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HUMANITIES  Interaction

INTRODUCTION TO ARTS 3. Psychological Functions

 Relaxation
 Inspiration
Humanities – “humanus” – to be truly human
 Gratification
To be truly human – to be culturally enhanced
Culture – general way of life of human society
1. Arts have moral, educational, social,
- “cultus colere” – to cultivate cultural, and religious purposes
2. Art for art’s sake
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF 3. Moments of relaxation
HUMANITIES 4. Imagination is satisfied
5. Arts as outlet of our slumbering passion
 Medieval – man’s cultivation of his 6. Powerful means to reform man
 Renaissance – set of disciplines being DIVISION OF ARTS
taught in universities
 Modern – equal to arts 1. With respect to purpose:
a. Practical – produce artifacts and utensils
ART DERIVATION b. Liberal – intellectual efforts
c. Fine- produces to human creativity in so
 Aryan: “AR” – join or put together far
 Greek: Artizein – to prepare ; Arkiskein – d.Major- actual and potential expressiveness
to put together e. Minor- connected with practical uses and
 Latin: “ars, artis” – artificially made or purposes
composed by man 2. With respect to media and form:
a. Plastic- perceived by sense of sight
TWO KINDS OF MAN’S ACTIONS b. Phonetic- based on sounds and words
c. Kinetic-rhythmic movement
 Actions to be done – man’s ultimate destiny
d. Pure-take only one medium
and moral obligation
e. Mixed-two or more media
 Actions to be made – man’s practical needs
Art – subjective expression of man’s thought and
feelings 1. Space arts – visual arts
2 dimension – only one angle
Art is for appreciation; Craft is for utilization 3 dimension – several angles
Combination: Functional Art 2. Time arts – auditory arts


1. Physical Functions 1. Spatial(Visual)-can be perceived by sense of

sight and projected into 3d graphic forms
 Historical 2. Literary(Literature)- “litterae”-letters
 Instructional 3. Performing-uses the human body, face and
 Representational presence as media
 Utility 4. Decorative-creation of ornamental and
functional works
2. Social Functions 5. Popular-popular culture

 Influential Media
HIERARCHY OF ARTS 1. Sublime-astonishment and awe
2. Nice-sympathy,love,benevolence..
1. Immanuel Kant- Music is the lowest 3. Comic-it makes us laugh
2. Schopenhauer- Music is the greatest
3. Hegel-Poetry has the best qualities Criticism-method of verifying or testing artistic
4. Gottfried Leibnitz- Fusion of music and works
1. Through critical study of properties of beauty
Plato - Art imitates nature. Art imitates life.
a. Order
Aristotle – Art imitates men and nature in action b. Proportion
c. Clarity
Oscar Wilde – It is life that imitates art d. Unity
e. Balance
Henri-Louis Bergson – art is not imitation; art is
f. Dominance
made from intuition
2. Through general consensus of experts
G.E Moore – Art is both imitation and intuition
Sigmund Freud – Art is a wish-fulfillment
4. Get rid of prejudices and personal sentiments
Jose Ortega Y Gasset - Art is a form of escape
Leo Tolstoy – Art is communication  Subject- object matter
 Medium – materials and equipment
Benedetto Croce – Art is merely an expression  Technique – manner which artist utilizes his
regardless if it is understood or not medium
Albert Camus – Art is rebellion ART SUBJECTS
John Dewey – Art is not limited in the gallery or 1. Representational-has definite subject
museum 2. Non-representational-no definite subject
Dante Leoncini – When man beautifies himself, he SOURCES OF ART SUBJECTS
becomes a human art
1. Mythology
Margarette Macdonalds – Art is esoteric 2. Heroes and Patriots
3. Religion
5. Rural and Urban ecology
Beauty is out there; it is objective.
It resides in the perceiver.
It depends on the appropriate situational
1. It loses significance to us
2. Dangerous
3. Certain conditions like poverty and disease
PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN -most aesthetic appeal
Principles – the objects to be arranged Dimensions of a color:
 Hue-gives color its name
a. Harmony – essential to beauty. There is  Value-lightness or darkness of color
harmony if various parts will give “chiaroscuro"
appearance of belonging together. There  Intensity-brightness or darkness of a color
must be UNITY.
Warm-associated with fire and sun. seems to come
To relieve monotony, there must be variety towards you
– achieved by diversity of materials
Cool-associated with water and sky. Seems to go
b. Movement-suggestion of motion back
c. Contrast-placing or arranging very
different things next to each other COLOR HARMONIES
d. Balance – equilibrium.
- gives a feeling of stability and rest  Complementary-opposite
 Symmetrical-formal balance.  Monochromatic-one mode or one hue
Making both sides exactly alike  Analogous-two or more nearby colors
 Asymmetrical-informal/occult PSYCHOLOGY OF COLORS
Large-sa gitna  Black-despair,gloom,death
 Radial-positioned around a central  Blue-tranquility,calmness,peace
point  Red-fire,blood,danger,festivity
e. Proportion – comparison of size of diff  Gray-weight,solidity,neutrality
parts of an object  Violet-shadows,mourning,royalty
- parts relate to each other
 Green-growth,freshness,hope
f. Rhythm/pattern-timed movement
 White-simplicity,clarity,purity
through space
-organized beat, movement or repetition  Orange-deliciousness,sweetness
g. Emphasis-catches our attention while the  Yellow-life,joy,sunshine,cheerfulness
rest are subordinate  Pink-sympathy,gratitude

ELEMETS OF VISUAL ARTS (LCTSPSVV) 3. Texture-deals with our sense of touch

1. Line-distance bet. 2 points. Define edges of 4. Shape or form-over-all design of a work of art
shapes and forms 5. Perspective-effect of distance upon the
 Horizontal-calmness and peace appearance of objects
 Vertical-action, dignity KINDS OF PERSPECTIVEu lol 11
 Diagonal-suggest movement
 Zigzag-suggest chaos, conflict,  Linear-representation of distance by
violence converging lines
 Curved-flexibility  Aerial-by gradations of tone color
Classification of Lines
6. Space-distance of are
 Repetition-drawn within a corner following between,around,above,below or w/in shapes
lines of the corner
 Contrasting-opposition to each other 7. Volume/Mass-solidity or thickness
 Transitional-modify sharpness 3dimensional
2. Color-property of light 8. Value
-painting medium in the form of a stick

MEDIUMS OF VISUAL ARTS g. Hot Wax-using heated beeswax

Medium-stuff or material out of which the work of SCULPTURE- 3d artwork created by shaping or
art is formed. combining hard materials
Painting-art of creating meaningful effects on flat 2 processes:
surface by use of pigments
 Subtractive-unwanted material is
Pigment-changes the color of reflected light cut away
 Additive-putting together bits of
-used for coloring paint clay/welding together parts of

a. Fresco-colors are mixed with water and Types of sculpture

applied to fresh plaster
 Relief- attached to the ground
 Means fresh in Italian
 Free standing-can be seen from all sides
 2 kinds:
 Boun fresco(true fresco)-paint is SBWIT
applied to fresh plaster
 Fresco secco(dry)-paint applied to 1. Stone(Marble)- durable, resistant to fire
dry plaster Heavy and breaks easily
b. Tempera-mixture of ground pigments 2. Bronze-rich color and smooth texture
and a colloidal vehicle Tendency to crack when cooled
 Usually done in wooden panel 3. Wood-cheap,readily available
 Colors are mixed with egg yolk Limited in size and burns easily, decay
4. Ivory-like wood, it also cracks
 Favorite medium of Medieval and
Very expensive
5. Terra Cotta-yields to even slightest pressure
 Simone Martine; Annunciation
can be worked and re-worked
c. Oil-Hubert and Jan van Eych
Needs to be cooked with fire
 Advantage: remains moist for long
time ARCHITECTURE – art of designing and
 Van Gogh; El Greco, Rembrandt constructing a building
 Carlos “Botong” Francisco
2 Methods of painting in Oil
1. Post and Lintel-two vertical posts and a
Direct horizontal one
2. Arch-built from solid materials called
Indirect “voussoirs”
3. Cantilever-structural part projecting
d. Acrylics-synthetic paints using acrylic
emulsion horizontally and anchored at one end only
 Advantages: quick drying
Can be cleaned by water
e. Water color-pigments are mixed with
water and applied to fine white paper
 Transparent and opaque
f. Pastel-possesses only surfaces of light