W Sub Romiila, or Romii- Susia? Znzan 34.20 60.45
Soznpolis, for. Apollo- lea? »). Andrettn 40.67 15.1 SusiANA, Khiizistan 31.30 48.0
nia, Sizpboli 42.26 27.44 Sub Sabiorie, Clausen, ., 46.39 11.32 Sutrium, Sntri 42.16 12.12
Spnlathrae 39.11 23.14 Subi.s F., Gnya 41.8 1.22 Syaffros Prom,, Ras el-
SparJ<i. or Lacedaemon, Sublaqueum, Subinco... 41.57 13.5 Had 22.33 60.0
n. MiStra 37.5 22.26 18 Subur F., Wady Seboic 34.25 6.0 w Svbaris 39.41 16.28
Spartarius Campus 37.45 1.0 w Suburbanum Commodi, Sybaris F., Coscile 39.40 16.20
Spauta (or Mantiane) Roma Vecchlo 41.49 12.34 Sybota, Murizo, or
L.? L. Urnmiyah 37.30 45.30 22 Suburbanum Hadriani, Mnrto .39.24 20.15
Spelunea, Sperlongct.... 41.14 i;-i.25 Sette Baxsi 41.61 12.36 Sybota I., Sivota 39.24 20.14
Speluncne, (?co^^ni?o88a 40.44 17.46 Subzapara, Hirmanli... 41.65 26.0 Sybritia 35.13 24.36
Speos Artemidos? Bent Sucooth (Scenae), r. n. ^ycaminos, Athleet, or
tidsxnn 27.55 30.53 Shibbeen 30.16 31.22 Cantel Pelcgrino 32.43 34.56
Sperchiae 38.55 22.5 Sucidava, Kouzgonn 44.9 27.43 Syce 41.2 28.59
SporchTus F., Elladn... 38.56 22.5 Sucro, Siiecii 39.12 0.19 w Syehar, or Shechem
Sphaeria? Poro 37.30 23.28 Sucro F., Xticar 39.14 1.0 w (Neapolis), Nablous... 32.15 35.14
Bphatria, or Sphacte- Sufronensis S 39.20 0.0 Syene, Essouan 24.5 32.56
ria 1 36.56 21.41 Sudeti M., Sudeten Ge- Syia 35.14 23.45
iX)hom\:\\Q, M(dnl-am... 38.13 23.49 birge 60.10 17.0 Sylleuni, Assarkeui 37.4 31.2
Spbettus, Spntn 37.57 23.55 *Sudracae, or Ox,ydra- Svmaethus. Rcgalbnto.. 37.37 14.39
Sphingiura, Phicium. or cae 28.40 72.0 Symaetbus F., Simeto... 37.30 14.52
Phoenicium.M., fa</a 38.23 23.12 Suel, or Sivel, Cast, de Symbolum 41.0 24.24
Spina? n. Mezznno 44.32 12.8 j Prangerola 36..33 4.37 W Syme I., iS'ynii 36.35 27.53
Bpinae, Speen, n. New- Suessa, Sessn 41.15 13.54 Synaus, or Sj'nnaus,
bury 51.25 1.21 w I Suessa Pometia? 41.25 13.8 Simaid 39.7 29.5
Bynnada, Afioum Kara-
hisiar 38«>.45' 30°.38'
Byphaeum, Montnho.... 39.25 16.8
Byracellae, iMigalgara.. 40.52 26.51
Byracusae, Siracusa 37.5 15.15
fiYRASTUENE 22.0 71.30
Byrias, or Lepte, Prom.,
0. hidjeh 42.7 34.59
Byrnae L. Jimnnes 36.20 26.41
Syros, Syra 37.27 24.57
gyros I., Sjira 37.25 24.55
Byrtis Mnjor, G. of
Sidra 32.0 18.0
Syrtis Minor, G. of
Kabe-i 34.15 11.0
Sys, or Sytiiai, F 38.0 22.40

Taanach, TnnnuJc 32.31 35.14
Tahae, Bowas 37.26 28.50
Tabae? linuuah 11.11 61.5
Tab.ala, Uitvula 38..34 28.57
Tabellaria, Cagfelloccto 42.16 11.38
Taberna Friglda, Fri-
gido 43.59 10.9
Tabiene 35.0 51.0
Tabor M. (Atabyriuin,
or Itabyriuin), Jebel
et-Tuor 32.42 35.25
Tabraca, Tahorknh 36.55 8.45
Tabuda, or TabuUa, F.?
Ans 51.0 2.7
Taburnus Mons, Monte
Taburno 41.8 14.30
Tacape, A'Af/is, or A'((ies 33.53 10.4
Taeona? 28.54 31.3
Tader F., Segura 38.15 1.40 w
Tadinum, 5. Maria Ta-
dina, Gttaldo
n. 4.3.14 12.48
Tadmor, or Palmyra,
Tadnwr 34.18 38.14
Tadiitti, Tattnbt 35.31 6.8
Taenaruiii, or Taena-
riuin, Prom., C. Ma-
tapan 36.23 22.29
Tacnarum, or Caenepo-
lis, Ki/pnrino 36.27 22.27
Taouia Lunga, Fagasah,
or Tagneoh 35.19 4.57w
Tagaba, Tubukah 31.31 34.4«
Tagara, r. of Deoghir,
n. Aurnngabnd 20.0 75.13
Tagonius F., Tajuna.... 40.15 3.20 W
lagus F., Tiijo {or
Tagus) 39.28 8.20 w
Tahapanes, Tahpanesi,
or Hane.s (Daphne),
Tell Defeniieh 30.52 32.3
Taizalum Prom., Kin-
iiaird's Heud..^ 57 42 2.0 W
Talabriga? Salten 40.43 8.34w
Taletum M., St. Elias,
or Miikn/no 36.57 22.22
Taliata, Giigeisiu/ik 44.30 22.14
Talmena? Bus Godem.. 25.20 60.10
Tamare? Tamerton 50.25 4.11 w
Tamaris F., Tnmhre 42.40 9.0 w
Tamarus F., Tainur 50.26 4.12 w
Taniarus F., Tamaro... 41.17 14.45
Tamassus 35.9 33.13
Tamesis, or Tamesa, F.,
Thames 51.30 1.3 W
Tamissa Aest., Mouth
of Thames 51.30 0.40
Tamnum ? 45.27 0.47 W
Tamynae 38.24 24.3
Tamyras, or Damuras,
F.. Nahr ed-Damour 33.41 35.30
Tanager F., 7'aiigro, or
Negro 40.30 15.30
Tanagra, Grimadha 38.17 23.36
r»aiis F., Don 50.35 50.0
fwoivrus F,, Tanaro 44.50 8.10
*Tenptheri 51°.10
Tenca, K/enia 37.47
Tenedos 39.50
Tenodns L, Tenedos 39.50
Toncric Plain 38.20
Tt'iios, Tin; 37.32
Tenos L, Tiuo 37.35
Tentvra, Denderah 2fi.9
Teos' r. ii. Siqhnjik 38.11
Tephrice, Di'criki 39.21
Tcredon, or Diridotis,
Jebel Sinam 30.15
Tergedum? 18.0
Tergeste, Trip.nfe 45.39
Torge.<tirius S., Goffo di

Terias F., S. Leonardo 37.17
Terina? n. Nocera 39.8
Terinneus, Hipponiates,
or Vibnnensis, S., 0.
of S. Eufemia 38.55
Tcrioli, Tirol 46,43
Termerium Pr., Petra
Termera 36.57
Terraes 41.31
Termessus 36.55
Termiis F., Fi'nme Temo,
or F. di Bom 40.18
Teatrina, Tomnsso 42.21
Tetis, or Ruscino, F.,
Tet 42.44
Tetraphvlia? 39.15
Tetrapolis 38.8
T>>nchpira, aft. Arsinoe,
Taid-ra 32.32
Teudurum, Tudder 51.3
Tcunie.^sus 38.21
Teumessus M 38,18
Teuthea? Upper Ak-
haia 38.6
Teutheas F.? 38.5
Teuthis, Dhimitznna 37.36
TRiiTiinANiA 39.10
Teutliraniti, or Thy-
incnn, Timleh 41.58
Teuthrone, n. Kotorni.. 36.37
Teutlussa I., Limmona 30.16
Teutobursiuin 45.32
Teutria, Pianota 42.14
Tliasiira? Tnjeilt 36.16
ThMiriinae? 37.51
Thiilainae, Phttzo 36.48
Tliamara (Tainar), Kur-
iinb 31.8
Th.'iinnath, El-Burj. 31.54
Thasin'itica 31.55
Thaiiiusi.ia? Mehediah 34.18
Thantia? 32.16
Thapsacus (Tiphsah)?
El- Hamnum 35.55
Thapsus, Jinllnh 35.35
Thapsiis, Maijnisi 37.9
Thasos 40.46
Thasos I., Thaso 40.40
Thaumaei, Dhomoko.... 39.8
Tliauiuacia? 39.17
Thaubasium? 30.31
Thebae (Aegyptus),
Kurnnk, &c 25.43
Thebae (Boeotia), Thive 38.18
Thebae (Thessalia), r.
71. Ak-Kedjel 39.17
Thebe 39.39
ThechesMona? Tekieh
Dngh 40.25
Theganusa I., Vene-
ti'ko 36.42
Thelepte, Feriana 34.41
Ihemiscy"ra 41.5
Themiscy^ra, Thermeh:. 41.11
Themisonium ? Tefenit 37.23
Tbenae, Uastel Tcmc-
nos 35.13 25.7
Tilphossa Fons 38°.21'
Tilphossium 38.22
Tilphossium M., Petra.. 38.21
Tilurus F., Cettiiia 43.34
Timacus F., Timok 43.50
Tiiualinum, Fonta-
neira 43.5
Tiniavi Fons and Lacus,
Timao 45.48
Timethus F., Naso 38.5
Tiiniseum 45.27
Tiiuogitia, Taoukli-
niani. 43.26
Ti MoxlTis 40.40
Tiiia F.? Eden 66.21
T^nconclum, Sancoins... 46.50
T.iiffis, or Caesarea,
Tniic/ier 35.47
I'.niaF., Tlmia 42.55
I'iiina F., Tenna 43.14
rinnetio, Tinzen 46.37
riora Matiena, Torono 42.8
ripasa, Teffaad 36.36
ripasa, Tipih 36.16
riphae, or Siphae? r. n.
Kh<,»la 38.15
f iphsah (Thapsacus) ?
El-K'.iaxmam 35.55
'.Ciristria, cr Tiristris,
Prora., Q. Kaliakra,
or Knlagria 43.22
T'jvns, Yiryn* 37.36
Tirzah? 32.20
Tioiantis, cr Tv«ia, F,
(Tiniscus?), TXeiHg... 46.40
Tisiiii, Randazto 37.50
Titane... 37.55
TitareBiui F., Xerighi.. 39.43
Titarus M 39.47
Titliorea (Neon), Ve-
litza 38.34
Tithronium, Mulki, n.
Verznua 38.40
Tiriits Kerka
F., 44.0
Ti: heiusM 37.36
Tiliilcia, or Tituacia,
(^ctiife 40.7
Tins, Filiyas 41.34
Tics 36.32
Triiolus PI., Kiailja
M(,iian Dn.jh 38.20
T()l)ius F., iowy 61.45
Tugisonus F.? Gorzone
CitiKtl. 45
Tni.<6bis F., Mouth of
Couway 63.18
Toibiacum, Zulpich 60.44
Ti.lctuin, 'I'ledo 39.56
«Tolistobo?ii 39.30
'Vn\\6gTi>Be, 45.36
TollentinuLn, Tolen-
ilnn 4.3.12
TolopboT), J-. n.Kiaeli... 38.22
TolO.sa, Toulouse 43.37
Tolou.s Moiizon 41.49
Toinarus M.? 39.52
Tomerus?.. 25.20
Tonieu.s M 36.59
Tmiii? Karli 44.3
Touiisa 38.29
Tonosa, Tnnwi 39.12
Tophel, Tiifileh 30.57
Topiiim, foppo 46.11
Toronaicus S., G. of
Kussandrrt 40.10
lorone, Toion 39.59
Torone, or Toryne,
/•<ir;/a 39.17
TouiuiEBis 38.10
Tiiiyne, or Torone,
/'"r„r, 39.17
•Toxiindri 51.11
Totxanrlria Locus 51.4
Tnrifl, or Turinm, F.,
Tiin'a, or Giiadala-
vim- 40°.0' l°.ll'w
Turiiisi^o, 41.56
Turicen, Zurich 47.22
Tiirissa. Ostiin'z 42.55
*Turm.Mii>ri(Murhogi?) 42.40
Tunnuli, Alcoiicta 39.40
TurniKuiti, Tunrnay 50.37
»Tur6ne.« 47.10
Turoncs Timrs 47.23
Tuniqua? 42.18
Turres. Tchardnh, or
Slnnkeni 4.3.8
Turris Ciiesaris, or Au-
relianii, Turre Ripag-
volf, 41.2
Furris Caesaris ? Tag-
znh 35.55
Turris Kuphranti, Bat
el-ffu„eij.ih 30.56
Furris Ilannibalis, BurJ
S'lleL-tnh 35,26
lurris .Juliana, Torre
Pelouii 41.5
Turrit Libissonis, Porto
Tnnes 40.50
Turris Stratonis, aft.
Cae.«area, Knisariyeh 32.32
Turru? F., Torre 46.0
TuruMuin, Tenipio 40.54
Turuin, Anipfiufi 48.15
Tusca F., Kz-Zahi 36.45
Tuscania. TimcaueUa.... 42.24
Tu<:culanuiu, Tuacolaiio 45.39
Tusculutn 41.48
Tusilra. or Thysdrus,
El-Jewm 35.21
Tutatio? Kirchdorf..... 47.54
Tulhoa F 37.40
Tvana. Kiz Hhanr 37.44
TVasitis 37.40
Tylis.'^u.^ 35.20
Tylos, or Tyros, I., Bnh-
reiu 26.0
"Tynipbnei 39.56
Tymphrestus M., Ve-
lukhi 38.56
Tyiidarii Scopuli, Ti/ah
liovko 31.33
TyndSlris, »i. Capo Tin-
diiro 38.6
Typhaneae, w. Platinna 37.32
Tyraclnae, Tralna 37.45
Tyras 46.24
Tyras, or Danastri:;, F.,
DnlcDter 48.0
Tyriaeuin, //./Ann 38.19
Tyros, or Tylos I., Bah-
rein 26.0
Tyrrha, Tireh 38.4
Tyrrhemun (or Infe-
ruin) Mare 40.0
Tyrus, Soar {or Tyre)... 33.18
Tvrus (Laconia), n. C.
'Tyro 37.14
Tysia, or Tisianus, F.,
Theiaa 47.0

Ubii (of Caesar) 50.40
•-Uhii (of Tacitus) 51.0
Ubus. or Rubricatus P.,
SeihoH^ 36.27
Udon F., Koitma 44.46
l.lduba F., ViUahermosa 40.0
Ufons F., Ufeiite 41.27
Uffugum, Faf/iiniio 39.31
Ufrenu.s F., Afrii, 36.20
U-in. or Ur-ia 36.56
[Ilai, Rivi'rof(Euiaeus),
Shakpoor 31.40
Venedicu3 S., G. of
Danzi,j 54°.H0' 19°.0'
*Veneti 47.46
Venetia 45.40
Venetus, or Acronius,
L., L. of 47.40
Veniatia ? Vinhaes
•Vcnnones 46.14 ,

Venonae, High Cross... 52.30

Venostes 46.41
Venta Bel^arum, Win-
chesler 51.4
Venta Icenorum, Cais-
tor, n. Norwich 52.35
Venta Silurum, Gaer~
xcent... 51.37
Vemisponte? 37.24
Ventium, Vence 43.43
Venus, Temple of (Cy- ^
pras) .34.51
Venusia, Venosa 40.57
«Veragri 46.0
Veratinum, Wurrinyton 53.24
Verhanus L., Lago Mug-
y'ore 46.0
VEUBiGENns Pagus 47.10
Vercellae, Borgo Ver-
celli 45.21
Vereae, Sohazc-Miho-
Incz 45.44
Vereasueca ? 43.27
Verela, or Varia, Varea 42.22
Veretum, or Baris, S.
Maria ili Vereto 39.52
Vergae, Ruggiano 39.34
Vergilia, Miircia 38.0
Verisa 40.6
Verlucio ? Sandy Lane,
n. Devizes 51.24
Vcrnosol, Vernoz 0.0
*Veroiaandui 49.55
Veroinetuin, n. Wil-
loiiyhby 62.49
Verona, Verona 45,26
Verterae, Brough 54.31
Vertinae, Verzine 39.18
Verulae, Veroli 41.43
Verulamium, St. Albans 6]. 45
Vervedrum Pr., Dun-
cansby Head... 58.38
Vesca, or Osca, Huesca 42.9
Vescitania ? 42.15
Vesontio, Besangoti 47.14
Ve.speries, Bermeo 43.25
*Vestini 42.20
Vesulus Mons, Monte
Visa 44.40
Vesunna, aft. Petroco-
rii, Perigiteux 45.11
Vesuvius M., Mount
Vesuvius 40.49
Vetera, Xanten 51.39
Vettona, Bettona 4;^.0
*Vettones 40.30
Vetulonii ? 43.5
Vetussalina? Hanselbek 47.21
Vexalla Aest., Bridge-
water Bat/ 51.15
Via Aetnilia 44.55
Via Amerina 42.26
Via Appia 41.33
Via Aquilia 40.30
Via Ardeattna 41.42
Via Aurelia 41.53
Via Casperia 42.46
Via Ciininia 42.24
Via Claudia (or Clodia) 42.15
Via Collatina 42.55
Via Cornelia 41.55
Via Cossia 42.20
Via Domitiana 41.0
Via Egnatia 40.36
Via Flamioi* 4.2.5
hames. lat. i.ovo. MAP NAMES. LAT. LONG. MAP.
XimEve 40°.20' 34°.15' 20 Zanclo, aft. Messana,
Xij^ionia, Avgnsta 37.14 15.12 12 Mesxiiin 38°.ll 15°.34'
X.>ii<? ; 31.16 31.22 24 Zara, S<tra 39.50
XylTne, or Arch&bis, Znradrus, or Ilesudrus,
Arknvn 41.21 41.16 20 F., Snilej. 31.0
Xyniae. TnukU....
r. n. .39.4 22.16 15 *Zaran.2;ae 31.40
XvpSte (or Troja) ? r. Zarax, or Zarex, leral-a 36.47
"n. Peiraew 37.58 23.39 17 Zarax M., Kolokera 36.49
Zariiispa, or Bactra,
Z. n<tlkh 36.45
ZaV)Xtus, or Lycus, F., Zaruana, Diyadin 39.33
G>ent Zah 36.10 4.3.40 Zeitha Pr., Rat Shab-
Znlnilim? 32.48 35.16 hou ; 3.3.34
Ziioynthus, Znnte 37.47 20.54 Zcla, Zileh 40.11
Zacvnthiis I., Zante, or Zeleia, Saraheui. 40.13
Zacyniho 37.45 20.45 Zklitis . 40.0
Zadracnrta? Snree 36.35 53.10 Zenobia, Zehhi 35.40
Zagrri Pvlae, or Mediae Zephath, or Hormah ?
Pylaei Tak-i-Ghrnh 34.25 46.20 Nnhk ea-Sufah 30.59
Zagro.« M 36.15 45.40 ' Zephyriurn, Karjani.,,, 42.0
Zajrvlis, ti. Raa ffa- Zephyrium, Se/reh 40.58
le'm 31.35 26.3 Zephyriurn Prom., C.
Zaitha 35.4 40.32 Cavaliere 36.8
Zaleeus, Alatachnm 41.36 35.36 Zephyrium Prom., 0.
Zavia Regia, Jama 35.55 9.30 St.' John 35.20
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