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Drums and Shakos Large Battles Divisional Level Napoleonic Wargaming Rules Written by Sergio Laliscia Based

Drums and Shakos

Drums and Shakos Large Battles Divisional Level Napoleonic Wargaming Rules Written by Sergio Laliscia Based on
Drums and Shakos Large Battles Divisional Level Napoleonic Wargaming Rules Written by Sergio Laliscia Based on

Large Battles

Drums and Shakos Large Battles Divisional Level Napoleonic Wargaming Rules Written by Sergio Laliscia Based on
Drums and Shakos Large Battles Divisional Level Napoleonic Wargaming Rules Written by Sergio Laliscia Based on

Divisional Level Napoleonic Wargaming Rules Written by Sergio Laliscia

Level Napoleonic Wargaming Rules Written by Sergio Laliscia Based on the Song of Blades and Heroes

Based on the Song of Blades and Heroes engine written by Andrea Sfiligoi First Edition, Copyright © Sergio Laliscia/Ganesha Games, 2012

Layout by Andrea Sfiligoi

Photographs by Giuseppe Maio

Editing by Patrick Connor

Models from the author’s collection, painted by Sergio Laliscia and Stonewall Miniatures. Special thanks to our main playtester Diego Chisena Playtest and useful suggestions: Andrea Sfiligoi, Marco Coccia, Antonio Termini, Narciso Battellocchi, Luca Ceriola, Massimo Moscarelli, Luciano Bassotti, Paolo Pierini, Stefano Giombini, Carlo Bandini, Marco Gasbarri, Alessandro Salini, Federico Bertelli

www.ganeshagames.net

Table of Contents

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Attacking across an obstacle

11

Table of Contents

2

Formation Changes

11

 

Limbering and Unlimbering

11

Introduction

3

Infantry Squares

12

Glossary and key elements

3

Proximity Rule

12

Basing

3

Fast Units

12

Suggested basing

3

Fast Units on Roads

12

Dice

3

Free Facing

12

Measuring Sticks

4

Passing through friendly units

12

Unit Anatomy

4

Disorder level (DIS)

4

Combat

13

Recovering Disorder levels (Rally)

4

Combat Dice (CD)

13

Infantry Formations

5

Unused Dice

13

Cavalry Formations

5

How many Dice you roll

13

Artillery

5

Artillery Bombardment

13

Generals

6

Line of Sight (LoS)

14

Leaders

6

Targets, LoS and cover

14

The Commander in Chief (CinC)

6

Reloading Guns

14

Skirmishers

6

Firing Procedure (Bombardment)

14

Actions & Reactions

6

Approach and Contact

15

Double failure

6

Approach

15

Reactions

7

Special Case during Cavalry Approach

15

Who can react

7

Units in Woods

16

Reaction restrictions

7

Frontal Arc

16

When to react

7

Passive Targets

16

How to React

7

Approach Procedure

16

Reacting Cavalry

7

Approach Outcomes

17

Generals and their Actions

8

Elimination during Approach

18

Activation Bonus

8

Contact

18

Group Orders

8

Retreats

19

Leader bonus in combat

8

Cavalry Breakthrough and Recall

19

Leaders attached to eliminated units

8

Leader contacted or threatened

8

Built-up Areas

19

Leaderless brigades

9

Movement

20

CinC actions

9

Combat in built-up areas

20

The Reserve

9

Bombarding built-up areas

20

Assigning Reserve Units

9

Re-roll

9

Winning the Battle

21

 

Before the Battle

21

Sequence of Play

9

Losses inflicted

21

 

Penetration into enemy territory

21

Movement

10

Victory and Defeat

21

Movement Cost Table

10

Manoeuvres and Movement Reduction

10

Table set-up for pick-up games

22

Oblique Movement

10

Terrain type and sizes

22

Manoeuvre: lateral movement

11

Determine Attacker and Defender

22

Manoeuvre: backwards movement

11

Placing Terrain

22

Manoeuvre: wheeling forward

11

Deployment in pick-up games

22

Wheeling backwards

11

About face

11

Optional Rules

23

Rotation without moving

11

Forming a Grand Battery

23

Moving unlimbered artillery

11

“Worn” Units

23

Double reduction

11

Special Rules

24

Moving through linear obstacles

11

Special Rules for Leaders

25

Special Rules for the Cinc

25

Scenarios, Historical Battles and Pick-up Games

26

Ready Made Scenarios

26

Historical Battles

26

Pick-up Games

26

Scenarios

27

Modelling Historical and Conjectural Battles

34

Assigning Q and C scores

34

Appendix – Playing with Armies

Army level tables

39

Scale and Units basing

39

Rules

39

Generals

39

Movement

39

Historical Scenarios at Corps and Army level

39

Representing Q and C:

39

Skirmishers

39

FAQ and Clarifications

40

Order of Battle Sheet

42

Available Rulebooks

43

QRS

44

3 9 FAQ and Clarifications 40 Order of Battle Sheet 42 Available Rulebooks 4 3 QRS

Introduction

Introduction Drums & Shakos Large Battles is a system of rules for Divisional level battles of the Napoleonic Period (1805- 1815) where each player controls 2-3 Brigades and a small reserve. In multiplayer games each player may control a Division, effectively playing at Corps level.

In the Napoleonic Period battles involving from 5000 to 10,000 men per side (roughly a Division) were uncommon: an incomplete list could include the battles

of Steyer (Austria, 4/11/1805),

Maida (Italy, 4/7/1806), Soldau (Eastern Prussia, 25/12/1806), Braunsberg (Eastern Prussia, 26/2/1807), Roleia (Spain, 17/8/1808), Venzone and Pordenone (Italy, 11-15/4/1809), Arnhofen (Bavaria, 19/4/1809), Margalef (Spain, 23/4/1810), Villa Garcia (Spain, 11/8/1810), Rio Gebora (Spain, 19/2/1811), Eckau (Russia, 19/7/1812), Golovchitzy (Russia, 2/8/1812), Retschow (Germany,

28/8/1813),SanMichele(Italy,19/11/1813),Hoogstraaten

(Belgium, 11/1/1814), Garris (France, 15/2/1814), Ponte

di Monzambano (Italy, 10/3/1814), Modena (Italy,

4/4/1815) and Surburg - Selz (France, 26/6/1815).* Given the unprecedented scale of many battles of the beginning of the 19th Century, quite often in our battles

we

represent just a part of a bigger battle, but the pay

off

is the chance to manoeuvre on the battlefield every

battalion, with its uniform and National features. In the Appendix you’ll find some rules and conversions allowing you to “zoom out” your view of the battlefield

and play up to Army level (using multiple Corps). *

*For a complete list of all the battles of the period 1792-1815 see: Digby Smith - The Napoleonic Wars Data Book, London

1998.

Glossary and key elements

The base infantry unit is a Battalion. For cavalry it is a Regiment (usually of 4 Squadrons) and artillery is divided into Batteries. Each unit represents:

An infantry Battalion on 4 bases

A cavalry Regiment on 2 bases

An artillery battery on 2 bases (or 1 base with double frontage). Several battalions/regiments –with or without attached Artillery – make a Brigade led by a General (we’ll

call him the Leader from now on) who, in turn, is commanded by a Commander in Chief (CinC) i.e., the Divisional Commanding Officer. A Division is made up of two or more brigades (usually two).

Basing

There is no casualty removal in Drums & Shakos

Large Battles, nor a fixed figure ratio. For this reason, basing and the number of figures on each stand are irrelevant, providing that:

The frontage of the infantry base is greater than the depth (a ratio of 1.5:1 to 2:1 works best);

• • • •

Infantry and cavalry bases have the same

frontage;

All players adopt the same basing.

Suggested basing

Our suggested system for 15mm figures is commonly used in Napoleonic miniature games (sizes are frontage x depth):

infantry 3 x 1.5cm with 3 figures

cavalry 3 x 3cm with 2 mounted figures (3 for heavy cavalry if you like)

foot artillery: using 2 bases per battery 3 x 4cm with 1 gun and 3 crew (4 if heavy); using a single base 6 x 4cm with 2 guns and 4 crew (5 if heavy).

Horse artillery: using 2 bases per battery 3 x 4cm with 1 gun and 2 crew; using a single base 6 x 4cm with 2 guns and 4 crew.

Generals: 1.5 x 3cm with a single mounted figure (Brigade Commander/Leader), 3 x 3cm and 2 or 3 mounted figures for the CinC.

Skirmishers: single round (diameter 1.5cm) or square (1.5cm side) base with 1 figure

Markers

The game uses a few markers to record particular situations on the battlefield, such as:

the Disorder level of a unit (from 0 to 4)

battery that has fired

violation of the proximity rule

the successful reaction of a unit.

a

a

Table

If you play with 15mm figures, we suggest you use a 120x180cm table. For bigger or smaller scales, modify the above sizes keeping a ratio of 1:1.5.

Dice

All dice used in Drums & Shakos Large Battles are normal six-sided dice (abbreviated as d6). Roll 3d6 means roll three six-sided dice.

Combat Dice (CD) is the number of d6 that a unit rolls during Approach and Contact. They represent several factors: type, formation, drill, and number. Players can “buy” dice during Approach and Contact by spending one action for each additional CD.

Example: an infantry unit in line formation gets 3 actions. It can move to Approach distance (1 action) and then use the 2 actions left to buy 2 more Combat dice.

Special Rules: These define a battlefield.

unit’s character on the

Disorder level (DIS)

At the start of the game, all units are fresh with a DIS 0. During the battle, units can accumulate disorder and eventually become useless and are removed from play. All infantry, cavalry and artillery units have five levels of Disorder (DIS 0 to 4). Units reaching DIS 4 are eliminated. Your unit’s Disorder level affects the number of CD your opponent rolls. Units with a DIS level of 3 cannot Approach the enemy and they do not count for purposes of penetration through enemy lines (see Approach and Victory conditions, further on).

Recovering Disorder levels (Rally)

Recovering 1 DIS requires 1 action (see Actions chapter). The unit must be in command and more than 1L from or out of sight of the nearest enemy .

Measuring Sticks

In Drums & Shakos Large Battles we use four measurement sticks of fixed length: Very Short (VS), Short (S), Medium (M) and Long (L). Pre-measuring is always allowed at any time.

Sticks size according to scale used

6-10mm

Very Short

Short

Medium

Long

3

cm

5 cm

8cm

12

cm

15mm

Very Short

Short

Medium

Long

5

cm

8cm

12

cm

18

cm

20-28mm

Very Short

Short

Medium

Long

8

cm

12 cm

18

cm

28

cm

A 3xLong and a 2xMedium sticks will also come in handy to measure artillery bombardment and the Command radius of Leaders. We use thin wood dowels painted in different colours so they can be easily told apart; we use red for Long, orange for Medium, yellow for Short and white for Very Short.

Unit Anatomy

All infantry and cavalry units have a Quality and a Combat score. Artillery uses only the Quality value.

and a Combat score. Artillery uses only the Quality value. Quality (Q): reflects the unit’s determination,

Quality (Q): reflects the unit’s determination, initiative, drill and morale. When you try to activate a unit, you have to roll the Q number or higher on a d6 to achieve a success. Therefore, lower Q values are better.

Combat (C): quantifies the unit’s ability in combat

and the number of men better.

in it. Higher values are

and the number of men better. in it. Higher values are Pictured above all necessary markers:

Pictured above all necessary markers: measuring sticks; wad of cotton wool to mark discharged artillery; two different systems to record the status of units (counters with the number of Disorder points, or green, yellow, and red markers); an arrow used to mark violations of the proximity rule.

Infantry Formations Infantry units (battalions) may be in line, march column, attack column or square

Infantry Formations

Infantry units (battalions) may be in line, march column, attack column or square formations.

in line, march column, attack column or square formations. Cavalry Formations Cavalry units may be deployed
in line, march column, attack column or square formations. Cavalry Formations Cavalry units may be deployed
in line, march column, attack column or square formations. Cavalry Formations Cavalry units may be deployed
in line, march column, attack column or square formations. Cavalry Formations Cavalry units may be deployed

Cavalry Formations

Cavalry units may be deployed in line or in column formation. Changing formation requires 1 action.

Artillery

Artillery may be limbered (to move) or unlimbered (to fire): limbering and unlimbering are formation changes and each requires 1 action.

are formation changes and each requires 1 action. Flank Front Rear Flank Front, flanks, and rear
are formation changes and each requires 1 action. Flank Front Rear Flank Front, flanks, and rear

Flank

Front

Front Rear
Front Rear
Front Rear
Front Rear
Front Rear
Front Rear
Rear

Rear

Front Rear
Front Rear
Front Rear
Front Rear
Front Rear

Flank

Front, flanks, and rear of a unit

We define front as the forward projection of the unit’s front.

For the purposes of combat a unit must start its activation and end its Approach movement entirely out with the target’s front arc in order to be considered on the enemy flank/rear. A unit that is to the front of an enemy is not allowed to move around that enemy to attack it from the flank.

Units can recover ONLY 1 DIS per activation. Units with DIS 1 cannot recover.

Skirmishers retreat behind their parent unit when

a Contact is made and automatically return to their

position to the unit’s front when the parent unit’s front

Artillery can never recover DIS.

Cavalry may only recover one level, from DIS3 to DIS2.

No unit may recover from DIS1 to DIS 0.

is

Generals

A

Leader commands a Brigade and the Commander

in

Chief (CinC) is a Divisional Commander.

free of enemies.

Skirmishers are eliminated in the following cases:

a)when their parent unit is eliminated b) when a cavalry unit - with its first action – gets to Approach distance of their parent unit. In this case all Skirmishers are removed and from that moment on the unit is considered to have SK=0.

Actions & Reactions

Moving, changing facing or formation and all other activities performed by a unit require the expenditure

of Actions. Actions are generated by rolling one, two or

three dice (player’s choice) and comparing the results to the unit’s (or General’s) Quality. Each modified die that beats or equals the Q value is a success. Each die that is lower than the Q value is a failure. A result of “1” is always a failure and a “6” is always a success, no matter what modifier. Each success allows your unit or Leader to perform one action. You can activate the units of your brigade one by one or – if circumstances allow – perform group activations (see below). Every failure allows your opponent to try a Reaction.

Double failure

When you roll 2 or 3 failures trying to activate a unit or group, activation ends for that brigade and no other units within the brigade can be chosen for activation.

Y

o u must select another brigade (if available) to activate. If it is your last brigade, initiative passes immediately to your opponent. This is called a turnover. Note that if you roll 3 dice and get 2 failures, you still are entitled to perform the single action for the unit or group resulting from your single success and your opponent gets his attempt at a two-dice reaction.

Leaders

Leader have a single Quality value which represents their courage, determination, charisma and tactical ability. Quality ranges from 2 to 5. They may have one or more Special Rules representing their character. All Leaders have a Command Span of 2M. A Leader’s Command Span is not affected by LoS. The Command Span is the Leader’s effective range, allowing him to command his troops, giving them a +1 bonus during their activation, allowing them to rally, or issuing a group order.

The Commander in Chief (CinC)

The CinC has a Quality value ranging from 2 to 5 and a Command Span of 1L.

If a Leader is within the Command Span of the CinC,

he may re-roll 1 failed activation dice.

Skirmishers

Infantry units have an intrinsic Skirmish (SK) factor, from 0 to 3, which is used during the Approach step. The SK factor is not used during Contact. In game terms, it is only important to know if your

unit’s SK factor is higher or lower than the SK factor

of the Approached enemy.

higher or lower than the SK factor of the Approached enemy. Your unit’s SK factor is

Your unit’s SK factor is also important when a

battery within 1M fires against your unit’s front:

in

roll.

that case, the battery subtracts 1 CD from its

Skirmishers are represented in the game by single models mounted on individual bases. Skirmishers must always be positioned within 1 VS of the parent unit’s front line. Skirmishers are not units, they move only when their parent unit moves and retreat with it. They have no Quality or Combat values and cannot be the target of enemy attacks. They are just markers and their number shows the parent unit’s SK factor.

Important: for purposes of brigade activation, the CinC activation (and therefore his Reserve’s activation) counts as one brigade.

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Reactions

All your failures (even those that do not cause a turnover) generate a reaction attempt by your opponent. For each failure you roll, your opponent is entitled to perform a 1d6 reaction attempt with ONE unit. Activation in reaction is NOT automatic. The reacting player must roll a number of d6 equal to the failures scored by the opponent, and act according to the number of successes/actions obtained. Reaction is the only activity that may be performed by a player without initiative. Example: a player rolls 3 dice to activate a unit. He gets 2 successes and 1 failure: the opponent can therefore try to react with ONE of his units, rolling 1d6 against the unit’s Q in that moment.

Who can react

Any enemy unit or General on the table, providing that it/he has not reacted successfully in this initiative phase.

Reaction restrictions

In reaction, you may not:

Approach the enemy with your infantry

Give group orders with your Leader. Generals may move normally

Do anything if your unit or General has already reacted successfully this initiative. In other words you may TRY to react as many times as you want, but a unit can’t react twice. Apart from the restrictions above, you may perform any other action during a reaction. Players can keep track of reactions using a colour coded marker, or anything they see fit. Remove all reaction markers when initiative passes to the other player.

When to react

Reaction attempts can be made at the reacting player’s discretion:

before opponent starts to act using the generated actions

in-between opponent’s single actions (you cannot interrupt an action in the middle)

after all opponent actions have been performed.

Exception: when the Reaction is caused by failures from a Leader (or CinC) activation, the reaction attempt must be performed immediately. When one or more failures occur, the initiative player asks his opponent if he wants to react before he acts. If the answer is no, then the initiative player performs his

first action, and he continues to act until the opponent stops him, or he has no more actions available.

How to React

Select a unit which is going to react and roll a number of d6 equal to your opponent’s failures against the current Q score of the reacting unit (applying the Leader bonus if within its Command Span). For every success you roll, you have 1 action to spend to perform the reaction.

Reacting Cavalry

A cavalry unit activated in a reaction may Approach an enemy, but it must satisfy all the requirements for doing so (see Approach below) and must be in line formation. Follow the rules for Approaching and Contacting an enemy.

Follow the rules for Approaching and Contacting an enemy. Example of the PICTURE: player A decides

Example of the PICTURE: player A decides to activate a unit in attack column to try an Approach against an enemy unit, which is also in attack column and standing just in front of the Approaching unit. An artillery battery is beside the target unit, but it is facing in another direction. Player A’s unit could reach Approach distance with a single move (1M): he rolls 3 dice anyway and gets 1 success and 2 failures. Player B can therefore attempt a reaction attempt on 2 dice, and chooses to do so with the artillery. Player B’s intent – assuming he scores 2 successes – is to rotate the battery (1 action) and then fire on the Approaching enemy (1 action) before it starts its movement. As an alternative, player B could try to react with his infantry (the target of player A’s Approach), changing its formation into a line to gain an advantage in combat. Play proceeds with player B’s reaction, then with player A’s unit movement, and the ensuing combat. After resolving the combat (Approach and Contact), player A must begin activating another brigade, as he rolled 2 failures in an activation attempt. If it was his last brigade, a turnover occurs. Note: in the example above, player B could have reacted with ANY other unit on the table, not only with those potentially involved in the ensuing combat.

Generals and their Actions

A

General must be activated like any unit, rolling

1,

2 or 3 dice against his Quality. Generals may also

react. Each success generates an action, but 2 or more failures DO NOT CAUSE A TURNOVER if it is the last brigade. They do generate an enemy reaction as normal. With their actions, Leaders may:

move (2L for each action)

issue Group Orders.

Activation Bonus

Leaders grant a +1 bonus for activation to all units in their Brigade who are within their Command Span. Out of Command units may move and attack, but they do not enjoy the bonus, nor they may recover Disorder levels (rally).

Group Orders

Your activated Leader may issue a Group Order to any number of friendly units within his Command Span. To give a group order, the Leader must spend one action (providing he has been activated and

has actions available). Then you roll 1, 2 or 3 dice against the Leader’s Q: the number of successes is the number of actions that ALL the units in the group may perform. After all the actions have been performed, the Leader may use any remaining actions, unless initiative is lost by that brigade by rolling 2 or 3 failures during the group activation. A Leader may issue multiple group orders in the same initiative phase. However, he cannot issue orders more than once to the same group.

If – during his activation – your Leader rolls some

failures, the enemy reaction attempt must be performed immediately (i.e.,, before you begin acting with your units). For a Group Order to be issued, the following conditions must be met:

all units must be in command;

no unit may Approach the enemy, nor fire (if artillery);

you must declare all units which are part of the group before rolling dice.

A group may comprise any combination of infantry,

cavalry and artillery.

In general, your Leader will issue Group Orders when his Brigade is far from the enemy. When your units are near the enemy, you’ll have to activate them

one by one, if you want to attack.

Leader bonus in combat

The Leader can use a move action to attach himself to

a unit in his brigade and give it a bonus in combat. An attached Leader must use a move action to leave

a unit.

Move your Leader in contact with the chosen unit:

that unit enjoys a bonus in combat (both in attack and defence) while the Leader remains in contact. Note that the unit to which the Leader has just been attached MAY be activated afterwards and move with the attached Leader (in this case, the Leader moves for free). When counting Combat Dice for Contact (not for the Approach), your Leader can add from zero to three dice (your choice of how many). After the combat is over , regardless of its result, roll the same number of dice you just added: if one or more of them scores a “1”, the Leader is a casualty and is removed from play. With any other result, he stays with the unit, and he will be able to act and move again in the next initiative phase, when that brigade is active. An attached Leader may not issue group orders.

Leaders attached to eliminated units

A Leader attached to a unit which is eliminated must

make a Survival Test. Roll 3d6: if one or more of them

scores a “1”, the Leader is a casualty and is removed from play. With any other result, he must immediately be repositioned within command span of at least one of his units.

Leader contacted or threatened

If a Leader is contacted by any enemy unit during movement, you must make a Capture Test. Roll 2d6: if

one or both of them roll a “1”, the Leader is captured (he is eliminated in game terms). With any other result. he must immediately be repositioned within command span of at least one of his units.

If your Leader happens to find himself:

in front of all your units (with respect to the enemy) for example due to the retreat of one or more units

nearer to an enemy than to a friend. he must immediately be repositioned within command span of at least one of his units.

A Leader or CinC can never be the target of artillery fire or enemy attacks.

Generals are considered “invisible” to the enemy. It is not therefore possible to move in a way to attack a Leader, unless that movement would bring the unit to legally Approach a unit.

Leaderless brigades

If your Leader is eliminated/captured, the Brigade is leaderless until:

the CinC spends 1 action to nominate a replacement officer

your opponent gets 2 failures. In this case, do not roll for Reactions, just place a replacement Leader within command span of at least one of his units. The replacement Leader has a Quality 1 point higher (worse) than the original, up to a maximum of 5. Example: if your Q3 Leader is captured, the replacement officer will have Q4.

CinC actions

The Commander in Chief is in command of the Reserve. As for Leaders, the CinC must be activated in order to act, and may try reaction attempts. Each success generates

an action, but 2 or more failures DO NOT CAUSE A TURNOVER for the Reserve. They can generate an enemy reaction as normal.

With his actions, the CinC may:

If the unit needs more actions to reach its new Leader, you may activate it further, rolling 1 or 2 dice.

Re-roll

If a Leader is within the Command Span of his CinC, he benefits from 1 re-roll per initiative phase. The re- roll can be used only for dice rolled for the Leader’s own activation. Just pick up a die which rolled a failure, and roll it again. The new result stands.

Sequence of Play

There is no set sequence in Drums & Shakos Large Battles. One player has the initiative, and the opponent can only react.

At the beginning of play, after deployment, both players roll 3d6 and add the scores to determine who has the first initiative. The

winning player nominates one of his

Brigades (or the Reserve) and then starts to activate units (one by one or

Reserve) and then starts to activate units (one by one or in groups). You always choose

in groups).

You always choose how many dice

to

roll (1, 2 or 3) against the unit’s

Q

(or against the Leader’s Q if you

are issuing a group order) and then immediately act according to the number of actions thus generated. You repeat this procedure (roll to activate, act) until all units of the brigade that you want to activate have been activated, or you roll 2 or 3 failures in a single roll of the dice. In this case, you have to stop activating

units of that brigade, and move to another. If it is the last brigade, it is a turnover, and

initiative passes to your opponent.

To recap, initiative passes to your opponent when:

you get 2 or 3 failures with the last brigade;

you have already activated all your brigades (and the Reserve);

you decide to pass.

move (2L for each action)

nominate a replacement Leader (1 action)

assign one unit from the Reserve to a Brigade (1 action).

The Reserve

Your Reserve is determined

by the scenario, or is clearly specified when playing historical battles. In pick-up games, the Order of Battle (see further on) tells you how the Reserve is composed. Generally, the Reserve comprises cavalry units and reserve artillery, or elite infantry units. The Reserve does not act as a Brigade. Units belonging to the Reserve don’t move unless the CinC assigns them to a Brigade.

Assigning Reserve Units

Spending 1 action, the CinC may assign one unit of the Reserve to a Brigade. The chosen unit – which must be in the CinC’s Command Span – immediately gets 1 free movement to reach the Leader of the Brigade to which it has been assigned. It cannot fire (if artillery) nor attack an enemy while doing so.

Movement

All units and Generals need to spend actions in order

to move. The only free movements are those of retreat

(involuntary), cavalry recall, and those of attached Leaders. A unit chosen from the Reserve to assign to a brigade also gets a free movement.

A single movement requires 1 action, so units may

move up to 3 times if they have 3 successes and do nothing else. Movement allowance is determined by different

factors: troop type (infantry, cavalry, artillery), formation, and terrain.

A movement beginning, ending, or crossing difficult

terrain (woods, swamps, steep hills, rocky ground) receives a reduction. All units moving within 1Short of any enemy must stop immediately and proceed to the Approach phase (described below).

Movement Cost Table

Type and

Single

Notes

formation

movement

Infantry in line

1 Short

may be subject to reduction

Infantry in

1 Medium

may be subject to reduction

attack column

Infantry in

1 Medium

Free facing

march column

Infantry in square

1 Very Short

Requires 1 action

Cavalry in line

1 Long

may be subject to reduction

Cavalry in column

1 Long

Free facing

Limbered Foot

1 Medium

Free facing

Artillery

Unlimbered

1 Very Short

Requires 1 action

Artillery

Limbered Horse

1 Long

Free facing

Artillery

Leaders and CinC

2 Long

Free facing

10

Artillery Leaders and CinC 2 Long Free facing 10 Manoeuvres and Movement Reduction The movement rates

Manoeuvres and Movement Reduction

The movement rates apply when a unit moves straight ahead (exception: see Fast Units, below) or obliquely up to 45°. Any other movement is considered a manoeuvre. All manoeuvres reduce a unit’s movement allowance,

as follows: 1L becomes 1M, 1M becomes 1S and 1S

becomes 1VS.

A single movement action may not be split in two:

you may not move half a Medium stick advancing

and then move obliquely 45° for another half stick.

A unit is always allowed to move less than a full

measuring stick.

Oblique Movement

Is a movement that allows the unit to advance obliquely up to a 45° angle without changing its

facing or its formation. This movement is without penalty.

If you want to angle more than 45°, you must perform

a manoeuvre (see below).

Up to 45°
Up to 45°
Up to 45°
Up to 45°

Up to 45°

movement is without penalty. If you want to angle more than 45°, you must perform a

10

Manoeuvre: lateral movement

The unit moves laterally, without changing its facing. Movement is reduced.

Rotation without moving

The units rotates up to 90° on its own axis. This costs one action.

Moving unlimbered artillery Unlimbered artillery can only move hand-pushing the guns. This limited movement is
Moving unlimbered artillery
Unlimbered artillery can only move hand-pushing
the guns. This limited movement is called prolong.
Spending one action, the battery can move up to 1 VS
in any direction. Wheeling (forward and backwards)
and rotation on the battery’s axis are allowed.
Manoeuvre:
backwards
movement
Double reduction

(front to enemy)

The unit withdraws, front to the enemy, without changing its facing. Movement is reduced.

the enemy, without changing its facing. Movement is reduced. Manoeuvre: wheeling forward (up to 90°) The
the enemy, without changing its facing. Movement is reduced. Manoeuvre: wheeling forward (up to 90°) The
the enemy, without changing its facing. Movement is reduced. Manoeuvre: wheeling forward (up to 90°) The

Manoeuvre: wheeling forward (up to 90°)

The unit wheels, keeping one of its forward angles still (pivot) and rotating the other. Movement is reduced. You may wheel more than once, but you must use an action for each wheel you perform.

once, but you must use an action for each wheel you perform. Wheeling backwards Wheeling backwards

Wheeling backwards

Wheeling backwards is not allowed.

About face

The units rotates 180° without moving. About-face costs 1 action.

Any movement touching difficult ground causes a reduction (with the exception of Light Infantry). As a consequence, sometimes a unit may receive a double reduction (for example, if you want to manoeuvre in difficult ground). Infantry in line or unlimbered artillery prolonging – that cannot suffer a double reduction as there is nothing less than a Very Short move – cannot manoeuvre in difficult ground. Light Infantry is undoubtedly your best choice of troops to manoeuvre in difficult terrain.

Moving through linear obstacles

Hedges, fences, low walls, ditches, and the like are called “linear obstacles”. Crossing a linear obstacle causes a movement reduction. The whole unit must be able to clear the obstacle in a single movement. If this is not possible, it must reach the obstacle (1 action) and then clear it (another action).

Attacking across an obstacle

Sometimes – if the enemy is near to, but not in contact with, a linear obstacle – it may happen that your unit cannot clear the obstacle without overlapping the enemy. In this case, the target of the attack must move backwards a bit, making just enough room for the attacking unit.

Formation Changes

Changing formation (for infantry and cavalry) and/or limbering/unlimbering (for artillery) costs 1 action.

Limbering and Unlimbering

Artillery batteries are either limbered (may move but not fire) or unlimbered (may fire but not move). Horse artillery may fire even if it moved in the same activation. Foot artillery may not. When limbered, artillery moves as a Fast unit (see Fast Units below).When a battery unlimbers, it may be oriented as you wish.

artillery moves as a Fast unit (see Fast Units below).When a battery unlimbers, it may be

11

11

Infantry Squares

Squares have no flanks or rear, and convert a retreat resulting from an artillery bombardment into the loss of 1 DIS. A square may move 1VS in any direction, spending 1 action.

Fast Units

Infantry in march column, cavalry in column, and limbered artillery (both Horse and Foot) are considered Fast and have certain advantages.

Fast Units on Roads

Fast units moving entirely on a road may follow the contour of the road itself. No wheeling is required. This is the only case when the measuring stick can “bend” to conform to the road, without using an action for each wheel.

Free Facing

Fast units have free facing. This means that you just put the measuring stick touching the front of the leading base of the unit, then angle as you wish, and move up to the end of the stick, facing in that direction. Finally, the unit can be turned to face any direction.

Passing

through

friendly

(Interpenetration)

units

Proximity Rule

Units moved rigidly in the Napoleonic period and, generally speaking, one near the other. However, all battalion commanders appreciated the importance of maintaining some room for manoeuvre in dangerous circumstances (such as forming squares to receive cavalry charges). To simulate this, we use the Proximity rule.

No moving unit may voluntarily end its actions (moving or changing formation) nearer than 1VS to any friend, unless it is Approaching an enemy.

During a Brigade activation, an acting unit cannot end its movement (or formation change) within 1VS from a friendly unit unless:

the 2 units are separated by a linear obstacle (such as a low wall)

one unit is artillery

the unit – after moving – Approaches an enemy.

Two

game.

cases

of

interpenetration

are

possible

in

the

Important: the Proximity rule takes effect AT THE END of all movement for the unit or - if a Group - at the end of all movement of all units of the Group. Units may ignore the proximity rule while moving.

All of the above refers to voluntary movement. However, there are cases where violation of the Proximity rule is generated by involuntary movement, such as retreats.When there is a violation of the Proximity rule, you are limited in your choice of reactions: at the first opportunity you must correct the violation using a Reaction. You don’t need to roll the dice to attempt the reaction. Just move one unit backwards or laterally in order to remove the violation by placing the unit more than 1VS from the friendly unit. If there is more than one violation on the table, you must remove all violations before performing any other type of reactions. Remember: removing one violation of the proximity rule burns one reaction regardless of how many dice you had to roll for reaction.

Voluntary Interpenetration All units may pass through friends at any time, providing that they can clear it completely.

Involuntary Interpenetration Units forced to pass through friends due to retreats behave differently and cause 1 Disorder to the unit passed through, unless the unit being passed through is unlimbered artillery.

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cause 1 Disorder to the unit passed through, unless the unit being passed through is unlimbered

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12

Combat

Combat Dice (CD)

Drums & Shakos Large Battles uses a system of opposed dice rolls to determine combat outcomes. Results are determined by comparing Combat Dice (CD) rolled by players. First of all, in every combat (Approach and Contact) both players roll their CDs, regardless of who is the attacker and who is the defender. The number of dice rolled depends on several factors (type, formation, and Combat value of the unit). Results are generated by comparing the 3 best scoring dice, arranged from highest to lowest. Keep the other dice (form the fourth on) handy until the end of the combat, as they are used as tie breakers. Example: player A rolls 4d6, player B rolls 3d6. A gets 5, 5, 1 and 1; B gets 6, 2 and 1. Both players position their dice from highest to lowest, then they compare the results of the three highest dice.

A

5

5

1

B

6

2

1

A

loses the first die (5 to 6), but wins the second (5 to 2). The

third die is a draw (1 to 1). If one side cannot roll at least 3 dice, all missing dice are considered to have scored a “1”. Winning, losing or drawing a die can have different effects in Approach or Contact and can also add or cancel actions to one or both sides.

Unused Dice

These are the dice from the fourth on. In all situations in which a draw has NO EFFECT, players must add 1 unused die (starting from the highest) to their score.

Example: during an Approach, A rolls 5 dice and B rolls 4.

A

gets 6, 5, 3, 2, 1, B gets 5, 4, 3, 1. The dice are compared

as

follows:

A 6

5

3

2

1

B 5

4

3

1

A wins the first two dice, but the third – being a draw –

would not give a result (No Effect).

Therefore A adds his first unused die (a 2) and B does the same (a 1).

A gets a total of 5 (3+2) while B gets “only” a four (3+1). A

wins the third die. Important: unused dice are added only in situations with a

No Effect result.

13

For example, drawing the first die in an Approach situation HAS a result (both units taking 1 Disorder). Remember also that players may not choose which unused die to add, you must always add the highest unused die available. You add just one die, not two. If there is still a draw after adding the unused die, then there is no effect.

How many Dice you roll

Base CD – both during Approach and Contact and when defending from artillery fire– are as follows:

 

Infantry

in Line

4

in Attack column

3

in Square and March Column 2

 

Cavalry

Light Cavalry in line 4

Dragoons in line 5

 

Heavy Cavalry in line 6

All Cavalry not in line 3

 

Artillery

Bombardment: according to calibre; light 3, medium 4, heavy 5.

In Approach or Contact: if unloaded 2, if loaded as for bombardment

Artillery Bombardment

Artillery fires through its front arc and has three ranges: Short, Medium and Long.

short range +1d6 medium range long range -1d6
short range +1d6
short range
+1d6

medium

range

long range

-1d6

1L
1L
2L
2L

Short range is up to 1L, medium range up to 2L and long range up to 3L.

3L
3L

Bounce-through: draw a straight line from the centre of the battery base to the target unit: if the line touches another unit (behind the target), this unit could be hit by the bounce-through, up to maximum range.

13
13

14 14

Artillery has a number of CD related to calibre: light artillery has 3CD, medium 4CD, heavy 5CD. Once a battery has fired, put a smoke marker in front of it. To fire again the battery must be reloaded. Add 1 die at short range and subtract 1 die if at long range.

Bombarding costs 1 action. Artillery can fire (if loaded) or reload (if unloaded) in reaction.

Firing Procedure (Bombardment)

In order to fire, you must first verify that the target is in your front arc, in LoS and in range. Then calculate the number of CD to be rolled according to calibre, apply the modifiers, and roll your dice. The target rolls dice according to their type and formation. Note that being Disordered (DIS) adds dice to your opponent’s CD total. Modifiers and outcomes are different according to the target.

Line of Sight (LoS)

Artillery needs a clear LoS to fire at a target. LoS is checked tracing an imaginary line (or using a stick as we do) from the centre of the firing battery to any point of the target.

You are not allowed to bombard units inside a built-up area, such as a village: in that case, you fire against the built-up area.

The d6 with the highest result is called the First die, and all the others in descending order (second and third).

If Target is infantry or cavalry

Modifiers (add or subtract the number of dice indicated)

In cover (soft/hard): +1/+2

For each DIS: +1 to enemy

For each action added (excluding the one needed to fire): +1

Target’s skirmishers in arc of fire within 1M: -1

Target at short range: +1

Target at long range: -1

Bonus/penalties from Special Rules, where applicable

Outcome

First die: if the battery wins, target suffer 1 DIS. If target

wins, it’s a miss. If there is a draw, die.

add one unused

Second die: if the battery wins, target retreats 1 VS front to enemy, straight backwards. If target wins, there are no consequences. If there is a draw, add one unused die. A square, if beaten, suffers 1 DIS.

LoS is blocked if it crosses:

a wood

a

a hill crest

building or a village

friendly units (more than 1L from the artillery).

Generals and friendly units within 1L do not block LoS.

Friendly Units within 1L do not block LoS. Friendly Units that are more than 1L, and even partially within the arc of fire, block the LoS.

Targets, LoS and cover

Area terrain features (such as buildings) must cover half or more of a unit to prevent firing. Linear obstacles like low walls do not block LoS but they provide cover for the target. Woods are a special case: units entirely within a wood cannot see outside nor be seen from the outside. Units on the edge of the wood (touching the internal edge of it) are a valid target, but are considered in cover.

Stone or brick walls and buildings offer hard cover, any other feature offers only soft cover.

Reloading Guns

A firing battery is marked by a puff of smoke.It must be reloaded before it can fire again. Firing costs

1 action and reloading costs 1 action. It is allowed

to reload and fire (or fire and reload) in the same

activation, but you cannot fire twice, even if you have

3 actions available. Limbering and unlimbering cost

1 action each. A foot battery may not move and fire in the same activation. A horse battery may move, unlimber and fire in the same activation.

Third die (bounce-through): if the battery wins, and it won the first die also, the first unit behind the target and within maximum range takes 1 DIS. If target wins, there are no consequences. If there is a draw, add one unused die.

If Target is Artillery Important: a battery is considered a passive target and does not discharge its guns. It rolls a number of dice according to calibre (light 3, medium 4, heavy 5).

Modifiers

Target in cover (soft/hard): +1/+2

For each DIS: +1 to enemy

For each action added (excluding the one needed to fire): +1

Target at short range: +1

Target at long range: -1

Bonus/penalties from Special Rules, where applicable

Outcome First die: if firing battery wins, target suffer 1 DIS. If target wins, it’s a miss. If there is a draw, add one unused die.

Second die: if firing battery wins, target limbers immediately (if already limbered takes 1 DIS). If target wins, there are no consequences. If there is a draw, add one unused die.

Third die: if firing battery wins, and the target is still unlimbered, it takes 1 DIS. If target is limbered, it moves backwards a full move. If target wins, there are no consequences. If there is a draw, add one unused die.

If Target is a built-up area The built-up area always rolls 3 dice.

Modifiers

Do not apply modifiers for opponent’s DIS.

For each action added (excluding the one needed to fire): +1

Target at short range: +1

Target at long range: -1

First, second and third die: if battery wins, built-up area gets 1 DIS. If target wins or there is draw, there are no consequences (do not add unused dice).

Units within the bombarded Built-Up Area Such units suffer no adverse consequences until the level of disorder of the area is 4 or more. The instant DIS reaches 5, the unit suffers 1 DIS. The instant DIS reaches 6, the unit suffers 1 DIS and must immediately withdraw 1M towards the friendly baseline. When the level of DIS is at 7 or more, the built-up area is destroyed and it is considered impassable terrain.

15

Approach and Contact

Combat is represented by two consecutive steps:

Approach and Contact. Each unit must conclude its combat before proceeding to the next unit activation in the same active brigade. Every time a unit moves within 1S from an enemy, its movement stops and players proceed to resolving the Approach. Artillery may never move to Approach distance. Infantry may Approach cavalry, but cannot close to Contact. Cavalry may Approach any target.

Approach represents the attacking unit moving towards the enemy, trying to reach short range to place a volley. Contact represents cavalry melees, a series of of close range volleys or – quite rarely – a bayonet charge, forcing one of the contenders to retreat or rout.

Approach

An Approach begins when a unit moves at 1S distance from an enemy. Take a mental note of that unit’s remaining actions (a small die placed near to the unit can help).

Approach Movement

To be legal, the last movement to Approach an enemy must be straight ahead. You may not move into Approach by changing formation, moving laterally, or obliquely. Units with Dis 3 may not Approach.

Special Case during Cavalry Approach

If a cavalry unit – with its first action (movement) and moving straight ahead - reaches Approach distance from an enemy infantry unit, all skirmishers of the target unit are removed from the game. If this is not the case, then all the skirmishers withdraw behind the parent unit.

Cavalry may Approach a square only if the latter is at DIS3.

15
15

16 16

Infantry may Approach cavalry, but they cannot close to Contact. In any case, voluntarily moving within 1S of a cavalry unit is not a wise choice, unless the cavalry has a high level of disorder or is attacked from the flank, as cavalry could gain actions during the Approach and counter charge the attacking infantry. Infantry could Approach cavalry, inflict a disorder (First die) and then use the action gained to retreat or to form a square.

Remember that the Approach itself does not require

the expenditure of actions in addition to the one used

to move towards the enemy. You may spend further

actions to add dice to your Approach dice roll.

Units in Woods

If one or both units are in a woods area, the defender

has a bonus of +1 CD unless the attacker is light infantry.

Frontal Arc

A unit’s frontal arc extends straight ahead from the

unit’s frontage.

Frontal arc of a battalion in line formation Frontal arc of a battalion in attack
Frontal arc
of a battalion
in line
formation
Frontal arc of a
battalion in attack
column formation

Passive Targets

In situations where only the Approaching unit has the target in its own frontal arc (for example, when you attack an enemy in the flank or rear), or if Approaching an unloaded battery, the target unit rolls dice normally, but no damage (DIS) will be inflicted on the attacking unit.

B A

B

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

A

A
A
A
A

In

the diagram above, A approaches B.

B

doesn’t have the enemy in its front arc, and

is

said to be Passive.

B

rolls dice for the Approach, but this is purely

defensive: B may NOT cause any DIS to A.

Approach Procedure

Approach procedure is as follows:

calculate the number of CDs of the attacking and defending units (active and passive)

modify this number according to any applicable modifiers

remember that the attacker may use remaining actions to “buy” dice or to keep them to close to Contact

roll all dice, then read the three best dice from highest to lowest, comparing them with those of the opponent. Keep unused dice at hand. If one side rolled less than three dice, all missing dice are considered to have scored a “one”

for each opposed pair of dice (first, second and third pairings) there will be a winner (if one die is higher than the other) or a draw (if the score is the same)

verify the outcome of the Approach in the following

tables; do not apply any DIS to the attacker of a passive target.

Approach Modifiers

All modifiers add dice (+).

For each extra action spent: +1

For each DIS: +1 to enemy

Approaching from Flank/rear: +2

Square (with DIS3) Approached by cavalry: +3

Better C value: +1

Better SK value: +1 (not if Cavalry Approaches infantry)

Better position: +1/+2 (elevation, obstacle, difficult terrain, woods)

Bonus/penalties from Special Rules

Approach Outcomes

We call “first die” the pair of d6s with the highest results, and all the others in descending order (second and third).

First die: The winner inflicts 1 DIS to the loser. If a draw occurs, both units get 1 DIS. Ignore DIS caused by passive units.

Second and third die: The winner gains 1 action. If a draw occurs, use the first (highest) unused die.

Example: A rolls 4 dice and B rolls 3. Both are infantry units

and both are in the enemy arc of fire. First die ends in a draw (1 DIS each).

A wins the second die (gaining an action), B wins the third

(gaining an action). If A would have won both the second and third dice, it would have gained 2 actions, to be spent immediately for closing the Contact, retreating or changing formation.

Example: A rolls 6 dice and B – Approached in the flank –

rolls just 3. First die is a draw (that would mean 1 DIS each, but B is passive having been Approached from the flank, so

it takes 1 DIS but does not inflict any DIS to A). A wins the

second die (gains 1 action) and also the third die (another action). Therefore, A has gained 2 actions and B suffered 1 DIS. It’s time to charge!

Example: A rolls 5 dice and B rolls 4. It is a frontal Approach.

A gets 6, 5, 3, 1 and 1. B gets 5, 5, 2 and 1. A wins the first

die (1 DIS to B). The second die is a draw (5 to 5), therefore

A adds his first unused die (1) for a total of 6. B also adds his

first unused die (a 1), re establishing the draw (no effect). A

wins the third die (3 to 2) and gains 1 action.

17

Actions generated by the Approach The Approach generates two actions (second and third dice) that may be won by the same player (2-0) or one each (1-1).

Attacker 2-0 Possible uses are:

move into Contact and use the second action to buy 1 dice in the ensuing combat

change formation then move into Contact

change formation then retreat the unit’s movement allowance

retreat then change formation or retreat twice

Defender 2-0 Possible uses are:

move into Contact and use the second action to buy 1 dice in the ensuing combat*

change formation then move into Contact*

change formation then retreat the unit’s movement allowance

retreat then change formation or retreat twice

rotate on the spot (if attacked from the flank/ rear) without moving into Contact

Draw 1-1 In this case the defender has priority in using his action and he may:

cancel 1 action of the attacker

retreat the unit’s movement allowance

change formation

rotate on the spot (if attacked from the flank/ rear) * moving into Contact is not allowed if the attack was from flank/rear

on the spot (if attacked from the flank/ rear) * moving into Contact is not allowed
17
17

In the case of cavalry Approach, the use of actions won by the defender is limited:

Infantry may form a square (1 action) or rotate on the spot

Cavalry may counter-charge (1 action) or evade 1L per action moving straight back

Artillery has just one option: use the gained actions to cancel actions of the enemy.

If infantry forms a square, cavalry must move back

1L.

If the target was cavalry that evaded, the attacker may remain where it is or move back 1L per action.

In

described below.

all

other

cases,

proceed

to

the

Contact

step

When all actions gained have been spent by both players, if no Contact is made, the attacker must withdraw 1M (if infantry) or 1L (if cavalry) unless the defender chose to retreat. If the defender retreated, the attacker remains stationary.

Elimination during Approach

Units with DIS 3 that suffer 1 DIS during the Approach (first die) are eliminated, and the winner may use gained actions only for carrying the position and/or change formation or facing (rotating the unit). Cavalry may withdraw 1L (a sort of recall). There is no Contact step.

18 18

1L (a sort of recall). There is no Contact step. 18 1 8 Contact Contact can

Contact

Contact can be a consequence of the Approach, if the attacking unit is able to move into Contact with the action(s) gained, or if the defending unit, having gained one or more actions, decides to set up a counter attack.

Movement into Contact is straight ahead, and any kind of Contact is valid. There is no shifting to conform on either side.

Contact Modifiers

All modifiers add dice (+).

For each extra action spent: +1

Attached Leader: +1/+3

Better C: +1

Attack on flank/rear, or cavalry Vs. Infantry not in square: +2

Defender in Better position: +1/+2 (elevation, obstacle, difficult terrain, wood)

Bonus/penalties from Special Rules

DIS: +1 per DIS of enemy

The first die determines the winner of combat In case of a draw, the unit with less DIS wins. If DIS are tied, determine the winner with the first unused die. If there is still a tie, the unit with the better C wins. If the tie still persist, read the first die: with an even result the attacker wins, with an odd result the defender wins. From this point on, the results detailed below refer to the winner or the loser as determined by the first die.

The following units are ELIMINATED if defeated (i.e.,, have lost the first die):

Artillery

Infantry in square defeated by infantry

Infantry in march column

Infantry not in square defeated by cavalry.

The second die determines losses (DIS) from the Contact Whoever wins: opponent suffers 1 DIS (2 DIS if doubled by the winner) Draw: both suffer 1 DIS

At this point the defeated unit retreats 1M (infantry) or 1L (cavalry) straight back front to enemy, and then changes formation (into attack column if infantry, into line if cavalry).

The third die determines losses (DIS) from pursuit Winner wins: the defeated unit suffers 1 more DIS.* If there is a draw or the loser wins, there are no further consequences.

* Artillery and squares do not pursue and therefore they do not inflict further losses (DIS).

After applying the second die DIS, perform the retreat movement, and only THEN assess losses caused by pursuit. If the defeated unit has been eliminated thanks to the losses from the second die, the winner may carry the position, and there is no pursuit.

Pursuit represents the disruption of the unit during the retreat. The DIS from pursuit is applied only after the retreat movement because units to the rear of the defeated one could be interpenetrated and therefore suffer 1 DIS.

The winning unit may only carry the position, unless it is cavalry. Cavalry may perform a breakthrough as explained below.

Retreats

Retreat movements (1M for infantry and 1L for cavalry) ignore terrain and formation, and must be performed straight back, using all of the unit’s movement allowance. Friendly units along the path are interpenetrated and suffer 1 DIS (unless they are artillery or units already at DIS3). If the retreat movement is not enough to clear the friendly unit, go on retreating until you can position your unit without overlaps. This will surely cause a violation of the proximity rule. At the end of the retreat movement, the unit is deployed front to enemy, in attack column if infantry and in line if cavalry.

Cavalry ending a Contact without suffering DIS gets 1 DIS anyway (even if victorious). Bear in mind that cavalry can only recover DIS from DIS3 to DIS2.

in mind that cavalry can only recover DIS from DIS3 to DIS2. 19 Cavalry Breakthrough and

19

Cavalry Breakthrough and Recall

If your cavalry eliminates an enemy after a Contact, you have the option of performing a breakthrough or a recall.

Breakthrough is possible only if there is a target straight ahead from the cavalry unit’s front and within 1L. If Contact is made (reaching Approach distance is not enough) proceed directly to Contact (skip the Approach step), automatically eliminating all of the target’s skirmishers, if any. DIS3 units may not perform a breakthrough.

Recall is a free 1L move straight back, keeping one’s front to the enemy.

After resolving the breakthrough, cavalry must be recalled. Cavalry may not perform two breakthroughs in a row. Important: during a breakthrough, if the only unit eligible as a target is a square, the cavalry must perform a recall.

Built-up Areas

Built-up areas are represented by one or more square sectors 1M per side, each with 3-4 buildings. Generally they are crossed by one or more roads. The scenario determines how many sectors constitute a built-up area. If there is more than one, all must be positioned with one or more sides in common. Single buildings are simply treated as impassable terrain.

Single buildings are simply treated as impassable terrain. Only one infantry unit may occupy a built-up

Only one infantry unit may occupy a built-up area sector. Movement and combat in built-up areas are regulated as follows.

19
19

20 20

Movement

To enter an unoccupied built-up area sector, the unit

needs 1 action in addition to that used to bring its front in contact with the sector. The unit must be in any column formation. Once inside, position the four

bases so that the front of one base is facing outwards from each of the four sides.

To exit a built-up area sector, you need 1 action, that

allows you to place the unit outside, in attack column and with the rear side in rear contact with the side of the Built-up area it just exited. If the unit has more actions available, it may be moved normally.

Infantry in march column, cavalry in column, and limbered artillery may only cross an unoccupied built-up area sector by using a road. No other unit may enter a built-up area sector until it is completely cleared by the preceding unit. The proximity rule is also in effect for built-up area sections. Units outside the BUA must adhere to the proximity rule and remain more than 1VS from the BUA. Moving from one sector of a built-up area to another sector requires 1 action.

Combat in built-up areas

A unit may enter an enemy-occupied built-up area

sector only by attacking it.

A single infantry unit may attack only one single

sector and only in attack column. Approach and Contact procedures are standard and the Approach distance is 1S (from the attacking unit front to the side attacked). The defender always benefits from its position (+2 for hard cover), always rolls 3CD, but may use actions gained during the Approach only to cancel

the attacker’s actions. If the attacker succeed in closing the Contact, proceed as per standard rules.

If the defender is defeated, the unit must retreat 1M

from the side opposite to the one being attacked, in

attack column and with its back to the side it exits from.The defeated unit is eliminated if it contacts any enemy. An attacker winning the combat (by eliminating the defender or forcing it into a retreat) immediately enters the sector. In built-up areas made of multiple sectors, you can attack a sector from any adjacent one. Combat is performed skipping the Approach phase and moving directly to Contact, with the defender getting a +2 bonus. Combat outcomes are as described above.

A

defeated unit may retreat to an adjacent sector if: a)

it

is opposite from the side the attack came from or b)

the adjacent sector is unoccupied.

If the sector is occupied by friendly units, the retreat

continues in the same direction.If the sector is occupied by an enemy, the retreating unit is eliminated.

Bombarding built-up areas

Each sector of a built-up area has 7 DIS levels (from 0

to 6). Keep track of the DIS level with a d6. Depending

on the current DIS level, a sector is considered:

1-4

damaged but safe;

5-6

badly

damaged (unit inside suffer DIS and must

retreat);

7+

destroyed (becomes impassable terrain due to fire and rubble).

It is not allowed to bombard the unit which is inside

the sector. Artillery engages the BUA and not the unit

inside, as per the Artillery rules.

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Pictured here:

Napoleon receives captured enemy flags at Austerlitz.

unit inside, as per the Artillery rules. wwwwwy Pictured here: Napoleon receives captured enemy flags at

Winning the Battle

Drums & Shakos Large Battles uses two basic criteria to determine victory: losses and penetration into enemy territory. The objective is to bring the enemy to his break point, through the accumulation of points.

Before the Battle

1) Count the number of infantry, cavalry and artillery present and divide by 2, rounding down: that is the Divisional Break Point. Example: your Division is made of 21 units. When you reach 10 points, you lose the Battle (21 divided by 2 = 10.5 rounded down to 10). 2) Take note of the number of units in each brigade:

when the sum of all the units’ DIS exceeds that number, the brigade is Shaken. Example: a Russian brigade has 6 units. When the sum of all the DIS levels reaches 7, the brigade is Shaken. 3) Mark the table, dividing it in two along the short side, then divide each half in three equal parts. On

a 6x4’ (120x180cm) table, you will have a central

line at 2’(60cm), and each half divided in 8’’(20cm) increments. We call these zones (starting from the central line towards your side) zone 1, zone 2 and zone 3. The border of zone 3 coincides with your friendly baseline.

Player A baseline

Player A’s Zone 3

Player A’s Zone 2

Player A’s Zone 1

Player B’s Zone 1

Player B’s Zone 2

Player B’s Zone 3

Player B baseline

B’s Zone 2 Player B’s Zone 3 Player B baseline Finally, to deploy your troops, identify

Finally, to deploy your troops, identify two lateral

bands of the same width as the zones. Troops may not be deployed into these areas at the beginning of play.

In the example of a 120x180cm(6x4’) table, the bands

would be 20cm (8’’) each.

Losses inflicted

For each unit eliminated, the Divisional Break Point increases as follows:

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Guard and Elite Cavalry units: +3

Elite Infantry, Artillery, Leaders, Heavy Cavalry: +2

Any other unit: +1

Shaken Brigade: +1 This total never decreases.

Note that Shaken brigades may return to normal status through rally, but the point is lost anyway. A rallied brigade which becomes Shaken again has no effect on points.

Penetration into enemy territory

You must keep track of the maximum enemy penetration into your half of the battlefield. This means you have to keep track of the position of the single enemy unit nearest to your baseline. Only the most advanced unit counts, providing that:

it has another friendly unit in sight within 1L;

it is in command;

it has less than DIS 3.

If the most advanced unit does not qualify, look for the next one, and so on.

The type and position of this unit determines the point you add to your Divisional Break Point:

Cavalry in zone 2: +1

Cavalry in zone 3: +2

Infantry in zone 1: +1

Infantry in zone 2: +2

Infantry in zone 3: +3

This value – which must be added to the one caused by losses - is temporary, because it is always possible to push back or eliminate the enemy unit that has entered your territory.

Victory and Defeat

If the accumulated break points reach or exceed your Divisional Break Point at the end of your initiative phase, you lose the battle. In other words, if the opponent brings you to break point during his initiative, you still have the possibility – during yours – to reverse the situation. In the (rare) case when both players reach break point in the same phase, victory goes to the player who advanced more into enemy territory (zone 1, 2 or 3). If both players have made equal advances into enemy territory , then the player losing the next unit is defeated (this counts as a minor victory for the opponent).

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Table set-up for pick-up games

Terrain type and sizes

There are two main categories of terrain: area (rough ground, woods, steep hills, built-up areas) and linear (low walls, fences, hedges, streams and rivers) elements. All area elements – with the exception of the already mentioned built-up areas – must be roughly square or rectangular, with 1M or 1L sizes. An area element will always be MxM, MxL or LxL. You may give your terrain element a more realistic shape by rounding off the angles. Only one built-up area sector is allowed in pick-up games. Linear elements are all 1M long, with the exception

of rivers and streams.

Major rivers are not allowed in pick-up games. Shallow rivers or streams must enter and exit the table from two adjacent sides, and may be crossed

only at fords and bridges. Their maximum length is 5L, and only one stream is allowed on the table. Streams may be crossed by bridges (each bridge width should accommodate 1 base)

A unit must be in march column to cross a bridge.

Determine Attacker and Defender

Players roll 1d6 each, adding 1 for each unit with the Scout Special Rule in their Division. The winner chooses his role (whether he will be the attacker or the defender). Re-roll ties.

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will be the attacker or the defender). Re-roll ties. 22 22 Placing Terrain Terrain is placed

Placing Terrain

Terrain is placed by both players – defender first. Each player places terrain elements in his own half of the table. Each element must be positioned within a specific zone (1, 2 or 3). It cannot be placed halfway between two different zones. There must be a space of at least 1M between two area elements.

After having divided the table as prescribed in the previous chapter (Before the battle):

1. The defender places 2 area elements and 2 linear elements in one of his zones.

2. The Attacker does the same.

3. The defender places 2 area elements and 2 linear elements in a different zone.

4. The Attacker does the same.

Repeat steps 3 and 4 until there are terrain elements in all six zones.

Deployment in pick-up games

We strongly recommend the use of hidden deployment. Place a dividing board on the middle line of the battlefield, so that the deployment of your opponent’s troops is not visible, then start deploying units using the deployment rules. Alternatively, players can take turns deploying a brigade each, starting with the defender.

Rules of Deployment

No unit may be deployed in the lateral bands. All units must be in command of their respective Leaders, and may be deployed in zones 2 and 3, with the following exceptions:

The Reserve and the Heavy Cavalry must be deployed in zone 3.

Light Cavalry and units with the Scout Special Rule may be deployed in zone 1 (providing that they are in command).

Units may be in any formation; Artillery may be limbered or unlimbered.

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Optional Rules

Forming a Grand Battery

Reserve artillery batteries can be assigned to a brigade by the CinC. If your brigade already has a battery, you may operate them independently, or form a Grand Battery. Only batteries of the same type (foot or horse) and calibre (light, medium, heavy) may form a Grand Battery. Move a battery in contact with the other. From now on, the 2 units are “stuck” together, and the newly formed unit has the greater number of DIS and the worst Q score of the two. The Grand Battery is considered loaded, but it may not fire in the phase it is created. Once formed, a Grand Battery may not be broken and – if eliminated – it’s worth 4 points for purposes of Divisional Breakpoint calculations. A Grand Battery fires and fights (Approach and Contact) adding the CD of the batteries that compose it.

“Worn” Units

An infantry unit that – at the end of a combat – did not suffer any DIS during Approach, nor during Contact, is said to be worn. This status is represented by turning one base 180° (backwards).

Worn units that suffer another worn result take 1 DIS. In other words, the worn status is a sort of “half disorder.” The worn status is not applied to cavalry (which always suffer 1 DIS after any combat even if unscathed). The Worn status may not be recovered by rallying.

This rule can be used by players desiring more granularity in the way attrition is measured in the game.

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in the way attrition is measured in the game. wwwwwy The battle of Somosierra (1808) in

The battle of Somosierra (1808) in a painting by Horace Vernet

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Special Rules

in a single activation with a double (or triple) “six” or “five”, gets an additional action. This action cannot be used for:

Moving more than 3 times;

Fire twice (artillery);

Recover more than 1DIS.

Impetuous

Cavalry with this Special Rule must always perform a breakthrough if a valid target exists (1L straight ahead). The unit is forced to do it even if it is at DIS3 (self destroying), but it will not contact a square (unless the square is at DIS3 itself).

Lance

A unit with this

Special Rule has

+1 CD if it is fresh

(with DIS 0). Note: fresh cavalry units suffer their automatic DIS at

the end of a combat

(if unscathed).

Light

A unit with this

SpecialRuleignores

Special Rules define the character of a unit, its drill, tactical doctrine, and equipment.

Conscript

A unit with this Special Rule needs 2 actions to

change formation.

Cuirass

If the unit with this Special

Rule draws the first die in

Contact, it wins even if its DIS

is higher than the enemy.

Determined

it wins even if its DIS is higher than the enemy. Determined with this Special Rule

with this Special

Rule has one re-roll during Approach (only).

Drilled

A unit with this Special Rule

may recover 1 DIS even if within 1L from any enemy.

Elan

Aunit with this Special Rule – if activated individually - has one automatic success if fresh (DIS 0).

Elite

A unit with this Special Rule getting a double (or

triple) “six” for activation, gets an additional action. This action may not be used for:

A

unit

terrain effects for movement purposes. It does not suffer penalties in combat for difficult terrain. Cavalry with this Special Rule operates normally in woods.

Militia

A unit with this Special Rule needs two actions to change formation and cannot rally (recover DIS) if at

DIS3.

Moving more than 3 times;

Fire twice (artillery);

Recover more than 1DIS.

Opportunistic

Expendable

The loss of this units is only worth ½ point for the Divisional Breakpoint if infantry, 1 point if cavalry.

Green

A unit with this Special Rule suffer 1DIS every time a

friendly units is eliminated within 1L and in sight.

Guard

A unit with this Special Rule getting 2 or 3 successes

Cavalry units with this Special Rule have 1 automatic success in reactions. This means that they roll one less die than the opponent’s failures. With 1 failure are automatically activated, with 2 failures roll 1 die and with 3 failures roll 2.

Scout

A unit with this Special Rule may be deployed in your own zone 3. Each Scout unit gives you a +1 modifier for the determination of the Attacker/Defender in pick-up games.

Strong

A unit with this Special Rule has 1 re-roll during Contact (only).

Undrilled

A unit with this Special Rule may recover 1 DIS only if

they are over 2M from any enemy.

Unpredictable

A unit with this Special Rule has no set Quality value

(this is indicated on the profile as Q = ?). Every time it has to roll for individual activation, together with the regular 6 sided dice, the player rolls also an Average die. The result of the Average die is their Q for that roll, and includes the Leader bonus if the unit is in command. The Average die is a six sided die that has no “1” nor “6”. It has two 3, two 4, a single 5, and a single 2.

Wavering

A unit with this Special Rule gives 1 re-roll to opponent

during Approach (only).

Weak

A unit with this Special Rule gives 1 re-roll to opponent

during Contact (only).

Rule gives 1 re-roll to opponent during Contact (only). 25 Special Rules for Leaders Active The

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Special Rules for Leaders

Active

The Leader has 1 re-roll for group orders.

Charismatic

The Leader may confer a +1 CD bonus during Contact to all units of his brigade that are in command. You have to roll 1d6 each time you use this bonus: with a result of “1” the Leader is eliminated.

Cautious

The Leader may give group orders to a maximum of 3 units.

Inefficient

The Leader has Command Span of 1L.

Methodic

The Leader may give only 1 group order per initiative phase.

Organiser

The Leader has Command Span of 2L.

Second Line

The Leader may never be attached to a unit.

Special Rules for the CinC

Inefficient

The CinC has a command span of 1M.

Organiser

The CinC has a command span of 2M.

Timid

The Divisional Breakpoint is reduced by 1 point.

Stubborn

When calculating the Divisional Breakpoint, round up instead of rounding down.

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Scenarios, Historical Battles and Pick-up Games

In about 25 years of Napoleonic wargaming, I have

seen and tried many ways of playing, but all of them can be summarised in the following categories:

Ready-made scenarios;

Re-fights of historical battles;

Pick-up games, i.e., a quick, friendly game, balanced by a point system or the like.

Scenarios are ready-made battles that are usually included in rulebooks. The author chooses some historical or fictional battles, does the necessary research (map, deployment, orders of battle) and gives players all the information needed for the game. Players just prepare their armies according to OOB, set up the terrain, and meet to fight the battle.

Re-fighting a historical battle is basically the same, but all the pre-game research is done by the player (or club) hosting the event. Both the above mentioned play styles can be based on historical data, or loosely inspired by a period or campaign.

For pick-up games the rules usually include a point system where each unit has a cost and players agree on a points total to be used. Each player prepares his army and brings it to battle. The rules include a semi-random system of terrain generation. Players arrange the table and play. This style of gaming is no doubt the most suitable to tournament or campaigns.

There’s always a lively debate among gamers all around the world on which is the best system to play battles. In my opinion, the way we play is

largely determined by two external factors: time and organisation.

If during a week (or a month) you have only 3-4 hours

to spend on the hobby, you will generally choose

pick-up games. Once a point total is agreed with

your fellow gamers and a venue and time agreed upon, all you need is to go there and play a battle or

a tournament.

With organisation, I mean all other aspects required to play: venue (your home or club), the number of

26 players you can count on, historical research.

Quite often, a single gamer does all the preparation work, sometimes designing special scenario rules to simulate historical events that are not covered by the rules. Not everybody can count on such a level of organisation but where it exists, most probably you’ll see many historical games, and pick-up games will be rare.

Drums & Shakos Large Battles aims to give you all the tools needed to play, no matter how much time or organisation you can count on.

Ready Made Scenarios

In the following chapter, you’ll find 4 ready-to-play scenarios. Three are fictional (even if located in a historical context) and one is historical. They are an ideal way to start playing immediately and try the basic mechanics of the game. More scenarios will be available in a scenario booklet.

Historical Battles

You’ll find all the necessary tools to create an Order of Battle and to stress strengths and weaknesses of the troops involved. With the same tools, you’ll be able to design your own, non-historical scenarios: a natural step after you have played the scenarios in this book.

Pick-up Games

If you prefer pick-up games, Drums & Shakos Large Battles gives you very easy guidelines to form your brigades. Take the basic organisation of the different Armies of the period and decide upon some minor variables for your Division. Although there is no point system, the brigade composition has been slightly altered to provide a level of play balance – which in reality was very rare, to be honest.

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Scenarios

Scenario 1 : Peninsular Clash (Conjectural)

A simple introductory scenario, set in Spain around 1810. This scenario uses some of the most common Special Rules and the troops involved are as standard as possible. So it’s perfectly suitable for first battle.

Map and Deployment

One level hill

French player baseline Woods Difficult ground Two-level hills English player baseline Road
French player baseline
Woods
Difficult
ground
Two-level
hills
English player baseline
Road

Farm

Hidden deployment is recommended. FRANCE: Reserve anywhere in zone 3. All other units anywhere in zone 2. BRITAIN: Reserve anywhere in zone 3. British units in zone 2 within 1L from the farm. Portuguese units in zone 2 anywhere over 3L from the farm.

Special Scenario rules

The French player goes first.

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Order of Battle - France CinC Divisional Commander Q3 1st Brigade Leader 1 Q3 Active
Order of Battle - France
CinC
Divisional Commander
Q3
1st Brigade
Leader 1
Q3
Active
Line Infantry
4 Battalions
Q4 C4 Sk1
-
Light Infantry
2 Battalions
Q4 C4 Sk2
Light, Elan
Foot Artillery Medium
Q4
Shaken at 8 DIS
2nd Brigade
Leader 2
Q3
Active
Line Infantry
4 Battalions
Q4 C4 Sk1
-
Light Infantry
2 Battalions
Q4 C4 Sk2
Light, Elan
Foot Artillery Medium
Q4
Shaken at 8 DIS
Reserve (CinC)
Dragoons
1 Regiment
Q3 C5
Elan
Hussars
1 Regiment
Q3 C4
Determined
Light Horse Artillery
Q3
Divisional Breakpoint 8

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Order of Battle - Britain CinC Divisional Commander Q3 1st Brigade (English) Leader 1 Q3
Order of Battle - Britain
CinC
Divisional Commander
Q3
1st Brigade (English)
Leader 1
Q3
Organiser
Line Infantry
4 Battalions
Q4 C4 Sk1
Rifle Company
1 Company
Add 3 Sk to infantry battalions
Medium Foot Artillery
Q4
Shaken at 6 DIS
2nd Brigade (Portuguese) Leader2
Q3
Line Infantry
2 Battalions
Q4 C4 Sk1
Cacadores
2 Battalions
Q4 C4 Sk1
Light
Medium Foot Artillery
Q4
Shaken at 6 DIS
Reserve (CinC)
British Guards
2 Battalions
Q3 C5 Sk1
Guard
Light Dragoons
1 Regiment
Q3 C4
Light Horse artillery
Q3
Divisional Breakpoint 7

Scenario 2 : To Vienna! (Conjectural)

Another introductory scenario to get you acquainted with the rules for table set-up and deployment in pick-up games. For map and deployment, use the rules: How to create your table for pick-up games and Deployment for pick-up games. No special scenario rules.

Order of Battle- France CinC Divisional Commander Q3 1st Brigade Leader1 Q3 Active Veteran Line
Order of Battle- France
CinC
Divisional Commander
Q3
1st Brigade
Leader1
Q3
Active
Veteran Line Infantry
3 Battalions
Q3 C4 Sk1
Line Infantry
1 Battalion
Q4 C4 Sk1
Light Infantry
2 Battalions
Q4 C4 Sk2
Light, Elan
Chasseur a cheval
1 Regiment
Q4 C4
Opportunistic
Medium Foot Artillery
Q4
Shaken at 9 DIS
2nd Brigade
Leader2
Q3
Organiser
Line Infantry
3 Battalions
Q4 C4 Sk1
Determined
Elite Light Infantry
1 Battalion
Q4 C4 Sk3
Light, Elan, Elite
Light Infantry
1 Battalion
Q4 C4 Sk2
Light, Elan
Medium Foot Artillery
Q4
Shaken at 7 DIS
Reserve (CinC)
Dragoons
1 Regiment
Q3 C5
Elan
Cuirassiers
1 Regiment
Q3 C6
Cuirass
Medium Foot Artillery
Q4
Divisional Breakpoint 8
Order of Battle - Austria CinC Divisional Commander Q4 Timid Avant-garde Leader1 Q3 Jaeger 2
Order of Battle - Austria
CinC
Divisional Commander
Q4
Timid
Avant-garde
Leader1
Q3
Jaeger
2 Battalions
Q4 C4 Sk2
Light, Elan
Grenzer
2 Battalions
Q4 C4 Sk2
Light
Hussars
2 Regiments
Q3 C4
Elite
Medium Foot Artillery
Q4
Shaken at 8 DIS
1st Brigade
Leader2
Q3
Charismatic
Line Infantry
3 Battalions
Q4 C5 Sk1
Grenadiers
2 Battalions
Q4 C4 Sk1
Strong
Medium Foot Artillery
Q4
Shaken at 7 DIS
Reserve (CinC)
Cuirassiers
1 Regiment
Q3 C6
Cuirass
Uhlans
1 Regiment
Q4 C4
Lance, Elan
Chevau-Legere
1 Regiment
Q4 C4
Elan
Light Horse artillery
Q3
Divisional Breakpoint 8

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Scenario 3 : Spanish Pride (Conjectural)

While conjectural, this scenario is inspired by the historical forces which fought in the Peninsula.

Map and deployment

Hidden deployment is recommended. FRANCE: Reserve in zone 3 within 1L from the church. All other units anywhere in zone 2. SPAIN: Reserve in zone 3 within 1L from the road. All other units anywhere in zone 2.

Scenario rules

The French player goes first. Cuesta may not be activated in the first Spanish initiative phase.

French player’s baseline Church Woods Difficult Road Large, Two Spanish player’s baseline Ground Level hill
French player’s baseline
Church
Woods
Difficult
Road
Large, Two
Spanish player’s baseline
Ground
Level hill

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Order of Battle - Spain CinC Cuesta Q4 Inefficient 1st Brigade Lardizabal Q3 Cautious Line
Order of Battle - Spain
CinC
Cuesta
Q4
Inefficient
1st Brigade
Lardizabal
Q3
Cautious
Line Infantry
1 Battalion
Q4 C4 Sk1
Green
Walloon Guards
2 Battalions
Q4 C4 Sk1
Elite
Hibernia Regiment
1 Battalion
Q4 C4 Sk1
Elite, Determined
Medium Foot Artillery
Q4
Shaken at 5 DIS
2nd Brigade
Zayas
Q3
Charismatic
Line Infantry
3 Battalions
Q4 C4 Sk1
Green
Voluntarios
1 Battalion
Q? C4 Sk0
Green, Unpredictable
Medium Foot Artillery
Q4
Shaken at 5 DIS
Reserve (Cuesta)
Dragoons
2 Regiments
Q5 C5
Chasseur a cheval
1 Regiment
Q? C4
Unpredictable
Militia Cavalry
1 Regiment
Q? C3
Unpredictable, Lance, Light
Peasant Militia
3 Battalions
Q? C4 Sk0
Unpredictable, Weak, Militia
Divisional Breakpoint 8
Order of Battle - France CinC Barbou Q3 1st Brigade Chabert Q3 Organiser Veteran Line
Order of Battle - France
CinC
Barbou
Q3
1st Brigade
Chabert
Q3
Organiser
Veteran Line Infantry
3 Battalions
Q3 C4 Sk1
Light Infantry
1 Battalion
Q4 C4 Sk2
Light, Elan
Swiss Line Infantry
1 Battalion
Q? C4 Sk1
Unpredictable
Medium Foot Artillery
Q4
Shaken at 7 DIS
2nd Brigade
Schramm
Q3
Organiser
Line Infantry
3 Battalions
Q4 C4 Sk1
Determined
Light Infantry
2 Battalions
Q4 C4 Sk2
Light, Elan
Medium Foot Artillery
Q4
Shaken at 7 DIS
Reserve (Barbou)
Dragoons
2 Regiments
Q3 C5
Elan
Medium Foot Artillery
Q4
Divisional Breakpoint 7
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Scenario 4 : The Battle of Retschow (Historical) August 28th, 1813

A minor engagement that I chose to include for a couple of reasons: the presence of troops of many nationalities (Mecklemburg, Prussia, Sweden and Denmark) and the nature of the French Division, which is without a Reserve. Sources are quite varied on this engagement, and the OOB is somewhat uncertain: I made some decisions towards playability.

Map and deployment

French player’s baseline

2nd Brigade 1st Brigade Mecklemburg Swedish Brigade Reserve
2nd Brigade
1st Brigade
Mecklemburg
Swedish
Brigade
Reserve

Allied player’s baseline

Deployment as per map. General Gardanne’s brigade is all in march column, with limbered artillery.

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Scenario rules

The Allied player goes first.

artillery. 32 Scenario rules The Allied player goes first. Historical Notes According to some sources, this

Historical Notes According to some sources, this was a little more than a (failed) cavalry charge and a prolonged artillery duel. Therefore - in a way – you could call this a conjectural scenario, something like “what would have happened if the entire French Division accepted battle”, but this did not happen. I have purposely ignored the two cavalry squadrons (one French and one Polish) that hurriedly retreated at the beginning of the clash.

The source for the OOB is Digby Smith – The Napoleonic Wars Data Book, London 1998.

Order of Battle - France CinC Loison Q3 Inefficient 1st Brigade L’Allemand Q3 Charismatic 15th
Order of Battle - France
CinC
Loison
Q3
Inefficient
1st Brigade
L’Allemand
Q3
Charismatic
15th Light Infantry
3 Battalions
Q4 C4 Sk2
Light, Elan
44th Line Infantry
4 Battalions
Q4 C4 Sk1
Medium Foot Artillery
Q4
Shaken at 9 DIS
2nd Brigade
Gardanne
Q3
48th French Line
3 Battalions
Q4 C4 Sk1
Danish Regiment
3 Battalions
Q4 C4 Sk1
Wavering
Danish Foot Artillery, Light
Q4
Shaken at 8 DIS
Divisional Breakpoint 7
Order of Battle - Allied Forces CinC von Vegesack Q4 Timid Mecklemburg Brigade Von Fallois
Order of Battle - Allied Forces
CinC
von Vegesack
Q4
Timid
Mecklemburg Brigade
Von Fallois
Q3
Cautious
Line Infantry
2 Battalions
Q5 C4 Sk1
Volunteer Jaeger
1 Battalion
Q4 C4 Sk2
Light
Guard Grenadiers
1 Battalion
Q4 C4 Sk1
Strong, Elite
MountedJaeger Volunteers
1 Regiment
Q4 C4
Scout
Medium Foot Artillery
Q4
Shaken at 7 DIS
Swedish Brigade
von Bergenstrohla
Q3
Active
Line Infantry
4 Battalions
Q? C4 Sk1
Unpredictable
Leib Regimente
1 Battalion
Q3 C4 Sk1
Elite
Medium Foot Artillery
Q4
Shaken at 7 DIS
Reserve (Von Vegesack)
Prussian Hussars
2 Regiments
Q4 C4
Elan, Scout
Swedish Carabiniers
1 Regiment
Q4 C6
Cuirass
Medium Foot Artillery
Q4
Divisional Breakpoint 7

Modelling Historical and Conjectural Battles

Two components are needed to model a historical battle: a map and an order of battle. Sources are numerous, and even players who are new to the period can find a lot on the Internet. Armed with the necessary information, try to reproduce the battlefield on your gaming table. Ignore minor terrain features, unless they were really important for the outcome of the battle. Main hills, rivers and streams, woods and villages are the only features you’ll want to represent on your table. Next determine the Order of Battle. In the standard game (one Division per side, plus a small Reserve) , you’ll need to know brigade composition (battalions) and number of men per battalion. Sometimes the latter is just an estimate, but this should not be seen as a problem.

Assigning Q and C scores

Follow this procedure for every battalion to give

units their Quality and Combat values. Use your knowledge of the battle, or the guidelines

in How to build a Division in pick-up games to assign

a Q value to units:

Now, determine the Combat value, starting from the following base values:

• Second Rate Infantry = 3

• Line and Light Infantry = 4

• Veteran Infantry = 5

• Light Cavalry = 4

• Dragoons = 5

• Heavy Cavalry = 6

Artillery and Leaders have no Combat value. Then, add to the base value a modifier for the number of soldiers in each infantry battalion:

for the number of soldiers in each infantry battalion: <450 = -2 450-650 = -1 651-750

<450 = -2 450-650 = -1 651-750 = 0 751-900= +1 >901= +2

Do the same with cavalry regiments:

<200 = -2 200-300 = -1 301-450 = 0 451-500 = +1 >500 = +2

= -2 200-300 = -1 301-450 = 0 451-500 = +1 >500 = +2 • Second

• Second Rate Infantry = 5

• Line and Light Infantry = 4

• Veteran Infantry = 3

• Light Cavalry = 4

• Dragoons and Heavy Cavalry = 3

• Artillery = 4

• Elite Artillery = 3

• Leaders = 3

Don’t worry about the apparent uniformity of the units (an engagement between all Line Infantry units would have all equal battalions), the Special Rules is a powerful tool to add variation. Special Rules may be positive (+) or

negative (-) and each positive has a negative counterpart (Determined and Wavering is a good example). Assigning each battalion

a Quality value and one or more Special

Rules will give you hundreds of possible

combinations.

Take note of everything on a paper (your Order of Battle) and you are ready to begin.

To identify each unit we suggest using a visible ID (for example, a number on the base).You may adopt a more “visual” way to identify units by their pose, painting style or uniform (in this case having units with greatcoats, or in fatigue caps, will be very helpful).

Finally, if you feel the need, you can colour code units by painting a colour dot on their bases according to their brigade (for example: red for the first brigade, yellow for the second, and so on).

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the first brigade, yellow for the second, and so on). wwwwwy A standard Line Infantry battalion

A standard Line Infantry battalion has Q4 and no Special Rule. By simply adding the Green Special Rule, we’ll have a fragile battalion, maybe in its first battle.

Division Forming Games in pick-up your

If you prefer to play this way, or you don’t have the time (or the sources) to create an Order of Battle in the way described in the previous chapter, here are some “standard” Divisions for the Major Nations involved in the Napoleonic wars from 1805 to 1815.

Leader and CinC Quality is determined before deployment by rolling 1d6. If your general has a + beside his Quality, he may have a Special Rule.

France

Division of 2 Brigades and 1 Reserve. You may choose your Brigades from the following (the number in brackets is how many of that brigade type you may have):

Period from 1805 to 1812 (and 1815)

Mixed Brigade (1-2)

2 Btn Light Infantry Q4 C4 Sk2 Light, Elan

3 Btn Veteran Line Infantry Q3 C5 Sk1 Determined

1 Btn Line Infantry Q4 C4 Sk1

1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4

1 Rgt Light Cavalry (Hussars, Chasseur a Cheval, or Lancers, see below)

Line Infantry Brigade (1-2)

5 Btn Veteran Line Infantry Q3 C5 Sk1 Determined

2 Btn Line Infantry Q4 C4 Sk1

1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4

Light Cavalry Brigade (max.1)

2 Rgt Light Cavalry (see below)

1 Light Horse Artillery

Q3

-

Period from 1813 to 1814

Line Brigade (1-2)

Btn Conscript Infantry Unpredictable

4

Q? C4 Sk0

2 Btn Line Infantry Q4 C4 Sk1

1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4

Elite Brigade (max. 1)

Btn Elite Infantry Determined

5

Q3 C5 Sk2 Elan, Elite

1

Medium Foot Artillery Q4

Light Cavalry Brigade (max.1)

2 Rgt Light Cavalry (see below)

1 Light Horse Artillery

Q3

All periods

Reserve (1)

1

Medium Foot Artillery Q4

 

Rgt Dragoons Q3 C5 Or

3

-

Rgt Cuirassiers/Carabiniers Q3 C6 Cuirass Or

2

Btn Elite Infantry Q3 C5 Sk2 Elan Elite Determined

2

Leader 1 Roll 1d6:

1=Q4 2,3 =Q3 4,5=Q3+ 6=Q2

 

Leader 2 Roll 1d6:

1=Q4

2,3 =Q3

4,6=Q3+

CinC

Roll 1d6:

1=Q4

2,3 =Q3

4, 5=Q3+

Hussars Q4 C4

Opportunistic

Chasseur a cheval Q4 C4

 

Lancers Q4 C4 Lance

Austria

The terms Division and Brigade are used for convenience only. Austrians used other forms of army structure (Avant- Garde, Flanks, Wings or Columns).

Division of 2 Brigades and 1 Reserve. You may choose your Brigades from the following (the number in brackets is how many of that brigade type you may have):

Period from 1805 to 1809

Period from 1805 to 1809
Line Infantry Brigade (1-2)

Line Infantry Brigade (1-2)

5

2

1

Btn Line Infantry Q4 C6 Sk0 Green

Btn Landwehr/Insurrectio Q5 C3 Sk0 Militia

Medium Foot Artillery Q4

1 Rgt Light Cavalry (Hussars, Chevau-Legere, Uhlans: see below)

1 Rgt Light Cavalry (Hussars, Chevau-Legere, Uhlans: see below)

Period from 1812 to 1814

Line Infantry Brigade (1-2)

7 Btn Line Infantry Q4 C4 Sk1

1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4

1 Rgt Light Cavalry (see below)

Medium Foot Artillery Q4 1 Rgt Light Cavalry (see below) All periods Avant-garde Brigade (max.1) 2

All periods

Avant-garde Brigade (max.1)

2 Btn Jaeger/Grenzer (see below)

1 Light Horse Artillery Q3

2 Rgt Light Cavalry (see below)

Grenadiers Brigade (max. 1)

4 Btn Grenadiers Q3 C5 Sk0 Strong

1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4

Light Cavalry Brigade (max. 1)

2 Rgt Hussars or Chevau-Legere (see below)

1 Light Horse Artillery Q3

Reserve (1)

1 Light Horse Artillery Q3

1 Rgt Uhlans Q4 C4 Lance

2 Rgt Dragoons Q3 C6

Alternatively:

2

Rgt Cuirassiers Q3 C7 Cuirass

Leader 1 Roll 1d6: 1, 2=Q4 3, 4 =Q3 5, 6=Q3+

Leader 2 Roll 1d6: 1, 2=Q4 3-6 =Q3

CinC Roll 1d6: 1/3=Q4 4/6 =Q3

Jaeger Q4 C4 Sk1 Light

Grenzer Q4 C4 Sk1 Light, Elan

Hussars Q4 C5

Chevau-Legere Q4 C4

Uhlans Q4 C4 Lance

Jaeger Q4 C4 Sk1 Light Grenzer Q4 C4 Sk1 Light, Elan Hussars Q4 C5 Chevau-Legere Q4

Prussia

The terms Division and Brigade are used for convenience only. Prussians used other forms of army structure (Avant-Garde, Flanks, Wings or Columns).

Division of 2 Brigades and 1 Reserve.You may choose your Brigades from the following (the number in brackets is how many of that brigade type you may have):

Period from 1805 to 1809

Line Infantry Brigade (1-2)

4 Btn Musketeers Q4 C5 Sk0

1 Btn Fusiliers Q4 C4 Sk1 Light

1 Btn Grenadiers Q3 C5 Sk0

1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4

1 Rgt Hussars Q4 C4

Period from 1813 to 1815

Line Infantry Brigade (1-2)

4BtnLandwehr/Reservists Q?C4Sk1Unpredictable Elan

2 Btn Line Infantry Q4 C4 Sk1

Drilled

1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4

1 Rgt Hussars Q4 C4

1 Jaeger company, add 2 Sk to above units

All periods

 

Dragoon Brigade (max.1)

2 Rgt Dragoons Q3 C5

1 Light Horse Artillery Q3

Light Cavalry Brigade (max.1)

2 Rgt Chevau-Legere Q4 C4

1 Light Horse Artillery Q3

Reserve (1)

 

1 Heavy Foot Artillery Q4

2 Btn Grenadiers Q3 C5 Sk0

1 Rgt Cuirassiers Q3 C8 Cuirass

Leader 1 Roll 1d6:

 

1, 2=Q4

3, 4 =Q3

5, 6=Q3+

Leader 2 Roll 1d6:

 

1, 2=Q4

3, 4 =Q4+

5, 6=Q3

CinC Roll 1d6:

 

1/3=Q4

4/6 =Q3

5, 6=Q3 CinC Roll 1d6:   1/3=Q4 4/6 =Q3  Russia Division of 3 Brigades and

Russia

Division of 3 Brigades and 1 Reserve. You may choose your Brigades from the following (the number in brackets is how many of that brigade type you may have):

Line Brigade (1-2)

2

Btn Jaeger Q4 C4 Sk1 Light

4

Btn Line Infantry Q4 C4 Sk0 Drilled

1

Medium Foot Artillery Q4

Grenadier Brigade (max. 1)

3 Btn Grenadiers Q4 C4 Sk0 Elite Drilled

1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4

1 Rgt Cossacks Q? C3 Unpredictable Lance Light

Light Cavalry Brigade (max. 1)

2

Rgt Light Cavalry (Hussars or Uhlans)

Hussars Q4 C5 Elan

Uhlans Q4 C4 Lance

2 Rgt Cossack Q? C3 Unpredictable Lance Light

1 Light Horse Artillery Q3

Reserve (1)

1 Heavy Foot Artillery Q4

2 Rgt Dragoons Q3 C5

1 Rgt Cuirassiers Q3 C6 Cuirass

Leader 1 Roll 1d6:

1, 2=Q4 3, 4 =Q3

5, 6=Q3+

Leader 2 and 3 Roll 1d6:

1, 2=Q4 3, 4 =Q4+ 5, 6=Q3

CinC Roll 1d6:

1=Q5 2, 3 =Q4+ 4, 6=Q3

Britain

Division of 3 Brigades and 1 Reserve. You may choose your Brigades from the following (the number in brackets is how many of that brigade type you may have):

Line Infantry Brigade (1-2)

2 Btn Line Infantry Q4 C4 Sk1

1 Btn Veteran Line Infantry Q3 C5 Sk1

1 Rifle Company add 2 Sk to the above units

1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4

Light Brigade (max. 1)

2 Btn Light Q4 C4 Sk2 Light Elan

1 Btn Rifles Q3 C4 Sk3 Light

1 Btn Cacadores (Portuguese) Q4 C4 Sk2 Light

1 Light Foot Artillery Q4

Guard Brigade (max. 1)

3 Btn Guards Q3 C5 Sk1 Elan Guard Drilled

1 Rifle Company add 2 Sk to the above units

1 Medium Foot Artillery Q4

Light Cavalry Brigade (max. 1)

1

Rgt Hussars Q3 C4 Opportunistic

3

Rgt Dragoons Light Q4 C4 Scout

1

Light Horse Artillery Q3

Spain

Division of 3 Brigades without Reserve. The CinC may only give his bonus and nominate replacement Leaders. You may choose your Brigades from the following (the number in brackets is how many of that brigade type you may have):

Line Infantry Brigade (1-2)

1

Btn Veteran Line Infantry Q4 C4 Sk1 Elan

4

Btn Linea Q4 C4 Sk0 Conscript

1

Medium Foot Artillery Q? Unpredictable

Veteran Brigade (max. 1)

 

2