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GROUP 4

History Report

CONSERVATION, PRESERVATION & RESTORATION

 Definition Objectives
 Relevant Charter Laws
 Issues and Concerns
CONSERVATION, PRESERVATION & RESTORATION

DEFINITION OBJECTIVES:
What is Conservation?
• The act or an instance of conserving or keeping from change, loss, injury, etc.

What is Preservation?
• To keep in perfect or unaltered condition; maintain unchanged.

What is Restoration?
• The action of returning something to a former owner, place, or condition

Cultural Heritage
• Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a
group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present
and bestowed for the benefit of future generations.

RELEVANT CHARTER LAWS

PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 1505


• Amending presidential decree no. 260, as amended, by prohibiting the
unauthorized modification, alteration, repair and destruction of original features of
all national shrines, monuments, landmarks and other important historic edifice

Meaning:
Any person who shall violate this Decree shall, upon conviction, be punished by
imprisonment for not less than one year nor more than five years or a fine of not less
than one thousand pesos nor more than ten thousand pesos or both, at the
discretion of the court or tribunal concerned.
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 4846
An act to repeal act numbered thirty-eight hundred seventy-four, and to provide for
the protection and preservation of Philippine cultural properties
(AS AMENDED BY P.D. 374)
This Act shall be known as the "Cultural Properties Preservation and Protection Act.”

Cultural properties — are old buildings, monuments, shrines, documents, and objects which
may be classified as antiques, relics, or artifacts, landmarks, anthropological and historical
sites, and specimens of natural history which are of cultural, historical, anthropological or
scientific value and significance to the nation; such as physical, and anthropological,
archaeological and ethnographical materials, meteorites and tektites; historical objects and
manuscripts; house and agricultural implements; decorative articles or personal adornment;
works of art such as paintings, sculptures, carvings, jewelry, music, architecture, sketches
drawings or illustrations in part or in whole; works of industrial and commercial art such as
furniture, pottery, ceramics, wrought iron, gold, bronze, silver, wood or other heraldic items,
metals, coins, medals, badges, insignias, coat of arms, crests, flags, arms, and armor; vehicles
or ships or boats in part or in whole and etc.

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 10066


AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE PROTECTION AND CONSERVATION OF THE NATIONAL
CULTURAL HERITAGE, STRENGTHENING THE NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR CULTURE AND
THE ARTS (NCCA) AND ITS AFFILIATED CULTURAL AGENCIES, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

Short Title. - This Act shall be known as the "National Cultural Heritage Act of 2009".

In the pursuit of cultural preservation as a strategy for maintaining Filipino identity, this Act
shall pursue
the following objectives:

a. Protect, preserve, conserve and promote the nation's cultural heritage, its property
and histories, and the ethnicity of local communities;
b. Establish and strengthen cultural institutions; and
c. Protect cultural workers and ensure their professional development and well-being.

Penal Provisions. - Upon conviction, the offender shall be subject to a fine of not less than
Two hundred
thousand pesos (P200,000.00) or imprisonment for a term of not less than ten (10) years, or
both, upon
the discretion of the court.
CULTURAL PROPERTY

Categories. - The cultural property of the country shall be categorized as follows:

a. National cultural treasures;


b. Important cultural property;
c. National historical shrine;
d. National historical landmark;
e. National historical monument; and
f. World heritage sites.

NATIONAL CULTURAL TREASURES

 Puente de Malagonlong
A declared historical site by the National Historical Institute, Malagonlong is a 445-foot-long
bridge built in 1840. It was the longest bridge ever made during the Spanish colonial era with
approximately 100,000 adobe blocks used.155 years after its construction, the bridge
remains a testimony to the excellent stone arch bridge craftsmanship that was its
foundation.

 TABON CAVES
The Tabon cave complex is located on Lipuun Point, Quezon, Palawan . It is a 138-hectares,
of rugged cliffs and deep slopes. Discovered by an American, the late Dr. Robert B. Fox and
his
team of Archaeologist from the National Museum in 1962.The discovery found here is
known as Taong Tabon

NATIONAL CULTURAL PROPERTY

 Barong Tagalog
The Barong Tagalog is an embroidered formal shirt from the Philippines. It is very lightweight
and worn untucked (similar to a coat/dress shirt), over an undershirt. The term "Barong
Tagalog" literally means "a Tagalog dress" in the Tagalog language; the word "Tagalog"
refers to the ethnic group's traditional homeland in central and southern Luzon, and not
their language.

 The Blood Compact


Is an award-winning 1886 “historic and
historical' painting by Filipino painter Juan Luna. The Blood Compact portrays the 1565
Sandugo (blood compact ritual) between Rajah Sikatuna of Bohol and Miguel López de
Legazpi, surrounded by other conquistadors. Rajah Sikatuna was described to be 'being
crowded out of the picture by Miguel López de Legazpi and his fellow conquistadores'.
NATIONAL HISTORICAL SHRINE

 Aguinaldo Shrine
The Aguinaldo Shrine is the national shrine located in Kawit, Cavite in the Republic of the
Philippines, where the independence of the Philippines from Spain was declared on June 12,
1898. Aguinaldo's house is a mansion over 14,000 square feet (1,300 m2) in floor area
designed by Aguinaldo himself. The house, which features secret passages and hiding places
for documents and weapons, showcases how the revolutionary zeal infused even the
comfort of a Filipino home.

NATIONAL HISTORICAL LANDMARK

 Magellan's Cross
Is a Christian cross planted by Portuguese, and Spanish explorers as ordered by Ferdinand
Magellan upon arriving in Cebu in the Philippines on (depending on source) March 31, 1521
sign below the cross describes the original cross is encased inside the wooden cross that is
found in the center of the chapel. This is to protect the original cross from people who
chipped away parts of the cross for souvenir purposes or in the belief that the cross
possesses miraculous powers.

NATIONAL HISTORICAL MONUMENT

 Rizal Monument
Is a memorial monument in Rizal Park in Manila built to commemorate the Filipino
nationalist, Jose Rizal. The mausoleum consists of a standing bronze sculpture of the martyr,
with an obelisk as his backdrop, set on a pedestal upon which his remains are interred.

WORLD HERITAGE SITES IN THE PHILIPPINES

 A site, area, or structure recognized as being of outstanding international importance and


therefore as deserving special protection. Sites are nominated to and designated by the
World Heritage Convention (an organization of UNESCO).

Two kinds of (WHS)

1. Natural
2. Man-made

NATURAL

Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park, South Sulu Sea, Palawan

The UNESCO World Heritage Committee cited Tubbataha Reef as one of the most
outstanding coral reefs in Southeast Asia, noting that in the 33,200 hectares of the
Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park lies an atoll reef with a very high density of marine
species, a phenomenon unique in the world and a site of irreplaceable universal value.
Tubbataha” derives from two Samal words meaning “a long reef exposed only at low tide.”
MAN-MADE

Banaue Rice terraces

High in the remote areas of the Philippine Cordillera mountain range, scholars believe,
slopes have been terraced and planted with rice as far back as 2,000 years. Mountains
terraced into paddies that still survive in varying states of conservation are spread over most
of the 20,000 square-kilometer land area The improbable site is found at altitudes varying
from 700 to 1,500 meters above sea level, where terraces are sliced into mountain slopes
with contours that rise steeply. Most Filipinos regard the terraces as their greatest national
symbol.

Santo Tomas de Villanueva Church in Miag-ao, Iloilo

Built of local yellow-orange sandstone, the large fortress-church was completed in 1797. The
church withstood typhoons and earthquakes, but it burned twice: first was during the
revolution against Spain in 1898 and the second was during the Philippine-American War a
few years later. It is among the best examples in the Philippines of the “fortress baroque”
style.

Historic City of Vigan

It is a World Heritage Site in that it is one of the few Hispanic towns left in the Philippines
where its structures remained intact, and is well known for its cobblestone streets, and a
unique architecture that fuses Philippine and Oriental building designs and construction,
with colonial European architecture.

ISSUES and CONCERNS

Consider it a breath of fresh air in a landscape of heritage structures laid to waste for
another commercial enterprise.

That the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex has been declared a National Historical Landmark by the
National Historical Commission of the Philippines and an Important Cultural Property by the National
Museum of the Philippines comes as a timely and welcome intervention to plans by Manila Mayor
Joseph Estrada to convert the historic area into a mall in a joint project with a private group.

Built in 1934 in the art deco style by architect Juan Arellano, the Rizal Memorial Stadium hosted
various international events in its prime, including the Beatles concert and the Far Eastern
Championship Games. It was also used as a garrison by the Japanese during World War II. In 1989,
tennis rivals Bjorn Borg and John McEnroe matched skills in its courts. And for the longest time, it
also served as training ground for some of the country’s finest athletes.

The twin declarations by the NHCP and the NMP would now ensure the sports complex’s
preservation and protection against modifications that might violate Republic Act No. 10066, or the
National Cultural Heritage Act of 2009. By declaring the structure’s heritage value, the government is
also obligated to provide funds to maintain and preserve it.
Some quarters may argue that the stadium, which has barely undergone structural improvements
and upgrading since the 1950s, is now unsuitable and unsafe for training athletes, and as a venue for
local and international games. Others may say that Manila has become too congested and
polluted—and, therefore, unhealthy—for athletes, thus the proposal to move the training site to
Clark in Pampanga. But surely, building more high-rise buildings and commercial centers isn’t the
ideal solution?

Elsewhere in the country, the ruins of San Joaquin convent in Iloilo have become an unsightly warren
of makeshift stalls and kiosks notwithstanding its heritage status as a National Cultural Treasure. It
would seem like the call of commerce is irresistible, and that of survival even more so. Again, some
may argue: Why begrudge ordinary folk a living while the ruins lie idle and off-limits?

It’s a sad state of affairs when people are forced to choose between food for their bodies or
nourishment for their minds. In such a choice, culture—heritage included—becomes an unreachable
luxury, a lost cause. Why pine for the graceful art deco lines or the bevel-head nails of a heritage
building when developing the area into a mall can mean construction jobs for laborers and more
vacancies ahead for sales staff and fast-food crews?

But the value of old churches, heritage structures and cultural treasures lies in what they
represent—a link to our past, a reflection of our identity. And identity becomes a source of pride, a
means to national unity. Knowing our heritage gives us a glimpse of what we were, where we came
from, how we used to do things, how we survived as a people, and what we may become. Such
connections can inspire us to aspire for greater heights, while learning lessons from the mistakes of
the past. They either validate the path we’re taking now, or point us to different but firmer ground.

For pragmatic purposes, heritage structures can be profitable when repurposed for more
contemporary use. Consider how the historic town of Vigan—cited in the 1999 World Heritage List—
has become a tourist hotspot for its adaptive reuse of old houses that have been converted into
boutique hotels and shops. Such a vibrant community also means a boost in property values as
historical buildings add charm and character to a place, and, yes, generates more jobs, as heritage
preservation and tourism mean labor-intensive work.

Aside from boosting the economy, preservation is also environmentally friendly. Preservation
coupled with restoration is the ultimate form of recycling, as it helps trim construction waste and
save the energy that is usually spent on manufacturing and transporting building materials and tools.

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