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Module 1:

Intro to Media & Information Literacy

At the end of this module, I can:


1. Describe communication and the concepts related to it.
2. Describe how communication is affected by media and
information.
3. Identify the similarities and differences of media literacy,
information literacy, and technology literacy.
4. Editorialize the value of being a media and information
literate individual.
5. Relate critical thinking with media and information
literacy in the production, consumption and transfer of
-Claude Shannon & Warren Weaver revised
media, and information products by the society.
6. Identify the characteristics of responsible users and model which incorporates the concept of noise
competent producers of media and information. that refers to anything that interferes with the
7. Share media habits, lifestyles, and preferences to other message.
people.

Ask yourself what the ff. words mean to you:


 Communication
 Media
 Information -Bruce Westley and Malcolm Maclean Jr. instead
 Technology of having a sender merely relaying message,
 Literacy you have a communicator who relays his or her
account of a selection of events or views/voices
Defining Communication in society.

Littlejohn and Foss (2008)


“one of those everyday activities that is intertwined
with all of human life so completely that we sometimes
overlook its pervasiveness, importance, and complexity”

Communication
-is from the Latin term commứnicaré—“to share” or “to
divide out”.
-another Latin word communis—“working together”.

Bulan and de Leon (2002) -George Gerbner where “someone perceives an


“without speech or oral communication, societies could event and reacts in a situation through some
not attain levels of civilization; communities could not means to make available materials in some
organize into living and working groups, mark and form and context conveying content of some
ritualize practices and traditions, debate and decide consequence.”
difficult issues, and transform society for its good.” 2. Ritual or expressive model.
- In this model, communication happens due to the
Explaining the Communication need to share understanding and emotions. Ex. When
you use certain symbolism or euphemism to indirectly
Process through Models refer to certain things, but you are sure that your
audience still understands what you are trying to say.
Here are some models discussed in the book of Denis 3. Publicity model.
McQuail (2005) in his book McQuail’s Mass - This model explains that communication involves
Communication Theory: audiences as “spectators rather than participants or
information receivers (McQuail, 2005)”.
1. Transmission Models.
- Attention is important. It measures of how successful
-Horold Laswell’s representation of
the communication has transpired.
communication as an attempt to answer the
4. Reception model.
question “Who says what to whom, through
- Communication as an open process, which means
what medium, and with what effect?”
that messages sent and received are open to various
interpretations based on context and culture of the

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receiver. In other words, there might be various A Closer Look at Media and Information
meanings to a single statement that is communicated.
Diff. definitions of media:
- Wilbur Schramm’s Model (Depiction of Cyclical
Communication) – the sender and receiver has -the main ways that large numbers of
alternating roles in the loop. people receive information and
entertainment, that is television, radio,
A communicator who produces and sends the
message is called an “encoder” and the one
newspapers, and the Internet.
(Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries)
M
who receives and interprets is the “decoder”.
-refers to the print medium of E
- David Berlo’s Model – accounted for factors communication, which includes all
that affect how communicators are influenced
when they send and receive a message.
newspapers, periodicals, magazines,
journals, and publications and all
D
These factors include the following: advertising therein, and billboards,
 Communication skills neon signs and the like, and the
broadcast medium of communication,
I
 Knowledge
 Attitude
which includes radio and television
broadcasting in all their aspects and all A
 Sociocultural System other cinematogrphic or radio
promotions and advertising.
(Presidential Decree No.1018 (1976))

Categories of Media
Category Examples
Text, audio, video, graphics,
Modality
animation
Format Digital or analog
Electromagnetic or radio waves,
Way of transmitting
light waves
- The reception models show that it is not just about TV, radio, print, Internet,
Mass media form
telephone, or mobile
saying the message but also considering how the
message may be received because of factors that may -Media modality refers to the nature of message,
influence reception. whether it is relayed using text, audio video, graphics,
animation, or a combination of any of these things.
-Media format is the way the data is arranged.
Models help you understand how things -The data or message may be transmitted through radio
are because of how they illustrate waves (for audio) and light waves for other modalities.
relationships of components. -The mass media form refers to the particular media
technology to which the message is transmitted.

All the definitions of media suggest that it is conduit for


transmitting something called information.
Media and Information: The
Means and the Ends in The UNESCO Media and Information Literacy
Curriculum for Teachers regard information – as a
Communication “broad term that can cover data knowledge derived
from study, experience, or instruction, signals or
symbols.”
Media and information are two distinct elements that
When you use media, information is referred to as the
are intrinsically interconnected with the concept of
“knowledge of specific events or situations that has
communication. been gathered or received by communication,
intelligence, or news reports.”
Information is one of the reasons why communication is
done, and this information can be shared through
The world you live in is fast paced, thus,
media.
change is inevitable. Communication,
To inform is one of the functions of communication and media, and information are ubiquitous
made possible through media. and related, and your ability to discern
them increases your likelihood to succeed
in your personal and professional lives.
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Media, Information, and The Danger of Desensitization
Technology Literacy:
Laying the Groundwork There is a need to be media and information
literate to counteract “the physiological and
psychological tendency (automaticity) towards the
Literacy = skill many information that are encountered every now and
then.”
As the “ability to identify, understand, interpret, create,
communicate, and compute, using printed and written Automaticity, or automatic response, is “a state where
materials associated with varying context.” – UNESCO our minds operate without any conscious effort from
us.” – Desensitization takes place because they already
seem so natural.
When you are literate, you are expected to
“The programmed and predictable response
be intellectually critical in interpreting the
(normalization) toward the information that limits your
things that you see and experience around opportunity to recognize and maximize the gains of that
you. You are able to decode and have a message” is something that media and information
deeper understanding of how they work. literacy can address.
Being literate also means empowering you to
be able to affect change to yourself and to Normalization is when “the mass media continually
others. reinforce certain behavioral patterns of exposure until
they become automatic habits.”

If you are a media and information literate individual if


Definition of Media Literacy, Information Literacy, and you are able to do the following:
Technology Literacy
 Pose worthwhile questions
 This involves understanding and using
mass media in either an assertive or  Evaluate the adequacy of an argument
non-assertive way, including an  Recognize facts, inferences, and opinion and
informed and critical understanding of use each appropriately
media, what techniques they employ  Deal with quandaries and ill-formed problems
and their effects. that have no fixed or unique solutions
Media  The ability to read, analyse, evaluate  Give and receive criticism constructively
Literacy and produce communication in a  Agree or disagree in degrees measured against
variety of media forms, e.g. television, the merits of the issue and audience
print, radio, computers, etc.  Extend a line of thought beyond the range of
 Another understanding of the term is first impressions
the ability to decode, analyse, evaluate,  Articulate a complex position without adding to
and produce communication in a its complexity
variety of forms.
 Refers to the ability to recognize when Media and information literacy is considered a
information is needed and to locate, lifelong skill and practice, thus, an individual needs
Information
evaluate, effectively use, and to be adept in to make informed decisions.
Literacy
communicate information in its various Becoming literate is your fundamental human
formats. right. You are able to express yourself in a way
 This is the ability to use digital that may improve your life and the lives of those
technology, communication tools or around you.
networks to locate, evaluate, use, and
create information.
 It also refers to the ability to
What It Takes to Be Media and
understand and use information in Information Literate
multiple formats from a wide range of
Technology sources when it is presented via
Two factors that can influence you to become a media
(Digital) computers and to a person’s ability to
and information literate individual:
Literacy perform tasks effectively in a digital
environment. 1) Clarifying your goals and motivations for
 Digital literacy includes the ability to seeking information—the greater your need,
read and interpret media, to reproduce the more effort you exert to become selective
data and images through digital of the information at your disposal.
manipulation, and to evaluate and 2) Acquiring more skills in discerning, appreciating,
apply new knowledge gained from and filtering information—involves being media
digital environments. savvy and better acquainted with information
sources.

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Typology of Media Literacy message elements simultaneously
 Ability to construct a summary
STAGE CHARACTERISTICS judgment about the overall strengths
 Learning that there are human and weaknesses of a message
beings and other physical things  Taking a moral stand that certain
apart from one’s self; these things messages are more constructive for
look different and serve different society than others; this is a
functions multidimensional perspective based
Acquiring
 Learning the meaning of facial on thorough analyses of the media
Fundamentals
expressions and natural sounds Social landscape
 Recognizing shapes, form, size, color, Responsibility  Recognizing that one’s own
movement, and spatial relations individual decisions affect society—
 Recognizing rudimentary concept of no matter how minutely
time-regular patterns  Recognizing that there some actions
 Recognizing speech sounds and an individual can take to make a
attach meaning to them constructive impact on society
 Being able to reproduce speech
sounds
Language  Orienting to visual and audio media Critical Thinking: An Important
Acquisition  Making emotional and behaviour
responses to music and sounds Component of MIL
 Recognizing certain characters in
visual media and follow their Critical thinking –ability to evaluate the kind of
movement
information you access and share.
 Developing understanding of
differences between:
- Fiction vs. nonfiction Media and information literate
- Ads vs. entertainment individuals are also critical thinkers
Narrative
- Real vs. make-believe
Acquisition because of the need to be more discerning
 Understanding how to connect plot
elements
of the necessary information as well as its
- By time sequencing sources.
- By motive-action-consequence
 Discounting claims made in ads
 Sharpening differences between Reflect Upon
likes and dislikes for shows,
Developing 1. Which among those models do you think
characters, and actions
Skepticism describes your communication habits or
 Making fun of certain characters
even though those characters are patterns the most? Why do you say so? Share to
not presented as foils in their shows the class a most recent example that illustrates
 Strongly motivated to seek out your point.
information on certain topics 2. What specific instances in your life do you find being
 Developing a detailed set of media and information literate most relevant and
information on particular topics
Intensive important? Why do you say so?
(sports, politics, etc.)
Development 3. On what stage in the typology of media literacy do
 Has high awareness of utility of
information and quick facility in you think you are at the moment? Why?
processing information judged to be 4. What questions do you think you need to ask
useful yourself about any media message?
 Seeking out different forms of 5. How is being media and information literate helpful
content and narratives in your future life?
Experiential
 Focusing on searching for surprises
Exploring 6. Have you experiences automaticity and
and new emotional, moral, and
aesthetic reactions normalization? Share your experience(s) to the class.
 Accepting message on their own 7. Based on your experience, what characterizes a
terms, then evaluating them within responsible user and competent producer of media
that sphere and information?
 Developing very broad and detailed 8. Think about your routine when you get home from
Critical
understanding of the historical, school. What is the very first thing you do? Is this
Appreciation
economic, political, and artistic, activity media-related or media-dependent? Tell the
contexts of message systems
class about your media habits, lifestyles, and
 Ability to make subtle comparisons
and contrasts among many different preferences.

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