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APPENDIX E

Mind Map Solutions

This appendix provides solutions to the mind map exercises in the “Part Review” sections.
You can also find files of these solutions in PDF and XMIND format on the DVD. (The
sample mind maps on the download page use the XMIND application [www.xmind.net],
which at the time of publication supported free versions on Windows, OS X, and Linux.)
Disabled
Stable Forwarding

STP Blocking
Listening
Transitory
Learning
States
Learning
RSTP Forwarding
Discarding

Lowest Priority
Root Switch Lowest Bridge ID
Lowest MAC address
Non-Roots Switches Only
Root Cost over Each Path

Root Port (RP) Pick lowest Root Cost


Part 1 1: lowest neighbor BID
Spanning Rules 2: lowest neighbor port priority
Tiebreakers
Tree 3: lowest neighbor internal port number
2 & 3 only if >1 link to same switch
Concepts
Each says Hello

Designated Port (DP) Least Root Cost listed in Hello


lowest sender's BID
tiebreakers
Others needed in older technologies

Disabled port
STP Root Port (RP)
Part I Review STP Concepts Mind Map Solution

Designated Port (DP)


Backup RP
Roles
Disabled port
RSTP Root Port (RP)
Designated Port (DP)
Alternate Port
4
system ID extension

configuration revision number blocking state


Trusted port
vlan.dat BPDU Guard
Untrusted port
VTP Rapid PVST +
DHCP Snooping DHCP Binding Table
VLAN configuration database PVST +
DHCP Snooping
VTP client mode bridge ID
VTP
VTP pruning bridge protocol data unit (BPDU)

VTP server mode designated port


VLAN
VTP transparent mode forward delay
Switch stacking Layer 3 switch
VTP synchronization forwarding state
Stacking module VLANs data vlan
hello BPDU
Stacking cable voice vlan
IEEE 802.1D
FlexStack switch stacking
learning state
chassis aggregation
STP listening state
FlexStack-Plus
Part 1 Terms MaxAge
PortChannel PortFast
Channel Group root port
LACP AAA Server root switch
Etherchannel AAA
CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide

PAgP root cost


Multichassis EthernetChannel Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
trunk rapid STP (RSTP)
802.1Q IEEE 802.1w
Part I Review Key Term Mind Map Solution

trunk interface Authenticator alternate port


access interface VLAN trunks Supplicant backup port
trunking operational mode 802.1x EAP over LAN (EAPoL) disabled port
trunking administrative mode Extensible Authentication Protocol discarding state
switchport access vlan vlan-id

spanning-tree mode {pvst | rapid-pvst | mst} vlan vlan-id

spanning-tree [vlan vlan-number] root primary name vlan-name

spanning-tree [vlan vlan-number] root secondary [no] shutdown


config
spanning-tree [vlan vlan-id] {priority priority} [no] shutdown vlan vlan-id

spanning-tree [vlan vlan-number] cost cost vtp mode {server | client | transparent
| off}
spanning-tree [vlan vlan-number] port-priority priority
VLANs
channel-group channel-group-number mode {auto |
config desirable | active | passive | on} show vlan brief
spanning-tree portfast show vlan [vlan]
spanning-tree portfast disable EXEC show vlan [brief | id vlan-id | name vlan-name | summary ]
spanning-tree bpduguard enable show vtp status
spanning-tree bpduguard disable
[no] spanning-tree portfast default switchport mode {access | dynamic {auto | desirable} | trunk}

[no] spanning-tree portfast bpduguard default switchport trunk allowed vlan {add | all | except | remove} vlan-list
switchport trunk encapsulation {dot1q | isl | negotiate}
Spanning Tree
config switchport voice vlan vlan-id
switchport nonnegotiate
show spanning-tree
switchport trunk native vlan vlan-id
VLAN trunks
show spanning-tree interface interface-id
show spanning-tree vlan vlan-id show interfaces interface-id switchport
show spanning-tree [vlan vlan-id] root EXEC show interfaces interface-id trunk
show spanning-tree [vlan vlan-id] bridge
EXEC show spanning-tree summary vtp domain domain-name

debug spanning-tree events vtp password password

show spanning-tree interface type number portfast vtp mode {server | client | transparent | off}
config
show etherchannel [channel-group-number] vtp version { 1 | 2 }
Part I Review Commands Mind Map Solution

{brief | detail | port | port-channel | summary}


[no] vtp pruning
VTP
show vtp status
show vtp password
Part 1
EXEC show vlan [vlan]
Commands
show vtp status
E
Appendix E: Mind Map Solutions 5
6
Router interface shutdown
LAN Switch problems
Pingable Same Subnet
IP's in different subnets

RP not enabled? (eg, incorrect network command)


RP passive when it should not be

interfaces ACLs filter RP packets


Overlapping ranges in >1 network command
Wrong area assigned to interface
Competing OSPF network and ip ospf area commands

Mismatched ASNs on router command (EIGRP only)


Mismatched area numbers (OSPF only)
Part 2 Troubleshooting Authentication fails
Authentication required on one router, but not the other
Neighbors
Mismatched Hello/Dead Timers (OSPF only)
Duplicate RIDs (OSPF only)
IP addresses in different subnet

Split Horizon
EIGRP K-value mismatch
CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide

EIGRP process is shutdown

Miscellaneous Interface MTU mismatch


Non-backbone area not connected to backbone
OSPF
Mismatched interface network types
OSPF process is shutdown
Part II Review Troubleshooting Mind Map Solution
debug eigrp packets neighbor ip-address remote-as asn

debug ip ospf adj [no] neighbor ip-address shutdown

debug ip ospf events Config network prefix [mask mask]


Debug debug ip ospf packet ip route prefix mask null0

debug ip ospf packet BGP


show ip bgp
undebug all
show ip bgp summary
Exec show tcp summary
ip ospf cost interface-cost
show ip route prefix mask longer-prefixes
Interface bandwidth [bandwidth]
ip ospf process-id area area-number
router ospf process-id router eigrp autonomous-system
network address wildcard area area_id network [network-number] [wildcard-mask]
Config
maximum-paths number-of-paths maximum-paths number-paths
auto-cost reference-bandwidth number Router variance multiplier

Router default-information originate [always] [no] auto-summary


passive-interface type number passive-interface type number
passive no passive-interface type number passive no passive-interface type number
passive-interface default Config passive-interface default
router-id id bandwidth bandwidth
router ID
interface loopback x delay delay-value
OSPFv2 Interface ip hello-interval eigrp as-number timer-value
ip hold-time eigrp as-number timer-value
show ip ospf interface brief [no] split-horizon
Interface
show ip ospf interface [type number]
show ip ospf neighbor
EIGRP
show ip ospf neighbor [type number] show ip eigrp interfaces
Neighbor
show ip ospf neighbor [type number] detail interfaces show ip eigrp interfaces type number

show ip ospf neighbor [neighbor-ID] show ip eigrp interfaces detail [type number]

Database show ip ospf database show ip eigrp neighbors


neighbors
show ip route show ip eigrp neighbors type number
Exec
show ip route ospf show ip eigrp topology
Routes
Topology show ip eigrp topology subnet/prefix
Part II Review Commands Mind Map Solution

show ip route [ip-address mask]


show ip route | section [subnet] Exec show ip eigrp topology | section subnet

show ip protocols show ip route

show ip ospf show ip route eigrp


routing
Other show interfaces description show ip route ip-address mask
Part 2 clear ip ospf process show ip route | section subnet

Commands show interfaces other show ip protocols


E
Appendix E: Mind Map Solutions 7
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) generic routing encapsulation (GRE) Virtual Private Network (VPN) 8
DSL modem Secure Socket Layer (SSL) client VPN
Types
3G/4G Internet GRE GRE tunnel site-to-site VPN
Internet access
cable Internet tunnel interface VPN client
fiber Internet Terms - VPN Client Cisco VPN Client

Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client


VPN concepts
encrypt/encryption
PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)
decrypt/decryption
virtual-access interface Encryption
encryption key
PPPoE session
PPPoE shared key
Committed Information Rate (CIR) dialer interface PPP
Point-to-point IPsec
dial pool CHAP Protocols
hub and spoke SSL
Topologies PAP
partial mesh
Multilink PPP
full mesh
PPP/MLPPP telco
IP control protocol
E-Line Metro Ethernet Part 3 Terms HDLC
Link Control Protocol
E-LAN Ethernet Virtual Connection (EVC) serial link
keepalive
E-Tree Names WAN link

MetroEthernet leased line

Carrier Ethernet names MPLS customer premise equipment

Ethernet WAN MPLS VPN Serial links CSU/DSU

Service Provider (SP) Hardware serial cable

Point of Presence (PoP) DTE


NHRP client
CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide

access link DCE


MPLS NHRP server
customer edge (CE) DS0
DMVPN Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP)
provider edge (PE) DS1
Dynamic Multipoint VPN (DMVPN) Speeds
MultiProtocol BGP (MPBGP) T1

OSPF super backbone T3


Part III Review Key Terms Mind Map Solution
interface multilink number
ppp multilink interface tunnel number
config ppp multilink group number permit gre source-ip source-mask destination-ip destination-mask
encapsulation ppp tunnel source interface-type interface-number
MLPPP config tunnel source ip-address
show ppp multilink tunnel destination ip-address
EXEC show interface multilink number GRE tunnel mode gre ip

show interfaces tunnel number


encapsulation {hdlc | ppp} EXEC
[no] shutdown
clock rate speed
dialer pool number
bandwidth speed-kbps
pppoe-client dial-pool-number number
description text
config pppoe enable
ppp authentication {pap | chap}
interface dialer number
hostname name
ip address negotiated
username name password secret
no ip address
ppp pap sent-username name password secret config
mac-address address
PPP mtu size

show interfaces [type number] encapsulation ppp

show interfaces [type number] description ppp chap hostname name


show ip interface brief PPPoE ppp chap password value
show controllers serial number
EXEC
show ppp all
show pppoe session [interface type number]
debug ppp authentication
show interfaces dialer number
Part 3 debug ppp negotiation EXEC show interfaces virtual-access number
Part III Review Commands Mind Map Solution

Commands show interfaces virtual-access number configuration

E
Appendix E: Mind Map Solutions 9
10
access-list access-list-number {deny | permit} protocol source source-wildcard
destination destination-wildcard [log]
access-list access-list-number {deny | permit} tcp source source-wildcard
[operator [port]] destination destination-wildcard operator [port]] [log]
Config
access-list access-list-number remark text
ip access-group number [in | out]
ip access-list {standard | extended} name
ip access-group name [in | out] Numbered Extended IPv4 ACLs
{deny | permit} source [source wildcard] [log]
{deny | permit} protocol source {source-wildcard}
destination {destination-wildcard} [log] (Uses the same commands as with numbered standard ACLs)
Config Exec
{deny | permit} tcp source source-wildcard [operator [port]]
destination destinationwildcard [operator [port]] [log]
remark text
Named IPv4 ACLs access-class name [in | out]
access-list access-list-number {deny | permit} source [source-wildcard] [log]
access-list access-list-number {deny | permit} host source [log]
(Uses the same commands as with numbered standard ACLs) Config access-list access-list-number remark text
Exec
ip access-group number [in | out]

Numbered Standard IPv4 ACLs

show access-lists [access-list-number | access-list-name]


show ip access-list [access-list-number | access-list-name]
Part 4 Commands Exec
show ip interface [type number]
CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide

Part IV Review Commands Mind Map Solution


low latency queue
Integrated services (IntServ)
priority queue Assured Forwarding (AF)
Differentiated Services (DiffServ) queuing
round robin Differentiated Services (DiffServ) Expedited Forwarding (EF)
Quality of Service (QoS)
Class Selector (CS)
Quality of Experience (QoE)
Marking
Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP)
General Classification and Classification
AutoQoS marking
Network Based Application Recognition (NBAR) Application signature
jitter
Trust boundary
loss
bandwidth Header Fields
Characteristics
delay
IP Precedence (IPP)
Round-trip delay Part 4 Terms
Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP)
One-way delay
policing MPLS Experimental Bits
tail drop shaping Type of Service (ToS)
TCP synchronization shaping and shaping rate Priority Code Point (PCP)
congestion policing
TCP window policing rate Class of Service (CoS)
avoidance
Traffic class Time interval (shaper)
Part IV Review Key Terms Mind Map Solution

E
Appendix E: Mind Map Solutions 11
12
Some non-native VLANs not Must use same HSRP version
configured on a subinterface
Must use same HSRP group number
Wrong configuration Native VLAN not configured
either on physical or configuration Must use same Virtual IP (VIP) address
subinterface
Router UDP port 1985
wrong native VLAN (compared to switch)
ACLs cannot filter HSRP inbound HSRPv1 multicast 224.0.0.2
Ensure physical and/or subinterfaces are not shutdown
Router on a Stick HSRP HSRPv2 multicast 224.0.0.102
Wrong native VLAN (compared to router)
Be in same subnet as interface address
switch Switch configured for dynamic trunking (typically requires manual config) HSRP VIP must:
Design Not be used by any other device
Switch port must support the same VLANs configured on the router
Layer 2: HSRP router interfaces must be in the same VLAN

Using desirable means the other end must be desirable or auto IP address and mask

Configuration Using active means the other end must be active or passive Mismatched subnet compared to default router

Using on means the other end must use on


Host IP Settings DNS Addresses
Layer 3 Switching Default router
Port consistency Must all use "no switchport" (so they are routed ports)
with Routed Ports checks (Layer 3
EtherChannel) Must use same "speed" setting

Must use same "duplex" setting Incorrect addressing

Overlapped subnets
Routing issues Router WAN interfaces

ACLs
Has ASIC been enabled w/ "sdm prefer"?

Is IP routing enabled? Has switch been reloaded after "sdm prefer"?


Local router missing or incorrect ip helper-address
Has "ip routing" been configured after the reload? Because it is
acting as a DHCP Connectivity issues between router and DHCP server
Does the VLAN relay agent
Layer 3 exist on the local Configured locally Connectivity issues between router
(relay agent) and the DHCP client (host)
CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide

Switching with switch?


Learned with VTP
SVIs DHCP server misconfig
Does the local Default Router's
switch have at least Speed mismatch
For each SVI:
Configuration
1 working interface An access port Shutdown locally on the router interface
in that VLAN?
A trunk that uses the VLAN Router LAN interface Shutdown on the neighboring switch port
The VLAN interface is enabled (no shutdown) Neighbor switch port security err disables
Shutdown status:
Part 5 Troubleshooting The VLAN is enabled (no shutdown) Cabling (no cable, bad cable)
Part V Review Troubleshooting Mind Map Solution
[no] ip routing
sdm prefer lanbase-routing standby group-number ip virtual-ip

interface port-channel channel-number standby group-number priority 0...255

ip address address mask [no] standby group-number preempt


config config
no switchport standby group-number name descriptive-name
channel-group channel-number standby version 1 | 2
mode {auto | desirable | active | HSRP
L3 switching with passive | on}
routed interfaces show standby
and L3
show ip route EXEC show standby brief
EtherChannels
show ip route [connected]
show etherchannel [channel-group-number] summary
EXEC show interfaces [type number]
show interfaces [type number] status
show interfaces [type number] switchport

[no] ip routing
sdm prefer lanbase-routing
interface type number.subint
config interface vlan vlan-id
encapsulation dot1q vlan-id [native]
ip address address mask
config ip address address mask
[no] ip routing

ROAS L3 switching with SVIs


show ip route
show ip route show ip route [connected]
show ip route [connected] show interfaces [type number]
EXEC show vlans EXEC show interfaces [type number] status
show interfaces [type number] show interfaces [type number] switchport
Part V Review Commands Mind Map Solution

Part 5 show interfaces vlan number

Commands
E
Appendix E: Mind Map Solutions 13
14
Follows Chapter 22

host DNS setting wrong

Host def router wrong


Some Pings Work
Host and router - mismatched prefix

host interface down

router interface down


Host ping to Def router fails LAN can't pass frames

LAN filtering

host static DNS setting wrong

host learned wrong DNS from DHCP


pings w/ name all fail
No connectivity to DNS server

missing DHCP relay

No connectivity from router to remote DHCP server


DHCP
Part 6 Map A DHCP server misconfig
CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide

LAN connectivity problem


Missing host IPv6 settings
LAN connectivity problem

SLAAC router - no ipv6 address

router - no ipv6 routing

Links down between routers

Routing Protocol neighbor issues

Routing Protocol filters


IPv6 routing (past def router)
static routes wrong

Wrong subnet design duplicates subnet


Part VI Review Troubleshooting Mind Map A Solution

Filters discard packets


Other
Follows Chapter 23

wrong area configured


interfaces passive when should not be

interface down

ACL filters messages

authentication prevents
neighbors mismatched Hello timer

Mismatched Dead timer


Part 6 Map B
Router IDs the same

mismatched MTU
database

missing neighbor on optimal path


Suboptimal path
interfaces costs on all paths
routes Missing neighbor relationships
Missing route
Missing being enabled on interface of destination
Part VI Review Troubleshooting Mind Map B Solution

E
Appendix E: Mind Map Solutions 15
16
Follows Chapter 24

passive when should not be


interfaces Missing ipv6 eigrp asn command on interface of destination

interface down

ACL filters messages

authentication prevents
neighbors
Mismatched ASNs on ipv6 router eigrp ASN

Mismatched K-values

Part 6 Map C none for this book


database

missing neighbor on optimal path


CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide

Suboptimal path
int bandwidth & delay on all paths
routes Missing neighbor relationships
Missing route
Missing ipv6 eigrp asn command on interface of destination

Make sure process is not "shutdown"


Other
Part VI Review Troubleshooting Mind Map C Solution
permit ipv6 { source-prefix/length | any | host source-ipv6- netsh interface ipv6 show neighbors
address } [ operator [port-number] ] { destination-prefix/ ndp -an
length | any | host destination-ipv6-address} neighbor table
Configs ip -6 neighbor show
ipv6 access-list access-list-name [log-update]
ipv6 traffic-filter access-list-name {in | out} traceroute6 {host-name | ip-address}

IPv6 ACLs show ipv6 interface [type number] traceroute {host-name | ip-address}
Trace
Exec show access-lists Hosts tracert {host-name | ip-address}

show ipv6 access-list [access-list-name] ping {host-name | ip-address}


ping ping6 {host-name | ip-address}
Config ipv6 dhcp relay destination server_address
ifconfig
ping
interfaces ipconfig
Other
traceroute
Exec
show ipv6 neighbors

show ipv6 routers ipv6 router ospf process-id


router-id id
Router passive-interface type number
ipv6 router eigrp autonomous-system
maximum-paths number-of-paths
maximum-paths number-paths
auto-cost reference-bandwidth number
Router variance multiplier Config
ipv6 ospf process area area_id
passive-interface type number
ipv6 ospf cost interface-cost
[no] shutdown
bandwidth [bandwidth]
Config Interface
ipv6 hello-interval eigrp as-number timer-value
ipv6 ospf hello-interval seconds
ipv6 hold-time eigrp as-number timer-value
ipv6 ospf dead-interval seconds
ipv6 eigrp asn
Interface ipv6 ospf network type
bandwidth bandwidth
show ipv6 ospf interface brief
delay delay-value Interface
OSPFv3 show ipv6 ospf interface [type number]
[no] split-horizon
show ipv6 ospf neighbor [type number]
show ipv6 eigrp interfaces
EIGRP Neighbor show ipv6 ospf neighbor [type number] detail
interfaces show ipv6 eigrp interfaces type number
show ipv6 ospf neighbor [neighbor-ID]
show ipv6 eigrp interfaces detail [type number]
show ipv6 ospf database
show ipv6 eigrp neighbors
neighbors show ipv6 ospf database router [lsa-id]
Part VI Review Commands Mind Map Solution

show ipv6 eigrp neighbors type number Database


Show show ipv6 ospf database network [lsa-id]
show ipv6 eigrp topology
show ipv6 ospf database summary [lsa-id]
Topology show ipv6 eigrp topology subnet/prefix
Show show ipv6 route
show ipv6 eigrp topology | section subnet
show ipv6 route ospf
show ipv6 route Routes
show ipv6 route [ip-address mask]
show ipv6 route eigrp
routing show ipv6 route | section [subnet]
show ipv6 route ip-address mask
show ipv6 protocols
show ipv6 route | section subnet
Other show ipv6 ospf
Part 6 Commands other show ipv6 protocols
show interfaces description
E
Appendix E: Mind Map Solutions 17
18
snmp-server community communitystring RO [ipv6 acl-name] [acl-name] ip sla operation-number
snmp-server host {hostname | ip-address} informs version 2c community-string icmp-echo address [source-ip address]
snmp-server host {hostname | ip-address} version 2c community-string frequency seconds
snmp-server community communitystring RW [ipv6 acl-name] [acl-name] history filter all
Config Config
snmp-server location text-describing-location history buckets-kept 6
snmp-server contact contact-name history lives-kept 1
snmp-server enable traps ip sla restart op-number
IP SLA

show ip sla summary


SNMP show ip sla statistics [op-number]
Exec
show ip sla history [op-number]

show snmp community


show snmp contact
monitor session number source interface type number [- last-in-range] [Rx | Tx | both]
show snmp location
monitor session number source VLAN vlan-id [Rx | Tx | both]
show snmp host Config
Exec monitor session number destination interface type number
show snmp
show snmp user
show snmp group SPAN

show monitor session [number | all]

Part 7 Commands Exec show monitor detail


CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide

Part VII Review Commands Mind Map Solution


Service Level Agreement (SLA)

IP Service Level Agreement (IP SLA)


Simple Network Management Protocol
IP SLA operation
read community
ICMP-Echo Operation
write community SNMP Community IP SLA
IP SLA Source
notification community
IP SLA Responder
Map Solution

SNMP Get
Round Trip Time (RTT)
SNMP Set
Messages
SNMP Trap

SNMP Inform Part 7 Network


SNMP
MIB Management Switched Port Analyzer (SPAN)
SNMPv2c
SPAN source port
SNMPv3
SPAN source VLAN
Network Management System (NMS)
SPAN destination port
SNMP Manager SPAN
network analyzer
SNMP Agent
Local SPAN
MIB view
SPAN monitor session (SPAN session)
Part VII Review Network Management Key Terms Mind

E
Appendix E: Mind Map Solutions 19
20
Cloud services catalog

Public cloud
Solution
Private cloud

Intercloud Exchange

On-demand self-service

Resource pooling
Characteristics
Rapid elasticity
Part 7 Cloud
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
Terms
Platform as a Service (PaaS)
Services
Software as a Service (SaaS)
CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 200-105 Official Cert Guide

ASAv
Virtual Network Function (VNF) Cloud Services Router (CSR)

Unified Computing System (UCS)

Virtual machine

Virtual CPU

Hypervisor
Virtualization
vNIC

vSwitch
Part VII Review Cloud Computing Key Terms Mind Map

Host (context: DC)


Control Plane

Data Plane

Management Plane
Planes
distributed control plane

centralized control plane


Solution

Software Defined Networking (SDN)

Open Networking Foundation (ONF)

Application Centric Infrastructure (ACI)

OpenFlow
Part 7
Programability Ternary Content Addressable Memory (TCAM)

Terms
Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC)

Application Policy Infrastructure Controller (APIC)

Cisco Open SDN Controller (OSC)


Controllers OpenDayLight (ODL)

APIC Enterprise Module (APIC-EM)

Southbound API

Northbound API

Southbound Interface (SBI)


Application Programming Interface (API) Northbound Interface (NBI)

RESTful API
Part VII Review Programmability Key Terms Mind Map

Representational State Transfer (REST)


E
Appendix E: Mind Map Solutions 21