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aluminum products in this regard.

Forgings produced to the 6061-T6 temper,


a good candidate for construction applications, have the same minimum
strengths in both directions, and the same strength as extrusions of this temper.
In complex shapes, the grain flow direction may not be obvious, and microstructural
analysis may be needed.
While tensile yield and ultimate strengths are listed in Aluminum Standards
and Data, compressive yield and shear ultimate and yield strengths are not,
nor are they given in the Aluminum Specification. If these properties are
needed to perform structural design calculations, you should obtain them from
the producer.
Quality Assurance for Die Forgings Aluminum Standards and Data requires
that compliance with minimum mechanical property requirements for
die forgings be demonstrated by testing the following number of samples: (1)
for parts weighing up to and including 5 lb [2.5 kg], one sample is taken for
each 2,000 lb [1,000 kg], or part thereof, in a lot; and (2) for parts weighing
more than 5 lb, one sample is taken for each 6,000 lb [3,000 kg], or part
thereof, in a lot. Testing is applicable to a direction only when the corresponding
dimension is more than 2.000 in. [50 mm] thick. ASTM B247
requires ultrasonic inspection for discontinuities for certain 2xxx and 7xxx
alloys, forging weights, and thicknesses only, so if you want it otherwise you
must specify it. Inspection methods for forgings are the same as for plate, as
discussed in Section 3.1.2.
Dimensional tolerances are suggested in the Aluminum Forging Design
Manual (7). Tolerances for forgings are subject to the same considerations as
those for castings, as discussed in Section 3.1.4.
Identification markings are provided only as required by the forging drawing,
so call for them there if you want them. As a minimum, it�s a good idea
to require identification, including part number, vendor identification, and
alloy, and to do so with integrally forged, raised letters on the part.
3.1.4 Castings
Introduction Castings are made by pouring molten metal into a mold. This
process is useful for forming complex three-dimensional shapes, but it suffers
some limitations for structural uses. Most castings have more variation in
mechanical properties and less ductility than wrought (that is, worked, such
as forged, extruded, or rolled) aluminum alloys. This is due to defects that
are inherent to the casting process, such as porosity and oxide inclusions, and
the variation in cooling rates within a casting. Casting alloys contain larger
proportions of alloying elements than wrought alloys, resulting in a heterogeneous
structure that is generally less ductile than the more homogeneous
structure of wrought alloys. Cast alloys also contain more silicon than
wrought alloys to provide the fluidity necessary to make a casting. On the