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Nama : Andy Tshong

Tajuk : “Sexual Transmitted Diseases”

Subjek : KPKP 2214 ( Tugasan Individu )

1. Syphilis

Contents Explanation
Diseases Agent, Host and Environment  Treponema pallidum.
 A spirochate bacteria.
Modes of Transmission  Sexually Transmitted.
- Oral, vaginal or anal sex.
 Direct contact with primary or secondary
lessions of an infected person.
 Blood transfusion.
 Through transplacental. (Congenital Syphilis)
- Newborn baby.

Incubation Period  10 days to 3 month (usually 3 weeks).


Signs and Simptoms  Primary Syphilis
- Chancre.
- Painless ulcer.
- Splenomegaly.
 Secondary Syphilis
- Rashes on hand and feet.
- Splenomegaly.
- Secondary eruption (few weeks to 12
months).
- Effect skin, bone and others organs.
- Candylomata lata – highly infectious.
Laboratory Findings of Diseases  VDRL.
 Treponemal Test (Enzyme Immunoassay).
 PCR or biopsy of lesion.
 CSF for neurosyphilis.
Prevention and Control of Diseases  Sex education.
 Case investigation and contact tracing.
 Specific medication.
 Early diagnose facilities and treatment.
 Banish prostitutions.
2. HIV/AIDS
Contents Explanation
Diseases Agent, Host and Environment  Retrovirus Human Defficiency Virus.
Modes of Transmission  Sexually Transmitted
- Unprotected sex.
- Penile-vaginal or penile-anal intercourse.
- Semen or cervical secretion.
 Through injection
- Drug abuse.
- Transfusion of blood.
- Contaminated formites.
 Vertical transmissions from infants
- Breastfeeding.
- Delivering baby.
- During pregnancy.

HIV cannot transmitted through :


 Coughing.
 Sneezing.
 Insects bites.
 Touching and hugging.
 Water and food.
 Handshake.
 Sharing plates and cups.
Incubation Period  5-10 years (usually 3-10 years).
Signs and Simptoms  Acute or primary stages
- Initial infection.
- Rapid viral replication and fall number
of CD4+.
- Early symptoms like fever, headache,
lymph nodes enlargement, and muscle
pain.
 Chronic or asymptomatic stages
- CD4+ count remains normal but number
of infected CD4+ cells increaces.
 Crisis stage of AIDS
- Patients have very low CD4+ count.
- Immune system dysfunction.
- Candiasis (fungal infection in the mouth,
oesophagus, bronchi or lungs).
- Kaposi’s Sarcoma (tumour that forms
blood filled with lessions on skin).
- Peumonia (fungus pnemocyctis Carinii).
- Tuberculosis (M.Tuberculosis or
M.avium).
- Toxoplasmosis (parasitic protozoa
Toxoplasma gondii)
Laboratory Findings of Diseases  Detection of HIV ⅟2 antibodies and HIV-1
p24 antigen .
 Molecular test of HIV DNA and RNA.
Prevention and Control of Diseases  Reduce prevalance on drug abuse.
 Protective sex.
 Blood screening.
3. Gonorrheae
Contents Explanation
Diseases Agent, Host and Environment  Neisseria gonorrhea.
 The gonnococcus bacteria.
Modes of Transmission  Sexually transmitted
 Contact with exudate from mucous
membrane of infected people.
Incubation Period  1-14 days or longer.
Signs and Simptoms  Abnormal vaginal and penile discharge
(buboes).
 Mucopurulent cervicitis.
 Endometritis.
 Salpingitis.
 Dysuria and urethral discharge (buboes).
 Pelvic peritonitis.
 Ectopic pregnancy.
 Conjunctivits (newborn babies).
Laboratory Findings of Diseases  Selective media.
- Modified Thaver-Martin agent.
- Nucleic acid amplications test
(NAATs).
Prevention and Control of Diseases  Prophylaxis.
 Specific medication.
 Early diagnose facilities and treatment.
 Banish prostitutions.

4. Chancroid
Contents Explanation
Diseases Agent, Host and Environment  Haemophilus ducreyi.
 A gram negative coccobacillus.
Modes of Transmission  Sexually transmited.
 Direct contact with open lesions and buboes.
 Non sexual transmission may occur from the
contact with open lessions.
Incubation Period  3-5 days (up to 14 days)
Signs and Simptoms  Painful, multiple or single, and necrotic ulcer
on sex reproduction organs.
Laboratory Findings of Diseases  PCR Test.
- Isolation of agents from lessions.
 Selective media incorporating vancomycin
into chocolated horse blood agar enrich with
fetal calf serum Isovitalex and activated
charcoal.
Prevention and Control of Diseases  Sex education.
 Case investigation and contact tracing.
 Specific medication.
 Early diagnose facilities and treatment.
 Banish prostitutions.
5. Hepatitis B
Contents Explanation
Diseases Agent, Host and Environment  Hepatitis Virus B
Modes of Transmission  Innoculation of blood.
 Transfusion of blood
- Operations.
- Accidents in labs.
- Tatoo.
- IVD abuse.
- Acupunture.
 Perinatal transmissions.
Incubation Period  Avaerage 3 month, 45-180 days/60-90 days.
Signs and Simptoms  Viral fever.
 Vommiting.
 Limpadenitis.
 Jaundice.
 Headcahe.
 Yellowish urine production.
Laboratory Findings of Diseases  Solid phase radio immunoassay.
 Enzime immunoassay.
 Immune adherence haemogglutination
(IAH).
 Reversed passive haemogglutination
(RPHA).
Prevention and Control of Diseases  Sex education.
 Case investigation and contact tracing.
 Specific medication.
 Early diagnose facilities and treatment.
 Banish prostitutions.