2 vues

Transféré par Welsinsin Kevin Sin

ok

- partnerlessonkatherinebertaciniandcolbywagner
- Coal India Probation Closure Exam Questions
- Mining_IQ E-book_Edition31.pdf
- Vacancies Indonesia
- A 3-D Semi-Analytical Method for Subsidence Prediction and Stress Analysis in Coal Mining
- Cross Function Presentation
- Market Research Reports & Analysis _ IBISWorld AU
- Document Frame
- Legal Memo_Finals requirement.docx
- Mechanisation Vs Accidents
- Notice: Agency information collection activities; proposals, submissions, and approvals
- Information Sheet 2
- DOC-20180510-WA0048
- Kuliah 7 - Surface Mining Terrace.pdf
- The Coal Resource, A Comprehensive Overview of Coal (World Coal Institute)
- Ernst & Young: Canadian Mining Eye Q4 2013
- The Stamp Milling of Gold Ores; - Rickard, T. a. (Thomas Arthur),
- Kinross Mine Planning Best Practice
- Group discussion about small and large scale mining in the Philippines
- (Africa) - Simrac

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

International Journal of

Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijrmms

of grout-injected overburden of a coal mine

⁎

Binglong Wanga,b, Jialin Xua,b, , Dayang Xuana,b

a

State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116, China

b

School of Mines, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116, China

A R T I C L E I N F O

Keywords:

Overburden grout injection

Subsidence prediction

Knothe time function model

Dynamic surface subsidence

because it contains only one easily determined time parameter. Thus, it

Coal-mining-induced surface subsidence is a complex spatio- is often the ﬁrst choice for use in the prediction of surface sub-

temporal phenomenon. With the progressive mining of the working sidence.3,12 However, since the model was ﬁrst put forward, a number

face, the surfaces of the aﬀected areas undergo three stages of sub- of researchers have noted its lack of generalisability. To address this

sidence, namely, initial subsidence, active subsidence, and residual issue, the Knothe time function model has been augmented through

subsidence.1 Initial subsidence generally only accounts for 10–15% of various approaches to facilitate its application to diﬀerent practical

the ﬁnal subsidence and causes minor ground deformation. Active conditions. Examples of the modiﬁed versions are the segmented

subsidence is the principal subsidence corresponding to about 75% of Knothe model,13 exponential Knothe model,14 and Kelvin–Voigt creep

the ﬁnal subsidence and causes major ground deformation. Residual equation Knothe model,15 which have enabled extended applications.

subsidence may vary from 5% to 10% of the ﬁnal subsidence and will However, most of the abovementioned time function models were

result in further ground deformation.2 The displacements and de- intended for conventional longwall working faces, and they also rarely

formation that occur in each of these stages signiﬁcantly aﬀect and may consider the eﬀects of the speciﬁc method used to control mining-in-

damage buildings and other surface infrastructure such as railways, duced subsidence. One of the methods used to control mining-induced

roads, and water facilities,1,3 resulting in substantial economic losses.4,5 subsidence is the isolated overburden grout injection technique. The

Hence, to ensure the safety of surface structures, it is necessary to ob- technique involves the drilling of boreholes from the surface down to

tain a thorough understanding of the dynamic changes induced by the bedding separation cavities located at certain heights above the

surface subsidence.6,7 ceiling of a longwall panel for the injection of ﬂy-ash slurry. The in-

Time function models are important for predicting dynamic surface jection compresses the underlying bedding; then, a grouting pillar with

subsidence processes. Numerous time function models have been pro- a certain width can be generated at the centre of the longwall panel.

posed in the literature, and they may be broadly classiﬁed into two The grouting pillar works the same way as a coal pillar in partial mining

categories. The ﬁrst category comprises single-parameter time function (e.g. room and pillar mining); therefore, with the support of the

models, a classic example of which is the Knothe time function model.8 grouting pillar, surface subsidence can be better controlled (refer to

The second category comprises multi-parameter time function models Fig. 1).16–22 The technique has been successfully applied in numerous

such as the Sroka–Schober,9 arc tangent,10 logistic,11 and normal dis- coal mines.17,18 However, previous studies mainly focused on the ﬁnal

tribution7 models. The predictions of multi-parameter models are more subsidence when the technique was used,22 with very few studies

accurate because they are based on more parameters. However, the considering the dynamic processes of subsidence, especially their

diﬃculty associated with the determination of these parameters re- quantitative relationships with the grout injection parameters. Owing

duces the practicality of the models. The Knothe time function model is to the limited research and knowledge in this area, subsidence analyses

⁎

Corresponding author at: State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116, China.

E-mail address: cumtxjl@cumt.edu.cn (J. Xu).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2018.01.044

Received 27 June 2017; Received in revised form 11 December 2017; Accepted 25 January 2018

1365-1609/ © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

B. Wang et al. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 104 (2018) 1–8

Buildings

Ground surface

Grouting borehole

Fig. 1. Schematic cross section of the isolated overburden grout injection technique

Fig. 2. Knothe time function curves for various values of the time parameter c.

(after22).

during practical grout injection works heavily rely on high-density

23 months when c = 0.2.

surface subsidence measurements. This makes advance predictions

Thus, accurate determination of the time parameter c is important

diﬃcult and hampers on-the-ﬂy control of the grout injection para-

for the accurate prediction of dynamic subsidence. Numerous studies

meters, strongly undermining the protection of surface facilities. Thus,

have investigated the factors that determine c for conventional longwall

the development of a time function model of the dynamic processes of

mining,23–25 and c has been determined to be a location-dependent

the subsidence that occurs during overburden grout injection mining is

constant generally related to the rate of progression of the working face,

of utmost importance.

the lithology of the overburden, and the burial depth. For some working

On the basis of the Knothe time function, we analysed how the

faces, when these conditions are ﬁxed, the value of c can be determined

parameters of the isolated overburden grout injection technique af-

and remains constant with time. However, because the conditions of

fected the time parameter, which represents the diﬀerence between

coal mining are highly complex and variable, c substantially diﬀers

conventional longwall mining and mining using the isolated over-

with the location. To address this issue, numerous equations for esti-

burden grout injection technique. On the basis of the ﬁndings, we in-

mating c have been proposed.3,23,25

troduced a time parameter cg into the Knothe time function model. The

new developed time function model enabled the modelling of the sur-

face subsidence during mining with overburden grout injection. Case 2.3. Applicability of the Knothe time function to overburden grout injection

studies of diﬀerent coal mine working faces where the injection tech- mining

nique was employed were used to determine the parameters of the

developed model, the reliability of which was further veriﬁed by ﬁeld To examine the applicability of the Knothe time function model (Eq.

measurement data. (2)) when overburden grout injection is used during mining operations,

we measured the subsidence at the points of maximum subsidence for

2. Theoretical background four diﬀerent working faces with grout injection in the Huaibei coal-

ﬁeld and ﬁtted them to the curves predicted by the Knothe time func-

2.1. Knothe time function model tion model (Fig. 3). Although the correlation coeﬃcients of the ﬁts were

as high as 0.81–0.88, the shapes of the ﬁtted curves substantially dif-

To describe the displacement and deformation of the surface with fered from those of the measured data. For example, the subsidence of

time, Knothe, a Polish mining engineer, proposed the Knothe time Longwall 8103 indicated by the ﬁtted curves were signiﬁcantly larger

function model, which assumes that the rate of subsidence dW (t ) is than the actual measurements up to 5 months, whereas they were sig-

dt

proportional to the diﬀerence between the maximum subsidence W0 niﬁcantly lower thereafter (Fig. 3(d)). This shows that the Knothe

and the dynamic subsidence at some time t, W(t), which may be ex- function model does not accurately describe the dynamic processes of

pressed as the subsidence that occurs when overburden grout injection is em-

ployed in coal mining.

dW (t )

= c (W0 − W (t ))

dt (1)

3. Time function model for mining with overburden grout

where c is the time parameter (1/year). Given the initial boundary injection

condition W(t) = 0 at t = 0 (i.e. W(0) = 0), the time function model

may be derived by solving the following ﬁrst-order linear diﬀerential The main cause of the failure of the Knothe time function to cor-

equation:3,8,14 rectly predict the dynamic subsidence during mining with overburden

W (t ) = W0 [1 − exp(−ct )] (2) grout injection is that the time parameter of the function for this mining

technique, cg, distinctly diﬀers from the conventional longwall mining

time parameter c. Ideally, the subsidence is caused by the propagation

2.2. Time parameter c and its determining factors of the fracture cavities in the overburden resulting from the continuous

progression of the mining space.26,27 Compared to conventional long-

The time parameter c is an important parameter for characterising wall mining, mining with the injection of grout into the overburden

the duration of the subsidence process in the Knothe time function eliminates some of the fracture cavities, thereby terminating their

model. The duration of the subsidence is inversely proportional to the propagation to the surface and signiﬁcantly decreasing the duration of

time parameter c; that is, a larger value of c means that the duration of the surface subsidence. This causes cg to be larger than c.

the subsidence is shorter. Diﬀerent Knothe time parameter curves may The determination of cg is thus key to the development of a time

be obtained by varying the value of c, as shown in Fig. 2, which con- function model for a longwall working face with overburden grout in-

siders the case where the ﬁnal subsidence W0 = −1600 mm. The jection. In this section, we ﬁrst analyse the determining factors of cg and

2

B. Wang et al. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 104 (2018) 1–8

Fig. 3. Comparison of the measured subsidence of coalmine working faces under overburden grout injection in the Huaibei coalﬁeld with the predictions of the Knothe time function: a)

Longwall 8281, b) Longwall 1018, c) Longwall 1044, and d) Longwall 8103.

the variational characteristics of this parameter, and then derive an of the ﬁll from the coal seam increases. An impact coeﬃcient n may be

expression for cg based on the grout injection parameters. The time introduced on this basis to assess the impact of the height of the stratum

parameter cg is then used to develop a new time function model of of the grout injection (i.e. the distance of the injected ﬁll from the coal

longwall mining with overburden grout injection. Finally, the relevant seam) on the time parameter cg.

parameters of actual mining cases were investigated and used to de- In summary, it may be inferred that cg is aﬀected by the factors that

termine those of the proposed model. aﬀect the conventional time parameter c and is proportionally related

to the n-th power of the ﬁll thickness h. Thus, it is supposed that

The time parameter cg of the working faces with overburden grout We have previously established a model of the ﬁll distribution in an

injection is aﬀected by the factors that aﬀect the conventional longwall overburden for the purpose of determining the value of h.21 In the cross

mining time parameter c. However, cg is additionally aﬀected by the section, the ﬁll may be considered to have a graded distribution (Fig. 4),

thickness of the injected ﬁll, h, owing to the ﬁlling of the overburden and the relationship between the thickness of the ﬁll within the over-

fracture cavities. Since cg is inversely correlated with the surface sub- burden (at the centre of the working face) and the volume of the

sidence duration, the relationship between cg and h may be determined compacted ﬁll, Q, may be expressed as

by analysing the relationship between the surface subsidence duration

Q = h (W − H1/ tan φ) L (4)

and h. Incidentally, the surface subsidence duration is closely related to

the dimensions of the mining-induced overburden fracture cavities.

where W is the width of the working face (m), φ is the angle of full

Grout injection into the overburden decreases the total number of

subsidence, and the empirical value of 60° was used for the calculation

mining-induced fracture cavities as well as the propagation time of the

in the Huaibei coalﬁeld28; H1 is the distance between the ﬁll and the

fracture cavities toward the surface, thus decreasing the duration of the

ceiling of the coal seam (m); and L is the advancement length of the

surface subsidence. The decrease in the duration of the subsidence

working face in the grout injection area (m). The volume of the ﬁll may

becomes more pronounced as the thickness of the ﬁll increases. This

be expressed as

indicates that the time parameter cg increases in proportion to the

thickness of the ﬁll h. Q = Vf (t + t0) (5)

Because the number of mining-induced fracture cavities varies with

the depth, the eﬀect of the cavities on the duration of surface sub- where Vf is the ﬁlling rate of the compacted ash (m3/d); t is the duration

sidence would also vary with the depth. Theoretically, the number of of the subsidence at an arbitrary point on the surface (d); and t0 is the

mining-induced fracture cavities decreases as the vertical horizon from duration of the grout injection prior to the subsidence (d). It should be

the coal seam increases. The eﬀect of the fracture cavities on the noted that Vf is actually a variable, but because it only varies within a

duration of the subsidence thus decreases as the depth of the cavities relatively small range, it may be reasonably approximated by its

decreases. Similarly, for a ﬁll with a given thickness, the duration of the average value.

surface subsidence decreases as the distance of the ﬁll from the coal An expression for the time parameter for mining with overburden

seam increases. Hence, the time parameter cg increases as the distance grout injection may be obtained by combining Eqs. (3)–(5), as follows:

3

B. Wang et al. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 104 (2018) 1–8

cg = ac [ ]n (t + t0)n

(W − H1/ tanφ) L (6) working face and the advancement length of the ﬁlled area), geolo-

gical parameters (the angle of full subsidence), grout injection para-

Eq. (6) indicates that the Knothe time parameter cg for mining with

meters (the distance of the grout injection stratum from the coal seam,

overburden grout injection is not constant but varies with the geolo-

the ﬁlling rate of compacted ash, and the grout injection time before

gical setting of the mine, the grout injection parameters, and the time t.

the onset of subsidence), and other relevant coeﬃcients (the constant

It is noted from Eq. (5) that the time parameter and model are only

a, conventional mining time parameter c, and impact coeﬃcient n).

suitable for calculating the dynamic subsidence of the surface points

The new time function will promote further evaluation of the eﬀec-

that begin to move after grout injection.

tiveness of its subsidence control measures and on-the-ﬂy adjustments

of the grout injection parameters.

3.2. Construction of the time function model

3.3. Parameter determination

Substitution of the time parameter for mining with overburden

grout injection, cg (Eq. (6)), into the Knothe hypothesis (Eq. (1)) gives The developed time function model for mining with overburden

dW (t ) Vf grout injection contains the time parameter c for conventional longwall

= ac [ ]n (t + t0)n [W0 − W (t )] mining, the constant coeﬃcient a, and the impact coeﬃcient n. In this

dt (W − H1/ tanφ) L (7)

study, the time parameter c was ﬁrst determined using empirical

The time function model of the dynamic subsidence during mining equations available in the literature, and the other two parameters, a

with overburden grout injection may be obtained by solving Eq. (7) and n, were then determined using the subsidence data obtained from

using W(0) = 0: four working faces in the Huaibei coalﬁeld. The geological, mining, and

grout injection parameters of the four working faces are presented in

⎧ ac [Vf /(LW − LH1/ tanφ)]n n + 1 ⎫ Table 2.

W (t ) = W0 1 − exp ⎧ [t0 − (t + t0)n + 1] ⎫

⎨ ⎨ n + 1 ⎬⎬

⎩ ⎩ ⎭⎭

3.3.1. Determination of the conventional time parameter c

(8)

The time parameter for conventional longwall mining, c, was ob-

To explain superiority of the new time function model, we ﬁtted tained using the equation of Hu et al.3:

the subsidence at the points of maximum subsidence in Longwall 8301 v

with overburden grout injection by the new time function model and c=− ln 0.02

2Hs cot ψs + 2Hj cot ψj (9)

widely used models (Table 1). Although the correlation coeﬃcients of

the ﬁts were as high as 0.82–0.98, the previous models were only where ψs and ψj are respectively the angles of the full subsidence of the

mathematical formulas that did not reﬂect the injected ﬁll char- unconsolidated strata and bedrock (Fig. 5), empirically determined to

acteristics of a working face with overburden grout injection. The new be 45° and 60°, respectively, for the Huaibei coalﬁeld.28 The de-

termined parameters of the working faces were substituted into Eq. (9)

to determine the time parameter c (see Table 3).

Table 1

Fitting results for the subsidence in longwall 8301 by the new time function model and

3.3.2. Determination of the impact coeﬃcient n and constant a

widely used models.

The impact coeﬃcient n and constant a of the four aforementioned

Function R2 working faces could be directly determined by ﬁtting the developed

time function (Eq. (8)) to the measured data of the subsidence with time

1. Knothe W (t ) = W0 [1 − exp(−ct )] 0.82

at the points of maximum subsidence of the considered working faces.

ξ f 0.92

2. Sroka–Schober W (t ) = W0 ⎡1 + exp(−ft ) − exp(−ξt ) ⎤ Because a is a constant, the average value of a for the four working faces

⎣ f−ξ f−ξ ⎦

W0 0.98 (0.18) was adopted as the approximate value of a for the Huaibei

3. Logistic W (t ) =

1 + b exp(−ct )

Mining Area. Fig. 6 shows the ﬁtted curves of the developed time

4. Exponential Knothe W (t ) = W0 [1 − exp(−ct )]k 0.95

function model and the measured subsidence with respect to time of the

5. The new time function 0.99

four considered working faces in the Huaibei coalﬁeld.

ac [Vf / (LW − LH1 / tanφ)]n

{

W (t ) = W0 1 − exp { n+1

[t0n + 1 − (t + t0 )n + 1] }} Next, we developed a method for calculating the impact coeﬃcient

n. According to the deﬁnition of n, it is positively correlated with H1.

4

B. Wang et al. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 104 (2018) 1–8

Table 2

Geological, mining, and grout injection parameters of four grout-injection mining working faces in the Huaibei coalﬁeld.

Working face Hs (m) Hj (m) H1 (m) Vf (m3/d) L (m) W (m) t0 (month) v (m/d)

1018 285 317 99 463 498 167 0.7 1.5

1044 350 268 143 350 497 150 2.5 2.0

8103 230 350 150 488 250 184 0.8 2.4

Hs: thickness of the unconsolidated formations; Hj: thickness of the bedrock; v: advancement speed of the working face.

Table 3

Parameters of the developed time function model of four working faces in the Huaibei Fig. 7. Comparison of the ﬁtted and measured values of the impact coeﬃcient n of the

coalﬁeld. considered working faces.

Hence, the ﬁtting of n was performed using H1/Hj, and the relationship

8281 0.65 4.14 0.21

between H1/Hj and n for the working faces of the Huaibei coalﬁeld was

1018 0.19 0.97 0.19

1044 0.23 3.41 0.18 determined to be n = 11H1/Hj – 2.7 (Fig. 7). The ﬁtting revealed that,

8103 0.33 1.62 0.16 for a given bedrock thickness, the eﬀect of the ﬁll thickness on the time

parameter cg increased as the distance of the injection stratum from the

ceiling of the coal seam increased.

Fig. 6. Fitted curves of the developed function model and measured subsidence with respect to time of the four considered working faces: a) Longwall 8281, b) Longwall 1018, c)

Longwall 1044, and d) Longwall 8103.

5

B. Wang et al. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 104 (2018) 1–8

Fig. 8. Plan of the 7226 working face and a picture of the nearby surface buildings.

4. Experimental validation injection area are shown in Fig. 8. Detailed descriptions of the grout

injection process and the monitoring of surface subsidence are available

4.1. Geological setting and mining conditions in the work of Teng et al.16

4.2. Extraction of the time function model parameters

using it to predict the dynamic subsidence of the 7226 working face of

the Yuandian No. 2 coal mine in Huaibei, China. The predictions were

The bedrock thickness of the 7226 working face, Hj, is 213 m, and

compared with the ﬁeld measurements. Numerous buildings are located

the distance of the ﬁll from the coal seam, H1, is 78 m. Substituting

on the surface around the mine working face (Fig. 8), which has a

these values into n = 11H1/Hj – 2.7 yields an impact coeﬃcient n of

mining height, an advancement length, and a mining width of 5.0 m,

1.3. As noted earlier, the value of the constant coeﬃcient a is 0.18. In

860 m, and 180 m, respectively. Because surface buildings are parti-

addition, from Eq. (9), the conventional longwall mining time para-

cularly located beside the termination line of the working face, coal

meter c was determined to be 0.32.

recovery is performed via direct longwall caving over the ﬁrst 544 m

along the advancement length. To protect the surface buildings, the

isolated overburden grout injection technique is only used over the ﬁnal 4.3. Results and analyses of the predictions

316 m of the advancement length.

Four grout injection boreholes were directly drilled during extrac- The developed time function model was used to predict the sub-

tion within 316 m of the termination line of Longwall 7226. The ﬁrst sidence of the B4–B9 monitoring stations (measurement points) of the

was drilled 300 m from the termination line. However, it has been 7226 working face (Fig. 9). The time interval t0 for each of these points

observed from experience that the grout injected through the ﬁrst is 0.27 months, which implies that grout injection is continuously

borehole does not strictly diﬀuse in the forward direction owing to the performed for 0.27 months beginning at the onset of surface displace-

diﬃculty of preventing backward diﬀusion.22 The backward dispersion ment at the measurement points. It should be noted that the predicted

of the injected grout is estimated to extend over 100 m, which makes values of the ﬁnal subsidence W0 for measurement points B4–B9 agree

the length of the overburden grout injection area for the working face well with the measured values.

approximately 400 m. Compacted-ash grout was injected through a To quantify the accuracy of the predictions, the following equations

stratum 78 m above the coal seam with an average ﬁlling rate of were respectively used to obtain the root mean square errors (RMSEs)

818 m3/d. The subsidence of the surface was observed throughout the and relative standard errors (RSEs) of the predictions relative to the

grout injection process. The measurement points within the grout measured values:

6

B. Wang et al. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 104 (2018) 1–8

working face with overburden grout injection. A method for de-

termining the parameters of the developed model was established

through case studies of several overburden grout injection working

faces in the Huaibei Coalﬁeld. The proposed model was experimentally

validated by ﬁeld measurements.

However, it is noted that the developed model is only suitable for

working faces with a uniform grout injection rate. Moreover, owing to

some constraints that were imposed during its development, it can only

be used to predict the dynamic subsidence at a surface point that begins

to subside after the commencement of grout injection. In addition, the

values of some of the model parameters determined in this work, such

as a and n, are only suitable for the Huaibei coalﬁeld in China, having

been calibrated on the basis of the conditions of the mining area.

Fig. 9. Comparison of the dynamic subsidence measured at points B4–B9 with the pre- Nonetheless, the proposed dynamic subsidence model promises to sig-

dictions of the developed time function model. niﬁcantly facilitate on-the-ﬂy control of the grout injection parameters

and real-time assessment of surface subsidence.

Table 4

Prediction accuracies for the diﬀerent measurement points. Acknowledgements

Measurement point RMSE (mm) RSE (%) This study was ﬁnancially supported by the Natural Science

B4 7.1 7.7

Foundation of China (Grant No. 51604258) and the Independent

B5 7.2 4.7 Research Projects of State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe

B6 12.3 5.3 Mining, China University of Mining and Technology (Grant No.

B7 19.7 4.7 SKLCRSM15X06).

B8 30.7 5.5

B9 57.0 8.6

References

1. Liu BC, Liao GH. Surface Movements in Coal Mines. Beijing: China Industry Publishing

∑ di2

m=± House; 1965.

N (10) 2. Guéguen Y, Deﬀontaines B, Fruneau B, et al. Monitoring residual mining subsidence

of Nord/Pas-de-Calais coal basin from diﬀerential and Persistent Scatterer

m Interferometry (Northern France). J Appl Geophys. 2009;69(1):24–34.

f= 3. Hu QF, Deng XB, Feng RM, Li CY, Wang XJ, Jiang T. Model for calculating the

Wm (11) parameter of the Knothe time function based on angle of full subsidence. Int J Rock

Mech Min. 2015;78:19–26.

where m is the RMSE, f is the RSE, di is the diﬀerence between the 4. Can E, Mekik Ç, Kuşcu Ş, Akçın H. Monitoring deformations on engineering struc-

predicted and measured values at the i-th measurement point, Wm is the tures in Kozlu Hard Coal Basin. Nat Hazards. 2013;65(3):2311–2330.

maximum subsidence at the measurement point, and N is the number of 5. Donnelly LJ, De LA, Cruz H, Asmar I, Zapata O, Perez JD. The monitoring and pre-

diction of mining subsidence in the Amaga, Angelopolis, Venecia and Bolombolo

measurements and predications. The results for the diﬀerent measure- Regions, Antioquia, Colombia. Eng Geol. 2001;59(1):103–114.

ment points are presented in Table 4. 6. Cui XM, Wang JC, Liu YS. Prediction of progressive surface subsidence above long-

The maximum RSE for the six measurement points was 8.6% with wall coal mining using a time function. Int J Rock Mech Min. 2001;38(7):1057–1063.

7. Gonzalez-Nicieza C, Alvarez-Fernandez MI, Menendez-Diaz A, Alvarez-Vigil AE. The

an average value of only 6.1%, which indicates a high reliability level

inﬂuence of time on subsidence in the Central Asturian Coalﬁeld. Bull Eng Geol

for the predictions. The RMSEs for measurement points B4–B8 ranged Environ. 2007;66(3):319–329.

between 7.1 and 30.7 mm, which is much smaller than 57.0 mm for 8. Knothe S. Eﬀect of time on formation of basin subsidence. Arch Min Steel Ind.

point B9. This is because points B4–B8 were located within the area of 1953;1(1):1–7.

9. Kwinta A, Hejmanowski R, Sroka A. A time function analysis used for the prediction

the working face that received an adequate amount of grout injection of rock mass subsidence. In: Mining Science and Technology, YG Gui & TS Golosinski,

and were thus minimally aﬀected compared to the mining areas ed, Proceeding of the International Symposium on Mining Science and Technology.

without grout injection. Therefore, the accuracy of the predictions for Xuzhou; 1996:419–424.

10. Nie L, Wang HF, Xu Y, Li ZC. A new prediction model for mine subsidence de-

these measurement points was quite high. Conversely, measurement formation: the arc tangent function model. Nat Hazards. 2015;75(3):2185–2198.

point B9 was close to the un-injected area and thus beneﬁtted mini- 11. Xu HZ, Li XH. Time function of surface subsidence based on logistic growth model.

mally from grout injection, resulting in poorer predictions. Rock Soil Mech. 2005;26:151–153.

12. Peng XZ, Cui XM, Zang YQ, Wang Y, Yuan DB. Time function and prediction of

progressive surface movements and deformations. J Univ Sci Technol Beijing.

5. Conclusions 2004;26(4):341–344.

13. Chang ZQ, Wang JZ. Study on time function of surface subsidence—the improved

Knothe time function. Chin J Rock Mech Eng. 2003;22(9):1496–1499.

To ensure the safety of surface structures above the longwall panels, 14. Liu YC, Zhuang YH. Model for dynamic process of ground surface subsidence due to

it is necessary to obtain a thorough understanding of the dynamic underground mining. Rock Soil Mech. 2009;30:3406–3410.

15. Gao YF, Jia JY, Li B, Zhang QS. The attenuation function of surface subsidence and

surface subsidence associated with mining. In this study, a new time

stability analysis due to mining. J China Coal Soc. 2009;34(7):892–896.

function model was developed to predict the dynamic subsidence that 16. Teng H, Xu JL, Xuan DY, Wang BL. Surface subsidence characteristics of grout in-

occurs in the grout-injected overburden of a coal mine during over- jection into overburden: case study of Yuandian No. 2 coalmine, China. Environ Earth

burden grout injection mining. Sci. 2016;75:1–11.

17. Xu JL, Xuan DY, Zhu WB, Wang XZ, Wang BL, Teng H. Study and application of coal

This function includes the mining parameters (the width of the mining with partial backﬁlling. J China Coal Soc. 2015;40(6):1303–1312.

working face and the advancement length of the ﬁlled area), a geolo- 18. Xu JL, Ni JM, Xuan DY, Wang XZ. Coal mining technology without village relocation

gical parameter (the angle of full subsidence), grout injection para- by isolated grout injection into overburden. Coal Sci Technol. 2015;43(12):8–11.

19. Xuan DY, Wang BL, Xu JL. A shared borehole approach for coal-bed methane drai-

meters (the distance of the grout injection stratum from the coal seam, nage and ground stabilization with grouting. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci.

the ﬁlling rate of compacted ash, and the grout injection time before the 2016;86:235–244.

onset of subsidence), and other relevant coeﬃcients (the constant a, 20. Xuan DY, Xu JL, Wang BL, Teng H. Borehole investigation of the eﬀectiveness of

grout injection technology on coal mine subsidence control. Rock Mech Rock Eng.

conventional mining time parameter c, and impact coeﬃcient n). The

7

B. Wang et al. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 104 (2018) 1–8

2015;48(6):2435–2445. 25. Wu K. A programme of mining subsidence dynamic prediction and its application.

21. Xuan DY, Xu JL, Wang BL, Teng H. Investigation of ﬁll distribution in post-injected Eng Surv Map. 1995;4(3):44–48.

longwall overburden with implications for grout take estimation. Eng Geol. 26. Palchik V. Experimental investigation of apertures of mining-induced horizontal

2016;206:71–82. fractures. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci. 2010;47(3):502–508.

22. Xuan DY, Xu JL. Grout injection into bed separation to control surface subsidence 27. Palchik V. Localization of mining-induced horizontal fractures along rock layer in-

during longwall mining under villages: case study of Liudian coal mine, China. Nat terfaces in overburden: ﬁeld measurements and prediction. Environ Geol.

Hazards. 2014;73(2):883–906. 2005;48(1):68–80.

23. Hu QF, Cui XM, Kang XL, Lei B, Ma KF, Li LC. Impact of parameter on Knothe time 28. State Bureau of Coal Industry. Regulations of Coal Pillar Design and Extraction for

function and its calculation model. J Min Saf Eng. 2014;31(1):122–126. Buildings, Water Bodies, Railways, Main Shafts and Roadways. Beijing: Coal Industry

24. Li DH. Inﬂuence of cover rock characteristics on time inﬂuencing parameters in Press; 2000.

process of surface movement. Chin J Rock Mech Eng. 2004;23(22):3780–3784.

- partnerlessonkatherinebertaciniandcolbywagnerTransféré parapi-355414101
- Coal India Probation Closure Exam QuestionsTransféré parAjeet Kumar
- Mining_IQ E-book_Edition31.pdfTransféré parChute-Nine
- Vacancies IndonesiaTransféré parBro Fahroe
- A 3-D Semi-Analytical Method for Subsidence Prediction and Stress Analysis in Coal MiningTransféré parrannscribd
- Cross Function PresentationTransféré parraja parulian halomoan
- Market Research Reports & Analysis _ IBISWorld AUTransféré parbackch9011
- Document FrameTransféré partinhodd
- Legal Memo_Finals requirement.docxTransféré parIrene Cristina Gono
- Mechanisation Vs AccidentsTransféré parVenkat
- Notice: Agency information collection activities; proposals, submissions, and approvalsTransféré parJustia.com
- Information Sheet 2Transféré parRajesh Singh
- DOC-20180510-WA0048Transféré parPrabir Ghosh
- Kuliah 7 - Surface Mining Terrace.pdfTransféré parAzman Azman
- The Coal Resource, A Comprehensive Overview of Coal (World Coal Institute)Transféré paralabamacoal
- Ernst & Young: Canadian Mining Eye Q4 2013Transféré parInvestor Relations Vancouver
- The Stamp Milling of Gold Ores; - Rickard, T. a. (Thomas Arthur),Transféré parDick Canuk
- Kinross Mine Planning Best PracticeTransféré paralvaroaac4
- Group discussion about small and large scale mining in the PhilippinesTransféré parLovely Conde
- (Africa) - SimracTransféré parlucccavl
- 04052012Transféré parAkshat Jaswal
- Yamana Presentacion Corporativa 2014Transféré parmariobaudino
- minesightTransféré parHenri Febriansyah
- The Central Theme in Sand MiningTransféré parNandeep Nadella
- ISSMGE_BULLETIN_2016_JUN-FINAL.pdfTransféré parErnest Olinic
- MiningTransféré parARIES C. BULLO
- 893029Transféré parAziz Amin
- Philippine Mining Act of 1995 -Report ConsolidatedTransféré parDonvidachiye Liwag Cena
- session 1: Introduction_y_planning_processTransféré parGustavo Salazar Fernandez
- KETO Pumps_KETO Pumps Impeller Upgrade Dramatically Increases Plant Uptime_0Transféré parrabbidhaggis

- beginners-guide-psychometric-test-jobtestprep.pdfTransféré parSriraghuraman Gopal Rathnam
- beginners-guide-psychometric-test-jobtestprep.pdfTransféré parSriraghuraman Gopal Rathnam
- beginners-guide-psychometric-test-jobtestprep.pdfTransféré parSriraghuraman Gopal Rathnam
- manual_4_1Transféré parJuan Pérez
- Glencore - Preparing for Successful Interivew.pdfTransféré parWelsinsin Kevin Sin
- Glencore - Preparing for Successful Interivew.pdfTransféré parWelsinsin Kevin Sin
- Glencore - Preparing for Successful Interivew.pdfTransféré parWelsinsin Kevin Sin
- Для Просмотра Статьи Разгадайте Капчу_2Transféré parWelsinsin Kevin Sin
- KomOP-934-SAMEHADAKU.TV.PDFTransféré parWelsinsin Kevin Sin
- 12.12.0013 Mohammad Hendri SetiawanTransféré parAldo San Fransisco
- 10.1016@j.marpetgeo.2018.02.002Transféré parWelsinsin Kevin Sin
- ArcNLET AGIS-based Software to Simulate Ground Water NitrateTransféré parWelsinsin Kevin Sin
- okTransféré parWelsinsin Kevin Sin
- Matrix InversTransféré parWelsinsin Kevin Sin
- kalkulus II.docxTransféré parMISBAHUL MUAFFAN
- UTANGTransféré parWelsinsin Kevin Sin
- Beranda.pdfTransféré parWelsinsin Kevin Sin
- MEMORIA_MartaBenito.pdfTransféré parWelsinsin Kevin Sin
- Macro ExcelTransféré paroseuka
- SHillTransféré parsrivasthu
- gag-ch-21-170717044359Transféré parWelsinsin Kevin Sin
- PetaTransféré parWelsinsin Kevin Sin
- NPVTransféré parLa Ode Raemaka
- Ust Rat Pub HistoryTransféré parWelsinsin Kevin Sin
- Underground Pressure Characteristics Analysis in Back-gully Mining of Shallow Coal Seam Under a Bedrock Gully SlopeTransféré parWelsinsin Kevin Sin
- Underground Mining of Thick Coal SeamsTransféré parWelsinsin Kevin Sin
- Kisi2 Tkd Dari Anak STANTransféré parPandey d'Gunnerz
- International CV A4Transféré parzaheerabbasi
- European Cv FormatTransféré parSzima Szabolcs

- Wooldridge.solutions.chap.2 6Transféré parBurner
- cal_man_EL531_509Transféré parTeodor Violeta
- 1984 Vitter Faster Random SamplingTransféré parDiego Alejandro Guzman Bass
- overarching eus and eqsTransféré parapi-267873526
- Alg Complete AssignmentsTransféré partanzeil
- The Stability of Barycentric Interpolation at TheTransféré parGodwin Larry
- Hydrodynamic Design and Analysis of a Swirling Flow GeneratorTransféré parrone2000
- ASTM D341pdf.pdfTransféré parPedro Alua
- Fetkovich Decline Curve Analysis Using Type CurvesTransféré parhorns2034
- SummarizationTransféré parreena
- UntitledTransféré parkuldeep_00ei32
- (Lecture Notes in Mathematics 2034) Andrea Bonfiglioli, Roberta Fulci (Auth.)-Topics in Noncommutative Algebra_ the Theorem of Campbell, Baker, Hausdorff and Dynkin -Springer-Verlag Berlin HeidelbergTransféré parVictor Alfonso
- Overtone Cheat SheetTransféré parjsennek
- Solucionario Acemoglu.pdfTransféré parJaime Andrés
- exponentials and logarithms unit planTransféré parapi-309293236
- MTH141 Syllabus Spring 2011Transféré parschreckk118
- DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS FULL.pdfTransféré parIrah Mae Escaro Custodio
- Math 112 LMUTransféré parVijay Palanivel
- 811 Chapter Wise Analysis of Questions Asked in Last 9 Years of AieeeTransféré parAkshay Gupta
- Perturbation Methods Supplementary NotesTransféré parZarqa Mirani
- Gen Math Pre TestTransféré pardianne
- MA 16010 Study GuideTransféré parPreston Wong
- Octave PlottingTransféré par88915334
- ReadmeTransféré parneil pajadan
- commands.xlsTransféré parJosé Javier Marrero
- Technical TCS c n C Plus Paper [Www.students3k.com]Transféré parSiva Krishna
- Math 117calculus i (2015 1) SyllabusTransféré parMunira Binte Mostafa
- Math HL Book.pdfTransféré parEduardo Nagel
- (Encyclopedia of Mathematics and Its Applications 85) R. B. Paris, D. Kaminski-Asymptotics and Mellin-Barnes Integrals-Cambridge University PreTransféré parm_hsdr9735
- Chapter_09 Exponential ModelsTransféré parJacob Bains