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OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the students should be able to:

A. describe uniform circular motion and its parameters;

B. differentiate speed, velocity, and acceleration;

C. identify the things and events that exhibit uniform circular motion; and

D. explain the relationship of Newton’s laws of motion to uniform circular motion.

A. TOPIC: Circular Motion

B. SUBTOPIC: Uniform Circular Motion

C. CONCEPTS:

a) Circular motion is a movement of an object along the circumference of a

circle or rotation along a circular path. It can be uniform with constant

angular rate of rotation and constant speed, or non-uniform with changing

rate of rotation.

b) Uniform circular motion is the motion of an object traveling at a constant

speed on a circular path.

c) Uniform circular motion involves centripetal acceleration (center-pointing

acceleration) and centripetal force (center-pointing force).

D. SKILLS TO BE DEVELOPED:

Explaining, identifying, describing, analyzing, and differentiating one

parameter from the other.

E. VALUES:

The students will apply the Newton’s laws of motion in understanding the

concept of uniform circular motion.

The students will see the importance of understanding the concept of

uniform circular motion to various laws of physics.

F. MATERIALS USED:

Laptop, LCD projector, board marker, and visual aid

G. REFERENCES:

Giancoli, Douglas C.,Physics(Fifth Edition).pp.112-115

www.m.sparknotes.com

www.wedassign.net

www.gktoday.in/uniform-circular-motion

III. LEARNING TASKS

A. Preparation

a) Review of the past lesson

Newton’s laws of motion. Again who

can enumerate those laws of motion?

Yes, Gizel.

The Newton’s laws of motion

are the law of inertia, law of

acceleration, and law of interaction.

Exactly!

Who can state the law of inertia?

Yes, Christian.

Law of inertia states that “a

body at rest stays at rest, and a body

in motion stays in motion at the

same speed in a straight line unless

acted upon by unbalanced force”.

That’s right!

What about the law of acceleration?

Anyone?

Yes, Girlie.

Law of acceleration states that

“the force is directly proportional to

the acceleration and inversely

proportional to its mass”.

Very good!

How about the law of interaction?

Yes, Lyra.

Law of interaction states that “in

every action there’s an equal and

opposite reaction”.

Exactly!

Class, familiarize yourselves with

those laws of motion because those laws

will guide you for better understanding

the concept of our next topic.

Did you understand?

Yes Ma’am.

Do you have any question?

None Ma”am.

B. Motivation

Before we start our discussion, let’s

have a simple entertainment.

Are you ready?

Yes Ma’am.

Okay class, are you familiar with the

game entitled “knock knock: who’s there”?

Yes Ma’am.

So, here are the mechanics.

I will group you into three, then each

group will choose a representative to pick

a word that you should incorporate with your

chosen song. After that, you will present it

here in front and all members should

participate. The group with a nice presentation

will be given a reward.

Did you get it class?

Yes Ma’am.

You only have 3 minutes to prepare.

Your time starts now.

(The students did their

presentation).

Very good class. You did it well.

I will give your rewards later.

C. Presentation

Class, familiarize yourselves with

those terms because those terms will be

given an emphasis to our new lesson

which is the uniform circular motion.

D. Lesson Proper

What is uniform circular motion?

From the word uniform, what does

it mean?

Yes, Girlie.

Uniform means constant.

Very good!

What else?

Yes, Lyra.

It means unchanging.

That’s right!

What else?

Yes, Sunshine.

It means steady.

Very good!

All your answers are correct.

An object that moves in a circle at

constant speed is said to experience

uniform circular motion. The magnitude

of the velocity remains constant in this

case, but the direction of the velocity

continuously changes as the object

moves around the circle.

When we say magnitude of the

velocity and direction of the velocity,

what does it mean?

Yes, Rayma.

When we say magnitude of the

velocity, it is only referring to its

speed while the direction of the

velocity talks about the velocity

itself.

Precisely!

So, based on what Rayma have said, will

you differentiate speed from velocity?

Yes, Marisa.

Speed is just how fast you’re

moving. Velocity on the other hand,

is your speed and direction.

Very good!

Between the speed and velocity, where is

the scalar and the vector quantity?

Yes, King.

Speed is the scalar quantity and

velocity is the vector quantity.

Exactly!

How did you say that speed is scalar and

velocity is vector? Will you cite an example?

Yes, Kate.

Speed is scalar because it

doesn’t have a direction, while

velocity is vector because it does

have a direction. For example, the

speed of the car is 300 miles/hour,

and its velocity is 300 miles/hour

South.

Very well said.

Now, let’s talk about acceleration.

What is acceleration?

Yes, Reynald.

Acceleration is a change in

velocity.

That’s right.

So how can something moving in a circle

at constant speed have an acceleration?

Yes, Hilario..

Since an object moving in a

circle is constantly changing

direction, its velocity is constantly

changing. And whenever

something’s velocity is changing-

even if only its direction, not its

speed, that object must be

accelerating.

Exactly!

Class, do you have any question about

the difference among speed, velocity, and

acceleration?

None Ma’am.

If that’s the case, let’s proceed to

centripetal acceleration or a so called

center-pointing acceleration.

But before that, let’s have a group activity.

Your group will be based on your group

lately. Here are the instructions and guide

questions.

1. At your station you have a ball attached

to a string. Your group should move to an

area in the room where you have space to

swing the ball in a circular motion without

hitting someone.

2. Observe the motion of the ball as you

swing it in a circular motion. Draw a diagram

of the ball and its path.

3. Observe the motion of the ball as you change

the speed. Explain what happens to the motion.

4. Change the length of the string. Explain

what happens to the motion.

After you finished the activity, each group

will choose one rapporteur to present and explain

your work here in front.

You only have 5 minutes to do the

activity, and your time starts now.

(The students did the activity)

Class, are you finished?

Yes Ma’am.

Okay. Let’s begin your presentation.

(The students presented their

work)

Class, I want to congratulate all of you,

because you did well your activity.

Let’s give everyone an awesome clap.

For centripetal acceleration, we have the

equation ; where a is the centripetal a v2

r

acceleration(m/s2), v is the velocity(m/s), and

r is the radius(m).

What does it mean?

Yes, Hilario.

Centripetal acceleration is

directly proportional to velocity

squared and inversely proportional

to the radius.

Very good!

Take a look on this figure.

acceleration? Why?

Yes, April.

The motion in letter B because

it has a large velocity and a small

radius.

Exactly!

Circular motion also requires a net

force, and this force is what we called

centripetal force or center-pointing

force.

Class, I want you to observe this

video clip.

(The students watched the video

clip)

After watching the video clip, what

did you observed about the force acting

on the car?

Yes, May.

The force is always directed

towards the center.

Precisely!

In uniform circular motion, the force

is always directed towards the center of the

circle.

Newton’s second law indicates that

whenever an object accelerates, there

must be a net force to create the acceleration.

What does this statement signifies to

uniform circular motion?

Yes, Aizah.

In uniform circular motion,

there must be a net force to produce

the acceleration. A net force is

necessary because otherwise, if no

net force were exerted on the object,

it would not move in a circle but in a

straight line.

Exactly!

Consider this figure.

motion. The object is symbolized by a dot, and

at point O, it is release suddenly from its circular

path. If the guideline is cut suddenly, will the

object move along OA or OP ? How ?

Yes, Jenifer.

The object will move along a

straight line between point O and P,

because according to Newton’s first

law of motion “an object continues

in a state of rest or in a state of

motion at a constant speed along a

straight line unless compelled by

changes that state by a net force”.

So, when the object is suddenly

released from its circular path, there

is no longer a net force being

applied to it. As a result, the object

would move along the straight line

between points O and A, not on the

circular arc between points O and P.

Excellent!

Did you get it class?

Yes Ma’am.

But there is a common misconception that

an object moving in a circle has an outward force

acting on it, a so-called centrifugal (center-fleeing)

force. This is incorrect, there is no outward force

on the revolving object. To prove this, may I have

a volunteer here in front to do the task.

Anyone?

Yes, King.

I have here a ball suspended by the string.

In order for a ball to move in a circular motion,

continuously pull the string.

(The student did the task.)

The misconception arises when the “pull”

is interpreted as an outward force pulling on

the ball that is transmitted along the string

to his hand. This is not what is happening at

all. To keep the ball moving, again pull inwardly

the string. The string exerts this force on the ball,

and the ball exerts an equal and opposite force

on the string.

Class, in what law of motion would fall

this situation?

Yes, Kate.

That situation will fall under

Newton’s third law of motion which

is the law of interaction which states

that in every action there is an equal

and opposite reaction.

Very good!

The force on the ball is the one exerted

inwardly on it by his hand, via the string.

Class, I have here pictures.

What can you say about these pictures?

Yes, Aizah.

The pictures show different

events or situations undergoing

uniform circular motion.

Precisely!

These pictures show some events that

exhibit uniform circular motion. Look at

picture A, who can describe it?

Yes, Ronalyn.

Picture A shows a car on the

road making a turn.

Very good.

What kind of force involved to this?

Yes, Jerick.

The force involved between the

car and the road is a frictional force.

Very good!

How about the picture B, who will

describe and tell what kind of force was

involved?

Yes, Stephen.

Picture B shows a satellite

revolving the Earth, and the force

that involved with this is the

gravitational force.

Excellent!

What about the third picture, will you describe

and tell what kind of force was involved?

Yes, Marisa.

Picture B shows a man whirling

a ball which is tied at the end of the

string, and the force involved is the

tension.

Exactly!

These are some of the the events that

undergoes uniform circular motion that we

can observe in our daily lives, and understanding

the concept of uniform circular motion helps us

to explain various concepts of physics.

Is it clear, class?

Yes Ma’am.

Do you have any question?

None Ma’am.

IV. EVALUATION

Set A. Identification

Direction. Identify what is being asked.

1. What do you call to the motion of an object around the circle?

2. It is a change in velocity.

3. It is considered as a vector quantity.

4. It is considered as a scalar quantity.

5. It is called a center-pointing force.

Set B. Constructive Response

1. Give at least 2 events or situations that exhibit uniform circular motion and

identify the type force being applied to it.

2. Cite at least 1 Newton’s law of motion and explain its relationship to uniform

circular motion.

3. Draw and label a diagram of a ball on a string moving in a circle.

Label the radius= r; tangential velocity = vt; centripetal acceleration = ac; and

centripetal force= cf.

V. AGREEMENT

A. Research about Non-uniform Circular Motion and using a venn diagram, compare

and contrast uniform from non-uniform circular motion.

Reference:

Physics by Douglas C. Giancoli. pp. 122-123

Republic of the Philippines

ISABELA STATE UNIVERSITY

San Mariano Campus

Sta. Filomena, San Mariano, Isabela

A DEMONSTRATION PLAN

IN

PHYSICAL SCIENCE

(Uniform Circular Motion)

Submitted by:

NOVY-ANN U. SANCHO

Submitted to:

CLARINA S. SARMIENTO, Ph.D.

Program Chairman, Education Department

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