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Basic data on local conditions and constraints

• Site conditions (topography/site conditions/climate)

• Master plan

• Airside constraints (height restrictions/siting restrictions/material restrictions/noise


contours/existing fixed facilities

• Landside constraints (road & public transportation facilities/adjacent commercial, industrial,


residential developments)

Checklist of Basic Planning Objectives

• Land transport

• Passenger convenience & safety

• Security & its effect on flow planning

• Baggage handling

• Extensibility & adaptability

• Basic administrative requirements

Checklist of Basic Planning Concepts

• Basic terminal types & configurations

 Centralized

 Decentralized

 Unit terminal

• Basic terminal flow patterns

Checklist of Detailed Design Requirements – Passenger & Visitor Facilities (Landside)

• Transport between terminal and centers of population

• Transport within airport environs

• Kerbside areas

• Concourse areas

• Check-in facilities
• Checklist of Detailed Design Requirements – Passenger Amenities & Processing Facilities
(Airside)

• Departing passengers

• Arriving passengers

• Transit & transfer passengers

• VIP/CIP passengers

• Methods of passenger movement through the terminal

• Methods of connection to aircraft

Checklist of Detailed Design Requirements – General Terminal Facilities

• Baggage handling system

• Catering

• Security

• Administrative & general terminal support facilities

• Building services

Checklist of Detailed Design Requirements – Aircraft & Apron Operations

• Aircraft parking stand arrangements

• Aircraft servicing arrangements

• Aircraft fuelling operations

• Aircraft maintenance facilities

• Air traffic control (ATC) facilities

• Firefighting and rescue facilities


GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Building Concepts and Typical Design Solutions for Passenger Terminals:

The following are some the historic techniques that have been utilized in the development of
passenger terminals:

1. Simple Concept = CONSOLIDATED PASSENGER


Linear Concept
Terminal Design
2. Pier Concept = FINGER PASSENGER Terminal
Satellite Concept = SATELLITE PASSENGER Terminal Design
3. Transporter Concept = MOBILE LOUNGE Terminal Design

THE SIMPLE TERMINAL CONCEPT

This concept consists of a single common waiting and ticketing area with exits leading to the aircraft
parking apron, adaptable to airports with low airline activity, with apron capacity of three to six
commercial transport aircrafts; normally consists of a single storey structure with two to four gates
where access to the aircraft is via a walk across the apron. This concept can consider possibility of
expansion using linear or pier concepts.

1. THE LINEAR TERMINAL CONCEPT


- In this concept, aircraft are parked along the face of the terminal building.
Concourses connect the various terminal functions with the aircraft positions. It
offers ease of access and relatively short walking distances if passengers are
delivered to a point near gate departure by vehicular circulation systems. Expansion
may be accomplished by linear extension of an existing structure or by developing
two or more linear terminal units with connectors.

ADVANTAGES:

- Shortest walking distances


- Clear orientation
- Simple construction
- Adequate kerb length
- Shorter close-out times
- Lower baggage system costs ( conveying/sorting ) using decentralized system
DISADVANTAGES

- Duplication terminal facilities/amenities


- Longer minimum collecting time
- Longer walking distances time for transfer pax
- Special logistics for handling of transfer bags
- Less flexibility in terminal and apron for future changes in operations ( e.g. aifcraft
design, airlines )
2. THE CONSOLIDATED PASSENGER TERMINAL DESIGN
- The CONSOLIDATED PASSENGER TERMINAL DESIGN CONCEPT uses the technique
that strings several airlines to a consolidated single structure. This structure initially
provides a simple transfer stage for ground vehicles and air vehicles.

AIRCRAFT

- The epitome of this type of terminal which is considered the most efficient in
operation would be a simple airstrip with no more than a few aircraft positions and
occasional aircraft scheduled.
- The effective use of the CONSOLIDATED TERMINAL can best be measured by
convenience to passengers and efficiency of operation for the airline. Major
terminal complexes invariably are multiples of this small, consolidated group.

3. THE PIER TERMINAL CONCEPT


- In this concept, the aircraft are usually arranged around the axis of the pier in a
parallel or perpendicular fashion. Each pier has a row of gates on both sides,
passenger right-of-way runs along the pier axis for both enplaning and deplaning
passengers.

ADVANTAGES

- Centralized resources, economics of scale ( human, facilities, amenities )


- Facilitates fax management
- Economical to build
- Efficient use of land
DISADVANTAGES

- Long walking distance


- Kerbside congestion
- Limited expansion capability
- Reduced aircraft circulation & manouevrability
- Limited compatibility of future aircraft design development

4. TRANSPORTER

ADVANTAGES:

- Easy compatibility of terminal/ apron geometry and future aircraft design


development
- Ease of aircrafy manoeuvrability
- Ease of expansion capability of aircraft stands
- Simple and smaller central terminal
- Costs saving
DISADVANTAGES:

- Higher instances of pax delays


- Early closed-out time
- High capital, maintenance, & operating costs
- Susceptible to industrial disputes with vehicle drivers
- Increased vehicular movements on airside with aircraft
- Kerbside congestion
- Increased minimum connecting time

5. THE SATELLITE TERMINAL CONCEPT


- This concept shows a building surrounded by aircraft, which is separate from the
terminal building, and is usually reached by means of surface, underground or
above-ground connectors. The aircraft are normally parked in radial or parallel
patterns around the satellite which can have common or separate departure
lounges.

TERMINAL BUILDING

ADVANTAGES

- Centralized resources (human, facilities, and amenities)


- Facilities pax management
- Additional satellites can be designed to accommodate future aircraft design
developments.
DISADVANTAGES

- Requires high technology, underground transportation system


- High capital, maintenance & operating costs
- Kerbside congestion
- Limited expansion capability at main terminal
- Increases minimum connecting times
- Early closed-out times.

6. THE CONSOLIDATED FINGER and SATELLITE PASSENGER TERMINAL DESIGN


- These two illustrations show the evolution of a finger terminal and a satellite
terminal arrangement as an expansion of the concept of the consolidated terminal.

Co

CONSOLIDATED FINGER CONSOLIDATED TERMINAL

7. THE DECENTRALIZED FINGER and SATELLITE PASSENGER TERMINAL DESIGN


- These next two illustrations show that decentralization offers the possibility of
lessening the constraint for the individual airlines and allowing each airline to
operate within its own building, but it also causes difficulties to the public in terms
of rapid communications for the proper selection of a desired location.

DECENTRALIZED FINGER DECENTRALIZED SATELLITE


THE AIRCRAFT PARKING SYSTEMS
The general technique of placement of aircraft on the aircraft apron greatly affects the apron area as
well as the passenger loading system and this is divided into two categories:

- push-out operations
- power-out operations
A. Power-out operations involve special design requirements for blast protection on the wall
surfaces of terminal buildings and they require greater apron area. The advantage of this
method of operation is that fewer ground personnel and equipment are required.
B. The push-out operation requires the use of expensive tractors and personnel to move the
aircraft out of its gate position before it powers away from the terminal area. The push-out
operation offers the advantage of requiring less apron area and less square footage of terminal
building because of a reduced linear length.

PASSENGER LOADING SYSTEMS


Many systems are available for passenger enplaning and deplaning depending upon the volumes of
passengers, the economic considerations, and the general climatic conditions of the community. Any
combination of systems is available as illustrated below:

A. Single-level loading: From one-storey terminal to aircraft. This is still being practiced in many
small airports today.
B. Two-level loading: From 2nd floor of terminal, passengers walk down a flight of stairs, walk
across the apron to the aircraft. This system makes room for future use of jetways.
C. Rotating Jetway: This method employs a jetway that rotates into position and has the capability
of telescoping to accomplish the interface with aircrafts of different sill height.
GATE LOUNGE CONCEPT

The concept and functions of the gate lounge are basically standard throughout the airline industry.
The basic functional requirements are a ticket counter with all its commu-nication equipment, a
secure or semi-secure seating area with sufficient seating capacity to handle the passengers, flight
identification, last-minute baggage, and the circulation pattern which separates the deplaning
passenger from the enplaning passenger.

However, each airline’s requirements will vary in accordance with its operation procedures and level
of activity. Listed below are average sizes for gate
lounges as required by each type of aircraft.
These sizes are approximate and should be used for preliminary planning only. Some of the airlines
prefer, for the wide-bodied aircraft, a separate ticket counter for the processing of first-class
passengers, and in some cases a separate seating area is required.

Gate Lounge Sizes

Aircraft Type Area Sq.M.

1. B-747 558

2. L-1011 372

3. DC-10 372

4. B2702 372

5. DC-8 326

6. B-707 326

7. B-737 186

8. B-727 186

9. DC-9 140

BAGGAGE HANDLING SYSTEMS

The need for a baggage handling system is obvious, but the system techniques, sophistication of
equipment, and the desired cost level for a system are extremely difficult to evaluate. It is important
to analyze baggage trends and flows.

A. For example, the businessman traveler will carry on one suitcase which will fit below an airline
seat and a garment bag or reasonable dimension which can be hung in a wardrobe on the
aircraft. Thus he bypasses the baggage system. It is not unusual for the volume of businessmen
at a given airport to reach a 30 percent level, and it can be anticipated that at least 80 percent of
these businessmen will not require any baggage check-in system
B. What about the transfer- or transit- baggage which bypasses the check-in and claim part of the
system? The volume of transfer passengers can vary from 10 to 45 percent of the total
passenger load, depending on the airport location.

Therefore, the selection of the desired system will require a complete understanding of what
percentage of the passengers utilizes the terminal facilities for the particular airport.
Based on international standards, the present-day averages of baggage that is handled by the
airlines range from 1.6 to 1.9 bags per passenger. These vary depending upon the airport and
the airline for the type of route structure that exists.
For example, the longer the stage length, the greater the probability that passengers will take
several pieces of luggage.
Therefore, an airline which has a route structure built basically of long stage lengths will handle
a much greater number of bags than an airline with a route structure based upon short stage
lengths.

However, local cultural experience will dictate that one arriving Filipino traveler carries, at an
average, 1 large suitcase and 1 large Balikbayan box in addition to 1 carry-on suitcase and a
hand-bag or a knapsack.
The provision of space for a baggage handling system requires a complete understanding of
each airline operation and the relationships of all the airlines combined.
This understanding should encompass the percentage of baggage per passenger for originating,
terminating, and transfer (both interline and intraline). It also should be related to the time
schedule and the peak conditions.

A check-in system can be serviced by a simple conveyor or a gravity chute.


For large terminal facilities where there can be many check-in points and more than one
baggage makeup space, a system can comprise fully automated cars or pallets that move bags to
many destinations.
This type of sophisticated system is costly and, in order to justify its use, it should be considered
as a total system of all baggage movement, from aircraft to passenger and from passenger to
aircraft.

The selection of the correct baggage system must also be correlated to the reverse flow of
baggage from aircraft to baggage claim.
The baggage claim system, by its very nature, produces an acute problem of baggage handling
when a peaking condition occurs when several flights arrive within the same time frame.
In contrast, originating passengers will generally arrive at the airport over an extended period of
time, therefore dispersing the handling of baggage over the same time period.

As larger aircrafts such as the 747, are used in greater numbers, the peaking conditions increase
and decentralization of the baggage claim system becomes more desirable for passenger
convenience and elimination of congestion.

Baggage claim devices can involve many different shapes, forms and methods of mechanical and
manual handling. Alternative manual handling must be provided for all automatic systems in
case of power shutdown.
The interface between aircraft and the claim area is still generally accomplished by towing the
baggage to the terminal building, where a manual operation accomplishes the placement of the
baggage on the claiming device.

Baggage rooms must be designed to provide sufficient ventilation if gasoline powered tractors is
used. Sprinkler protection must be provided and careful fire cut-off must be made between the
terminal proper and baggage areas.
Doors leading from the baggage room to the outside should be automated and must use rapid-
acting equipment. However, it is important to provide on all doors safety edges which will
prevent closure should an obstacle be in the way.