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CHAPTER 4

4.1 FEATURES OF PRESSURE SURGE

In the past, water engineers were facing problems with repeated pipe bursts, failing seals etc.
They termed the cause o f failure as "Water Hammer". Now this phenomenon is termed as a
surge. Surge is a phenomenon occurring during hydraulic transient and is due to pressure waves
caused due to the change in flow velocity in the pipe line. This pressure wave will be reflected
from the end o f the pipe line towards the pump.

* Change in pump speed.

* Pipe fittings.

* Turbulence flow.

* Cavitation.

* Air bubbles.

Out o f the above, the worst situation would be the sudden stoppage o f a pump due to a power
failure. Then the pumping capacity is lost and a negative pressure wave occurs just next to the
pump in the pipeline and it travels along the pipeline and is reflected at the discharge end so that
it is changed into a positive pressure wave which returns along the pipeline. For short pipelines,
the pressure drop near the pump is usually small and the subsequent surge effect caused is
relatively small. In the case o f long pipelines, these effects are much greater.

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The factors that govern the surge when a pump is suddenly stopped are;

* Length and pipeline profile.

* Material of pipeline.

4.2 PROPAGATION SPEED OF PRESSURE WAVE

The speed o f pressure wave propagation in water pipelines and can be calculated by using the
following equation;

a = 1 4 2 5 / V [1 + ( K / E x D/e)] m/s

Where;

a = Propagation o f speed o f pressure wave m/s

8 2
K = Bulk Modulus o f liquid ( 2 . 0 7 x 1 0 kgf/m )

D = Internal Diameter o f Pipe ( m )

e = Pipe Thickness ( m )

(Source : Pumping Station Engineering Hand Book 1 9 9 1 )

Graphs are available to obtain the wave velocities in different pipes when D/e ratio is known,

(please see Annexes 4.1 and 4 . 2 ) .

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4.3 RAPID CHANGES IN FLOW VELOCITY AND PRESSURE

The first major publication on pressure transients in pipelines was by Joukowski. His expression
for maximum/minimum possible pressure head above/below following a sudden stoppage o f
flow is well known; namely Joukowski's law (some-times called Allievi formula) is expressed
as;

AH = ±a/gxAV

Where,

AH = Pressure rise/fall ( m )

a = W a v e velocity ( m / s )
» , v
i •

AV = Change in fluid velocity ( m / s )

2
g = Acceleration due to gravity ( m / s ) ',<.- ...

4.4 REFLECTION OF PRESSURE WAVE IN THE ABSENCE OF FRICTION

The following sequence o f events occur on a pumping system after an instantaneous power
failure. The events are shown graphically in pages 7 4 and 7 5 .

1. The forward flow will immediately cease and the check valve will close. The head will fall
by av/g at the check valve and travel along the pipe at a velocity "a" reducing the downstream
pressure after a time L/a. L = length o f pipeline, a = W a v e velocity.

2. After a time L / a reflected pressure wave returns at a velocity "a". The pressure at the
reservoir will remain H° and cause a flow out o f the reservoir towards the pump. At the end
o f this reflection the time period is 2 L / a .

3. After a time 2 L / a the reverse flow having encountered a close valve pressure rise occurs o f
av/g and the head rise will travel along the pipe at a velocity "a" reaching the reservoir at a
time 3 L/a.

4 . After time 3 L / a the flow is into the reservoir and the head in the system returns to H . Thus at
0

a time 4 L / a the original conditions are established and a complete cycle o f changes o f
pressure and velocity occurs in the pipe in a time 4 L / a .

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Theoretically this cycle is repeated indefinitely, but friction causes the oscillations to die
away.

5. The "pipe line period" time t is 2L/a.

If the check valve closes within a time 2L/a the full head rise/fall av/g has time to develop
and the closure is regarded as rapid.
If the closure takes longer the head rise/fall is less than av/g.
To determine maximum and minimum heads in such cases a numerical, graphical methods or
computer programmes must be used.

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H ~aV
0

/ g wave moving downstream velocity

a H,
y
V = 0

L
(1) between time = 0 and time = / a

wave moving upstream

Ho^aV
H,

V = o

L 2L.
(2) between time = /a and time = /a

wave moving downstream

HQ

V = 0

2L 3L
(3) between time =• /a and time = /a

"Si

L wave moving upstream

H +aV
Q •

r g <

\
V = 0

3L 4L
(4) between time = /a and time » /a

PIPELINE CONDITIONS FOR FOUR TIME INTERVALS

AFTER PUMP FAILURE
Bergeron developed a graphical method originated by Schneider which enable many engineering
problems to be solved graphically. This method requires pump characteristic curves as well as
other system information. Other authors from various countries have done studies on this
subject and n o w c o m p u t e r soft wear are available to handle complex situations. What is dealt in
this chapter is an elementary treatment o f the subject related to water industry.

4.5 PUMP TORQUE AND SPEED

The decrease in pump rotational speed after a sudden power failure depends on the inertia effect
o f the rotating parts o f pump and motor and the rotating torque o f the pump.

In obtaining graphical solutions to m a x i m u m and minimum heads after a sudden power failure,
two independent parameters are used. These are,

(1) P the pipeline constant given by;

P =av/2gH

(2). K) x ( 2 L / a ) a constant which includes the effect o f pump and motor inertia and pressure
wave travel time in the pipeline.

Where,

H = Total Head ( m )

L Length o f pipeline ( m )

V Change in velocity ( m / s )

a W a v e velocity ( m / s )
2

450 x g x w x H x Q/(7t GD r|pN )

2 2 2

Where,
3
Q = F l o w rate ( m / s )
2 2
GD = Pump and M o t o r inertia ( K g m )

n p = Pump efficiency (%)

N = Pump Speed ( R P M )

= 22/7

3
w = Specific weight o f water ( K g / m )

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4. 6 SURGE ANALYSIS CHARTS
Pressure changes in pipelines after a sudden power failure can be found from charts by using the
above mentioned numerical values.

Y - A x i s gives the up surge/down surge as a percentage o f the pumping head.

Figures over leaf give the upsurges and down surges at pump and mid length o f the pipe line.

( S o u r c e : Parmakian 1 9 6 3 )

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WATERHAMMER IN PUMP DISCHARGE LINES
WATERHAMMER IN PUMP DISCHARGE LINES
a LOOR-I

Mr

•OJ .04 .OS 06 .06 .10

VALI
VALUES OF K
OOWNSUHOC AT PUMP
UPSURGE AT PUMP
>I00 {

*
-3 * i £ 3 as 10
VALUES K-Q.
OF
0
OOWNSURGE AT MIOLENOTH
VALUES OF K

UPSURGE AT MIDLENGTH
4.7 SAMPLE CALCULATION

Motor Power = 7.5 k W

Pump Efficiency = 0 . 6 5

Length o f pipeline = 750 m

Velocity V = 5 0 / ( 7n t/ /44 xx 0 . 1 4 x 0 . 1 4 x 3 6 0 0 )

= 0.9 m/s

M a x surge pressure = ± av/g

-±480x0.9/9.8

= ± 44 m

Therefore without considering inertia effects the maximum and minimum surges will be 57
( 1 3 + 4 4 ) and - 8 m ( 3 6 - 4 4 ) respectively.
2 1 4 7 5
Motor G D = (0.03 ~ 0.005) k W x P°

Where P = Number o f poles in the motor

2 1 4 7 5
Motor G D = 0.005 x 7 . 5 x 2°
2
= 0.14kgm

2
Total G D = ( 0 . 1 4 / 9 0 ) x 100 = 0 . 1 6 (assumed motor inertia is 9 0 % o f total inertia).

2 2
K , = 4 5 0 x g x w x H x Q/(TT G D x n x N )
p

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4 5 0 x 9 . 8 1 x 1 0 0 0 x 3 6 x 5 0 / ( t T x 0 . 1 6 x .65 x 2 9 9 0 x 2 9 9 0 x 3 6 0 0 )

= 0.256

av/g = 4 4

p = av/2gH

= 44/2 x 36

= 0.6

:.2p =1.2

2L/a = 2 x 750/480

= 3 . 1 2 5 Sec.

K, x 2 L / a = 0 . 2 5 6 x 3.125

= 0.799

over and below the total pumping head.

2
4 8 CHARTS F O R GD

2 2
Generally moment o f Inertia o f the rotor o f the motor G D amounts to 9 0 % o f the total G D and
2
that o f the rotating parts o f the pump amounts to 1 0 % at most. The rule o f the G D o f the motor
differs considerably by the type and brand o f the motor, but it can be roughly expressed by the
following equation.

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2 l 4 (
GD = (0.013 - 0.005) kW xP

Where;

(Source : Kubota Pump Hand Book Vol I, 1 9 7 7 )

Out o f the range o f the above coefficient the larger part is for double squirrel cage type motors
and smaller part is for wound rotor type motors. For the surge calculations it is safer when the
above coefficient is smaller.

Annex 4.3 shows how the GD o f different motors vary with their capacity.

4.9 CHANGES TO CODE OF PRACTICE CP 312

The curves for wave speeds in P V C pipes are based on standard data available from
manufacturers published tables. Independent experimental data are not yet available on wave
speeds. The principle properties o f U P V C depend upon both temperature and rate o f strain. I f
the operating temperature is significantly different from 2 0 deg. C, the appropriate value o f
elastic modulus would have to be substituted.

Several failure o f P V C pipes have occurred, and in some cases fatigue arising from repeated
surge effects is suspected to be the cause. Code o f Practice C P 3 1 2 has been revised with regard
to U P V C Pipes and imposes restrictions on the range and frequency o f pressure variations
resulting from surge.

The recent change to the code C P 3 1 2 include:

(1). The total surge pressure variation from the minimum to the maximum should be limited to
5 0 % o f the maximum sustained working pressure o f the pipe.

(2). Class B P V C should not be used for situations where the surge pressure variation includes
negative gauge (subatmospheric) pressures.

(3). Pump switching, or valve movement, which generates surge should not be more frequent
that 6 times per hour.

N o m o g r a m s given in Annex 4 . 4 illustrate the ranges over which Class B and Class C P V C
Pipes can be used.

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4.10 SURGE PREVENTION MEASURES

The pressure transients following power failure to electric motor driven pumps are the
usually the most extreme that a pumping system will experience. The different devices
available for surge protection are as follows:

Fly-Wheel.

Surge tank.

Automatic air release valve.

Discharge tank.

Air vessels.

The best method o f surge protection will depend on the hydraulic and physical
characteristics o f the system. The accompanying figure illustrates where the devices are
usually accommodated and the table summarises the ranges over which various devices
are suitable.

82.
4 11 SUMMARY OF METHODS OF SURGE PROTECTION

The table below gives the different surge protection methods available for different system
conditions and figure over leaf gives the pipe line profile illustrating various devices for surj
protection.

Method of Protection Required range Remarks

(in approximate order
of variables
of increasing cost)
2
Inertia o f pump MN /wALH>0.01 Approximate only

Pump bypass reflux av/gh » 1 Some water may also be

valve drawn through pump

In-line reflux valve av/gh > 1 Normally used in

conjunction with some
other method o f protection.
Water column separation
possible

Surge tank h small Pipeline should be near

height o f tank is practical

Automatic release valve av/gH « 1 Pipeline profile should be

convex downwards. Water
2 L / a > 5 sec. column separation likely

Discharge tanks av/gh > 1 h = pressure head at tank.

Pipeline profile should be
convex upwards.

Air vessel av/gH < 1 Pipeline profile preferable

convex downwards.

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Surge Delivery

Pump ;
with
bypass

PIPELINE PROFILE ILLUSTRATING

VARIOUS DEVICES FOR SURGE
' PROTECTION

Source Sfe^W^^w, )
4 . 1 2 A I R VESSELS

When negative pressures are encountered, water is forced into the system by using air vessels.
F o r rising mains which attain the highest point down stream o f the reservoir at a point three
quarters o f its way along and provided the static head is not less than 1 5 m Lupton proposed a set
o f relations for air vessel dimensions to avoid column separation.

3
Total volume = ( S + 3 6 . 6 ) x L x A x V / 8 3 6 1 m
3
Air volume = S x L x A x V/8361 m

Where,

L = Total length o f pipe m

2
A = Pipe cross sectional area m

V = Steady state velocity m/s

(Source : Unconfirmed).

If a high point occur near to the pumping station a larger vessel might be needed, when a smaller
one would suffice for a uniformly rising main.

N o w air vessels are available which isolates the air from being dissolved in the water by use o f a
bladder. Otherwise a compressor will be needed to feed the vessel and reinject into the system
the elastic energy lost by dissolution.

If no bladder is used a lot o f control and sensing devices will have to be used. The installation o f
a bladder type surge vessel is simple but must be done with care.

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