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HUMANITIES  Interaction

INTRODUCTION TO ARTS 3. Psychological Functions

 Relaxation
 Inspiration
Humanities – “humanus” – to be truly human
 Gratification
To be truly human – to be culturally enhanced
PURPOSES OF THE ARTS
Culture – general way of life of human society
1. Arts have moral, educational, social,
- “cultus colere” – to cultivate cultural, and religious purposes
2. Art for art’s sake
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF 3. Moments of relaxation
HUMANITIES 4. Imagination is satisfied
5. Arts as outlet of our slumbering passion
 Medieval – man’s cultivation of his 6. Powerful means to reform man
spirituality
 Renaissance – set of disciplines being DIVISION OF ARTS
taught in universities
 Modern – equal to arts 1. With respect to purpose:
a. Practical – produce artifacts and utensils
ART DERIVATION b. Liberal – intellectual efforts
c. Fine- produces to human creativity in so
 Aryan: “AR” – join or put together far
 Greek: Artizein – to prepare ; Arkiskein – d.Major- actual and potential expressiveness
to put together e. Minor- connected with practical uses and
 Latin: “ars, artis” – artificially made or purposes
composed by man 2. With respect to media and form:
a. Plastic- perceived by sense of sight
TWO KINDS OF MAN’S ACTIONS b. Phonetic- based on sounds and words
c. Kinetic-rhythmic movement
 Actions to be done – man’s ultimate destiny
d. Pure-take only one medium
and moral obligation
e. Mixed-two or more media
 Actions to be made – man’s practical needs
CLASSIFICATION OF ARTS
Art – subjective expression of man’s thought and
feelings 1. Space arts – visual arts
2 dimension – only one angle
Art is for appreciation; Craft is for utilization 3 dimension – several angles
Combination: Functional Art 2. Time arts – auditory arts

FUNCTIONS OF ARTS GROUPING THE ARTS

1. Physical Functions 1. Spatial(Visual)-can be perceived by sense of


sight and projected into 3d graphic forms
 Historical 2. Literary(Literature)- “litterae”-letters
 Instructional 3. Performing-uses the human body, face and
 Representational presence as media
 Utility 4. Decorative-creation of ornamental and
functional works
2. Social Functions 5. Popular-popular culture

 Influential Media
HIERARCHY OF ARTS 1. Sublime-astonishment and awe
2. Nice-sympathy,love,benevolence..
1. Immanuel Kant- Music is the lowest 3. Comic-it makes us laugh
2. Schopenhauer- Music is the greatest
3. Hegel-Poetry has the best qualities Criticism-method of verifying or testing artistic
4. Gottfried Leibnitz- Fusion of music and works
poetry
OBJECTIVITY OF ARTS
WHAT AN ART IS ACCORDING TO…
1. Through critical study of properties of beauty
Plato - Art imitates nature. Art imitates life.
a. Order
Aristotle – Art imitates men and nature in action b. Proportion
c. Clarity
Oscar Wilde – It is life that imitates art d. Unity
e. Balance
Henri-Louis Bergson – art is not imitation; art is
f. Dominance
made from intuition
2. Through general consensus of experts
G.E Moore – Art is both imitation and intuition
3. TIME
Sigmund Freud – Art is a wish-fulfillment
4. Get rid of prejudices and personal sentiments
Jose Ortega Y Gasset - Art is a form of escape
Leo Tolstoy – Art is communication  Subject- object matter
 Medium – materials and equipment
Benedetto Croce – Art is merely an expression  Technique – manner which artist utilizes his
regardless if it is understood or not medium
Albert Camus – Art is rebellion ART SUBJECTS
John Dewey – Art is not limited in the gallery or 1. Representational-has definite subject
museum 2. Non-representational-no definite subject
Dante Leoncini – When man beautifies himself, he SOURCES OF ART SUBJECTS
becomes a human art
1. Mythology
Margarette Macdonalds – Art is esoteric 2. Heroes and Patriots
3. Religion
WHERE DOES BEAUTY LIE? 4. Nature
5. Rural and Urban ecology
Beauty is out there; it is objective.
It resides in the perceiver.
It depends on the appropriate situational
perspective
WHY CERTAIN THINGS ARE UGLY?
1. It loses significance to us
2. Dangerous
3. Certain conditions like poverty and disease
CATEGORIES OF BEAUTIFUL
PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN -most aesthetic appeal
Principles – the objects to be arranged Dimensions of a color:
(HMCBPRE)
 Hue-gives color its name
a. Harmony – essential to beauty. There is  Value-lightness or darkness of color
harmony if various parts will give “chiaroscuro"
appearance of belonging together. There  Intensity-brightness or darkness of a color
must be UNITY.
Warm-associated with fire and sun. seems to come
To relieve monotony, there must be variety towards you
– achieved by diversity of materials
Cool-associated with water and sky. Seems to go
b. Movement-suggestion of motion back
c. Contrast-placing or arranging very
different things next to each other COLOR HARMONIES
d. Balance – equilibrium.
- gives a feeling of stability and rest  Complementary-opposite
 Symmetrical-formal balance.  Monochromatic-one mode or one hue
Making both sides exactly alike  Analogous-two or more nearby colors
 Asymmetrical-informal/occult PSYCHOLOGY OF COLORS
balance.
Large-sa gitna  Black-despair,gloom,death
 Radial-positioned around a central  Blue-tranquility,calmness,peace
point  Red-fire,blood,danger,festivity
e. Proportion – comparison of size of diff  Gray-weight,solidity,neutrality
parts of an object  Violet-shadows,mourning,royalty
- parts relate to each other
 Green-growth,freshness,hope
f. Rhythm/pattern-timed movement
 White-simplicity,clarity,purity
through space
-organized beat, movement or repetition  Orange-deliciousness,sweetness
g. Emphasis-catches our attention while the  Yellow-life,joy,sunshine,cheerfulness
rest are subordinate  Pink-sympathy,gratitude

ELEMETS OF VISUAL ARTS (LCTSPSVV) 3. Texture-deals with our sense of touch

1. Line-distance bet. 2 points. Define edges of 4. Shape or form-over-all design of a work of art
shapes and forms 5. Perspective-effect of distance upon the
 Horizontal-calmness and peace appearance of objects
 Vertical-action, dignity KINDS OF PERSPECTIVEu lol 11
 Diagonal-suggest movement
 Zigzag-suggest chaos, conflict,  Linear-representation of distance by
violence converging lines
 Curved-flexibility  Aerial-by gradations of tone color
Classification of Lines
6. Space-distance of are
 Repetition-drawn within a corner following between,around,above,below or w/in shapes
lines of the corner
 Contrasting-opposition to each other 7. Volume/Mass-solidity or thickness
 Transitional-modify sharpness 3dimensional
2. Color-property of light 8. Value
-painting medium in the form of a stick

MEDIUMS OF VISUAL ARTS g. Hot Wax-using heated beeswax


Medium-stuff or material out of which the work of SCULPTURE- 3d artwork created by shaping or
art is formed. combining hard materials
Painting-art of creating meaningful effects on flat 2 processes:
surface by use of pigments
 Subtractive-unwanted material is
Pigment-changes the color of reflected light cut away
 Additive-putting together bits of
-used for coloring paint clay/welding together parts of
PAINTING MEDIA FTPAWOH metal

a. Fresco-colors are mixed with water and Types of sculpture


applied to fresh plaster
 Relief- attached to the ground
 Means fresh in Italian
 Free standing-can be seen from all sides
 2 kinds:
 Boun fresco(true fresco)-paint is SBWIT
applied to fresh plaster
 Fresco secco(dry)-paint applied to 1. Stone(Marble)- durable, resistant to fire
dry plaster Heavy and breaks easily
b. Tempera-mixture of ground pigments 2. Bronze-rich color and smooth texture
and a colloidal vehicle Tendency to crack when cooled
 Usually done in wooden panel 3. Wood-cheap,readily available
 Colors are mixed with egg yolk Limited in size and burns easily, decay
4. Ivory-like wood, it also cracks
 Favorite medium of Medieval and
Very expensive
Renaissance
5. Terra Cotta-yields to even slightest pressure
 Simone Martine; Annunciation
can be worked and re-worked
c. Oil-Hubert and Jan van Eych
Needs to be cooked with fire
 Advantage: remains moist for long
time ARCHITECTURE – art of designing and
 Van Gogh; El Greco, Rembrandt constructing a building
 Carlos “Botong” Francisco
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
2 Methods of painting in Oil
1. Post and Lintel-two vertical posts and a
Direct horizontal one
2. Arch-built from solid materials called
Indirect “voussoirs”
3. Cantilever-structural part projecting
d. Acrylics-synthetic paints using acrylic
emulsion horizontally and anchored at one end only
 Advantages: quick drying
Durability
Adaptability
Can be cleaned by water
e. Water color-pigments are mixed with
water and applied to fine white paper
 Transparent and opaque
f. Pastel-possesses only surfaces of light