Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 17

Introduction to MIMO 

OU JIAJUE
outline
• Benifits of MIMO:
i. Diversity
ii. Mulptiplexing gain
• Transmission scheme
i. Space‐time codes
ii. Spatial multiplexing
iii. SVD
• Summery
• Appendix: interference alignment
benefits of MIMO: Diversity
• Each pair of transmit‐receive antennas provides a 
signal path from transmitter to receiver. By sending 
the SAME information through different paths, 
multiple independently‐faded replicas of the data 
symbol can be obtained at the receiver end. Hence, 
more reliable reception is achieved
• Maximum ratio combining (MRC)
• Improve link quality
Benefits of MIMO: Multiplexing gain

• Transmits MULTIPLE data streams simultaneously 
using singular value decomposition (SVD)
;
ୌ ୌ
H=VΣ ; = r; s=Ud
= ୌ + ୌ n= Σd+ ୌ n;
• Creates set of noninterfering sub‐channels
• Increases link capacity
Transmission scheme: Space‐time codes

• Coding techniques designed for multiple antenna 
transmission (serial in, parallel out )
• Adds redundancy in both spatial and temporal domains 
which introduces correlation into transmitted signals

Information  Space‐time 
source encoder
Transmission scheme: Space‐time codes

• Space Time Trellis Codes (STTC)
• Output block depends not only on current block, but 
also on several previous blocks 

• Space Time Block Codes (STBC)
• are performed with blocks of transmission symbols
Transmission scheme: Spatial Multiplexing

• V‐BLAST(V‐vertical)

Time
Antenna

1 5 9 13 17 …

2 6 10 14 18

3 7 11 15 19

4 8 12 16 20

Structure of V‐BLAST
Transmission scheme: SVD precoding
• Assume: channel state information at the transmitter
• Transmits multiple data streams simultaneously using 
singular value decomposition (SVD)
;
H=VΣ ୌ ;  = ୌ r; s=Ud
= ୌ + ୌ n= Σd+ ୌ n;
h11 1
h12
h13 Matrix
h21 Transformation
h22 2
h23
h31
h32 3
h33
SUMMARY

• Diversity and multiplexing gain provide respectively 
increased robustness and increased throughput, 
which are underlying properties of channel.
• Without CSI at transmitter:
‐STC
‐Spatial Multiplexing
• With CSI at transmitter:
‐SVD
background
 h11 
Bob


Antenna 2 h

 p1
AP  12 
h11
p1 h12 p1
h12 h21  h21 
  p2
p2 h22  h22 
h11 p1 Antenna 1

hij is the channel from antenna i to antenna j


• A complex number whose magnitude and angle
refer to the attenuation and delay along the
path
background
 h11 
Bob
  p1
AP h12 
h11
p1
h12 h21  h21 
  p2
p2 h22  h22 

AP receives the sum of these vectors


background
 h11 
Bob
  p1
AP h12 
h11
p1 p1
h12 h21  h21 
  p2
p2 h22  h22 
p2
How does the AP decode each packet?
Current MIMO decodes as many concurrent
packets as there
AP projects are antennas
on a direction per to
orthogonal AP
interference
How to Change Packet Direction?

h111

Client AP 
H  p11
h11 h210

p1
1 0 h12 H h21
  p1   p2 h120

0 1 p2 h22 H1  pp2
 22
h   2

h11 h12
H   
h21 h22
How to Change Packet Direction?

.5 1
Client AP Hv1 p1Hp1  p1
.5 0
.5v p v.04p H .4
 1p111 2 p222 Hv2p01p2
H.6 p2
.5 .16 1

Sender controls packet direction by multiplying with


a vector
How Do We Align?

H11v1 p1
Bob AP1

H21v3 p3
  H11
v1 p1  v2 p2 
H11v2 p2
H12
Alice AP2
H21
 H22
v3 p3

 
H 21 v 3  H 11 v 2
How Does Alignment Work in Presence of Modulation?
Modulated samples are complex numbers with different phases

Imaginary Imaginary
Sample in P2
Antenna 2
Sample in P3

Real Real

Antenna 1

Alignment
Alignment is in the
works antenna domain
independent not the
of modulation
modulation domain
phases
References
• Alain Sibille, Claude Oestges, Alberto Zanella, MIMO From 
Theory to Implementation
• Shyamnath Gollakota, Samuel David Perli and Dina Katabi.         
“Interference Alignment and Cancellation”