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According to Healy, M. (2014).

Influences of news outlets such as in the

internet, prints, and social networks exacerbated parental misperception of harm
from vaccines, of the fact that repetition of misinformation of harm by vaccines of
children to which parents most feared of.

According to Kestenbaum, L. (2016) Access to information and

misinformation of vaccines from media greatly influenced decision making of parents,
that often conflicting leading to the uprising of questions about vaccines.

According to Gowda, C., & Dempsy, A. (2013). Low socioeconomic status

appear to have conflicting association with parental immunization acceptance. They
have found out that low income parents have greater levels of concern about the
safety and necessity of vaccines as compared with those of higher income.

According to Gowda, C., & Dempsy, A. (2013). Level of parental education

has also been implicated as contributing to vaccine hesitancy. They demonstrate that
parents with less formal education have greater mistrust in the medical affiliation,
express more concerns about vaccine safety and have lesser belief in the necessity
and efficacy of vaccines.

According to Opel et al (2011). Parents with higher level of education were

nearly four times as likely to be concerned about the safety of vaccine than those
from lower education levels. Similarly, Smithet al. (2006) found that refusal of all
childhood vaccines was more common among college educated parents than those
with lower levels of education.

According to Barreto, T., & Rodriguez, L. (1992). Low vaccination coverage

associated with health system related factors, such as shortage of vaccine at local
level, the number of days vaccination was performed, and distance to the nearest
vaccination facility.

According to Funk (2017) .Adults younger than 30 are less inclined than older
age groups to think the benefits of the MMR vaccine outweigh the risks (79%
compared with at least 90% of those in older age groups).


The National Immunization Committee was created to develop an EPI and

coordinate all aspects of the program. The EPI was formulated with the assistance of
WHO, UNICEF, and other agencies.

By virtue of P.D 996, compulsory immunization for children 7 years and below
was started in July, 1976, in the Philippines.

In 1997, BCG was given to 3-14 months old children in priority zones and in
1979, the BCG and DPT program was expanded nationwide. Tetanus toxoid for
pregnant women was started in selected areas. Polio immunization started in 1990,
and Measles vaccine began in July 1982.

October 1989, EPI research and group recommended that Hepa B Vaccine
should be included in the program. The scientific basis of the integration of Hepa B
vaccine within EPI has been clearly established. World Health Organization (WHO) is
urging to find ways to purchase of Hepa B vaccine to levels on the widespread use in
other countries.

A fully immunized child is defined as an infant given 3 doses each of Polio

DPT, 1 dose of BCG and measles before the child reaches 12 months of age. . In the
year 1997, a fully immunized child will be reported having 3 doses of Hepa B
including other vaccines included.

Chi square (X2) This tool will determine the significance of the differences
between mother’s educational attainment, age, family income, number of children,
mass media exposure, and distance from Rural Health Unit


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Kestenbaum, L. (2015 April). Identifying and Addressing Vaccine

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