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Organic Agriculture Production

Training Objectives:
 General: To conduct skills improvement and knowledge advancement in organic agriculture
 Specific: During the training, the participants will be able to:
1. Obtain a comprehensive knowledge on the procedure in producing organic concoctions/ extracts,
fertilizers, vegetables, raising organic chicken, hogs, and small ruminants;
2. Appreciate the new knowledge that would help improve their skills and enhance technology on
organic agriculture;
3. Demonstrate correctly in performing the procedure for the skills on organic agriculture and become
NC-ready.
Training coverage
1. Producing organic concoctions and extracts 4. Raising organic chicken
2. Producing organic fertilizers 5. Raising organic hogs
3. Producing organic vegetables 6. Raising organic small ruminants
Introduction
Anchored on RA 10068, the Philippine National Standards (PNS) for Organic Agriculture (OA) was
initially prepared by the Organic Certification Center of the Philippines (OCCP) and was adopted by the
Department of Agriculture (DA), through the Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Product Standards (BAFPS). After a
technical review, these standards for OA had been prepared for the purpose of providing uniform approach as basis on
OA Standards.

RA 10068 or the Organic Agriculture Act of 2010 promotes, propagates, develops further and implements (PPDI)
the practice of organic agriculture in the Philippines that will cumulatively
1) condition and enrich the fertility of the soil,
2) increase farm productivity,
3) reduce pollution and destruction of the environment,
4) prevent the depletion of natural resources ,
5) further protect the health of farmers, consumers and the general public.
Operational Definition
1. Organic – one or more systems of production which do not use synthetic fertilizers, man-made pesticides,
herbicides, growth regulators, antibiotics, hormone stimulants and/or livestock feed additives in growing crops and
raising animals.
2. Conventional agriculture – farming systems dependent on the input of artificial fertilizers and pesticides or
failing to conform to the Philippine National Standards in on Organic Agriculture any other way.
3. Conversion – process of changing an agricultural system from conventional to organic. Sometimes this is
called transition.
4. Farm unit – an agricultural area or production managed organically and owned by a farmer or a group.
5. Conversion period – time between the probable start of organic management, and the certification of crops
or animal husbandry as organic.
Conversion to Organic Agriculture?
What if previously site was not devoted to OA? Ans. Conversion from traditional to Organic Agriculture
What if neighbor does not practice OA?
a. Establish buffer plants
b. Construct diversion drainage canals
6. Parallel production – the simultaneous production of conventional, in conversion and/or organic crops or
animal products, which cannot be distinguished from each other.
7. Standards – norms, set of guidelines, requirements and principles that are used as in organic agriculture and
processing. The term “standards” as used here refers to the Philippine National Standards (PNS) relevant to local agro-
ecosystems production.
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Terms
1. Agricultural Inputs – all substances or materials used in the production or handling of organic agricultural
products.
2. Agricultural Products – any agricultural commodity or product whether raw or processed, including any
commodity or product derived from livestock for human or livestock consumption.
3. Animal Drug - drug intended for use in livestock, including any drug intended for use in livestock feed but
not including such livestock feed
4. Breeder stock – female livestock whose offspring may be incorporated into an organic operation at the time
of their birth.
5. Certified Operation – a crop or livestock production, with crop harvesting or handling operation, or portion
of such operation that is certified by an accredited certifying agent such as utilizing a system of organic
production;
6. Feed – edible materials that are consumed by livestock for their nutritional value. Feeds may be
concentrates (grains) or roughages (hay, silage, and fodder). It encompasses all agricultural commodities,
including pasture ingested by livestock for nutritional purposes;
7. Feed Additive – a added to feed in micro quantities to fulfill a specific nutritional need like essential
nutrients in the form of amino acids, vitamins and minerals;
8. Forage – vegetable material in a fresh, dried, or ensiled state (pasture, hay, or silage), that is fed to livestock;
9. Livestock – includes cattle, sheep, goat, swine, poultry, or equine animals used for food or in the production
of food, fiber, feed, or other agri-based consumer products; wild or domesticated game; or other non-plant
life, except such term shall not include aquatic animals for the production of food, fiber, feed, etc.

Producing Organic Concoctions & Extracts

Acronym/ Spelled-Out Ingredients # of Days OCE: Use and Application


Symbol to Water
Harvest

IMO Indigenous 1 kg Fermented Rice: 7-10 days 2 tbsp/li Sprayed on the pigpen floor –
Micro- 1 kg Molasses water babuyang walang amoy/odorless
Organisms piggery

FAA Fish Amino 1 kg Fish : 1 kg 7-10 days 2 Used as drinking water for chicken;
Acid Molasses tbsp./li as foliar (leaf) 2X a week; used in
water mixing Bokashi or solid fert.

FFJ Fermented 1 kg Fruit : 1 kg 7-10 days 2 Sprayed as s foliar (leaf) fertilizer 2x


Fruit Juice Molasses tbsp./li a week; used in mixing Bokashi fert.
water

FPJ Fermented 1 kg chopped leaves 7-10 days 2 Used as drinking water for chicken;
Plant Juice : ½ kg Molasses tbsp./li as foliar (leaf) 2x a week; used in
water mixing Bokashi fert.

OHN 1 Oriental 1 kg garlic, 1 kg 13-14 Used as additive in the drinking


Herbal ginger, 400 g days water for the prevention of poultry
Nutrients 1 muscovado, 2.4 li diseases
coco vinegar

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OHN 2 Oriental 1 kg ginger, 200 g 23 days 2 Used as spray insecticide, 2 tbsp.: 1
Herbal chilli, 100 g tbsp./li li water for the prevention and
Nutrients 2 macabuhay, 2.4 li water control of pests in vegetables and
coco vinegar mites in poultry bedding

Ca Calcium 1 kg roasted & 21-30 2


ground egg shell : 9 days tbsp./li
kg coco vinegar water

Ca3PO4 Calcium 1 kg roasted and 21-30 2 Used as foliar spray It helps induce
Phosphate ground bones : 9 kg days tbsp./li flowering
coco vinegar water

Producing Organic Fertilizers


Composting - Compost is a good medium for growing organic vegetables. But the compost used must be totally
decomposed/decayed. Decomposing materials have high temperatures, toxic gas methane is present, as well as harmful
organisms.
The materials used in Composting include rice straw, shred weeds, animal manure, soil (traditional), now
Carbonized Rice Hull (CRH), legumes, litter fall, etc.
In Composting, there are materials that do not easily decompose like rice straw, saw dust, rice hull, bark of
trees, twigs, branches, especially the trunk of trees.
Carbon to Nitrogen ratio (C: N Ratio) refers to the level presence of Carbon and Nitrogen from the substrate in
relation to the decomposition process.
For example, rice straw has a ratio of 60-65:1, chicken manure - 19:1, etc. Further, the presence of cellulose or
lignin from the substrates contribute to the delay in the decomposition process.
Rice straw contains cellulose while rice hull contains lignin. But with the use of organic concoctions and
extracts decomposition is made faster as acted upon by microorganisms.
The higher is the Carbon content the slower is the decomposition process of a substrate. In general, the ratio is
15-35 parts Carbon for every part of Nitrogen (15-35:1).
To expedite the decomposition of a substrate with high Carbon in composting, the following could be adopted: 1
layer of rice straw (15 cm thick), followed by legume for next layer (15 cm), then animal manure (15 cm). This process is
repeated until the pile reaches a height of 1-1.5 m high.
Effective microorganisms (EM) 95% water: 5% EM or use IMO can be done after each of the 3 layers.
Twigs, bark, branches have high Carbon content of 200 parts.
What are the processes in Composting?
1. Collecting materials
2. Piling
3. Air drying
4. Sieving
5. Bagging
6. Labeling
7. Storing
Concoctions and extracts are sprayed on the leaves at least 2 times a week with 2:1, except FPJ with 1:1 ratio,
and applied between 6-9 AM and 3-6 PM to prevent leaf burning.
 Concoction – liquid
 Organic fertilizer – solid and liquid (concoction)
 Solid – Vermicast, Bokashi, Fortified Compost
 Concoctions also include Vermitea and Manure Tea.

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Producing Organic Vegetables
Vegetable – any edible plant part usually eaten with staples
Kinds of vegetables – leafy, green, yellow including Brassicas, Cucurbits, Solanaceous, etc.
Management Practices to Improve Soil Fertility
1. Crop rotation
2. Basal organic fertilizer application
3. Intercropping
4. Green manuring
5. Contour farming
6. Fallow period
Organic Vegetable Production Chemical Farming or Inorganic Vegetable
Production

No pesticides Use of pesticides


No harmful chemicals Lots of harmful chemicals
No antibiotics Use of antibiotics
No growth hormones Use of growth hormones
Safe from carcinogenic High risk of cancer
substances
Environment friendly Harmful to environment
Accelerating demand Descending demand
Lowcost High costs of materials and inputs
Many business opportunities Limited to business on chemical substances

Raising Organic Chicken


1. Distinguish between male and female chicken?
2. Physical characteristics of a rooster?
3. Physical characteristics of a hen?
4. Characteristics of a good layer?
5. Yellow-orange color of shank?
Decision?

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6. Space requirement for organic chicken
a. at brooding, 50 chicks: 1 sq m
b. at Costales farm, 21 days old, 3 sq m/bird open range
c. Davao, 1:1 sq m free range; minimum of 1 to the max of 3 birds/sq m
d. height of bulb, 3 inches above the ground at day 1

7. Bulb wattage requirement per chick in brooding?


a. 1 watt/chick under normal weather condition
b. 2 watts/bird during rainy days

8. Factors in successful brooding


a. space, 50 chicks/sq m
b. nutrition

9. Average range = 1:1 to 3:1 or 1-3 chickens per sq m

10. Based on industry standard, what are the types of feed and % crude protein (CP) requirements for
chicken at certain stages of growth?
a. Booster/Pre-Starter – 21-22% CP – 10-14 days
b. Starter – 18% CP – 7-10 days
c. Grower – 16% CP – 7-10 days
d. Finisher– 14-15% CP – 7-10 days
In chicken, 21 days brooding (commercial); 22-70 days = organic

Forms of feed:
a. Pellet
b. Mash
c. Crumble

FEED FORMULATION

A. Sample of a 100-kg Starter Feed, 18% Crude Protein (CP)

Ingredients Weight of Ingredient/100 % CP of the Computed CP % CP


kg Feed Ingredient Per Value Equivalent
Analysis
1. Ground Corn 44 8.5 0.085 3.74
2. 1st Class Darak 25 13 0.13 3.25
(D1)
3. Copra Meal 10 20 0.20 2.00
4. Soya 10 43 0.43 4.30
5. Fish Meal 10 50 0.50 5.00

6. Oyster Shell 0.50 None - -


Powder
7. Salt 0.50 None - -
GRAND TOTAL 100.00 18.29
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Problem:
Based from the Sample A, prepare a ration of 7 kg starter feed good for one day feed consumption,
using all 7 ingredients:
Answer or Solution:
1. Ground corn , 44 kg x .07 - 3.080 kg
2. D1, 25 kg x .07 - 1.750 kg
3. Copra meal, 10 kg x .07 - .700 kg
4. Soya, 10 kg x .07 - .700 kg
5. Fish meal, 10 kg x .07 - .700 kg
6. Oyster shell powder, 0.5 kg x .07 - .084 kg
7. Salt, 0.5 kg x .07 - .084 kg
TOTAL 7.098 kg

Q. Why multiply each of the 7 ingredients by 0.07?


A. Because the feed formulation is good for 100 kg. But the total feed asked is only 7 kg. Thus 7 kg
represents 0.07 or 7% of 100 kg. A total of 7.098 kg feed is the total weight of feed needed for one day as
above computed.

B. 100-kg Grower Feed, 16% Crude Protein (CP)

Ingredients Weight of Ingredient/100 kg % CP of the Computed % CP


Feed Ingredient Per CP Value Equivalent
Analysis

1. Ground Corn 48 8.5 0.085 4.08


2. 2nd CL Darak 25 11 0.11 2.75
3. Copra Meal 10 20 0.20 2.00
4. Soya 9 43 0.43 3.87
5. Fish Meal 7 50 0.50 3.50
6. Oyster Shell 0.50 None - -
Powder
7. Salt 0.50 None - -
GRAND TOTAL 100.00 16.20

Problem:
Based from the Sample B, prepare a ration of 3 kg of the grower feed good for one day feed
consumption, using all 7 ingredients:

Answer or Solution:

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Pearson Square Method

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