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INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

TELECOMMUNICATIONS STRATEGY
Infrastructure Affairs
Roads Design Department

Version 1.0
December 2014
ITS Telecommunications Strategy

DOCUMENT CONTROL PANEL

Version Date Status Author Reviewer Approver

A. Pliego D. Milnes
1.0 7th December 2014 Final for issue P. Rowley
G. Saunders S. Raza

Number Referenced Document Version Location


Intelligent Transportation
R1 Systems Master Plan 2014- Final Issue
2020
Advancing the Digital Age. http://www.ictqatar.qa/en/documents/document/
R2 Qatar’s National ICT Plan - qatar-s-national-ict-plan-2015-advancing-digital-
(June 2011) agenda
National Broadband Plan
http://www.ictqatar.qa/en/documents/document/
R3 for the State of Qatar (Dec -
qatar’s-national-broadband-plan
2013)
Qatar National Information http://www.ictqatar.qa/sites/default/files/docume
R4 Assurance – National ICS 2.0 nts/National Industrial Control Systems Security
Security Standard Standard-English.pdf

Concept of Operations,
R5 Final Draft
TMC Master Software

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for all such submissions shall fall where they lie.

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Glossary of acronyms
Term Definition
3G Third Generation Mobile telephony and data
4G Fourth Generation Mobile telephony and data
AA Ashghal Asset Affairs
AN Access Node
BPF Business Process Framework
CCTV Closed Circuit Television
ConOps Concept of Operations
COTS Commercial Off The Shelf
C2C Centre to Centre
C2F Centre to Field
CWDM Coarse Wave Division Multiplexing
CRA Communications Regulatory Authority
DIA Doha International Airport
DN Distribution Node
DSRC Dedicated Short Range Communications
DWDM Dense Wave Division Multiplexing
EBSD Ashghal Engineering Business Support Department
EXW Expressway
F2C Field to Centre
GbE Gigabit Ethernet
GEC General Engineering Consultant
GIS Geographic Information System
GME Ground Mounted Enclosure
GPRS General Packet Radio System
GPS Global Positioning System
GSM Global System for Mobile
HCB Human Capacity Building
HIA Hamad International Airport
ICS Industrial Control Systems
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IP Internet Protocol
ISD Ashghal Information Systems Department
IA Ashghal Infrastructure Affairs
IP Internet Protocol
ITS Intelligent Transportation Systems
ITU-R International Telecommunications Union (Radio sector)
ITU-T International Telecommunications Union (Telecoms sector)

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LAN Local Area Network


LTE Long Term Evolution (4G)
LR&D Local Roads and Drainage
Mbps Megabits Per Second
MMUP Ministry of Municipality and Urban Planning
MOE Ministry of Environment
MOI Ministry of Interior
MPLS Multi Protocol Label Switching
MSTP Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
NCC National Command Centre
NTCIP National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol
NTMC National Transportation Management Centre
OAM Operations, Administration and Management
PC-WAN Principal Telecommunications Wide Area Network
PMC Programme Management Consultant
PTZ Pan-Tilt-Zoom (functions of CCTV)
PWA Public Works Authority (Ashghal)
QNBN Qatar National Broadband Network
QoS Quality of service
QR Qatar Rail
RNMC Road Network Management Centre
RSTP Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
SCH Supreme Council for Health
SLA Service Level Agreement
STP Spanning Tree Protocol
SOP Standard Operating Procedure
TCP Transmission Control Protocol
TETRA Terrestrial Trunked Radio
TMC Transportation Management Centre
TSCR Traffic Signal Control Room
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (3G)
VLAN Virtual LAN
WAN Wide Area Network
WDM Wave Division Multiplexing
WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
WLAN Wireless Local Area Network

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Table of Contents
Executive Summary...................................................................................................................... 1
1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 4
2 Requirement for an ITS Telecommunications Strategy ........................................................... 5
2.1 Purpose of the Telecommunications Deployment Plan ......................................................... 5
3 Key Drivers and Enablers ...................................................................................................... 7
3.1 The Qatar National Vision 2030 .............................................................................................. 7
3.2 The Vision for ITS .................................................................................................................... 8
3.3 Roles and Responsibilities ....................................................................................................... 8
3.4 Stakeholders ........................................................................................................................... 9
4 Telecommunications policies .............................................................................................. 10
4.1 Telecommunications Regulation in Qatar ............................................................................ 10
4.2 Radio Spectrum for ITS and Automotive applications .......................................................... 10
4.3 Network Security .................................................................................................................. 12
5 The ITS Telecommunications Network ................................................................................. 13
5.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................... 13
5.2 Model and architecture for the ITS Telecommunications Network ..................................... 14
5.3 Topology of the ITS Telecommunications Network .............................................................. 17
5.4 Deployment considerations (constructability) ..................................................................... 18
5.5 Network availability .............................................................................................................. 21
5.6 Proposed Business Process Framework ................................................................................ 22
5.7 Alternatives for Operations, Administration and Maintenance ........................................... 24
6 Data Centres....................................................................................................................... 26
6.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 26
6.2 Options .................................................................................................................................. 26
7 Key Challenges and Inhibitors ............................................................................................. 28
7.1 Providing a Future Proof network......................................................................................... 28
7.2 Operations ............................................................................................................................ 28
7.3 Resources and skills .............................................................................................................. 28
8 Budgetary Estimates ........................................................................................................... 30
9 Outcomes and Benefits ....................................................................................................... 33
10 Next Steps ...................................................................................................................... 34
Appendix A. Products and services ............................................................................................. 36
A.1 Telecommunications for ITS ....................................................................................................... 36
A.2 Service packages ......................................................................................................................... 36
A.3 ITS Telecommunications domains .............................................................................................. 37

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A.4 E-Commerce and e-government ................................................................................................ 38


A.5 Mobile data applications ............................................................................................................ 38
A.6 Connectivity, Control Centres and Data Centres ........................................................................ 39
A.7 Ashghal Corporate IT network .................................................................................................... 39
A.8 Network Security ........................................................................................................................ 39
Appendix B. Implementation, monitoring and evaluation ........................................................... 41
B.1 Infrastructure and build model ................................................................................................... 41
B.2 Delivery Timeline ........................................................................................................................ 41
B.3 Asset Sharing............................................................................................................................... 42
B.4 Monitoring and Evaluation ......................................................................................................... 43
Appendix C. Technology and definitions ..................................................................................... 44
Appendix D. Drawings for the ITS telecommunications Network ................................................. 53

Figures
Figure 1 Relationship of the Telecommunications Strategy with ITS delivery ....................................... 4
Figure 2 Enablers..................................................................................................................................... 7
Figure 3 Wireless based services and applications ............................................................................... 11
Figure 4 The overall ITS Telecommunications Network ....................................................................... 14
Figure 5 Hierarchical model for the ITS Telecommunications Network ............................................... 15
Figure 6 Example of cable routing ........................................................................................................ 21
Figure 7 Business Process Framework .................................................................................................. 23
Figure 8 ITS Telecommunications Network capital expenditure estimate ........................................... 31
Figure 9 RACI Matrix ............................................................................................................................. 35
Figure 10 Logical association of ITS components ................................................................................. 37
Figure 11 Proposed routing for Centre to Centre communications ..................................................... 54
Figure 12 High level topology for the ITS telecommunications Network ............................................. 55
Figure 13 Fibre pathing for for ITS LAN and PC WAN (Expressway schemes) ...................................... 56
Figure 14 Fibre schematic for ITS LAN and PC WAN (Expressway schemes) ........................................ 57
Figure 15 Fibre pathing for for ITS LAN and PC WAN (Local Roads schemes) ...................................... 58
Figure 16 Fibre schematic for for ITS LAN and PC WAN (Local Roads schemes) .................................. 59
Figure 17 Network switch topology model ........................................................................................... 60
Figure 18 Guideline for fibre core allocation ........................................................................................ 61
Figure 19 Guideline for duct allocation ................................................................................................ 62
Figure 20 Duct routing layouts .............................................................................................................. 63

Tables
Table 1 Stakeholders ............................................................................................................................... 9
Table 2 Network availability figures...................................................................................................... 22
Table 3 Telecommunication Network capital expenditure estimate ................................................... 31
Table 4 Service types and applications ................................................................................................. 36
Table 5 Wireless Spectrum Usage ......................................................................................................... 45
Table 6 ITS Telecommunications technologies and uses. ..................................................................... 48

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Executive Summary
The purpose of the ITS Telecommunication Strategy is to enable and support the deployment of
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) throughout all modes of transportation in the State of Qatar,
thus supporting the human, social, economic and environmental development of Qatar for the
benefit of both the nation and its residents.

The telecommunications network for the ITS for the State of Qatar will be based on current and
future open standards communications technologies that are specifically implemented to undertake
the task of supporting ITS systems platforms. The telecommunications network provides the core
communications foundation over which the ITS operation and its related equipment will be built.
Whilst the communications layer is built at the same time using much of the ITS infrastructure, it is
regarded technically as an independent and subsystem agnostic separate layer. Because of this it
requires an independent operational approach with its own service levels, key performance
indicators and management focus. Security for the telecommunications network is guaranteed
through the entire separation of the control and management equipment from any public networks
in line with the recommendations of the Communications Regulatory Authority (CRA) National
Industrial Control Systems Security Standard.

As well as a telecommunications facility to support the ITS, Data Centre (DC) facilities will also be
implemented to manage, store and process the information derived from the ITS. The DC facilities
will, like the telecommunications network, be required to operate at the highest levels of resilience,
reliability and availability.

The telecommunications network itself shall be implemented to deliver an availability of 99.99%


(equivalent to unplanned downtime of 53 min per year), the availability required from Data Centres
shall be 99.999% (equivalent to an unplanned downtime of 5.3 min/year).

Ashghal will implement telecommunications networks where it is responsible for implementing the
ITS. In order to fill gaps in the telecommunications network and to deliver ITS applications to
locations where the ITS telecommunications network does not yet exist or proves not to be cost
effective, products and services can be procured from third parties such as Ooredoo, Vodafone and
QNBN. With the recent launch of the Es’hailSat service, based in the State of Qatar, there is scope
for a range of satellite based services to also be developed.

In the case of a relationship with QNBN, there is scope and potential for Ashghal and QNBN to share
and swap assets, both fibre optic cable and ducts, in a controlled manner to help each other support
and accelerate each other’s network expansion. This approach will satisfy the strategy being
implemented by the CRA for the State of Qatar by minimising network and asset duplication and
deliver greater efficiencies in building and operating telecommunications network infrastructure.

The estimated capital costs for the telecommunications network is an average of 7% of the total ITS
infrastructure costs and is included in the existing cost estimate. The operational costs are
anticipated in the range of 5-8% of the capital costs per annum. Costs for the leasing of third party
services from telecommunication network operators and service providers are subject to
commercial agreements and are not included in the cost estimate.

The technology approach adopted for the telecommunications network is vendor neutral and will
use current and future open standards Internet Protocol (IP). This allows industry standard hardware

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and software to seamlessly integrate in to the ITS infrastructure whilst minimising the need for
specialist engineering support therefore lowering capital and operational expenditure. The
telecommunications infrastructure provides for conventional and enhanced ITS management of the
roadway network and also provides for emerging technologies for services such as vehicle to vehicle
(V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communications. It is important that wireless spectrum for
V2V and V2I applications is reserved and managed to enable the successful development of these
future technologies.

The Telecommunications Strategy aligns the ITS telecommunications network with the vision for ITS
and Vision 2030 for the State of Qatar. It proposes not only the design and implementation of the
telecommunications infrastructure but also includes for the training and development of the staff
that will implement and operate the infrastructure.

The implementation of the telecommunications network is closely related to the ITS Procurement
Strategy. Within the ITS procurement process, telecommunications is included as a separate
requirement. In order that the desired high levels of network availability are achieved, it is essential
that strategic relationships are built with internationally recognised companies at the top of the
product and service delivery supply chain (Tier 1 suppliers) for the telecommunications equipment
and the ITS services to be developed. It is also essential that tier 1 suppliers are also responsible for
providing the on-going operational support (Assurance) services for the built network.

In conjunction with the ITS Telecommunications Strategy, the ITS Telecommunications deployment
plan is also being developed. The deployment plan is being developed in conjunction with the
Expressway and Local Roads and Drainage Programmes in order that the telecommunications
network is deployed within the appropriate timescale for the ITS delivery of those programmes.

In order to carry forward the ITS Telecommunications Strategy and the deployment plan, an ITS
Governance Board will be set up in order to manage the roles and responsibilities for ITS
telecommunication of the various stakeholders.

It will be the responsibility of the ITS Governance Board to ensure that suitable policies, regulations
and operational agreements are in place to deliver the ITS telecommunications network through
asset sharing agreements, network development policies, spectrum management policies and
operational procedures and practices.

Primary roles and responsibilities for roadway ITS are with Ashghal, to ensure the successful
deployment of ITS as part of the on-going infrastructure investment. Other Stakeholders that have
significant roles and responsibilities include the Ministry of Interior (MOI), CRA, Mowasalat, etc.

With the leadership and support from the ITS Governance Board the telecommunications network
will be achieved leading to the realisation of the benefits delivered through the ITS.

The involvement of Stakeholders in the next steps for the Telecommunications Strategy is detailed
under section 10 in the form of a RACI Matrix.

To realise the outcomes and full benefits of the Strategy, the following steps must be taken.

 Build a formal working relationship with CRA to implement the ITS telecommunications
network and to contribute to the delivery of the Qatar National Broadband Plan and
National ICT Strategy

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 Identify the core network elements that need to be procured through third party network
access agreements
 Engage fully with Ashghal ISD and EBSD to Implement a BPF that will allow Ashghal to define,
deliver, operate and maintain all of the services and applications that the ITS
telecommunications network will deliver
 Following the launch of the ITS Master Plan, engage with other Transportation Stakeholders
to put in place a suitable mechanism for the integration of the various telecommunications
networks
 Develop and implement an HCB programme to recruit, train and develop a local resource to
operate and manage the ITS telecommunications network
 Manage the deployment of the ITS telecommunications network through the EXW and LR&D
programmes.

Section 5 of this document along with Appendix D outline the proposed topology and architecture of
the ITS Telecommunications network, addressing the main active and passive network components
and providing guidelines for ITS network layout and connectivity and leading into the Wide Area
Network Detailed Design.

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1 Introduction
ITS for the State of Qatar will integrate travellers, transportation systems and vehicles of all modes,
through the gathering of transport related data, provision of accurate information and the use of
advanced telecommunications technologies to substantially improve safety, security and efficiency
for all users and operators of the roadway network.

To support traveller needs for improved roadway safety and journey time reliability, Ashghal,
through the Expressway (EXW) and Local Roads and Drainage Programmes (LR&DP), are deploying
roadside, tunnels and Centre ITS equipment to support their roadway operations. This equipment
requires a telecommunications network that can support standard types of data and information
exchange between the operations centres and the wide range of devices alongside the roadway,
expressways and tunnels network and across all modes of transport. Relevant ITS data may be
shared with third parties if required upon mutual agreement (e.g. MOI, HIA, etc.)

Alongside the development of the ITS telecommunications network, it will be necessary to develop
high quality resilient Transportation Management Centres (TMC) and Data Centres (DC) facilities in
which the ITS management and control equipment will be located.

The use of ITS in the State of Qatar for 2020 and beyond is guided by the ITS Master Plan. The
Master Plan is one of a wider suite of ITS documents which layout the approach for the design and
implementation of ITS in the State of Qatar. The ITS Telecommunications Strategy identifies the
approach and concept technologies to be used when designing the telecommunications
infrastructure for the ITS. This relationship is illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Relationship of the Telecommunications Strategy with ITS delivery

The telecommunications network infrastructure will be designed and operated in such a way that it
will provide a secure, reliable, flexible and resilient telecommunications network featuring route
diversity to support voice, video and data. The telecommunications network is critical to the
operation of the ITS to improve travel and roadway user safety.

Sections 2 to 10 of this document detail the Telecommunications Strategy. This is further supported
by information in appendices A to C.

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2 Requirement for an ITS Telecommunications Strategy


The ITS Telecommunications Strategy outlines the approach to the procurement, building, operation
and management a of telecommunications network that will then allow Ashghal to successfully
deliver the outcomes of providing a world class multi-modal ITS for the State of Qatar.

Current ITS technology in the State of Qatar is connected over an Internet Protocol (IP) Virtual
Private Network (VPN). The individual ITS sites around Qatar are connected to the Ooredoo public
network which then aggregates all of the services and connects them to the Traffic Signal Control
Room (TSCR) at the Ashghal office over a single high capacity fibre optic connection. The current
arrangement however does not have any suitable Service Level Agreements (SLA) in place affecting
operational performance and ultimately the credibility of the existing services.

The ITS Master Plan, Action Plan and ITS Architecture all establish that Qatar deserves the best ITS
and this can only be realised if the ITS is supported by a robust and reliable telecommunications
network. Whilst the ITS Master Plan and Action Plan detail the ITS strategies that will provide Qatar
with the best ITS solutions, the ITS Telecommunications Strategy is necessary to describe how those
strategies dependent upon a telecommunications network can be coordinated and delivered.

This document includes information on:

 The key drivers and enablers


 The challenges and inhibitors
 The infrastructure model that the ITS telecommunications network will deliver
 Recommendations for network architecture using best practice backbone design, including
route diversity to link the various TMCs
 The services that the ITS telecommunications network will deliver
 The framework to guide the build, operate and manage roles.

The aims of the ITS Telecommunications Strategy are straightforward:

 To demonstrate the need for a secure, reliable, flexible and comprehensive ITS
telecommunications network and services
 To highlight barriers that may constrain the deployment, operation and management of the
ITS telecommunications network and to make recommendations that will address these
barriers.

The ITS telecommunications network and services are a pre-requisite requirement for the delivery of
the ITS project for the State of Qatar and therefore critical to the realisation of the Vision for the
State of Qatar. It is therefore essential to communicate the benefits of the ITS telecommunications
network to the Stakeholders for the ITS.

2.1 Purpose of the Telecommunications Deployment Plan

In conjunction with the Telecommunications Strategy, a Telecommunications deployment plan is


being developed within the overall ITS Deployment Guidelines and associated standards. The
proposed implementation will utilise the EXW Programme and the LR&DP to develop roll-out plans
for the backbone telecommunications network. The deployment plan will consider the
telecommunications infrastructure across the State of Qatar and will provide solutions for use in

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cities and rural areas, utilising not only the Ashghal network but also the network infrastructure of
other network operators and service providers.

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3 Key Drivers and Enablers


Change in Qatar is driven by both the need to meet the Vision set out in the Qatar National Vision
2030 (QNV2030) and the vision for the ITS as set out in the ITS Master Plan. The drivers include:

 A telecommunications network built and operated for the ITS across all transportation
modes
 Traffic and transport data acquisition in real time across all transport modes
 Changes and advances in technology delivering internet based (e-commerce) services
 Accurate traveller information provision
 Traffic and traveller data management and archiving
 Ongoing ITS equipment development and evolution which increasingly demands the use of
higher bandwidth communications, i.e. higher resolution Closed Circuit Television (CCTV)
cameras and encoders.

The enablers that will ensure the delivery of the Strategy are summarised under People, Processes
and Technology. Any weakness in any part of these three summary enablers will result in the
diminished performance of the whole system.

Figure 2 Enablers

3.1 The Qatar National Vision 2030

Qatar National Vision 2030 (QNV2030) sets out the vision for Qatar for 2030. Its sets out the how
this vision can be realised and what steps need to be taken to achieve this realisation.

The ITS Telecommunications Network will support the objectives of the four pillars of QNV2030
through:

 Developing skills and competencies in building, operating and maintaining the


telecommunications network, utilising technologies and services that will improve the
technical capabilities of citizens in the State of Qatar

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 Allowing Qatar to become a major influence in innovation, research and design of ITS
technologies across the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states and encouraging economic
development in the State of Qatar
 Providing a telecommunication network that will support ITS technologies across all modes
of transportation, improving journeys, reducing congestion and reducing both the number of
incidents and the impact of incidents and the reducing the environmental effects of
congestions and incidents
 Provide transportation service providers and road users with high quality services in
response to the needs of individuals and businesses.

3.2 The Vision for ITS

The Vision for ITS, as detailed in the ITS Master Plan 2014-2020 states that “By 2020, the State of
Qatar will have the most accessible, efficient, safe and technologically advanced transportation
network in the World.”

The telecommunications Infrastructure is a critical element in the deployment of the ITS


infrastructure and contributes to meeting the overall ITS vision which:

 Enables, supports and promotes a seamless and efficient multi-modal transportation


network
 Promotes and supports an inclusive transport infrastructure that will benefit the entire
community
 Helps ensure the competitive position of the State in national and international markets
while addressing social and environmental objectives
 Supplements the objectives, goals, and programmes outlined in the Transportation Master
Plan for Qatar
 Is supported by major stakeholders.

3.3 Roles and Responsibilities

The roles and responsibilities for ITS telecommunications will be managed through the ITS
Governance Board as all of the participating agencies and Stakeholders have roles and
responsibilities in the implementation and operation of the ITS and its telecommunications network.

Through the ITS Governance Board, the relevant team members from the Stakeholder groups will be
fully engaged in the ITS implementation and they recognise not only their role in the implementation
but also the benefits that they will derive from its successful implementation.

Primary roles and responsibilities for roadway ITS are with Ashghal, to ensure the successful
deployment of ITS as part of the on-going infrastructure investment. Other Stakeholders that have
significant roles and responsibilities include the Ministry of Interior (MOI), CRA, Mowasalat, etc.

It is the responsibility of the ITS Governance Board to ensure that suitable policies, regulations and
operational agreements are in place to deliver the ITS telecommunications network through asset
sharing agreements, network development policies, spectrum management policies and operational
procedures and practices.

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3.4 Stakeholders

The following lists identify the ITS Stakeholders identified in phase 1 of the ITS Master Plan and
Architecture. Also listed are the Stakeholders both inside and outside of Ashghal with
responsibilities, both now and in the future, for implementation and operation of
telecommunications networks for ITS. These Stakeholders are the key enablers for the successful
delivery of ITS in the State of Qatar. The telecommunications Stakeholders are the key enablers for
the telecommunications network which delivers and supports the ITS in the State of Qatar.

Stakeholder agreements will be managed through the auspices of the ITS Governance Board. This ITS
Governance Board is the primary point of contact between Ashghal and the other ITS Stakeholders.

ITS Stakeholders ITS Telecommunications Network Stakeholders

 Amiri Guard Current and future responsibility


 Commercial Developers  Ooredoo
 Doha International Airport (DIA)  Ashghal Infrastructure Affairs (IA)
 Hamad International Airport (HIA)  Ashghal Asset Affairs (AA)
 Internal Security Force (Lakhwiya)  Ashghal Information Systems
 Lusail City Department (ISD)
 Ministry of Environment (MoE)  Ashghal Engineering Business Support
Department (EBSD)
 Ministry of Municipality and Urban
Planning (MMUP)  Communications Regulatory Authority
(CRA)
 Ministry Of Interior (MOI) Al Fazaa
Future responsibility (TBA)
 MOI Civil Defence
 Qatar National Broadband Network
 MOI National Command (QNBN)
 MOI NCC Emergency  Es’hailSat, Qatar Satellite Company
 MOI Traffic Police  Vodafone
 Mowasalat Public Transportation
 Private Engineering Office
 Qatar Airways
 Qatar Ports Management Company
 Qatar Rail (QR)
 Sharq Crossing Project
 Supreme Council for Health (SCH)

Table 1 Stakeholders

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4 Telecommunications policies
4.1 Telecommunications Regulation in Qatar

The Communications Regulatory Authority (CRA) has the role of regulator for telecommunications in
Qatar and is responsible for setting the legal frameworks to stimulate investment and lower market
barriers for telecommunications. Qatar has adopted an open and competitive approach to
telecommunications to encourage growth and investment and to encourage adoption of the latest
technologies.

In June 2011, the CRA published “Advancing the Digital Agenda – Qatar’s National ICT Plan”. The
plan details the government of the State of Qatar’s approach to creating a “vibrant ICT sector that
will support the development of a knowledge economy and empower our people to use ICT to
enrich their lives”. The plan also details the role of Qatar’s ICT infrastructure in the development of
the country and outlines the services that will be developed to benefit the society of Qatar. These
services include government shared-services platforms and a government payment platform. Other
benefits of the plan include improving ICT education, building an ICT capable workforce and
providing accessibility for all.

The following programmes and initiatives from the National ICT plan are closely related to, or
directly impact the ITS Telecommunications Strategy:

 Improving Connectivity through the building of a resilient high bandwidth network


contributing to the national fibre network roll-out
 Boosting Capacity by educating and developing engineers and technical resources through
an ITS and telecommunications training programme
 Fostering Economic Development through implementing an infrastructure on which e-
commerce and e-government platforms can be developed and exploited
 Enhancing Public Service Delivery through interconnectivity with Government
telecommunications networks and data centres
 Advancing Societal benefits through the use of emerging technologies and providing
infrastructure to promote the use of internet based applications and technologies.

4.2 Radio Spectrum for ITS and Automotive applications

The CRA are also responsible for the regulation and management of radio spectrum in Qatar to
ensure interoperability and fair use of the available spectrum. Spectrum allocations are based upon
recognised standards developed and administered by the International Telecommunications Union
(ITU) so that as far as is practicable, products developed in other parts of the world can be used in
the State of Qatar.

There are a number of ITS applications and services which use radio communications as the
communications medium. Recent developments in ITS and automotive application has led to the
international standardisation of radio spectrum allocation through the ITU and other bodies such as
the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). This regulation is essential for two
reasons

 To protect spectrum and bandwidth so that it is only used for certain applications i.e.
Emergency services

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 To ensure interoperability of radio services and products through the standardisation of


spectrum allocation.

Figure 3 Wireless based services and applications

Developments in the European Union (EU) have led to standardised spectrum allocations for
applications and services. Among others, these include:

 Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) providing communications between the


vehicle and the roadside equipment in specific locations. DSRC was originally developed for
Electronic Fee Collection (EFC) however the technology lends itself to many other
applications such as cashless parking payment systems or access control systems
 Wireless Communications Systems dedicated to ITS will provide network connectivity to
vehicles and interconnect them. Current standards are under development for the bands 5
GHz and 63 GHz. These can be used for data sharing between vehicle and the ITS
infrastructure and for safety systems such as collision avoidance
 Continuous Air interface Long and Medium range (CALM) provides continuous
communications between a vehicle and the roadside equipment using a variety of
communication media, including cellular (through the incumbent operators), 5 GHz, 63 GHz
and infra-red links. CALM will provide a range of applications, including vehicle safety and
information, as well as entertainment for driver and passengers
 Automotive radar systems in the 77GHz and 79GHz bands are used for detection
applications for adaptive speed control and collision avoidance.

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These developments form part of wider global initiatives on issues such as road safety (for example
the European Commission's eSafety initiative) and road tolling. It is essential however that the
spectrum for the services and applications are dedicated and allocated for ITS and that these
adopted standards also align with those adopted by other GCC members. Radio spectrum, wireless
applications and services are further detailed in Appendix C. Ultimately these applications and
services will connect to the ITS Backbone network, as shown in Appendix D, together with Internet
Service provider wireless telemetry.

4.3 Network Security

Whilst the technology and topology (refer to Appendix D) used for the ITS telecommunications
network is similar to that of the public internet, the two networks are entirely separate. In this way,
the security of the ITS telecommunications network is assured. Along with physical separation,
hardware and software safeguards are in place to inhibit interference with the telecommunications
network and its data traffic. The implementation of these safeguards ensures that the ITS
telecommunications network meets the national ICS security standards prescribed by CRA (Ref: R4).

Third party access to the ITS network should be governed by an Ashghal security policy, in line with
MOI standards.

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5 The ITS Telecommunications Network


5.1 Overview

The ITS telecommunications network will be responsible for implementing and managing Field-to-
Centre (F2C) and Centre to Centre (C2C) communications as well as interfacing third party systems
and access to these systems as needed.

The ITS operation requires a highly resilient and flexible telecommunications network that provides
extremely high levels of availability. This will be achieved by means of alternate paths to link the
various TMCs (route diversity) and the incorporation of redundant systems where critical services
are required.

A range of business and safety critical systems and operations will be reliant upon the
telecommunications network. Without extremely high levels of availability throughout the
telecommunications network, ITS failures will impact all transportation modes, emergency services
and the credibility of the State of Qatar to deliver a sustainable transportation network.

As an organisation, Ashghal is responsible for the management of a major infrastructure in the State
of Qatar, primarily roadways, drainage and buildings. During the course of its normal day to day
business, Ashghal will make business use of commercial telecommunications services. In building an
ITS infrastructure, Ashghal will at the same time implement a telecommunications network, and be
responsible for the supervision and monitoring of network operations. However Ashghal’s business
operation will not change to the extent that it will also become a telecommunications network
operator.

The telecommunications network will comprise a mix of technologies and services to deliver a set of
integrated choices for how the network is delivered and how it is operated. (Further information on
the available technologies is provided in Appendix C). These choices include:

 Network access using the near-limitless capacity of optical fibre networks installed along the
Expressway and Locals Roads projects with some network gaps filled by Ashghal and through
the use of local wireless solutions
 Network facilities leased / shared, with providers to fill in strategic gaps in the network
 Remote services from public telecommunications service providers (Ooredoo and Vodafone)
over fixed links, wireless and satellite (Es’hailSat)
 Wireless infrastructure and technology that will enable Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle
to Infrastructure (V2I) platforms and services to be developed and implemented along with
wireless ITS technology.

The telecommunications network will also integrate the following user systems depicted in the
figure below.

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Figure 4 The overall ITS Telecommunications Network

5.2 Model and architecture for the ITS Telecommunications Network

The ITS Telecommunications Network features several interconnected networks:

 A series of Local Area Networks (LAN) incorporating ITS devices deployed within a given
scheme or project (ITS-LAN)
 A Backbone Network (BN) connecting the various ITS-LANs together
 A Wide Area Network (WAN) formed by the BN and the various ITS-LANs. This WAN may be
considered the Principal Telecommunications WAN (PC-WAN), where “Principal” is the
owner of the network (Ashghal).

The overall network architecture addresses the way in which networks are interconnected as well as
the management schemes of packets moving through it.

5.2.1 Network architecture


According to best practice network design, the network that will support ITS operations follows a
hierarchical model which incorporates three layers:

 The access layer, which supports the ITS-LAN


 The distribution layer, which supports the interconnection of ITS-LANs. This layer is part of
the WAN

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 The core layer, which supports C2C communications as well as other high-speed links to
Data centres, stakeholders, etc. This layer is also part of the WAN.

The various layers incorporate the following active equipment:

 The access layer will consist of Access Nodes (AN) fitted with Layer-2 Gigabit Ethernet
switches running on a mix of CAT 6 twisted-pair cables and fibre cabling. In some cases a
microwave link may be required to facilitate “last mile” access. The access layer switches will
have a minimum of 1 Gbps uplinks to the distribution layer
 The distribution layer will consist of Distribution Nodes (DN) fitted with high port-count
Layer-2 fibre switches that will be connected in a ring and ladder topology using 10 GbE
fibres. The distribution layer will terminate at the various TMCs and Tunnel Control Centres
on a Layer-3 switch. The use of a 10GbE backbone at this level ensures that high bandwidth
data such as video images are dealt with accordingly
 The core layer use Layer-3 Ethernet switches running either 10 GbE, 40 GbE up to 100 GbE
over fibre as required by the overall WAN design. These switches will be installed at the
TMCs and other sites such as Tunnel Control Centres only to provide access to the various
Virtual LANs (VLANs) and subnets on the distribution layer. Centre to centre links will be
accomplished using a dedicated Centre to Centre backbone incorporating redundant links
that can be implemented over either fibre or via a third party service provider if required.

Figure 5 Hierarchical model for the ITS Telecommunications Network

Physical rings provide route diversity between the main network nodes so that a switch can be
reached through various paths at both the access and distribution layers as well as at the core layer.
Nevertheless, logical loops are to be avoided; in order to deliver a loop-free logical topology, the
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP), will be used on the network switches.

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Apart from the inherent protection delivered by the ring and ladder topology, the WAN can
incorporate redundant switches to improve network resilience on the distribution layer so if one
switch fails, the WAN continues to operate.

5.2.2 Network segmentation


The ITS telecommunications network is to be partitioned into different segments (users and services)
through the use of Virtual LANs. VLANs are logical networks within a single physical network in which
devices are assigned to LAN segments by software rather than by hardware. It is envisaged that each
TMC shall be on its own VLAN. In addition, the video streams generated by CCTV should be
segregated from the remaining ITS data at a minimum to allow for QoS rules (see Section 5.2.3) to be
applied.

Additionally, due to the staging of multiple contracts and the creation of a large number of rings, the
use of MSTP may be necessary to ensure spanning tree convergence; MSTP provides all the benefits
of the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) with the addition of allowing the network to be split into
logical MST (Multi Spanning Tree) regions. It will also allow for the construction of VLAN specific
spanning trees and hence can be used to implement an additional degree of load balancing across
the network.

5.2.3 Quality of Service (QoS)


Quality of service is the ability of a telecommunications network to provide different priority to
different applications, users, or data flows, or to guarantee a certain level of performance to a data
flow.

The VLANs implemented on the ITS network will carry services with varying bandwidth needs or pre-
defined priorities; for this purpose an SLA (Service Level Agreement) with a distinct QoS (Quality of
Service) must be set up on a per-service type and location basis.

The QoS implementation can be done on a physical port basis or on a per-VLAN basis. The
implementation of QoS on the network will involve a clear definition of the various services and their
associated bandwidth requirements at both the core and the distribution layers. It is recommended
that this should be done at the outset of the design process to mitigate any risks involved with the
implementation. A typical implementation for ITS systems would typically characterize the following
service types:

 Network overhead: Consists of network management traffic (e.g. SNMP, Spanning Tree
BPDUs and is typically the highest priority)
 Real-time/Time-sensitive data: Vehicle detector, DMS, ANPR images, etc.
 CCTV video
 Remaining network traffic on a “best-effort” basis.

5.2.4 Data flow


The network will be designed such that data flows between road-side devices, servers and hosts
follow pre-determined, predictable and redundant paths. The spanning trees setup as a result of the
route diversity need to be carefully designed such that the information generated and shared does
not unnecessarily overload the network hardware and plenty of spare capacity is available for future
expansion.

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5.2.5 Benefits of the architecture


The main benefits of the architecture proposed are the following:

 The IP-based architecture provides for the transport of voice, video, and data over the same
network infrastructure (network convergence)
 The optic fibre ring and ladder topology and redundant equipment leverages data path
diversity and combines high speed data rates with resilience and availability
 The approach of a Layer-2 design for the access and distribution layers simplifies the
network design, not affecting spanning tree convergence (due to MSTP) and dramatically
reduces equipment costs
 Traffic prioritization of time-sensitive and real-time network traffic enables a reliable quality
of service for end user applications
 Critical links between TMCs and Tunnel Control Centres allow for additional traffic shaping
and result in high speed links between centres.

5.3 Topology of the ITS Telecommunications Network

The various Communications Nodes mentioned before will be housed in Ground Mounted
Enclosures (GME) incorporating passive and active hardware as required by the relevant ITS scheme.
The GME will meet the ITS specifications.

The Nodes will be interconnected by means of the following passive infrastructure depending on the
type of roadway.

5.3.1 Expressway schemes


On-scheme connections:

 2 cables of 96 fibres each for the ITS LAN. Each cable (ITS LAN 1.1 and ITS LAN 1.2) shall be
ducted individually and laid on each side of the road (whenever possible). Both cables
constitute the looping path
 2 cables of 96 fibres each for the PC WAN. Each cable (PC WAN 1.1 and PC WAN 1.2) will be
ducted individually and laid on each side of the road (whenever possible). Both cables
constitute the direct path for PC WAN and also carry the ITS direct return path (a redundant
path for greater resilience in case of failover using MSTP protocol). These cables can also
carry potential third-party access at Ashghal discretion
 Access layer rings for each EXW scheme will be independent of access layer rings for
adjacent EXW schemes terminating at the distribution switch at either end of the scheme.
 Designers need to be aware of EXW schemes containing major intersecting roadways where
the Limit of Work on the intersecting roadway interfaces with an adjacent EXW scheme (e.g.
East/West corridor and Airport Road). In such instances, the ITS devices located on the
intersecting roadway shall be part of its own access layer ring. (e.g. ITS located on Airport
Road will not be a part of the access layer ring for East/West Corridor).

Inter-scheme connections:

 1 cable of 96 fibres on each side of the road, ducted individually, for interconnection at a PC
WAN level of adjacent schemes, Centre to Centre communications, etc.
 Distribution nodes will need to be provided at major expressway intersections to enable
possibilities for scheme interconnections as part of the overall WAN design.

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Local roads connections:

 Distribution nodes will need to be provided with at interface points with local roads projects
to allow for connectivity of these projects to EXW scheme’s WAN for backhaul to the
operations centres.

5.3.2 Local roads schemes


The number and type of cable will be identical to the Expressway schemes; in this case all four cables
will be individually ducted along the median of the road where applicable.

Ducting within local roads schemes shall be designed to extend the WAN as far as possible through
the local roads projects. Considerations should be made to design that ducting through local roads
projects to provide a duct route between any adjacent EXW schemes that may be located at the
project boundaries. In such situations, various local roads projects will need to co-ordinate to
provide a continuous duct run through adjacent projects to connect binding EXW schemes. The
purpose of this shall be to provide connectivity to various EXW schemes and allow for the staging
and resilience of the overall WAN network design.

5.3.3 Interfaces
The interface point with other schemes shall be the WAN GME, either at the end of scheme or as a
mid-point interface within the scheme at major intersections.

A given scheme will always be terminated at least by a couple of diagonally opposed WAN GMEs
matching the adjacent ones (see figures 15 and 17 for more detail).

5.3.4 Network switch topology


The network switch layout presented serves as a model. However, the final layout depends on the
detailed design for the particular scheme and on the required number of ITS LAN rings to be
deployed based on RSTP convergence and switch recovery times.

For further guidance on the overall network topology, refer to the following drawings featured in
Appendix D:

 Figure 11: Proposed routing for Centre to Centre communications


 Figure 12: High level topology for the ITS telecommunications Network
 Figure 13: Fibre pathing for ITS LAN and PC WAN (Expressway schemes)
 Figure 14: Fibre schematic for ITS LAN and PC WAN (Expressway schemes)
 Figure 15: Fibre pathing for ITS LAN and PC WAN (Local Roads schemes)
 Figure 16: Fibre schematic for ITS LAN and PC WAN (Local Roads schemes)
 Figure 17: Network switch topology model

5.4 Deployment considerations (constructability)

This document is intended as a framework for all ITS designers to follow for designing the ITS LAN
telecommunications network and WAN requirements for EXW and LRDP ITS schemes.

A re-evaluation has been required for fibre allocation, chamber sizes and cable slack required at
GMEs, duct branches from the backbone duct network and the interfacing at the limits of work for
each scheme.

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5.4.1 Fibre optic core allocation and splicing


Specifically, this document introduces the following major changes within the ITS
telecommunications design:

 Splicing of fibre is shifted from ITS splice chambers to within the ITS GMEs (located at the
Access Nodes)
 Splicing within Access Nodes consists of 48 fibres being present, 24 fibres spliced through
and 24 fibre pigtails laid up within the enclosure
 Underground splicing occurs only for tunnel, pole mount or access enclosures which are not
located along the local ITS backbone network by means of a 12 SM fibre optic drop cable
 An additional 96 strand WAN trunk cable is introduced to accommodate scheme to scheme,
scheme to centre, and centre to centre fibre connections
 48 fibres from the WAN trunk are presented in Distribution Nodes with the remaining 48
coiled and laid up for future use.

For further detail, refer to Figure 18 in Appendix D which presents a guideline for the fibre core
allocation for ITS LAN and PC WAN.

5.4.2 Fibre optic cable slack


The following recommendations shall be followed when accounting for the amount of slack provided
in the fibre optic trunk or drop cables. The existing specification or standard applies where a
recommendation is not given.

 For Access Node GMEs placed along the backbone duct network, 10m of slack in the ITS fibre
optic trunk cable shall be provided within the Draw chamber directly adjacent the GME in
either direction (i.e. going into and out of the GME). An additional 2m fibre optic slack cable
shall be provided within the GME
 For Access Node GMEs not on the backbone duct network, 10m of slack in the fibre optic
drop cable shall be provided within the ITS chamber in either direction i.e. going into and out
of the GME
 2m of slack ITS trunk or drop cable (as applicable) shall be provided before and after the
fibre optic patch panel within all Access Node GMEs
 60m of slack in both the WAN and ITS fibre optic trunk cable shall be provided within the
Draw chamber outside all Distribution Node GMEs at the project extents
 2m of slack in both the WAN and ITS fibre optic trunk cables shall be provided in draw
chambers that are pass-through. A pass-through chamber is defined as one with no direct
connection to ITS devices or GMEs
 10m of slack in both the WAN and ITS fibre optic trunk cables shall be provided in any
chambers that involve a change in direction greater than 22.5 degrees
 30 m of slack on each direction (total 60m) shall be provided for the WAN fibre optic trunk
cable, within the draw chambers at major arterial or expressway intersections where the
Limit of Work with the intersecting roadway is shared with an adjacent EXW scheme.

5.4.3 Chamber types


The current Ashghal Civil & Structural Standards for ITS call out 3 types of chambers:

 ITS Chambers (1m x 1m external)


 Splice Chambers (1.4m by 1.4m external)
 Draw Chambers (1.2m x 2.4m external)

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It is recommended that the following strategy should be used to evaluate the type of chamber that
needs to be deployed at a given location. The existing specification or standard applies where a
recommendation is not given.

 Chambers used at extents of Limit of Works shall be Draw Chambers to accommodate the
presence and slack requirements of Distribution nodes described before
 Chambers used exclusively for pass-through of cable along the backbone duct network shall
be Draw Chambers to facilitate easy hauling of cables
 Chambers used for change in direction of backbone duct network shall be Draw Chambers to
accommodate the bend radius for fibre optic cables during a change in direction
 Chambers placed outside all Access Node GMEs along the backbone duct network shall be
Draw Chambers to accommodate for the slack provided in the fibre optic trunk cables
 Chambers placed outside all Distribution Node GMEs shall be Draw Chambers to
accommodate for the slack provided in the fibre optic trunk cable
 Chambers placed outside all Access Node GMEs that are not along the backbone duct
network shall be ITS Chambers to accommodate for the slack in the drop cables
 Chambers placed outside poles or structures supporting ducting between GMEs and end
field devices shall be ITS Chambers.

5.4.4 Duct deployment and allocation


The ducts are placed in a stack incorporating the following types of cables:

 ITS LAN
 WAN
 SCADA
 POWER

Power cables shall always be located at the bottom of the stack.

For further detail on the duct allocation and placement in stacks and chambers for Expressway
schemes and Local Roads schemes, refer to Figure 19 in Appendix D.

5.4.5 Cable routing at road junctions


At road junctions, WAN and ITS cables are not to follow the same path: the WAN cable shall always
follow a path as straight as possible (consider using directional drilling).

The reason for this is that the optical signal on the ITS looping path is regenerated in the Access
Nodes switches; the optical signal on the WAN can only be regenerated in the Distribution Nodes
either at both ends of the scheme or at mid-point presentations where access to the WAN is
required.

Therefore, the WAN cable shall not be either over bent nor cut or spliced at intersections in order to
minimise attenuation due to insertion losses such as splices or connectors and excessive bend
radius. Otherwise, losses propagate across adjacent schemes compromising the overall optical link
budget.

Additionally, the straight path reduces pulling resistance and stress for the cable taking into account
the length of fibre cable reels (around 5-6 km).

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Acceptable layout Not acceptable for WAN purposes

Figure 6 Example of cable routing

For additional examples of cable routing, refer to Figure 20 in Appendix D.

5.4.6 Electrical safety


The chambers where power cables and fibre/copper cables are collocated (i.e. shared services
chambers) shall properly labelled on the outside as electrical hazard is present.

Whenever possible, power cables shall be separated from the rest of cables by means of a physical
barrier.

For further detail on shared services chambers, refer to Figure 19 in Appendix D

5.5 Network availability

There are a series of constraints for the scenario in which the ITS Telecommunications Network will
eventually be situated:

 Multi-vendor environment
 Multiple technologies
 Leverage of third-party networks
 Multiple SLAs in place
 Legacy systems in use
 Limited skills and training.

Telecommunications operators build their telecommunications networks to a level of resilience and


availability referred to as “Carrier-grade”. Carrier-grade systems are tested and engineered to meet
or exceed 99.999% (five-nines) standards and provide very fast fault recovery through redundancy
(normally less than 50 milliseconds).

The following table summarises the various availability figures of a telecommunications network and
their associated unplanned downtime.

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Downtime per Downtime per Downtime per


Availability %
year month week
90% ("one-nine") 36.5 days 72 hours 16.8 hours
99% ("two-nines") 3.65 days 7.20 hours 1.68 hours
99.50% 1.83 days 3.60 hours 50.4 minutes
99.9% ("three-nines") 8.76 hours 43.8 minutes 10.1 minutes
99.95% 4.38 hours 21.56 minutes 5.04 minutes
99.99% ("four-nines") 52.56 minutes 4.32 minutes 1.01 minutes
99.999% ("five-nines") 5.26 minutes 25.9 seconds 6.05 seconds

Table 2 Network availability figures

As previously stated, it is not Ashghal’s mission to become a telecommunications network operator.


This fact along with the constraints highlighted, make unnecessary the demand for a “five-nines”
network implementation as it would be unattainable in practice. A more realistic and yet reliable
figure for network availability would be “four-nines”.

5.6 Proposed Business Process Framework

Telecommunications is a fast paced, rapidly changing industry and in order that Ashghal and the
State of Qatar derive the greatest benefits and deliver a series of cost effective services for the ITS
infrastructure, it is essential that the building, operation and management of the ITS
telecommunications network is appropriately managed.

Throughout the telecommunications industry, the use of a Business Process Framework (BPF) has
been adopted as the de-facto standard for business processes. It is used by network operators,
service providers and other organisation in the sector. It is a hierarchical, layered structure of
processes detailing the inputs, outputs and key elements that drive the end-to-end processes and
process flows between the telecommunications customer and the suppliers / service providers.

The BPF for the ITS telecommunications network will adopt the processes and principles of
conventional telecommunications service providers for the build, operate and manage elements of
the telecommunications network lifecycle to provide a certainty and consistency in the delivery of
ITS telecommunication services.

The telecommunications network will be operated as a Service Operating Model based upon a
process framework for offering services and solutions to the Customer, in this case the ITS
operational infrastructure. These of services will be based upon service requirements (bandwidth,
location, resilience and availability).

The framework for the ITS telecommunication infrastructure will define a series of business activities
to deliver and support the ITS Telecommunications infrastructure not only for Ashghal but for the
other ITS Stakeholders as well.

The BPF is also the framework upon which the Operations, Administration and Management (OAM)
of the telecommunications network is based. It sets out the requirements, processes, tools and
strategies to allow the ITS telecommunications network to compete successfully with other service
providers, through the implementation of a business process driven approach to managing the
telecommunications network. The BPF for ITS telecommunications will be developed in close

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cooperation with Ashghal Information Services Department (ISD) and the Engineering Business
Support Department (EBSD).

The framework comprises three main process elements which are then further divided into sub-
process elements. The three main process elements are developed in such a way that they reflect
the departments in Ashghal that are responsible for their operation. In the case of the ITS
Telecommunications Network, the customer is the ITS operational infrastructure which the
telecommunications network is supporting.

The three primary process elements are:

 Strategy, Infrastructure and Products. This is the design and build element that is the
responsibility of Infrastructure Affairs (IA)
 Operations. This is the element responsible for the operation and maintenance of the
telecommunications network and is the responsibility of Asset Affairs (AA)
 Enterprise Management. This element has the support role for IA and AA and comprises
resources from Technical Services Affairs (TSA) and Shared Services Affairs (SSA).

Business processes must be defined at the corporate level through the ITS Governance Board and
will work in a series of groupings based upon the stages of service delivery. This is illustrated below.

Figure 7 Business Process Framework

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5.7 Alternatives for Operations, Administration and Maintenance

Activities in operating an in-house telecommunications network include the management of


telecommunication services, networks and equipment, by means of designing generic and
technology-specific architectures based on a series of functional requirements. This will also include
determining information models, and protocols for the specification and management of Operation,
Administration and Management (OAM) interfaces between network elements at the roadside and
in vehicles, between roadside equipment and management systems and also between the various
management systems. Ashghal will need to integrate the above activities in its business processes to
successfully operate the telecommunications network for the ITS.

There are various OAM options to be examined when it comes to the telecommunications network
for the ITS for the State of Qatar. These are:

 A completely private network designed, operated and maintained by Ashghal. This will be
developed through conventional contracting where Ashghal would manage separate
contractors to operate and maintain the network with Ashghal undertaking network
operations and management
 A completely private network designed and built by Ashghal and maintained, operated and
managed by a supply chain partner on behalf of Ashghal
 A telecommunications network designed, built, operated and maintained by a tasked
Government Agency
 A telecommunications network designed, built, operated and maintained by a third party on
a lease/concession basis owned by the Government.

In addition to these options, it should be recognised that the backbone will take a period of time to
evolve to provide the infrastructure for the ITS and on occasions there will be a telecommunications
network requirement at locations where the backbone network is not yet available. A dialogue will
be established to seek suitable solutions and designs for filling in gaps in the network. In this way,
asset sharing can be shown as a way of accelerating the network build-out without duplicating
network build in already congested areas of Qatar.

Whichever procurement route is chosen, the arrangement must:

 Encourage a long term strategic investment approach to the requirements of the ITS
infrastructure
 Provide a secure, reliable, flexible and resilient telecommunications network featuring route
diversity
 Provide a network built on open standards using off the shelf technology
 Include an investment structure that will realistically spread the cost of building, operating
and managing the network over the life of the contract
 Include an active ICT asset management system and database. This system will include
configurations details, layer management, asset monitoring, remote access to assets,
together with configuration, version control and change management modules.

The development and implementation of the Telecommunications Network architecture for the ITS
will be as a result of the outcome of the ITS procurement process. The detailed architecture for the
telecommunications network will be based upon the capabilities and functionality of the core
network equipment. The selection of core network elements, their installation and operation will be
a critical outcome of the procurement process.

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The Procurement Strategy will detail the approach for procurement of all ITS equipment and
services.

The telecommunications products and services that the ITS network will need are detailed in
Appendix A. The implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the telecommunications network
and facilities are further detailed in Appendix B. The technologies available for use in the ITS
telecommunications network are detailed in Appendix C. Telecommunications backbone network
diagrams are shown in Appendix D.

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6 Data Centres
6.1 Introduction

As with all telecommunication operations, the network is only as strong as its weakest link. The
highest levels of resilience and availability need to pervade throughout the entire
telecommunications network and this is particularly crucial at locations where the data is stored and
managed.

The implementation of a high quality telecommunications network for the ITS and other systems will
be dependent on equally high quality facilities to house the equipment and systems that operate
and manage the ITS. The use of purpose built Data Centres (DC) will address this requirement and
will ensure that the investment in the ITS and the telecommunications infrastructure is not eroded.

The data centres themselves will be implemented on a “five-nines” approach as they are constitute
discrete network locations with the following characteristics:

 Controlled environment.
 Bespoke facilities
 Dedicated support 24/7
 Resilient infrastructure.

The existing installed ITS equipment in and around Doha is currently controlled at the Traffic Signal
Control Room (TSCR) located at the Ashghal head office (Al Faisal Tower 2) in West Bay. Whilst the
location is suited to the existing levels of equipment deployed in Doha, it has insufficient capacity to
expand and deliver the required levels of capability and resilience for future ITS deployments.

In the long term (post 2016/2017), all ITS will be managed and controlled from the National
Transportation Management Centre (NTMC) on the Al Shamal road. In the medium term (late 2015),
installed ITS equipment will be controlled from the Road Network Management Centre (RNMC) at
Ashghal Roads Operations and Maintenance (O&M) office on Wholesale Market Road. This means
that in the period up until the delivery of the RNMC, ITS will be controlled and managed from a
facility with limited capability and very limited capacity. Further information on the
telecommunications network deployment timescales are provided in Appendix B.

The TSCR in its current form cannot expand and has very limited resilience. Data storage is in the
form of tapes, stored off site however there is no resilience for any of the systems located at the
TSCR. The RNMC is still at the design stage and will not be available until the end of 2015. This leaves
a break in the capability for Ashghal to operate a resilient ITS control facility with acceptable levels of
Disaster Recovery and resilience.

6.2 Options

To enable a step change in the operation and management of ITS, suitably managed DC facilities are
required and there are a number of options that can address this.

Option 1

Ashghal rent equipment space from existing DC providers. This will offer:

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 Secure space in a highly controlled environment


 Staff to operate and maintain the data equipment and critical systems
 Site resilience and DR for critical systems
 Expansion space
 Reduced total cost of ownership
 Connection of the DC to the TSCR for continued operations.

This option can deliver tangible benefits in the short term (6-12 months) until the RNMC is
operational.

Option 2

Ashghal to build and operate their own DC facilities. This will require that:

 Ashghal own and operate at least 2 DCs


 Ashghal build and maintain a high grade telecommunications network between the two sites
and the ITS equipment.

This option can only deliver the full benefit once both DCs are available.

Option 3

A combination of the two previous options whereby Ashghal rent space in an existing DC whilst a
second DC facility is being built. This combination will allow Ashghal to install ITS systems into a
resilient and secure environment in a short timescale. The DC will be connected to the TSCR through
a resilient telecommunications network delivered by one of the available service providers.

Option 3 will deliver the most appropriate outcome for the use of DC facilities. It will allow Ashghal
to expand their ITS capability in a short timescale and deliver the high levels of resilience that the ITS
management requires.

Development and delivery of the DC facilities for the ITS will need to be carefully managed through
very close liaison with the Information Services Department (ISD) within Ashghal. ISD are responsible
for the management of Ashghal’s IT infrastructure and telecommunications services. Plans are being
developed by ISD to deliver enhanced services and facilities for Ashghal and the development of ITS
services will need to be included as part of those plans.

Once the upgraded facilities are in place and operational, ISD will continue to be a major Stakeholder
in the ongoing Operations, Administration and Management (OAM) of the services and facilities and
will be an internal supplier to the ITS operation.

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7 Key Challenges and Inhibitors


7.1 Providing a Future Proof network

Through the use of Ethernet and IP over fibre optics and radio, the Ashghal ITS Telecommunications
Network will be as future proof as is possible to achieve with current and foreseeable technology
whilst remaining cost effective. Using Ethernet and fibre optics as the network infrastructure, future
designs and improvements will be driven though innovations with control and management
applications and end devices.

The availability of high levels of data and information from the roadway network will lead to future
development that will use the data for new applications aimed at improving journey time reliability
and road safety and through connecting Stakeholders to the Ashghal ITS, the information and data
can be shared and used to offer improved services and data uses.

7.2 Operations

At present Ashghal procure ITS telecommunications services through a third party service provider.
With the construction and delivery of its own telecommunications network, Ashghal will need to put
in place the appropriate operational management to ensure that the investment is not eroded.

Operational Support Systems (OSS) will need to be developed to provide the expected service levels
for the ITS infrastructure, providing processes and personnel in three primary dimensions:

 Customer facing (providing the services for the ITS operation)


 Partner facing (third party operators and traveller service providers)
 Network facing (keeping the telecommunications network running).

Software systems are available to help deliver these processes but Ashghal will still need the
personnel to deliver the services.

7.3 Resources and skills

ITS telecommunications Human Capacity Building (HCB) will be the primary vehicle for educating the
current and emerging transportation workforce about ITS telecommunication technologies. The HCB
task will need to link telecommunication practitioners and decision makers with suppliers,
instructors and trainers, and peers to advance the position of Ashghal’s ITS telecommunications
capability.

The ITS telecommunications HCB task is to develop a telecommunications profession within Ashghal
and its major supply chain partners, taking the lead in the innovative use of telecommunications
technologies. This programme will need to comprise of four primary elements:

 Collaboration
 Innovative thinking
 An ITS customer-focused strategy
 A results-driven approach.

The primary focus of a telecommunications HCB task will be on building a telecommunications


professional capacity and developing the future telecommunications workforce. The task will seek to

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influence the most informative and effective learning structures to provide the latest in best
practices in telecommunications delivery and research to the Ashghal workforce and its supply
chain. The task will need to support activities that deliver multi-technology telecommunications
learning opportunities to the engineering community by:

 Encouraging knowledge sharing of best practices


 Providing technical assistance to telecommunication technology engineers through Peer-to-
Peer (P2P) and formal training programmes
 Delivering telecommunications technology training through suppliers and partners.

A set of core components provide a basis for the tasks four interrelated outcomes are:

 Professional development, which seeks to equip current and emerging telecommunication


professionals with the knowledge, skills, and abilities to plan, design, deploy, operate, and
maintain ITS telecommunication technologies
 Leadership Outreach which includes the development of a network of champions who
promote the value of ITS telecommunications
 Knowledge Exchange to facilitate the exchange of knowledge through innovative solutions
 Technology Transfer to accelerate technology transfer to bring ITS telecommunications
research and proven solutions to the user community.

Put into action, the four components and outcome areas support a strategic approach for training
delivery that seeks to connect the workforce, accelerate the adoption of ITS telecommunication
technologies, deliver learning in the most effective and engaging manner, and continuously evaluate
the learning programme for maximum impact.

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8 Budgetary Estimates
The cost and completion timescales for the ITS telecommunications network will depend upon a
range of factors, including:

 Programme management of adjacent schemes


 Access to third party networks
 Availability of skilled labour available to build and maintain the network
 Coordination between Ashghal and other parties
 Material supplies
 Operational capabilities and knowledge of telecommunications requirements around
specific technologies and data services required between field devices to centres.(F2C))
centres to field devices, (C2F) and in centre to centre communications, (C2C).

With good planning practices, the risks inherent in such a large scale infrastructure project can be
mitigated so that the network can be completed in the most cost effective manner.

As of September 2013 [Ref: R5], ITS equipment located at 44 junctions in and around Doha is
connected to the TSCR using a VPN provided by Ooredoo. Each of the 44 connections (CCTV cameras
and Traffic signal controllers) costs Ashghal QAR 4,550 per month, a total of QAR 200,202 per month
(or QAR 2,402,400 per annum). If these figures were extrapolated to include all future connections
of ITS equipment, the costs will rise to many millions of QAR per month.

Much of the cost of the proposed ITS telecommunications network, around 90%, is already included
as part of the overall ITS cost estimate for each scheme. Included in these costs are:

 Fibre optic cable for the ITS equipment locations (the Access network)
 Fibre optic cable for the Backbone network, connecting the sections of Access network
together and to the TMCs and DCs
 The Layer 2 IP switch located at the Ground Mounted Enclosure, local to the roadside ITS
equipment
 The fibre optic splicing and terminations in the Access and backbone networks
 The Layer 2 and Layer 3 IP equipment located in the WAN/Backbone networks.

Costs excluded are:

 Infrastructure and facilities at the RNMC, NTMC and TSCR


 Network management system (hardware and software) for OAM of the telecommunications
network
 Leased network costs from Ooredoo and QNBN for telecommunications network gap infill
when required
 SCADA network
 Dedicated fibre cable for Centre to Centre communications
 Operational Expenditure (opex) costs.

As a comparison, the Capital Expenditure (capex) of the entire proposed telecommunications


infrastructure for all of the current planned ITS schemes is approximately QAR 359,3 million. This
equates on average to 7% of the total ITS infrastructure capex over the ITS project period. This is
illustrated in the table below.

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Year of project 2014-15 2016 2017 2018 Total


Total ITS Costs (QAR M) 1,454.8 1,319 1,411 501,7 4686.5

Telecommunications costs (QAR M) 146.4 106.7 88.38 17.9 359.3


Average
Telecommunications % of overall costs 10.1 8.1 6.3 3.6
7.0%

Table 3 Telecommunication Network capital expenditure estimate

The first and second year costs are higher due to the need to install additional elements of backbone
cable. These costs occur towards the start of the network build and are not required later hence the
final two years being below the average.

Figure 8 ITS Telecommunications Network capital expenditure estimate

The cost estimate is based upon the completed network being installed as planned.

Opex for the OAM of the telecommunications network will depend upon the chosen OAM model
and how it is resourced, however the values provided in phase 1 of Contract 5 estimated that the
annual OPEX costs will be in the range of 5-8% of the capex per annum. This strategy does not see
the need for these values to be revised.

Costs for the provision of services provided by third parties are not known at present as these can
only be agreed following commercial agreements with the network operators or service providers.
The approach being driven by CRA whereby infrastructure used for infrastructure providers, network
operators and third parties used by the government sectors is shared will lead to opportunities for
Ashghal to offset some of its network build costs or to reduce its costs when leasing services from
QNBN and others.

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The expenditure for telecommunications services operating over the infrastructure of mobile
telephony network providers will again depend on the commercial agreements entered into
however the capex for the base equipment is anticipated to be in the range of QAR 5,000 – 10,000
with a monthly opex in the range QAR 750 – 1,000 depending on the bandwidth requirements and
the Service Level Agreements put in place.

The Capital costs for the equipping of the Data Centre (racks, server chassis’ cabling and
telecommunications infrastructure) over the ITS construction period is approximately QAR 60 million
with QAR 20 million required for the first year. The first year costs include the initial base
infrastructure at the data centre (racks, cabling, hardware chassis’ and network management
infrastructure) and over the following years network elements (hard disk storage, server capacity
and management software) will be incremented as the ITS roadside infrastructure is deployed. Like
the telecommunications network, the opex for the OAM of the DC is anticipated at 5-8 % however
this is very dependent upon the procurement model used and the extent to which the infrastructure
is shared with other Ashghal operations and services.

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9 Outcomes and Benefits


The telecommunications network for the ITS will enable the full range of ITS services and
applications to be delivered across the State of Qatar. The network will deliver the required levels of
availability of 99.99% and deliver a flexible and robust infrastructure designed for mission critical
service delivery.

The outcomes and benefits of the Strategy are detailed below. The outcomes are the desired results
to be achieved through the delivery of the strategy. The benefits are the measurable deliverables
that the outcomes will deliver.

Outcomes
 Development and use of a Business Process Framework for the building, operation and
management of the telecommunications network and subsystems
 Delivering a network that has the capability to be used for other services e.g. drainage
SCADA and Ashghal Enterprise IT
 A network flexible enough to accommodate a wide range of ITS technologies without
excessive physical reconfiguration
 Development of a range of services to provide an array of ITS connectivity solutions
 Open, standards based interfaces to allow interconnectivity with other Stakeholders and
sharing of services from ITS systems, (CCTV etc.)
 Provide a first choice alternative to commercial network service providers
 Enabling future connected vehicle technologies
 A framework for the delivery, operation and management of all ITS related services and
applications
 Telecommunications Supplier / Partner relationships based upon measured performance
and service delivery of core ITS related telecommunications services
 A reliable network that connects safety and business critical systems to the TMCs
 Strategic Telecommunications Infrastructure designed for flexible and robust service
delivery.

Benefits
 Enhanced network bandwidth and improvements to service capability
 Improved response times for service delivery and restoration
 Resilient, self-healing network delivering extremely high levels of availability
 Highest possible network availability through the design, implementation and operation of
the telecommunications network
 A trained and educated workforce.

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10 Next Steps
In order to deliver the ITS telecommunications network to meet the requirements of this strategy, it
is essential that a series of actions are immediately undertaken by Ashghal along with
telecommunications network operators, service providers and ITS stakeholders.

Ashghal will need to adopt new ways in which some of their business operations are carried out
including the transition from network build to network operations. Targets for the implementation
of the telecommunications network will need to be agreed and action plans put in place to deliver to
these targets.

The telecommunications network will need to be in place to meet the operational ITS start dates for
the various EXW and LR&DP schemes and for the RNMC (late 2015), the NTMC (late 2017) and Data
Centres (date still TBA) to be interconnected.

With the leadership and support from the ITS Governance Board the telecommunications network
will be achieved, leading to the realisation of the benefits delivered through the ITS.

The following steps must be taken in order that the outcomes and benefits of the Strategy are
realised.

 Build a formal working relationship with CRA to implement the ITS telecommunications
network and to contribute to the delivery of the Qatar National Broadband Plan and
National ICT Strategy
 Identify the core network elements that need to be procured through third party network
access agreements
 Engage fully with Ashghal ISD and EBSD to implement a BPF that will allow Ashghal to define,
deliver, operate and maintain all of the services and applications that the ITS
telecommunications network will deliver
 Following the launch of the ITS Master Plan, engage with other transportation stakeholders
to put in place a suitable mechanism for the integration of the various telecommunications
networks
 Develop and implement a HCB programme to recruit, train and develop a local resource to
operate and manage the ITS telecommunications network
 Manage the deployment of the ITS telecommunications network through the EXW and LR&D
programmes.

The involvement of stakeholders in the next steps for the Telecommunications Strategy is detailed in
the following RACI matrix.

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RACI Matrix

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C C R A C - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
contribute to the delivery of the Qatar
National Broadband Plan and National ICT
Strategy

Engage fully with Ashghal Information


Services Department (ISD) to Implement
a Business Process Framework that will
allow Ashghal to define, deliver, operate C C R A C C - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
and maintain all of the services and
applications that the ITS
telecommunications network will deliver

Following the launch of the ITS Master


Plan, engage with other Transportation
Stakeholders to put in place a suitable A R C C I C C I I I C I C C C C I C C C
mechanism for the integration of the
various telecommunications networks.

Through the Procurement process, source


companies and specialists to design,
A, R C C C I C - I I I - - - - - - - - - -
supply, build, maintain and operate the
telecommunications network

Figure 9 RACI Matrix

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Appendix A. Products and services
A.1 Telecommunications for ITS

ITS equipment (CCTV and traffic Signals) currently deployed throughout the State of Qatar utilises
the networks of Ooredoo, the state telecommunications supplier, for providing connectivity back to
the TSCR at the Ashghal office in West Bay.

Until the backbone telecommunications network provided as part of the EXW and LR&D
programmes is available and has reached sufficient network penetration, new installations for CCTV
and traffic signals will need to continue using the Ooredoo VPN service for connection back to the
TSCR. The exception to this will be where Ashghal undertake additional projects that enable the
telecommunications network to develop outside the EXW and LR&D programmes i.e., Keeping Doha
Moving for Al Corniche and the C-Ring Road.

Current Expressway projects are at various stages of their project lifecycle and each Expressway
project includes the requirements for ITS including the telecommunications infrastructure. The Local
Roads and Drainage programmes also include element of ITS however it is recognised that in the
majority of cases, the bandwidth requirements will be lower than those of Expressway projects.

Once the ITS telecommunications network has reached an appropriate point in its development, the
migration of the existing Ooredoo VPN services on to the Ashghal ITS network will need to be
implemented through a suitable change control process.

A.2 Service packages

The range of ITS equipment and services to be supported by the ITS telecommunications network is
varied as the equipment and services have different bandwidth, latency and availability
requirements. The table below details the service types and their usage.

Telecommunication Service Application (Product specific requirements may vary)


Access layer: Dynamic Message Signs (DMS), Lane Control
Systems (LCS), Detection systems, Roadway Weather
10Mbps Ethernet / IP
information Systems (RWIS), Tunnel and Drainage SCADA
systems
Access layer: CCTV, Automatic Incident Detection, License Plate
100Mbps Ethernet / IP
Recognition
Local remote communications (traffic signals, CCTV and ITS
WiFi / wireless Ethernet
data)
Machine to Machine (M2M) remote communications to distant
3G / 4G cellular applications ITS equipment (RWIS, DMS, Detection systems), in-vehicle
systems.
Gigabit Ethernet Connections between access and distribution layers.
Distribution and Core layer (Stakeholders, TMCs and Data
10/40/100 Gigabit Ethernet
Centres) Capacity depending on WAN design requirements
Dark Fibre Other high capacity connections.

Table 4 Service types and applications

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Services will be provided to equipment based upon the service requirement and application. Service
Level Agreements between the ITS operation and the ITS Telecommunications service will enable
performance measurement and reporting.

A.3 ITS Telecommunications domains

There are five separate domains of an ITS infrastructure that allow the information to pass from the
infrastructure to the user or to TMC’s. These domains are:

 Field to Field
 Field to Vehicle
 Field to Centre
 Centre to Centre
 Vehicle to Vehicle.

Figure 10 Logical association of ITS components

Field to Field
Field to Field (F-F or F2F) refers to instances where one device or piece of equipment communicates
with another device/equipment without further processing in a TMC facility. Examples of this include
Automatic Incident Detection facilities that when triggered, provide the necessary information to
local Dynamic Message Signs (DMS) to inform road users of the incident. Weather monitoring
systems can also provide similar functions. These autonomous systems can also be connected to a
TMC for monitoring purposes.

Field to Vehicle
Field to Vehicle (F-V or F2V) refers to instances whereby roadside infrastructure communicates
information to vehicles allowing road users to benefit from information based upon pre-arranged
user profiles. It is allows for the broadcast of critical safety related messages to be communicated to
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vehicles in the event of emergencies, incidents or weather related road conditions. This domain also
allows for field devices to derive information from vehicle based systems that can be used to inform
other systems. An example of this will be “Floating Vehicle Data” (FVD) where the data from the
vehicles journey is shared with the applications at the TMC to analyse journey time and congestion.

Field to Centre
Field to Centre (F-C or F2C) refers to the instance where data originating from roadside devices is
communicated back to a TMC or similar facility. Example of this include network surveillance CCTV
images transmitted to a TMC or traffic flow data from carriageway based traffic detection devices
informing traffic databases for immediate and future analysis. This domain also includes the
information and data transmission from the centre to the field i.e. providing messages to DMS or
information and data for onward transmission to vehicles in the F-V domain.

Centre to Centre
Centre to Centre (C-C or C2C) refers to instances where data and information is communicated
between two or more TMC’s or between a TMC and another data management facility. Examples of
this include data replication between a main and a stand-by TMC or between a TMC and an third
party data facility providing internet based information to road users and travellers. As the ITS
system for Qatar will adopt a multi-modal approach, C-C communications will allow all public
transport operators (road, rail, metro and buses) to share data and information.

It should be appreciated that the above 4 domains will not operate as separate entities rather they
will make up the entire system. Information and data on occasions will be derived and disseminated
across multiple domains.

Vehicle to Vehicle
Vehicle to Vehicle (V-V or V2V) is the anonymous communications between vehicles whereby data
regarding speed, direction and location are exchanged to allow the vehicles to develop an awareness
of other traffic. It is primarily a safety based form of communication aimed at sharing information
about threats, hazards and traffic conditions. Technology for V2V is still in development without a
clear set of international standards fully in place.

A.4 E-Commerce and e-government

The integration of the networks of the various Stakeholders will enable the development and
launching of e-commerce and e-government applications to the market in Qatar taking in future
Cloud computing opportunities. Integrated (Multi-modal) ticketing systems, electronic bill payment
and on-line transactions will all be enabled through the ITS telecommunications network and the
implementation of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) applications and services. Service can include
Traffic Violation Penalty Management, Real-time mobile penalty payment systems for the MOI
(Traffic Police) and mobile payment systems using smart phone applications.

The CRA has recognised that Cloud computing will play an important role in future e-commerce
applications and the 2010 e-commerce law will allow businesses in Qatar to develop innovative
online business models and offerings. This will also allow the development of travel oriented mobile
data applications.

A.5 Mobile data applications

Information from the TMC and the control centres of other stakeholders will be made available to
mobile application service providers. In this way, journey planning and travel advice applications can
be developed and rolled out. This will require the provision of connections from the TMCs and

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Stakeholder control centres to the networks of Ooredoo and Vodafone will allow mobile phone
based applications to be deployed.

The deployment of future services whereby the ITS infrastructure communicates directly with
vehicles for applications such as queue warning, advance incident information or hazard warning
systems will be developed for future deployment. Building a telecommunications network based
upon Ethernet applications over a fibre optic network to roadway based equipment will allow future
applications and services to be developed with minimal additional infrastructure investment.

The use of Machine to Machine (M2M) services from cellular telephony service providers will allow
Ashghal to operate and manage remote equipment at any time including ITS roadside equipment
and some CCTV facilities. M2M services can be used for in-car functions such as “infotainment”,
vehicle diagnostics and road safety applications. The use of M2M applications will require a strong
operational relationship with the cellular service provider. This relationship is a further opportunity
for asset sharing.

A.6 Connectivity, Control Centres and Data Centres

The telecommunications network will provide the critical link between Transportation Management
Centres and Control Centres for other ITS Stakeholders. This can be either through a Pan-
Government Wide Area Network (WAN) connecting to the Stakeholders separate sites around Qatar
or through the interconnectivity of government data centres used by the Stakeholders. It will be
through the Data centres that access to Cloud based services will be provided along with access to
historical and archived transport related data.

The CRA National ICT Plan recommends establishing a centralised data centre to house critical
computer systems and associated components for all government entities to enhance efficiency and
improve access to information. The connectivity and operational relationship between TMCs and the
data centres for hosting of applications and services will be examined as part of the overall ITS
deployment plan.

A.7 Ashghal Corporate IT network

In connecting the ITS infrastructure to the TMC facilities in Qatar, the telecommunications network
lends itself ideally to supporting the Ashghal corporate IT network. This will allow Ashghal to develop
and operate its own IT network infrastructure and remove its reliance upon a third party network
service provider. Initial benefits will include the sharing of CCTV images around the Ashghal business
environment, provide high bandwidth data transmission facilities and allow for improved corporate
IT service and operations.

It will also be possible, through connection to other government network assets that the
telecommunications network can provide connectivity for other government agencies and services.

A.8 Network Security

The ITS telecommunications network is built using off-the shelf technology and will operate in a
similar fashion to a large corporate Ethernet. For this reason, it is essential that any equipment
connected to the network, either at the roadside or from a Stakeholders network, does not
compromise the security of the network.

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A Security Framework will be implemented that will provide a standard mechanism that will identify,
treat and manage the security risks presented when connecting equipment to the network. In this
way, the operational equipment can be protected along with the reputation of Ashghal.

The Security Framework will not mandate technical or business designs on suppliers or other parties
or describe how third parties can achieve a desired level of security. It acts as a series of checks and
balances to ensure Suppliers have adopted best practice and are not introducing unacceptable risk
to the ITS telecommunications network and to Ashghal.

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Appendix B. Implementation, monitoring and evaluation
B.1 Infrastructure and build model

Through the Expressway Programme for the roadways in Qatar, a duct and fibre optic infrastructure
will be constructed. It will be necessary to connect these separate networks together to form an
integrated telecommunications network and it will also be necessary to implement some longer
additional sections of network construction outside of the expressway programme to provide
interconnectivity between network sections. This will be through either a separate construction
contract or by variation on existing Expressway contracts.

A Further alternative that may provide a solution is to utilise the QNBN network where it is available.
The QNBN network is built to a very high standard and uses a similar hierarchical architecture to the
ITS telecommunications network. The technology being deployed by QNBN will interface directly
with the ITS telecommunications network.

The Local Roads and Drainage (LR&D) programme will also be providing ITS infrastructure however it
is anticipated that the LR&D programme will require lower volumes of ITS and will comprise mainly
of access (spur) network infrastructure rather than backbone. The LR&D projects will build
infrastructure to connect to the Backbone however additional infrastructure construction works will
need to be undertaken where the LR&D project is remote from the Expressway projects or where
they are completed at different times.

The LR&D programme also includes projects in remote areas far away from Doha or any Expressway
projects. In such cases, Radio access technology (WiMAX or 3G/4G mobile telephony) should be used
to provide a cost effective solution.

B.2 Delivery Timeline

The timeline for the delivery of the ITS telecommunications will initially follow the Expressway and
Local Roads and Drainage Programmes. The Backbone will primarily follow the Expressway
Programme with completion at the end of 2018.

Connections to devices on the local roads network will be connected from the backbone however
there may be requirements for interim measures should the connection to the backbone network
not be readily available. These interim measures could include wireless applications or short term
contracts with Ooredoo or Vodafone.

CCTV and Traffic Signal systems are already deployed in Qatar to manage and monitor traffic. These
are currently connected to the Traffic Signal Control Room (TSCR) at Ashghal in West Bay using
Ooredoo private circuits. In the short term, until the RNMC is available in late 2015, the use or
Ooredoo services will need to be continued.

Once the RNMC is available in the medium term, the ITS from the expressway projects can be
connected to the RNMC with the TSCR acting as a form of back-up facility. The RNMC will
accommodate the CCTV and traffic signal services as well once they are migrated from the Ooredoo
services where possible. It will be necessary for the Ooredoo services to be connected to both the
TSCR and the RNMC at the same time.

In the longer term, the National NTMC will be implemented to the north of Doha, going operational
during 2017. The NTMC will be the primary TMC for Qatar with the RNMC operating in a back-up /

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fall-back facility. The TSCR will no longer be required. The services from the RNMC will be shared
with the NTMC. All of the Expressway and Local Roads ITS will be connected primarily to the NTMC.

B.3 Asset Sharing

Opportunities for asset sharing should be considered as they can reduce roll-out timescales, reduce
construction impacts and hence reduce roadway congestion.

Ashghal also operate and maintain the drainage systems for the State of Qatar and the roadway
network and drainage network share common routes around the country. Drainage pumping
stations and treatment works can be connected to the ITS Telecommunications Network to connect
the remote sites back to the Drainage SCADA Control Centre. Ashghal are undertaking significant
investment in replacing sections of drainage in Qatar and sharing telecommunications asset in this
way will minimise network duplication and provide enhanced levels of network resilience.

The Ministry of the Interior (MOI) deploy red light and speed enforcement equipment along much of
the roadway network in Qatar however the MOI currently operate their own network for these
functions. Increased efforts should be made to work with the MOI to share assets and minimise
duplication of network assets. Security of the networks and the enforcement systems is of concern
to the MOI and it will therefore be necessary to convince the MOI of the integrity and security of the
ITS telecommunications network in order that they will consider using it.

The ITS telecommunications network will be connected to the MOI National Command Centre (NCC)
as part of the Incident detection systems and for the sharing of CCTV images. The incremental
connections of enforcement equipment will not significantly increase the network burden.

The MOI own and operate a private Fourth Generation (4G) mobile telephone network solely for the
use of MOI for managing safety and security across Qatar. Discussion should be undertaken between
the MOI and Ashghal to apportion some of the 4G services for Ashghal use for communications with
MOI Traffic Police and with ISF during events.

Other agencies and utilities (Qatar Armed Forces and Kahramaa) also operate fibre optic
telecommunications networks however their infrastructure does not immediately lend itself to asset
sharing.

The introduction of the Qatar National Broadband Network (QNBN) also provides an opportunity for
asset sharing and an opportunity to develop an innovative approach to the ITS Telecommunications
Network Service Model.

The Qatar National Broadband Network (QNBN) is the third telecommunications network provider in
Qatar providing high bandwidth optical fibre infrastructure. QNBN are building a fibre optic network
with the aim to reach 95% coverage of Qatar by the end of 2015. The fibre optic network will be
made available to other service operators and network providers to offer other broadband based
services, promoting competition and innovation. Unlike Ooredoo and Vodafone, QNBN cannot offer
wireless services.

A mutual asset sharing agreement between Ashghal and QNBN will allow for the sharing of duct and
fibre network assets and has the potential to minimise travel disruption, reduce deployment
timescales and improve network reliability and resilience.

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B.4 Monitoring and Evaluation

Both Ashghal and the Programme Management Consultants (PMCs) will be involved in the
monitoring and evaluation for the telecommunications network for the ITS. The technical process for
monitoring and evaluation will need support from both Ashghal and the PMCs as they will need to
agree measures and methodologies with the suppliers and General Engineering Consultants (GEC).

The timely preparation and submission of progress reports along with other monitoring and
evaluation outputs will form an integral part of the evaluation process. The main reports / outputs
performance monitoring system are:

 Cables installed and tested


 Network elements installed and commissioned back to the TMC facility.
 ITS Roadside devices installed and commissioned back to the TMC facility
 TMC to TMC interconnection facilities installed and commissioned
 TMC to Stakeholder interconnection facilities installed and commissioned.

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Appendix C. Technology and definitions
Infrastructure and Technologies
The choice of physical media for ITS telecommunications network needs to be carefully considered
against the circumstances in which it will be used and operated. Each medium has advantages and
disadvantages. The media can be further broken down into two further sub groups, fixed line and
wireless.

Fixed Line - Fibre Optics


The installation and implementation of fibre optic cables were provided in the ITS Specifications. The
advantages of fibre optics include high bandwidth, low latency, high capacity and low weight.

Originally restricted to long distance communications, fibre optics have now become a standard
product for residential and commercial networks.

Fibre optic cables, of a range of standard sizes, shall be used to form the optical backbone and
access network. They shall be constructed and installed to the standard as quoted in the ITS
Specifications. Optical fibre cables shall also be used to interconnect to other Network Operators
(Ooredoo, QNBN, Vodafone and possibly Kahramaa).

Fixed Line - Metallic cables


Whilst Fibre optics are now being installed at a rate greater than that of copper cables, copper
cables still form the greater part of national telecommunication operators network. Copper cables
are still a useful asset and can fulfil many service functions, including some high bandwidth digital
services. Data services can be provided over copper cable networks although the service will be of
limited bandwidth depending upon its length and the quality of the cable.

Connections from the Roadside cabinets to the end devices (LCS, DMS, and CCTV etc.) shall be made
using copper data cables appropriate to the data protocols being used. Patch and jumper cables in
cabinets and at the TMC facilities shall be Category (cat) 5/6 standard with RJ45 terminations.

Wireless
Wireless services, driven by mobile applications, have expanded at a fast rate in the last decade,
with more services becoming available with the passing of each year. Wireless services are used in
both public and private networks with public mobile telephone being the predominant service.

Radio spectrum that is used for the ITS telecommunications network and ITS applications are
included in the CRA spectrum plan. Other wireless applications (3G and 4G mobile telephony) will
use existing spectrum allocations based upon the technologies used. Details of the ITS applications
that will use wireless spectrum are detailed in the table below.

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Technology Frequency
Short Range Devices
 Wireless LAN Products
 Bluetooth devices 2300MHz – 2483.5MHz
 Wireless detection, Radio Frequency
Identification (RFID)
10.5 GHz – 10.6 GHz
Short Range Devices 24.05 GHz – 24.25 GHz
 Radar Detectors 57 GHz – 64 GHz
75 GHz – 85 GHz
Road Transport Traffic Telematics (RTTT) 5795 MHz – 5805 MHz
Automotive Radar (vehicle based collision
detection), road surface debris and obstruction 76 GHz – 79 GHz
detection

Table 5 Wireless Spectrum Usage

Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) has been used in by the MOI in Qatar since 2006 and is used for
their normal centre to field communications. It is primarily a point to point or point to multi-point
voice service however it can also be used for low rate data services. Tetra terminals can also act as
mobile phones should the network be so configured providing for standard calls over public
networks.

TETRA services are situated at lower frequencies than most other mobile services and have the
advantage that they can operate over longer distances. TETRA networks are often completely
separate from public mobile networks; therefore they can offer greater levels of resilience. TETRA
network also have a fall back facility that in the event of the connection to the main control facility
being lost, local communications can still be operated.

In Qatar, TETRA services are also used by Qatar Petroleum, Dolphin Energy, Oryx GTL, and Qatar
Navigation.

TETRA services should be made available to ITS engineers and the TMC facilities to enable secure
and resilient communications between the operations management and the field force. The use of
Mobile phones should be seen as a fall-back position as they are not made to be used in mission
critical situations and can be subject to poor reception and loss of service.

Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) provides vehicle to vehicle communications and


between a vehicle and the equipment at the roadside in specific locations, for example signal
intersections and static weigh stations. They may then be used to support specific Intelligent
Transport System applications such as Electronic Fleet data or Public Transport vehicle identification.

DSRC are for data-only systems and operate on radio frequencies in the 5,725 MHz to 5,875 MHz
band however this will vary by country based upon the local regulation of radio spectrum. DSRC
systems consist of Road Side Units (RSUs) and the On Board Units (OBUs) with transceivers and
transponders. The DSRC standards specify the operational frequencies and system bandwidths, but
also allow for optional frequencies. It will be necessary for frequencies and bands to be approved by
the radio regulation department at CRA to align with the national approach to radio spectrum
management.

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Standardization is essential in order to ensure interoperability across the Gulf Cooperation Council
(GCC) States, particularly for applications such as vehicle data collection, Freight management for
which there will be a need for interoperability of systems. Standardization will also assist with the
provision and promotion of additional services using DSRC, and help ensure compatibility and
interoperability within a multi-vendor environment.

DSRC is planned to be used for (infrastructure) field to vehicle and vehicle to vehicle
communications for applications such as freight management and vehicle tracking as well as Road
User Charging and Tolling.

Bluetooth is an unlicensed short range wireless communications system. Initially developed for
communications between mobile phones and computers, it has developed into an almost universal
method for creating Personal Area Networks (PAN).

Bluetooth is a popular technology for connecting mobile phones to vehicles thus aiding drivers to
use phones hands free whilst driving. It is the use of Bluetooth in cars that has allowed technology
deployed at the roadside to use the Bluetooth “Signatures” to allow journey time measurement to
be undertaken. Only the Media Access Control (MAC) address is used in the Bluetooth data
collection thus guaranteeing driver anonymity and security.

Bluetooth is a low powered short-range product and is only suitable for specific ITS applications. It
will not be used as a mainstream telecommunications technology and as such will not be included in
the Telecommunications Deployment Plan.

Wi-Fi is a wireless communications protocol used to connect computing devices to other computers
or networks. Standards for Wi-Fi are governed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards to ensure international compatibility. Wi-Fi is generally used as a
synonym for a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN).

In ITS vehicle based applications, Wi-Fi, due the nature of its communications methods is really only
suitable for stationary or very slow moving equipment. Vehicles parked outside properties, at service
stations or street side can benefit from data communications using Wi-Fi for updating car based
information (navigation systems, vehicle data or driver profiles) or for sharing vehicle data at service
centres or inspection centres.

Wi-Fi is ideally suited to short distance access network applications. Examples include
communications from backbone and main carriageway routes to ITS technology deployed along side
streets and across busy intersections. Products are available from a number of sources and are
suited to the applications and environments found in the ITS for the State of Qatar. Applications
include Traffic Signals, Remote DMS, RWIS and CCTV.

Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) is a form of wireless used for “Last
Mile” communications where cable is not feasible due to cost or time to install. It is covered by the
IEEE 802.16 standards. The average cell range of a WiMax device can actually be as much as 10-12
km for non-Line of Sight applications; 40km can be achieved with Line of Sight applications. Like all
radio systems, distance will also affect the available bandwidth and Quality of Service (QoS) however
bandwidth of 30-40Mbps can generally be achieved. WiMax is suited to remote applications that
require longer distance wireless communications. It can also be used for building to building
communications. Applications specific to ITS include remote CCTV, Remote DMS and RWIS.

Satellite Services are now available to Stakeholders and service providers in the State of Qatar
following the launch in 2013 of the first Qatari owned satellite service, Es’hailSat. The

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telecommunications satellite is geostationary over the Gulf region and is capable of broadcast
services as well as telecommunications services. Once in service, the satellite will be able to offer
network connection facilities to remote parts of the state where normal telecommunications
infrastructure is not available.

Mobile telephony
Third Generation (3G) mobile telephone services, also known as Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS) have been operating in Qatar since 2006 and are operated by
Ooredoo and Vodafone. As well as voice and video services, 3G/UMTS services also offer the
opportunity for high rate data services. These data services will however be limited by local network
capacity and network usage with city centre areas and business districts accounting for the greater
proportion of network traffic. Network capacity is greater in the more remote areas on the outskirts
of cities. Data speeds of 1 Mbps upload and 7.2 Mbps download have been available on the Ooredoo
network since 2009.

3G mobile services also include General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) as part of the technology
offering. GPRS is a data service however it is a “best effort” service which has variable data
throughput and can suffer from issue with latency as it is a shard service. GPRS services do support
Internet Protocols (IP) and can offer point to point or point to multipoint services. The cost and
availability of GPRS services will vary with the service provider however they can offer remote
connections to equipment off of a fixed line network e.g. DMS or weather alert systems.

3G data and GPRS technology is used for Machine to Machine (M2M) communications for remote
equipment such as Remote DMS and RWIS. It is not suitable for safety critical systems such as
Automated Incident detection as it works as a “best effort” principle through the public telecoms
network rather than a private network.

Fourth Generation (4G) services, also known as Long Term Evolution (LTE) are starting to be rolled
out across telecommunications networks however these have yet to be provided for public use in
Qatar.

4G networks are different to previous mobile telephony services in that they are entirely IP based
communications giving rise to enhanced data management and service improvements over 3G
services.

In Qatar, the Ministry of the Interior (MOI) now operates a private 4G network for the MOI staff and
related agencies, giving them the capability to transmit pictures and data to the National Command
Centre (NCC) and to other MOI departments. The MOI intend to operate their 4G network in parallel
with their existing Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) service.

Ooredoo and Vodafone are currently offering 4G services; the service coverage will develop across
Doha with excellent signal strength in city areas however outside the city coverage is likely to be
weak or non-existent.

4G networks can be used from either public or private operators and as such, the services using the
4G need to be appropriately segregated. Services using a public 4G network should be restricted to
low priority, non-safety related services. Operational telephony and data services can use a private
4G network as long as the service levels are agreed beforehand. In the case of using the MOI 4G
network, it needs to be recognised that in the event of a security crisis or high profile event, the MOI
may, at very short notice, severely restrict access to the network, protecting the usage for their own
operations.

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Fibre 3G mobile 4G Mobile Meshed


Wi-Fi WiMAX DSRC TETRA
optic telephony telephony Radio

Centre to centre

communications

Centre to field
 GPRS IP data   Voice
communications

Field to vehicle
 
communications

Vehicle to vehicle

communications
Infrastructure to
infrastructure    
communications

Table 6 ITS Telecommunications technologies and uses.

Network Transmission standards and Protocols


Ethernet switches
Ethernet switches are the active devices at the point which the roadside device is connected to the
ITS Telecommunications Network. Each roadside device will be connected to an Ethernet switch and
each switch can accommodate in the range of 1-8 devices depending upon the roadside device
configuration. Connections from the Ethernet switch to the Roadside device are made using copper
data cables based upon IP standards (Category (cat) 5 or 6). Connections to the backbone of the
telecommunications network are through fibre optic cables.

Ethernet switches for use in roadside environment are available from a range of suppliers who are
already providing product to ITS projects in other parts of the world. The source for the device will
be as a result of the procurement exercise and will need to meet the requirements for
Transportation related applications (NTCIP or similar).

Backbone Transmission Technology


Using IP technology as the backbone for the Telecommunications Network means that the
opportunities for a robust, reliable and very flexible network. The volumes of equipment required
will be as a result of the final backbone architecture design; however this will further be a result of
the procurement exercise, identifying a suitable supplier who can provide the best solution for the
ITS.

Potential suppliers shall be required to propose solutions that address the requirements of the
Ashghal ITS specifications. Solutions need to include hardware, software, implementation operations
and support.

ITS Telecommunications Network requirements


The successful implementation of the ITS in Qatar will rely upon the availability of the ITS
equipment, the availability of the power to run the equipment and the availability of the
telecommunications network to connect the various system together.

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The telecommunications network for the multi-modal ITS in Qatar is designed to be a Wide Area
Network (WAN) topology, connecting the roadside equipment back to the TMC and to connect the
TMC to other transportation Stakeholders and information providers. Existing WAN connectivity
technologies available for use in the ITS Telecommunications Network are either fixed line or
wireless.

Digital Communications
The ITS Telecommunications Network will utilise digital communications where the common entry
point to the network is through an Ethernet interface which is now being developed as the common
form of network throughout the ITS industry.

The topology of the IP Network follows the same design as that of the public Internet, using a
combination of access devices, backbone routers and high-speed data links to interconnect a large
number of devices in a meshed configuration for high resilience.

The telecommunications network needs need to align with the business needs. The Ashghal
strapline is “Qatar deserves the best” and the implementation of the telecommunications network
must reflect this:

 The network must be flexible, secure and resilient and deliver high availability.
 Must facilitate cross organisation collaboration, not just in Ashghal but across the
Government agencies for the State of Qatar
 Must be cost effective and dimensioned to a size suitable for the task.
 Will allow for the development and deployment of future services and applications.

These guiding principles initially look at the technical aspects that will underpin the
telecommunications networks. These will need to be further supported by institutional and
operational processes and strategies.

Network availability
The network availability has been measured for a long time within the telecommunication industry.
The term availability can be defined by:

The ability of a functional unit to be in a state to perform a required function under given conditions
at a given instant of time or over a given time interval, assuming that the required external resources
are provided (ISO2382-14).

In the case of the ITS for the State of Qatar, the external resources referred to above will be the
power supply and the ITS Roadside equipment. Availability is often given as a percentage of time
that the network is actually delivering services divided by the amount of time it is expected to be
delivering service. The time the network is not delivering service is referred to as down time.

High quality core telecommunications services are typically quoted as having 99.999% (five-nines)
availability. This figure typically excludes planned outages for network changes or expansion. The
availability is an average over time and tells nothing about how frequently an outage may occur. If
the system fails only once a year, the five-nines availability implies that it must be fixed in about five
minutes. If it fails once a week, the time to restore services must be about six seconds. This can have
significant detrimental impacts on traffic management outcomes. Guaranteed availability is achieved
through designing, building and operating a network that is resilient, secure, flexible and reliable.

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Resilience
A resilient network is a function of network infrastructure resilience which is primarily based on
redundant network sections which are fault-tolerant, self-healing and which can manage congestion.

Telecommunication-quality networks require at least one redundant route, but this will be
dependent on how much risk is tolerated. Where the time-to-repair an outage may be significant,
then two levels of redundancy will be required.

To be effectively redundant, different paths must be geographically separate. Duplicating optical


fibre cables down both sides of an expressway will meet this requirement if the threat is purely local,
such as damage from local utility works. If, however, the threat is over a wide area, such as from an
earthquake or flood, then significant assets can be affected over an entire city or region and
significantly more effort will be required to achieve redundancy.

The resilience of a telecommunications network is the result of both technical and institutional
solutions being in place. In conventional telecommunication networks, critical higher bandwidth
portions of the network are duplicated to enable re-routing of data in the event of a network failure.
It is generally the access element (the “last mile”) connection that is the weakest link so it is
therefore in the best interest of the ITS to keep the access element as short as possible.

Technical solutions for telecommunications resilience must be supported by operational and


organisational solutions and processes. In the event of a TMC facility failing and being evacuated, a
technical solution i.e. a second (back-up) TMC site will need to be supported and the staff will need
to be familiar with procedures for evacuation and relocation.

The introduction of pro-active maintenance regimes along with strategic spares holding and material
management will also contribute to improved resilience and high network availability.

Security
Security of telecommunications networks can provided in both physical and virtual forms. The
standards and procedures for the implementation and operation of the networks will provide the
physical security through ensuring that the infrastructure is built and maintained to the correct
standards.

Ethernet technology will provide not only excellent performance for ITS services and applications,
but a wide range of network security measures to maintain availability, integrity, and confidentiality
of the ITS. Availability is very often mentioned as the main security requirement from an ITS point of
view. Integrity protects data and systems from intentional or accidental alteration. Confidentiality
helps ensure that data cannot be accessed by unauthorized users. These network security
advantages protect roadside and network devices such as equipment controllers as well as TMC
equipment, and apply to both physical equipment and data security practices.

As with any system characteristic, security is maintained through a lifecycle of design,


implementation, maintenance, and improvement. Security and administration policies are a key
foundation for developing robust network security. A security policy should logically segment the
devices and network in an ITS environment into groups, zones or corridors on which the policies can
be applied. Once the security policy is defined, there are a number of key technical capabilities
available to implement the policy. These include, but are not limited to:

 Access control and authentication


 Secure connectivity and management
 Firewalls
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 Network Buffer zones
 Load Balancing
 VLAN configuration.

Operation of the network must be carried out in an appropriate manner in order that the security of
the information is not compromised. This will require stringent controls in the management of
software and network connections to ensure that the telecommunications network is suitable
isolated from outside influences and interference.

Flexibility
Flexibility in the telecommunications network will allow for as many services as possible to be
accommodated over the network without increasing the complexity of the technologies involved.
Whilst it will not be possible to accommodate all technologies, the correct design of the network and
the correct selection of the technologies to be deployed will ensure viable levels of flexibility.

The use of Fibre optic technology and Ethernet and IP based services will provide the highest levels
of flexibility that are available with the current forms of technology. Equipment manufacturers and
network providers now use common, open standards and have moved away from bespoke
solutions. It is through the application of open standards and applications that the maximum
flexibility will be achieved.

Reliability
Network reliability is important for the operational ITS services to ensure that the
telecommunications network is available as and when it is required. Reliability is achieved in normal
operation using a combination of high integrity equipment and a physical network designed to offer
fall back services in the event of a network interruption. Fast fault recovery times are also important
to resume normal service following an event or incident.

Because the ITS operates in real time, the telecommunications network must be available to users at
the TMC on a continuous basis, with little or no downtime. Network reliability can be improved by
using effective network design principles, as well as intelligent networking services.

Reliability needs to be considered at each stage of the telecommunications network. Especially


important for network design considerations is the telecommunications network transmission
equipment. At each point on the network, a number of techniques or considerations can be applied
to achieve the required level of reliability:

 At the roadside – Dual power supplies where required, ruggedised equipment and
professional installation methods
 In the telecommunications network – Redundant network connections and links as well as
redundant or back-up TMC facilities. The use of Internet Protocol IP routing will ensure any
data being transmitted will find the best route between the end devices.

Bandwidth
Each device connected to the network will require its own amount of bandwidth in order to
communicate with other devices, systems or control facilities. Devices will range from low
bandwidth devices such as message signs and signals through to high bandwidth devices such as
CCTV systems and inter centre communications systems for management control centres.

It is therefore essential that the network has the flexibility to enable technology of various
bandwidths to be deployed. Ethernet and IP based applications are the most suitable services that

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can provide suitable levels of bandwidth for ITS applications. The use of a common infrastructure
will ensure consistent levels of bandwidth being available across the entire telecommunications
network.

Latency
Signals from field devices to other field devices or control centres will be used to trigger or initiate
other processes or systems. It is essential that any delay for signals to complete the circuit route are
managed and that the latency (delay) is kept to a minimum.

Ethernet technologies used in ITS networks normally have very low latencies, which refers to the
time it takes for a network packet to transit between a roadside device and the TMC. Most ITS
operations and applications can tolerate latencies of 10 to 50 milliseconds (ms) with some older
traffic signal control systems capable of tolerating 500ms delay. Because Ethernet applications for
ITS are of low capacity (a few hundred bytes), the latency introduced by an Ethernet switch at 100
Mbps is only about 30 microseconds with a worst-case scenario of close to 100 microseconds—well
below the limit and 100 times faster than most applications require.

Latency on public or third party networks is more difficult to manage or predict and can result in
system or service instability. Third party operators will need occasionally to undertake network load
balancing activities and will re-route traffic as a result of repairs or service interruptions. Automatic
or unplanned changes in the routing of circuits will introduce additional delay that is unforeseen and
can cause some systems to become unstable or fail. Whilst it is possible to have Service Level
Agreements in place to agree set parameters for network performance, the increasingly
autonomous nature of telecommunications networks means that on occasions that will re-arrange
themselves without notice, changing latency values and un-balancing some of the network systems.

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Appendix D. Drawings for the ITS telecommunications Network

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Figure 11 Proposed routing for Centre to Centre communications


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Figure 12 High level topology for the ITS telecommunications Network

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SPECIMEN STANDARD

Figure 13 Fibre pathing for for ITS LAN and PC WAN (Expressway schemes)

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SPECIMEN STANDARD

Figure 14 Fibre schematic for ITS LAN and PC WAN (Expressway schemes)

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SPECIMEN STANDARD

Figure 15 Fibre pathing for for ITS LAN and PC WAN (Local Roads schemes)

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SPECIMEN STANDARD

Figure 16 Fibre schematic for for ITS LAN and PC WAN (Local Roads schemes)

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SPECIMEN STANDARD

Figure 17 Network switch topology model

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SPECIMEN STANDARD
ITS LAN 1.1 ITS LAN 1.2
CONNECTION TYPE Core no Buffer Core CONNECTION TYPE Core no Buffer Core
1 Blue ITS LOOPING PATH, RING 1 (SEE NOTE 1) 1 Blue ITS LOOPING PATH, RING 1 (SEE NOTE 1)
2 Orange ITS LOOPING PATH, RING 1 (SEE NOTE 1) 2 Orange ITS LOOPING PATH, RING 1 (SEE NOTE 1)
3 Blue Green ITS LOOPING PATH, RING 2 (SEE NOTE 1) 3 Blue Green ITS LOOPING PATH, RING 2 (SEE NOTE 1)
PRESENTED 4 Brown ITS LOOPING PATH, RING 2 (SEE NOTE 1) PRESENTED 4 Brown ITS LOOPING PATH, RING 2 (SEE NOTE 1)
(48) 5-12 ALL (SEE NOTES 1 AND 2) (48) 5-12 ALL (SEE NOTES 1 AND 2)
13-24 Orange ALL SPARE 13-24 Orange ALL SPARE
25-36 Green ALL SCADA ITS/TUNNELS LOOPING PATH (SEE NOTE 2) 25-36 Green ALL SCADA ITS/TUNNELS LOOPING PATH (SEE NOTE 2)
37-48 Brown ALL SCADA ITS/TUNNELS LOOPING PATH (SEE NOTE 2) 37-48 Brown ALL SCADA ITS/TUNNELS LOOPING PATH (SEE NOTE 2)
DIRECT SPLICE 49-60 Slate ALL ITS LAUNCH (SEE NOTE 5) DIRECT SPLICE 49-60 Slate ALL ITS LAUNCH (SEE NOTE 5)
(24) 61-72 White ALL DIRECT SCADA-ITS/TUNNELS RETURN (SEE NOTE 4) (24) 61-72 White ALL DIRECT SCADA-ITS/TUNNELS RETURN (SEE NOTE 4)
LAID UP IN TRAY 73-84 Red ALL SPARE LAID UP IN TRAY 73-84 Red ALL SPARE
(24) 85-96 Black ALL SPARE (24) 85-96 Black ALL SPARE

PC WAN 1.1 PC WAN 1.2


CONNECTION TYPE Core no Buffer Core CONNECTION TYPE Core no Buffer Core
1 Blue WAN, RING 1 (SEE NOTE 1) 1 Blue WAN, RING 1 (SEE NOTE 1)
2 Orange WAN, RING 1 (SEE NOTE 1) 2 Orange WAN, RING 1 (SEE NOTE 1)
3 Blue Green WAN, RING 2 (SEE NOTE 1) 3 Blue Green WAN, RING 2 (SEE NOTE 1)
4 Brown WAN, RING 2 (SEE NOTE 1) 4 Brown WAN, RING 2 (SEE NOTE 1)
5-12 ALL (SEE NOTES 1 AND 2) 5-12 ALL (SEE NOTES 1 AND 2)
PRESENTED 13-24 Orange ALL CENTRE TO CENTRE PRESENTED 13-24 Orange ALL CENTRE TO CENTRE
(48) 25 Blue ITS DIRECT RETURN PATH, RING 1 (SEE NOTE 1) (48) 25 Blue ITS DIRECT RETURN PATH, RING 1 (SEE NOTE 1)
26 Orange ITS DIRECT RETURN PATH, RING 1 (SEE NOTE 1) 26 Orange ITS DIRECT RETURN PATH, RING 1 (SEE NOTE 1)
27 Green Green ITS DIRECT RETURN PATH, RING 2 (SEE NOTE 1) 27 Green Green ITS DIRECT RETURN PATH, RING 2 (SEE NOTE 1)
28 Brown ITS DIRECT RETURN PATH, RING 2 (SEE NOTE 1) 28 Brown ITS DIRECT RETURN PATH, RING 2 (SEE NOTE 1)
29-36 ALL (SEE NOTES 1 AND 2) 29-36 ALL (SEE NOTES 1 AND 2)
37-48 Brown ALL SCADA-ITS/TUNNELS DIRECT RETURN PATH (SEE NOTE 4) 37-48 Black ALL SCADA-ITS/TUNNELS DIRECT RETURN PATH (SEE NOTE 4)
49-60 Slate ALL SPARE (See NOTE 3) 49-60 Slate ALL SPARE (See NOTE 3)
LAID UP IN TRAY 61-72 White ALL SPARE (See NOTE 3) LAID UP IN TRAY 61-72 White ALL SPARE (See NOTE 3)
(48) 73-84 Red ALL SPARE (See NOTE 3) (48) 73-84 Red ALL SPARE (See NOTE 3)
85-96 Black ALL SPARE (See NOTE 3) 85-96 Black ALL SPARE (See NOTE 3)

Throughput calculations to be carried out depending on the overall requirements of the PC-WAN Design (TBC)

NOTES
1 Approx. 10 switches per fibre pair
2 Cascade sequentially using next cores and available buffer tubes as required.
3 Available for direct inter-scheme splicing as required for the overall WAN design requirements or other third-party access (TBD).
4 Possibility to run either on ITS LAN or PC WAN according to the specific SCADA detailed design, for breakout locally or wider WAN interconnection.
5 Cores within slate buffer to be used as launch for subsequent rings (after ITS RING 1) to minimise link optical loss due to patching. Only required cores to be spliced directly to cores within blue buffer to initiate secondary rings.

Figure 18 Guideline for fibre core allocation

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SPECIMEN STANDARD

Figure 19 Guideline for duct allocation

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SPECIMEN STANDARD

Figure 20 Duct routing layouts

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Prepared by