Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 15


Chapter wise Concept Map

class 12 Physics

These Section “Chapter wise Concept Map class 12 Physics” is taken from our Book:

ISBN : 9789386320773

Surface charge
density =
area By induction
Coulomb’s Law
Linear charge Volume charge 1 q1q2
Distribution F= Methods of charging By conduction
charge 4p Î0 r 2 By friction
density = charge of charge density =
length volume 1
= 9 ´ 109 Nm 2 C -2
4p Î0

Positive charge Conservation

Deficiency of Quantization
Q = ± ne Neither created Invariant
electrons nor destroyed
Neutral Charge Due to which matter
No of electrons Types of charge produces and experiences Basic properties of electric charge
= no. of protons electric and magnetic effects.

Negative charge Transferable can Associated with mass

Excess of electron be transfered from Mass of electron
one body to another –31
ELECTRIC CHARGES Me = 9.1 × 10 kg
Due to descrete
At axial position distribution of charge Torque
1 2P t = PE sin q Applicaion of Gauss’s
E= rˆ ur n r
4p Î0 r 3 E = å Ei Electric field Space surrounding t=P×E theorem due to infinitely
i =1 long straight wire
a charge in which its electrostatic
Electric field Torque and potential l
force can be experienced by any E=
due to dipole energy of a dipole 2pe0 r
F 1 q
Due to continuous test charge E = = × rˆ Infinite plane sheet
q 4p Î0 r 2
At equatorial distribution of charge Potential energy s
position ur 1 dq r E=
E= r U = –PE cos q 2e0
1 -p 4p Î0 ò r3 U = – P.E.
E= .rˆ
4p Î0 r 3
Never intersect Gauss’s theorem
each other Total flux over a
Electric field lines Imaginary closed surface is
Electric flux 1
Never form Properties of line along which a positive test times the total
closed loops electric field lines f = E.A cos q
charge will move if left free Î0 enclosed charg
f = E. A

Come out of Always normal f = ò E.ds =
positive charge and to conducting
go into negative surface
Chapter wise Concept Map class 12 Physics


At a point outside On axial line Equipotential surface

the spherical shell 1 p On equatorial line Imaginary surface joining
V= the points of same potential
1 q 4p e 0 r 2 V=0
V= (r > R) in an electric field
4p Î0 r

Electrostatic potential
At a point on the surface Electric potential due to a point charge
Electric potential due to a dipole q
or inside the spherical shell due to a charged V= K
1 q conducting spherical r
V= (r £ R)
4p Î0 R shell Electrostatic potential
(V0) = work done w¥
charge (q0)
Electric potential due to a Electrostatic potential
charged non-conducting due to a system of charges
sphere V= V1 + V2 + V3 ... + Vn
V = Kå i
i =1 ri
At a point on the surface At a point outside the
or inside the sphere non-conducting sphere
Capacitance of a Capacitance
1 q 1 q
V= (r £ R) V= (r > R) spherical capacitor (c) = Charge (Q) Combination of capacitors
4p Î0 R 4p Î0 r C = 4rpÎ0 Potential (V)

Energy stored in a capacitor Capacitance of a

parallel plate capacitor
1 Q2
u= CV 2 = C = KAe0 k = dielectric
2 2C Series grouping of capacitors Parallel grouping of
d constant
Equivalent capacitance capacitors Equivalent
1 1 1 1
Energy loss when two = + +.... + Cp= C1+ C 2+ ... C n
Capacitance when Cs C1 C2 Cn
isolated charged conductors metallic slab inserted
are connected to each other between the plates
1 C1C2 (V1 - V2 )2 æ e Aö
= C = ç 0 ÷ t = thickness
2 C1 + C2 è d tø of slab

Colour coding of
On length (l) and Resistance R = AB
area of cross-section (A) Resistance (R)Obstruction × C ± D% A, B – First
to flow offered of electrons
R µ lü two significant figures
ï l of resistance C-multiplier
1 ýR = r
µ ï A D-tolerance
Aþ Ohm's law if the physical
r = resistivity Dependence of conditions remain same,
resistance Grouping of resistance
current I µ V Þ V = IR
R-electric resistance
On temperature
Rt = R 0(1 + µt)
Series grouping of Parallel grouping of
Conductivity (s) resistances Equivalent resistances Equivalent
Reciprocal of resistance Current density (J) Electric Current (I) The time resistance, Rs= R 1 + resistance,
1 Current per unit cross rate of flow of charge (Q) R2 +...+ Rn 1 1 1 1
s= sectional area (A) = + +...+
r through any cross-section R P R1 R 2 Rn
r I E Q
J= = r I= t
Drift velocity (Vd ) Mobitity (m)
2nd law Loop Average uniform velocity Drift velocity per
lst law Junction law rule Algebraic CURRENT ELECTRICITY acquired by free electrons unit electric field
Algebraic sum of sum of changes in i V
Vd = m= d
all the current potential around neA E
meeting at a junction any closed loop is
is zero i.e. S I = 0 zero.
Electric cell source of energy that
maintains continuous flow of charge Groupings of cells
in a circuit

Kirchhoff's laws Potentiometer used to

Cells in series Cells in parallel Cells in series
(i) Compare emfs Current in thecircuit and parallel i.e.
Current in the
E1 l1
= circuit, I = ne current I = e mixed Current inne
E 2 l2 R + nr r the circuit, I =
Balanced condition R+ nr
of wheatstone bridge (ii) Find internal m +R
P R resistance of cell m
Electrical energy
Q S æE ö H µ I 2 ü Jule's heating law

r = ç –1÷ S 2
èV ø ï
µ R ý H = I Rt; Electrical
Meter Bridge Based on V2
µ t ïþ power P =
P R l R R
Wheatstone bridge = Þ =
Q S 100 – l S

Galvanometer to ammeter Magnetic field due to Direction of magnetic field-Depends Magnetic field due to
conversion : Low resistance a straight current carrying upon the direction of current. Right a solenoid. Inside a long
or shunt connected in parallel conductor of infinite lenght hand thumb rule-Thumb points in the solenoid B = µ0nI
æ Ig ö m I direction of current, curling of fingers At a point on one end
S =ç ÷G B= 0 represents direction of magnetic field . m nI
ç I – Ig ÷ 2pR B= 0
è ø 2

Biot-savart's law Magnetic field Space in

Galvanometer to voltmeter the surrounding of a magnet
magnetic field due Ampere's circuital law
conversion : High resistance or any current carrying conductor
to current carrying
in series m Idl sin q in which its magnetic influence ò Bdl = m0 I
V element, dB= 0 can be experienced
R = -G 4p r 2
Magnetic field due to
Magnetic field due MOVING CHARGES a toroid inside the turns
to a current carrying AND MAGNETISM B = m0nI
circular loop

Motion of a charged
particle in a uniform Force acting on a
magnetic field follows charged particle
On the axis of At the centre
a circular path, radius moving in a uniform
circular loop of circular loop
magnetic field
m 0 NIa 2 mNI MV sin q
B= B= r= F = qVB sin q = q(V × B)
2(r 2 + a 2 )3/2 2R Bq

Force between two Force on a conductor

Torque experienced by parallel current carrying carrying current in a
a current carrying loop conductors uniform magnetic field,
in a uniform magnetic m 2I I F = I Bl sin q Lorentz force
field T = MB sin q n̂ F= 0. 1 2 F = I (B × l)
4p r F = q (E × V × B)

Magnet field due A freely suspended magnet always
to a bar magnet points in north-south direction
Force between two
magnetic poles
At a point on axial At a point on equatorial
m 2M m M m 0 m1m2
line B = 0 3 line B = 0 2 2 F=
4p d 4p (r + l )3 / 2 4p r 2

Properties of magnet Pole of a magnet

Repulsive Like poles always exist in pair
always repel one
another. It is sure Magnetism Property of Magnetic dipole
test of magnet attracting a piece of iron, moment M = NIA
cobalt, nickel or steel
Angle of dip or
inclination (d)
Magnetic Magnetic Magnetic Angle made by
intensity permeability susceptibility MAGNETISM AND Earth's magnetic
direction of earth's
M MATTER elements
B µ = µ0 (1 + cm) I magnetic field
H= 0 cm = I=
m H V with the horizontal
dequator = 0; dpole = 90º
Paramagnetics Magnetist Magnetic field lines
in the direction of magnetic Imaginary lines in a Horizontal component
field e.g., Al, Mn µr, I, cm > 1 magnetic field which In a uniform magnetic BV = B sin q
Magnetic continuously represent field time period of
Materials the direction of magnetic oscillation of a freely BH = B cos q
Ferromagnetics Strongly
magnetised in the direction field suspended magnet
of magnetic field e.g., Fe, Co, I Angle of declination
Ni µr, I,cm >> 1 T = 2p Angle between magnetic
Properties of magnetic meridian and geographic
field lines meridian

Diamagnetics Magnetised Form continuous closed


in a direction opposite to the loops start from N-pole Tangent to the field
direction of magnetic field end S-pole outside the Come out of Magnetic field line at a given point
e.g., Bi, Cu, Hg µr, I and cm magnet and its opposite surface at any lines do not intersect represents the direction
are negative inside the magnet angle each other of the net magnetic field

Direction of induced current

Fleming’s Right Hand Rule: df
Motional emf e = – = –Blv
Thumb, forefinger, central dt
finger of right hand stretched lst law When magnetic 2nd law Induced emf 1 2
perpendicular to each other flux linked with the µ rate of change of –df Across the end of rod e = Bwl
then if thumb ® direction circuit changes an emf is magnetic flux e = dt
of motion; forefinger ® induced in the circuit
direction of magnetic field Magnetic flux
then central finger ® induced fB = B.A=BA cos q
Lenz's law Direction
of induced emf or current
Faraday's laws of is always in such a way
electromagnetic that it opposes cause due
Induction Ac Generator or Dynamo
Induced current in a coil rotated Produces electrical energy to which it is produced. It
in uniform magnetic field from mechanical energy. It is in accordance with
works on EMI principle conservation of energy
NBA w sin wt
Generation of current or emf
by changing magnetic field
Eddy current Induced, Mutual Inductance Induced
when magnetic flux linked emf in a circuit due to change
with the conductor changes in magnetic flux in its
Inductance A measure
neighbouring circuit. Coefficients
of the ratio of the flux
of mutual inductance
to the current f

® Electromagnetic Coefficient of mutual

damping Self inductance Inertia Self inductance of inductance between two
® Induction furnace of electricity. Coefficient a long solenoid long solenoids
® Magnetic braking fB m N2 A m NN A
® Electric power meter of self inductance L = L= 0 M= 0 1 2
i l l

RC Circuit RMS value of alternating Mean or average value of Peak current (I0) and voltage V0 : The
Current: I = I0 sin (w t + f ) current and voltage alternating current and voltage
maximum value of current and voltage
Voltage: V= VR2 +VC2 I V 2I 2V0
I rms = 0 Vrms = 0 Imean = 0 Vmean = I0 = 2 Irms V0 = 2 Vrms
2 2 π π
Impedance: Z= R 2 +XC2
– 1 Step-up transformer
Phase difference: tan 1
w CR N E Ip
R2 K > 1 K= s = s =
Power factor: cos f = N p E p Is
R 2 +XC2 Transformer Device Changes
Leading quantity: Current Alternating current(I)
and alternating voltage (V) a low voltage of high current
I = I0 sin w t; V = V0 sin w t into a high voltage of low
current and vice-versa
Step-down transformer
LC Circuit N p E p Is
æ pö K<1 K= = =
Current: I = I0sin ç w t ± ÷ N s Es I p
Voltage: V= VL – VC Direction of current
Power in an Ac. Circuit LCR series Circuit
Impedance : Z = XL – XC Changes alternatively and
Phase difference: f = 90º its magnitude changes Pav =Vrms Irms cosq Current : I = I0 sin (w t ± f ): Voltage:
Power factor : cos f = 0 continuously V= R 2 +(VL –VC )2
Leading quantity: ;
Impedance Z = R 2 +(X L – XC )2
Either voltage or current
Phase difference
LR Circuit AC Circuit At resonance XL = XC Þ Zmin = R
Current: I = I0sin (w t + f ) R
Band-width: Dw = ; Quality factor
Voltage : V = V2 + V 2 L
R L 1 L
2 R C
Impedance: Z= R +X2L
–1 wL
Phase difference: f = tan Inductive (L) Circuit Capacitive (C) Circuit
R Resistive (R) Circuit
R æ pö Current : I = I0 sin (w t + p /2) Current : I = I0 sin w t
Power factor : cos f = Current : I = I0 sin ç w t – ÷
è 2ø Phase difference between V and Phase difference between V and I :
R 2 +X 2L Phase difference between
I : f = 90º or – p/2 Power factor : f = 0º Power factor: cos f = 1
Leading quantity : voltage V and I : f = 90º or p /2 VI
cos f = 0 Power : P = 0 Power : P = 0 0
Power factor : cos f = 0
Phasor : Current leads the voltage 2

Power : P = 0 Phasor : Current and voltage

Phasor : Voltage leads the by p /2 both in same phase
current by p /2

Radio waves
Radiation pressure exerted Energy associated Do not require
Wavelength > 0.1 m
by an electromagnetic wave with an electromagnetic any material
Uses: in telecommu-
energy associated wave medium for
with em waves (u) 1 1 B2 propagation
P= u= e0 E 2 +
speed of light in vacuum(c) 2 2 m0 Produced
Wavelength 0.1 m to1 mm by accelerated
Uses : in microwave charge
oven, RADAR Travels with
speed of light
in free space
Infra -red Characteristics
Different types of 1
Wavelength 1 mm to 700 mm of electromagnetic C=
electromagnetic waves
Uses : treat muscular strain waves m0 e 0
= 3 ´ 108 m/s

Visible In free space;

Wavelength : magnitude of
700 nm to 400 nm electric field (E)
Uses : to see objects ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES magnetic field (B)
Constituted by mutually perpendicular =C (speed of light
Ultra-violet in vacuum)
time varying electric and magnetic fields
Wavelength 400 nm
to 1nm Transverse in
Uses : Preserve food nature
purifying water

g-rays Oscillating
Wavelength : 1 nm to 10 nm electric and magnetic
Uses : Medical diagnosis fields are in phase and
Conduction current Displacement current (ID) their magnitudes
g-rays Arises due to flow of Due to time varying bear constant ratio
–3 electrons in a definite electric field
Wavelength : < 10 nm C= E0
Uses : in medical science closed path df B0
ID = e0 E
information on nuclear dt

Necessary conditions The incident ray

The angle of incidence The incident ray Snell’s law
for TIR (i) ray of light the normal and the
(I)is always equal to the normal and the
must travel from denser refracted ray sin i
angle of reflection (r) reflected ray all lie µ=
to rarer medium all lie in the same sin r
i.e., Ði = Ðr in the same plane
(ii) Ði > Ðc for two media plane

Critical angle(c) Angle i in

Mirror formula Total internal
denser medium for which
Reflection Ray totally Laws of refraction
1 1 1 Laws of reflection angle of refraction in rarer
= + reflected back to denser
f u v 1 medium
medium is 90° µ = Refractive
sin C
index, µ =
Reflection of Ray optics rear depth
Refraction of =
Relation between light Turning back Optics - branch of study of apparent depth
R of light in the same light (EM waves wavelength light Bending of light
f and R f = ray while passing
2 medium after striking 400 nm to 750 nm). The path
the reflecting surface of light (always travel in straight from one medium to
another medium Refraction at
or mirror line is ray of light a single spherical
Magnification m 2 m1 m 2 - m1
Refraction by lens v u R
v height of image OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS
m= =
u height of object
f f -v Focal length of lens-lens Lens formula
m= = Optical Instruments
f -u f maker’s formula
1 1 1
1 æ 1 1 ö = -
= (m - 1) ç - ÷ f v u
Telescope f R
è 1 R 2 ø
Magnification Microscope
provide angular
produced by Forms large
image of tiny objects magnification of
simple microscope Power of a lens
distant objects
Refraction through Prism P=
f (in metre)
Image formed Image formed Magnification by When image When image
at near point at infinity compound microscope at near point at infinity
D D f æ f ö f
M = 1+ M= M = 0 ç1 + e ÷ m=- 0
f f fe è D ø fe
Angle of deviation Prism Formula Dispersive power

When image When final image d = A(µ – 1) æ A + dm ö

sin ç ÷ æ m – mr ö
at near point at in finity µ= è 2 ø w=ç v ÷
sin A / 2 è m -1 ø
v æ Dö æv Dö
M = 0 ç1 + ÷ M=ç 0 ´ ÷
m0 è fe ø è u 0 fe ø

Cylindrical wavefront Huygens’ principle Constructive interference Destructive interference

Linear light source Each point on the Phase diff. d = 2np Phase diff. d = (2n – 1)p
Effective distance -finite primary wavefront Path diff. Dx =2n (l/2)
1 is the source of a Path diff. Dx = (2n – 1)l/2
Intensity I µ Resultant amplitude A = a1 + a2
r secondary wavelets Resultant amplitude A = a1 – a2
Resultant intensity I = 2
1 Resultant intensity I = ( I1 – I2 )
Amplitude A µ ( I1 + I 2 )2

Plane wavefront Doppler effect

Light source at large in light Interference
Wavefront of light Redistribution
distance: Effective Forms of Dv vradial
Locus of all particles = of energy due to super
distance infinite wavefront vibrating in same phase v c position of waves
Intensity and
amplitude independent
of distance
Spherical wavefront Superposition of waves. Coherent sources of light
Point light source WAVE OPTICS Sources of light, emitting
Describes the connection When two similar waves
Effective distance-finite propagate simultaneously light of same wavelength
1 between waves and same frequency having
Intensity I µ 2 rays of light then resultant
r displacement y = y1 + y2 a zero or constant phase
Brewster’s law 1 difference.
Amplitude A µ
µ = tan qp r
qp = angle of polarisation Diffraction
Bending of light waves Young’s double slit
around the corners of an Experiment YDSE
Restricting the vibration of
light in a particular direction Linear width of
perpendicular to the direction central maximum
of propagation of wave 2Dl l Distance between Fringe width (b)
= 2+ Distance between central fringe and
a a central fringe and Distance between
Law of Malus th n dark fringe centres of two
n bright fringe consecutive bright
I = I0cos 2 q (2n - 1)lD
nlD Xn = or dark fringes
I = intensity of For secondary maximum Xn = 2d
For secondary minimum d
transmitted light (2n + 1)l D
Path diff. = path difference = nl D = distance between b= l
from analyser 2 nDl source and screen d

Linear distance Linear distance = d = distance between

(2n + 1)Dl a
= two slits

Photoelectric emission
Thermionic emission Field emission Emission of free electrons
Emission of electrons Emission of electrons by from the surface of metals
by suitably heating of applying a very strong when light radiation of
metal surface. electric field to a metal suitable frequency fall on it

Methods of electron
Photon Tiny packets mv 2max = h(v - v0 ) = hv - hv0
of light energy 2
Work function æ1 1 ö
Minimum energy required Electron emission Energy of a photon = hc ç - ÷
to just escape electron from Emission of electrons E = hn è l l0 ø
metal surface f0 = hv0 from the surface of metal

De-Broglie wavelength
h h h Effect of potential on
l= = = Effect of intensity of light
p mv 2ev m on photo current for a fixed photoelectric current. For a
DUAL NATURE OF frequency of incident fixed frequency and intensity
RADIATION AND radiation. Photoelectric of incident light photo electric
Wave nature of current µ intensity of current increases with increase
particles De-Broglie incident light in the potential
hypothesis Light has dual nature
wave and particle like
Davisson and Germer nature
experiment Confirms
the wave nature
of electrons Stopping potential
Photocell Stopping potential Photoelectric current
Uses of photocell varies linearly with becomes zero at a particular
Converts a change in
Count the persons the frequency of value of negative potential
intensity of illumination
entering an auditorium incident radiation for
into a change in photo current v0 called stopping potential
burglar alarm, in a given photosensitive
It is a technological application or cut-off potential
motion picture and material
of photoelectric effect.

Bohr model of Hydrogen J.J Thomson model of atom

atom Electron can revolve First model of atom plum Rutherford nuclear model
only in those orbits in which pudding model- positive entire positive charge and
angular momentum about the charge is uniformly distributed most of the mass of the atom
nucleus is an integral multiple and negatively charged is concentrated in nucleus
h nh electrons are embedded in it and electrons revolving around
of i.e., mvr = the nucleus
2p 2p like seeds in a watermelon

Drawbacks of Bohr model

• unable to explain the fine Model of atom Rutherford a- particle scattering experiment
structure of spectral lines Most of the a-particles passed through the
• Valid only for single electron gold foil i.e., atom has lot of empty space
ATOMS • Only about 0.14% of the a-particles
Consists of three scatter by more than 1° and one a-particle in
elementary particles every 8000 a-particles deflected by > 90°
Various parameters electrons, protons and neutrons positively charged particles protons
confined to core called nucleus, size about
–15 –14
Various series of line 10 to 10 m
spectra of hydrogen
Radius of n-th Velocity of electron
or bit in n-th orbit Impact parameter
Lyman series Number of a-particles q
n2h2 2pKZe 2 scattered per unit area Ze2 cot
rn = 2 vn = 1 é1 1 ù 1 2
4p KZe2 m nh v= =Rê 2 - 2ú
1 b=
Z l ë1 n û N(q) µ 4p Î0 1 2
n2 = 2.2 ´ 106 m/s 4 mv
= 0.53 Å n n = 2, 3, 4.......... sin q / 2 2
Z in uv-region q = angle of scattering
In infra-red region
Balmer series
1 é 1 1 ù Paschem series Brackett series P-fond series
Potential energy Kinetic energy v = =Rê 2 - 2 ú
(Un) in n-th orbit l ë2 n û 1 é1 1 ù 1 é1 1 ù 1 é1 1 ù
KZe 2 13.6Z2 v= = Rê 2 - 2 ú v = = Rê 2 - 2 ú v= =Rê 2 - 2 ú
-KZe 2 -27.2 2 Ek = = ev n = 3, 4, 5 l ë3 n û l ë4 n û l ë5 n û
Un = = Z ev 2rn n2
rn n2 in visible region n = 4, 5, 6, ........ n = 5, 6, 7, ...... n = 6, 7, 8, ......

Isotopes Isobars Isotones

Nuclides with same Nuclides with same Nuclides with same
Z but different A or N A or N but different Z number of neutrons (N)

Mass defect Atomic mass unit (amu)

(Dm) = M – m=[Zmp + (A – Z)mn – mN] 1
1 amu = th of mass of 12C atom
Nuclide AZ X –27
Binding energy 1 u = 1.660539 × 10 kg
Atomic mass A = Protons + neutrons 1amu = 931 Mev
Eb =(Dm)c2 Atomic no. Z = no. of protons
Composition of Nucleus
Packing fraction 1/3
Size of nucleus R = R0A
Exact nuclear mass – Mass number Atomic masses and R0 = 1.1 × 10 m
P= composition of Nucleus 3m
Mass number Density r = = 2.3 ´ 1017 kg/m3
Nuclear Force 4pR 30 –27
Mass of proton mp = 1.00727u = 1.67 × 10 kg
Acting inside the NUCLEI –27
nucleus or acting Mass of neutron mn = 1.00866u = 1.67 × 10 kg
Nucleus consists of –31
between the nucleons protons and neutrons Mass of electron me = 0.00055u = 9.1 × 10 kg
due to continuous exchange
of meson particles a- decay i.e., doubly ionised
Radioactivity helium ion After emission of
Disintegration of heavy elements one a-particle atomic no. decreases
Nuclear energy into comparatively lighter by 2 and mass number by 4
elements by emission of a, b and g
radiation b-decay i.e., fast moving
electrons After emission of
Nuclear fusion Combining two one b-particle atomic number
Nuclear Fission Splitting of a heavy increases by 1 and mass number
nucleus into two or more lighter lighter nuclei to form one heavy
nucleus remains unchanged
235 2
92 U + 0 n1 ® 56 Ba141 +36 Kr92 1H + 1H 2 +1 H2 ® g -decay
41 1
+ 3 0 n1 + energy 2 He + 1 H + 0 n + 21.6 Mev After emission there is no change
in atomic number and mass number
Moderator Slow down
fast moving neutrons Rate of decay law 0.693
e.g.: heavy water, graphite Half life t1/2 = Activity of radioactive
æ -dN ö dN l element
ç ÷µ NÞ – = lN 1
Coolant Remove heat è dt ø dt Mean life t = æ dN ö
R = ç- ÷

eg: cold water, liquid oxygen No. of undecayed atoms l è dt ø

–l t Activity after time,
Control rods Absorb at any instant N=Noe –l t
neutrons eg., boron, R =R0e
cadmium etc.

Extrinsic or impure N-type semiconductor

Semiconductors Resistivity (r) Si or Ge doped with
Logic gates Digital or conductivity (s) intermediate semiconductor
circuit follows certain Due to desirable pentavalent
to metals and insulators As, Sb, Bi etc.
logical relationship –5 6 5 –6 –1 addition of impurity
between the input and r = 10 – 10 W m; s = 10 – 10 sm atoms or dopants Electrons majority and
output voltage Eg for Ge = 0.72 eV ; Si = 1.1 eV This is to improve holes minority carriers
conductivity ne >> nh
–2 –8
OR gate Metals Resistivity r = 10 – 10 W m
2 8 –1 P-type semiconductor
A conductivity s = 10 – 10 Sm Intrinsic or pure Si or Ge doped with
Y=A+B Eg = 0 eV semiconductors e.g., trivalent, B, Al etc.
B Intrinsic carrier concentration Electrons minority and
11 19 ni = ne = nh holes majority carriers
Insulators Resistivity r = 10 – 10 Wm Total current I = ne + nh
AND gate –11 –19 nh > > ne
conductivity s = 10 – 10 Sm–1
Eg > 3 eV
Y = A.B
Classification SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRONICS ; P-n junction
NOT gate of metals, insulators MATERIALS, DEVICES AND An arrangement made by
and semiconductors SIMPLE CIRCUITS a close contact of n-type
Y=A semiconductor and p-type
A Inverter semiconductor
Current gain Converts AC
I P-n Junction transistor to DC
NAND gate Combination a= C
Ie A three terminal semi-
of NOT and AND gate conductor device. Zener diode
I a Used as a Forward and Reverse Potential barrier
A bDC = C = n-p-n and p-n-p transistors
Ib 1 - a voltage biasing : +(ve) terminal Potential difference
Y = A.B CE, CC and CB transistors developed across
regulator connected to p-side and
B æ DI ö Parameters of In transistor Ie =Ib + Ic depletion region
bAC = ç c ÷ –(ve) terminal n-side
è DI b ø amplifier in forward biasing. i.e., region either
NOR gate Combination Transconductance Oscillator frequency In reverse biasing side of junction
of NOT and OR gate Uses of transistor 1 +(ve) terminal connected free from charge
æ DI ö b v=
A g m = ç C ÷ = AC to n-side and –(ve) terminal carriers
è DVi ø R in 2p LC
Y=A+ B connected to Width of depletion
B P-side of diode region is of the
Amplifier Switch order of 10 m
Used for increasing Transistor in
the amplitude of cut off or saturation

input signal state