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School of Electronics Engineering School of Electronics Engineering

VIT University VIT University

Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632014 Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632014

nehabisht773@gmail.com thanikaiselvan@vit.ac.in

Abstract— With the growing needs of technology and same. One of the prime concern is data security. The

connectivity with the internet, a huge role is laid on WSN for information that the sensor obtains, needs to be processed and

many different applications. Say health care, traffic surveillance, transmitted to the sink, which is then given to the base station

smart house or most importantly in the defence area, sensor and is available for the end users via the internet. Wireless

networks play a crucial role. This is why sensor networks pose

Sensor Networks are vulnerable to security attacks due to the

unique security challenges because of their inherent limitations in

communication and computing. Dense deployment of sensor broadcast nature of the transmission medium [4]. How far the

networks in an unattended environment makes sensor nodes data is reliable depends on the level and type of security that

vulnerable to potential attacks. With these demands, the has been encompassed to prevent it from any third party

confidentiality, integrity and authentication of the communicated intruder getting access to those vital information and being

information becomes very important. In this paper, we have misused. There are many solutions to the security problems of

focused on a lightweight encryption method which encompasses WSN’s such as, routing security, secure placement of nodes

faster encryption thereby, bringing down the computing time and cryptography .Since WSN has limited energy and

which increases the overall lifetime of the sensor network. The processing power for nodes, it makes it quite difficult to

introduction of both symmetric and asymmetric cryptography in

the two phase hybrid encryption algorithm, check marks the

implement traditional security algorithms for these networks.

main aim of cryptography, i.e, Confidentiality, Integrity and To restrain these issues, various security algorithms have been

Authenticity. Moreover hybrid encryption attempts to exploit the proposed in order to achieve security requirements, i.e

advantages of both symmetric and asymmetric encryption. Confidentiality, Authentication and Integrity. Confidentiality

means keeping the message secret from a third party user.

Keywords— Cryptography; Reversible data Hiding; Arnold Authentication ensures that the unauthorized parties do not

Transformation; Difference expansion participate in the network. Integrity make it certain to the

receiver that the received data is not modified by an adversary.

I. INTRODUCTION Authentication provides data integrity also.

Wireless sensor networks (WSN’s) are formed by a set of

nodes that gather information and forward it to the sink [1]. The process of encoding the original information in such a

Sensor nodes are compact, application specific, has low way that it cannot be read by hacker is known as Encryption.

energy needs and possess capabilities of sensing It is of two types: Symmetric and Asymmetric. Symmetric

environmental changes, signal processing and wireless Cryptography uses single key to encrypt and decrypt the

communication. Rapid advances in the areas of sensor design, information whereas asymmetric cryptography requires

information technologies, and wireless networks have led the different key for encryption and decryption. Both these

way for the proliferation of wireless sensor network [2]. techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages.

Dominance of which can be realized in many important While symmetric algorithm is cost effective and provides data

applications such as - habitat monitoring in nature reserves, security compromising key distribution, asymmetric algorithm

environmental monitoring for climatic changes, surveillance provides excellent key distribution however it is slow and

of buildings, in healthcare where it is often referred to as consumes more computer resources. Hybrid Encryption takes

wireless medical sensor network, surveillance of enemy areas advantages of both symmetric and asymmetric encryption.

and in the defense.

In this paper, a hybrid encryption algorithm is proposed

The potential advantage of networked sensing over the which includes two phases of work. First phase takes the

conventional approach, can be summarized as greater advantage of AES along with Arnold transformation for key

coverage, accuracy and reliability at a possibly lower cost [3]. generation and RSA which adds up to the security of the

Besides the advantages of deploying a WSN in critical algorithm. Second phase focuses on data authentication where

applications, one should be aware of the limitations of the reversible data hiding technique (RDH) is used rather than

digital watermarking. This is done because in RDH the exact III. THE PROPOSED HYBRID ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUE

image and the marker can be extracted, hence providing a The hybrid encryption technique includes two phases of work

lossless data hiding while digital watermarking is referred as simultaneously. In Phase- 1, it takes the benefit of both

lossy data hiding as the cover image extracted at the receiver symmetric and asymmetric cryptographic techniques using

side is not the exact replica of the original one, thus both AES and RSA algorithms. The initial key for AES is

introducing error in the form of distortion. provided by the Arnold transformation [10]. In Phase- 2, the

encrypted data obtained from the latter algorithms is given to

Organization of this work is as follows. Literature survey is the RDH system which provides data integrity by using the

presented in Section 2 followed by the proposed encryption difference expansion explained further in this paper [11].

algorithm introduced in Section 3. Sections 4 and 5 present the The combination of AES – RSA with RDH (Difference

obtained results and comparison of the proposed algorithm Expansion) is done to have double layer of security and to

with existing algorithms, respectively. Finally, the conclusion provide high operation speed, high security performance and

and future work is presented in Section 6 and 7. strong usability.

When it comes to apply security algorithm in WSN two major 1. Plain Image is divided into n blocks (Bi) of size 4x4

problems arises. One is the overload that the algorithms put (128 bits). It is further divided into two parts of n/2 blocks

over the original data and second is the availability of memory each, Pi (0 : n/2-1) and Qi (n/2 : n-1) respectively.

in the sensor nodes. The algorithm should be developed

keeping in mind the two mentioned factors which affects the n/2 - 1

life of a device and an entire range of network. A hybrid Pi = ∑ (Bi) 0 ≤ i ≤ n/2 - 1 (1)

algorithm design is proposed by Kumar N (2012). In this i=0

algorithm, AES and ECC are used for encrypting the given 2. Key Generation is done using Arnold transformation. A

plain text respectively. MD5 is used to take the hash value of 4x4 randomly generated matrix which is used as a key can be

encrypted text. [5].This algorithm takes a longer execution easily scrambled using the same.

time because the plain text is sequentially encrypted by the

given algorithms. In Zhu S (2011), a hybrid method is K j = ACM transform= (k) , 0 ≤ j ≤ L -1 (2)

proposed where the plain text is encrypted using symmetric

cipher algorithm and key and digital signature are encrypted Where, k is randomly generated 4x4 matrix, and value of L is

with asymmetric key algorithm [6]. Here the message is 16

encrypted in a single phase which leads to less complexity and

therefore, suffers from low security level. In Ren and Miao 2.1 Scrambling through Arnold transformation can be

(2010), another hybrid architecture is proposed, where DES achieved by following process:

algorithm is used for data transmission and RSA for the

encryption of the key of DES [7]. This algorithm is considered Let X = [x y] be an element of 4x4 randomly generated

weak because DES is rather an old cryptographic algorithm matrix, the transformation is as follows :

which uses 64 bit block cipher to encrypt and is classed as low

security for the modern scenario. T[x y] ÆT [x+y x+2y] mod n (3)

Other research works by Subasree and Sakthivel (2010) Where, mod is the modulo of T [x+y x+2y] and n

and the works by Dubal, Mahesh and Ghosh (2011) [8]

presents methods where combinations of algorithms are used, 3. Encryption for the first part is done using AES algorithm.

each having its own pros and cons. Both of the works The initial key is obtained from the previous step.

basically uses asymmetric encryption algorithms (ECC and

DUAL RSA) in different manners which is slow compared to Ri = EAES ( Kj, Pi ) (4)

symmetric encryption [9].

Where, Ri is the obtained cipher text, Kj is the generated key

The previous works, some of which as mentioned above, and Pi is the message block to be encrypted.

has helped in understanding the key ingredients that must be

made available and what must be omitted while developing Note: We are using AES- 128 block cipher for this algorithm.

security algorithm for modern WSN scenario. The factors

such as less complexity, more time for encryption, low level 4. Encryption for the second part Qi is done using RSA which

of security must be avoided and this is what is inferred from uses stream cipher where each 4x4 block needs to be

the works of previous researches. converted into 128 bit stream.

n-1 IV. RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS

Qi = ∑ (Bi) n/2 ≤ i ≤ n-1 (5)

i=n/2 A. PSNR

Si = (Bi)e mod x (6) Quality of image can be measured using Peak Signal-to-Noise

ratio. It is an expression for ratio between the highest possible

Here, two prime numbers are chosen arbitrarily, p and q. power of a signal and distorting noise that influence the

Then, x = p × q, ϕ(x) = (p − 1) × (q − 1). A number relatively quality of its representation.

prime to ϕ is selected, d. Then, e is calculated such

that e × d = 1 mod ϕ(x), and Public key (e, x) is used for PSNR = 20 log10 {(MAX f)/√MSE} (13)

encryption. Where, MAX f is the maximum pixel value.

5. At the final stage of the encryption process, the two n/2 Table 4.1: PSNR for different sample inputs

cipher blocks (Ri and Si) are integrated to generate a cipher Image PSNR (Between PSNR(Between

image of n blocks (Ci) and it is sent for authentication. encrypted image marked image and

and original original image)

6. Difference expansion algorithm is used for data hiding and

image)

ensuring the authenticity.

Lena 9.0647 8.5836

Hi=DE (Ci) (7) Cameraman 9.8964 9.4891

Coins 9.2785 9.1620

Where, Hi is data hided image using DE algorithm Peppers 8.7497 8.6262

Child 10.5727 10.4145

6.1. The DE embedding method involves coupling the Circuit 8.4961 8.3616

adjacent pixels of the host image and converting them into a Board 8.7156 8.4447

low-pass image (containing integer averages) and a high-pass Onion 9.1609 8.9455

image (containing pixel differences). Consider if x and y be Rice 10.1398 9.7196

the intensity values of a pixel-pair, then l and h will be defined Saturn 9.1609 8.9410

as:

The PSNR values between the original and the encrypted

l=(x+y)/2 (8) h=x–y (9) image must be infinite for a noiseless image, this implies that

there exists a inverse relation between PSNR and the added

A message bit b∈{0,1} is embedded by appending it to the noise to an image. From the values in table 4.1 we obtain

LSB of h difference, hence creating a new LSB. values nearly to 10db which indicates the presence of very

To prevent the overflow and underflow problems, i.e., to high noise between the original and the encrypted image,

restrict in the range of [0, 255], it should follow these reducing the chance of any third party to identify the

conditions: encryption and decode it.

Correlation is the measure of similarity between the two

As we embed a bit into the difference value by images.

the DE, the new, h’, expanded difference value will be

Rx y = Co v (x,y)/( √D(x)√D(y) ) (14)

h’ = 2h + b (10)

N

i) For expandable condition value of h’ should satisfy Co v (x,y) = ∑ (xi – x’)(y – y’) (15)

following condition i=1

|2ℎ + | ≤ min (2(255 − ), 2 + 1) for both b=0 and 1 Where, cov(x,y) is the covariance between original and

ii) Difference value h is changeable under the integer average encrypted image ,x′ is the mean intensity of original image, y’

value l if is the mean intensity of the encrypted image and N is the

|2 × ⌊ ℎ /2⌋ + | ≤ min (2(255 − ), 2 + 1) , for both b=0 and 1 number of selected pixels.

The new data hided pixel value x’ and y’ can be calculated as:

sent to receiver side.

Table 4.2: Correlation between the input image and encrypted image

Table 4.4: NPCR and UACI values obtained for the encrypted

Image Correlation Correlation images (256 x 256) for the proposed method

coefficient coefficient

(256X256) (512X512)

Image (256 x 256) NPCR UACI

Lena -0.0017 -3.6091 x 10-4

Onion 99.596 33.467

Pepper 0.0014 -1.6860 x 10-4

Saturn 99.494 33.501

Coins -0.0037 5.54 x 10-4

-5 Lena 99.578 33.473

Cameraman 6.3135 x10 8.8465 x10-4

-4 Rice 99.512 33.495

Saturn 3.8395 x 10 -4.0060 x 10-4

Peppers 99.609 33.463

Onion -0.0014 -0.0023

Board 99.609 33.463

Circuit -0.0021 -0.0011

Circuit 99.468 33.510

Board 0.0059 -0.0020

Cameraman 99.602 33.464

Child 8.1492 x 10-5 0.0052

Child 99.555 33.484

Rice 0.0023 0.0049

Coins 99.60 33.464

From table 4.2 it is clear that the encrypted and original image

are non-identical, values being almost near to zero in the V. COMPARISON

correlation analysis, which means it is difficult to identify the A. Histogram analysis

original image from the encrypted one. The results are compared with THCA algorithm mentioned in

[12].

C. Encryption time

for the algorithm implies more use of power which overall

lowers the life time of the entire network.

Message Time(sec)

Lena (256X256) 20.13

Pepper 21.97

Coin 31.997

Cameraman 20.17

Saturn 19.10

256 bytes 0.150

640 bytes 0.390

4096 bytes 1.6614

65536 bytes 3.3592

averaged changed intensity (UACI) are two most common

quantities used to evaluate the strength of image encryption

algorithms/ciphers with respect to differential attacks.

Conventionally, a high NPCR/UACI score is usually

interpreted as a high resistance to differential attacks.

The histograms obtained for the encrypted images are

uniform, which makes it difficult for the intruder to detect any

changes in the pattern to interrupt and hack the information.

B. Horizontal ,Vertical and diagonal Correlation

of encrypted image obtained by proposed method

Image Horizontal Vertical Diagonal

Lena 0.1010 0.1146 -0.2067

Fig. 5.1: (From top to down) Lena- Original Image, Encrypted Image, Original Cameraman -0.2077 0.0114 0.1886

Image Histogram, Encrypted Image Histogram (Left column – THCA

Algorithm paper results; Right column – Proposed algorithm results) Table 5.2: Horizontal, Vertical and Diagonal correlation

of encrypted image obtained by THCA method

Image Horizontal Vertical Diagonal

Lena 0.0303 0.0302 0.0311

Cameraman 0.2951 0.09935 0.09614

It can be inferred from table 5.1 and 5.2 that the relation

between adjacent pixels in horizontal, vertical and diagonal

direction in the encrypted image is also as expected, i.e. near

to zero, making it difficult to retrieve the original image for

the intruder.

VI. CONCLUSION

From the THCA algorithm we have obtained the following

objectives successfully:

1. A robust security algorithm

In this paper we have made the use of a two phase hybrid

encryption algorithm which gives a strong security against the

network attacks by taking advantages of both symmetric and

asymmetric algorithms.

2. Fast computation

The proposed algorithm was compared with the existing

hybrid algorithms and it was inferred that algorithm

mentioned in this work is comparatively faster than the

previous ones which check marks another objective.

3. A low Energy consumption

For a WSN scenario to sustain a longer lifetime, it has to

consume less energy for every packet of data that the sensor

sends. To fulfill this purpose the proposed algorithm is light

weighted, which means it consumes less energy for the

encryption and decryption due to its fast computation property

mentioned above. This in turn increases the network life time.

WSN is a growing sector which will be having greater

demands in the upcoming future, in the areas of military,

medical, smart houses, traffic surveillance. All of these deals

with highly sensitive data and therefore security for the same

is going to be a prime concern especially now when we have

so much advancements in internet.

Combining the work done within this thesis with that of the

Internet of Things (IOT) can be a next step towards this

Fig. 5.2: (From top to down) Cameraman- Original Image, Encrypted Image, growth. Making the data available to the requesting users over

Original Image Histogram, Encrypted Image Histogram (Left column –THCA

paper results; Right column – Proposed algorithm results) the internet is both economical but highly unsecure. In order

to comply with the security measures, cryptographic

algorithms will have a very important hand in this direction.

This work presents the use of both symmetric and asymmetric

cryptographic algorithms for the encryption. This can be

further improved by developing a way to use both the

algorithms simultaneously which would result in more

complex encryption and would provide a much faster

computation.

Along with the previous improvements the proposed

algorithm can be extended to audio and video information.

REFERENCES

[1] Ninad Anjali Waman, Barnali Roy, National Institute of Technology

Silchar , Wireless Sensor Network System Design for Environmental

Monitoring

[2] Dargie, Waltenegus and Christian Poellabauer (2010), Fundamentals of

Wireless Sensor Networks,Wiley.

[3] Li, Yingshu, My Thai, and Weili Wu (2008), Wireless Sensor Networks

and Applications, Springer.

[4] Vikash Kumar, Anshu Jain and P N Barwal (2014) ,Wireless Sensor

Networks: Security Issues, Challenges and Solutions, International Journal of

Information & Computation Technology. ISSN 0974-2239 Volume 4,

Number 8 (2014), pp. 859-868, International Research Publications House

[5] Kumar N (2012), A secure communication of Wireless Sensor Network

through hybrid algorithm, vol. 386 von LAP LAMBERT Academic

Publishing

[6] Zhu S (2011), Research of hybrid cipher algorithm application to

hydraulic information transmission, Proceedings of International Conference

on Electronics, Communication and Control (ICECC), China

[7] Ren and Miao (2010), A hybrid encryption algorithm based on DES and

RSA in Bluetooth communication, Proceedings of the 2nd International

Conference on Modeling, Simulation and Visualization Methods, China

[8] Dubal, Mahesh and Ghosh ,Design of a new security protocol using hybrid

cryptography architecture, Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on

Electronics Computer Technology (ICECT), vol.5, India

[9] Subasree and Sakthivel, Design of a new security protocol using hybrid

cryptography algorithm, IJRRAS 2 (2), 95-103

[10] Gabriel Peterson (1997), Arnold’s Cat Map, Math 45 – Linear Algebra

[11] J. Tian (2003), Reversible data embedding using a difference expansion,

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 890–896

[12] Rawya Rizk, Yasmin Alkady (2015), Two-phase hybrid cryptography

algorithm for wireless sensor networks, Journal of Electrical Systems and

Information Technology

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