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TENDERING GENERAL

TENDERING

Worksection application
This worksection reflects the principles of the main Australian codes of practice, including AS 4120 (Code of tendering) which is
cited in a number of state governments codes of practice. A tender pro-forma is also provided. The worksection assumes head-
contract tendering and so does not deal with tendering for nominated subcontractors and suppliers. The worksection is
applicable to non-contractual material and so does not form part of the contract documents.

1 CONDITIONS OF TENDERING

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: Provide a complete bona fide tender.
This worksection should be edited to suit the requirements of the project. It covers material sometimes given in the invitation to
tender and tender form, permitting those documents to be brief and simple.

1.2 GENERAL
Status
General: These conditions of tendering will not form part of the contract.
Code of practice
General: Tendering procedure will be in accordance with the principles of the following:
>
The code of practice, if any, which the principal will comply with and which the tenderers are to comply with e.g. AS 4120.
Definition
General: In these conditions of tendering, the word “principal” has the same meaning as “owner” and
“proprietor”.
ABIC MW-1 and ABIC SW-1 use the term “owner”. Delete if AS 2124 or AS 4000 is used, both of which use the term “principal”.
Number of tenders invited >

Anticipated order of cost >


Delete if you prefer not to give an indication of anticipated cost to tenderers.

1.3 PROJECT INFORMATION


Refer to RAIA Advisory Note AN15.08.101 clause 2.1, and to AS 4120 clauses 4(i) and 6.1.2. Topics covered in these
references deal mainly with the contents of the tender documents, most of which are addressed in this worksection. Provisional
sums, nominated sub-contracts and separate contracts are dealt with, and the number of documents, including envelopes and
pro-formas, is discussed. The principal may be asked by tenderers to provide proof of ability to fund the project.
Outline description of the works >
Provide an outline description if it assists in identifying the project. A scope of works is often considered ill advised.
Description of the site
Location: >
e.g. title, address.
Investigations carried out: >
e.g. geotechnical, environmental, traffic studies.
Tender documents
The tender documents comprise the following:
- These conditions of tendering.
- Tender form.
- Schedule of rates.

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TENDERING GENERAL

- Bills of quantities.
- General conditions of contract.
- Geotechnical site investigation reports, as follows:
>
- Special conditions of contract.
- Appendix or annexure to general conditions of contract, partly pre-completed.
- Specifications.
- Drawings.
- Nominated subcontracts.
- Deeds of novation for nominated subcontracts.
- Subcontract interfacing information, including services and facilities.
- Other documents issued by the principal for the purpose of tendering, as follows:
>
Edit as appropriate. For example, there may be no special conditions of contract. Tender costing requirements are a major
factor in selecting the documents to be issued to tenderers. If a simple lump sum is all that’s required, schedules of rates and
contractual bills of quantities will not be necessary. If contractual bills are to be priced, a schedule of rates is not necessary, and
only general arrangement drawings need be issued – even the specification may not be issued. In this case, the specification
and other drawings should be available for examination by tenderers. The documents themselves should state whether they are
contractual, for information only, or to be completed by tenderers. In the pre-completed appendix or annexure of the contract,
indicate which items are negotiable, if any.
Security: Do not disclose to third parties tender documents marked with a classification such as
“Restricted”, “Confidential” or “Secret”, except with prior written approval of the principal and subject to
conditions imposed.

1.4 FURTHER INFORMATION


Refer to RAIA Advisory Note AN15.08.101 clauses 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5, and to AS 4120 clauses 6.2.2, 6.2.4, 6.2.5 and 7.3.
Topics covered in these references include nomination of a contact officer, tender period, inquiries and amendments, evaluation
of tender documents, site inspection, meetings with principal, and information made available to non-tenderers.
Contact person
Rules for the behaviour of this person are given in the codes of tendering. This person should facilitate visits to the site and the
viewing of useful material, such as models, mock-ups and the like, by tenderers.
Ideally inquiries, notification of discrepancies etc., should be advised to the contact person in good time e.g. no later than a
week before the close of the tender period.
Inquiries: Refer inquiries to the following:
- Name: >
- Telephone: >
- Facsimile: >
Examination
General: A full set of documents is available for examination, which may be arranged through the
contact person.
If only the general arrangement drawings (e.g. 1:100) are issued to tenderers (e.g. where a contractual bill is provided), other
drawings – especially details – should also be available for examination.
Other material available for examination: >
May include models, photographs, prototypes, reports and studies.
Site inspections
General: Information on dates and times at which the site will be available for inspection can be
obtained from the contact person.
If a visit has been pre-arranged, say so (venue, time, date).
Conferences
General: Information on dates and times of tender conferences can be obtained from the contact
person.
If a meeting has been pre-arranged, say so (venue, time, date).

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TENDERING GENERAL

Addenda
General: Written addenda issued by the principal are the only recognised explanations of, or
amendments to, the tender documents.

1.5 PREPARATION OF TENDERS


Refer to RAIA Advisory Note AN15.08.103 and to codes of tendering as follows AS 4120 clauses 4(d), (f), (g), (h) and (k), and
clauses 7.1, 7.4 and 7.5.
Topics covered in these references include conditions of tendering, provision of supplementary information, design by
tenderers, ethical formulation of tenders (particularly attestation of probity, and tenderers to bid only if genuine and capable),
and conditions for submission of alternative tenders.
Tender form
See the instruction to the Tender form.
Form: Submit the tender on the Tender form provided.
Addenda: Confirm on the Tender form that allowance has been made of each addendum and any
extensions of the tender period.
Name and address of tenderer: State the following:
- If an individual, the name in full and address of the individual.
- If an unincorporated body, the registered business name and address of the body and the name in
full and address of each member of the body.
- If a company, the name, ABN and registered office address of the company.
Address for service of notices: Include on the Tender form an address for service of notices for the
purpose of this tender and any subsequent contract arising out of this tender.
Execution: Sign the Tender form or, if a company, comply with the relevant provisions of the
Corporations Law and regulations.
Scope
Scope: Tender for the whole of the work described in the tender documents unless the tender
documents provide otherwise.
Exclusions: If unable to tender on parts of the works, inform the contact person in writing as soon as
possible, defining the relevant parts and giving reasons.
Completion
General: Complete in full the Tender form and other required documents.
Alterations: Do not alter or add to tender documents except as may be required by these conditions of
tendering.
Selected subcontracts
General: Submit with the tender the identity of subcontractors proposed for selected subcontract work.
Alternatives
Alternative proposals are encouraged (i.e. innovation), provided that a conforming tender is also submitted. The codes deal with
the tenderer’s rights to intellectual property, and design work expected of tenderers.
Examples of alternative methods include use of the contractor’s own proprietary windows, precast concrete floors rather than in
situ, or a different type of foundation pile.
General: Alternative proposals may be submitted with the tender for consideration, but:
- A conforming tender must be submitted, which complies with the tender documents.
- A detailed description of the alternative must be submitted, stating clearly the manner in which it
differs from the requirements of the tender documents whilst complying with the principal’s
commercial and technical objectives.
Alternative time for practical completion: Consideration will be given to alternative tenders which offer
different times for practical completion. The prescribed liquidated damages will apply to those different
times.
Alternative working hours and working days: If the tender includes an allowance for work at times
other than the working hours or working days prescribed in the tender documents, submit the working
hours and days proposed.

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TENDERING GENERAL

Evidence of contractor’s registration or licensing


General: If it is a statutory requirement of the state or territory in which the works are located that a
contractor (as defined by the statutory requirement) be registered or licensed to carry out the work
described in the tender documents, submit with the tender evidence of registration or licence.
Delete where pre-tender evaluation has dealt with this issue.
Supporting costing information
Complete and submit the following supporting costing information:
>
Time for submission: >
If more than a simple lump sum is required. Supporting information may comprise priced bills of quantities, a priced specification
(rare), a priced schedule of rates, or a contract sum analysis. Edit the Tender form to match these requirements. The tender
documents should include pro-formas, with instructions as necessary.
Priced bills of quantities may be submitted with the tenders, but in separate envelopes, or as soon as possible after the tenders
– say, within 4 working days. Likewise the other items, whichever is required, may be required to be submitted with the tender,
within one week of request, before execution of the contract, or whenever.
If an unpriced schedule of rates is not provided, but a priced schedule is required, stipulate the items of work to be priced. State
whether the rates are to include contractor’s overheads and profit. You may care to define default rates and prices in the event
none are provided by tenderers e.g. award rates plus 100%, unit prices in Rawlinsons “Australian Construction Handbook”
(state which edition).
Similarly, for a contract sum analysis, state the categories required for the breakdown.

Design and documentation


Undertake and submit the following design and documentation work:
>
Cost: The cost of this work will not be reimbursed.
Alternatively, for example, “The cost of this work will be reimbursed. Advise the cost of this work”.
Time for submission: >
Prototypes
Produce and submit the following prototypes: >
Cost: The cost of this work will not be reimbursed.
Alternatively, for example, “The cost of this work will be reimbursed. Advise the cost of this work”.
Time for submission: >
Program
General: Submit a construction program in the form of a preliminary bar chart and network diagram,
showing the following:
- Sequence of work.
- Periods within which various stages or parts of the work are to be executed.
- Critical paths of activities related to the work.
- Allowance for holidays.
- Restraints imposed by the contract documents.
- Significant milestones including separable parts, if any.
- Activity inter-relationships, including those activities to be undertaken by subcontractors and
suppliers, both on and off site.
- External dependencies including provision of access, document approvals and work by others.
- The estimated value of work completed for each month.
Edit to suit the project. It is generally advisable to obtain at least a summary before accepting the tender. The contractor may fail
to produce the construction program proper in a timely manner, and you should check that the tenderer’s proposals will not
cause problems with supply of information, site access, early partial possession, etc.
Time for submission: >
Method statements
Submit method statements describing proposals for the following:
>

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TENDERING GENERAL

Use where methods or sequences of construction will have significant implications which need to be considered at tender stage.
Examples include interior refurbishment and decanting, re-roofing and temporary roof, excavating and forming retaining walls to
deep basements and access proposals to restricted sites.
Time for submission: >
Quality system
Optional. Delete if QA is not required. A statement of proposed quality control resources may be sought instead.
Tenderer’s submission: Submit a statement of quality control resources.
Alternative: Import the quality system requirements set out in the Commentary and include here as default text.

1.6 SUBMISSION OF TENDERS


Refer to RAIA Advisory Note AN15.08.105 and AS 4120 clauses 6.1.2(i) and 6.4. Topics covered in these references include
defaults for closing date and time, and methods of lodgement.
Lodgement
Procedure: Enclose tenders in a sealed envelope marked with the description of the work and tender
item (if any) and lodge in the tender box at, or send by prepaid post to, the nominated place, by the
date and time for closing of tenders.
Facsimile: Facsimile tenders received by the date and time for closing of tenders may be considered
provided that a conforming tender, in the form required, is submitted within 24 hours.
Oral tenders: Oral tenders will not be considered.
Franking: Impressions of franking machines are not acceptable evidence of timely posting or dispatch.
Supporting information: Enclose in a separate sealed envelope marked with the description of the
work and the identity of the tenderer.
Late tenders
Prepaid post or facsimile: Late tenders submitted by prepaid post or facsimile may be considered, if
the principal is satisfied that in the ordinary course of post or transmission they would have been
received by the date and time for closing of tenders.
Hand delivery: Late tenders delivered by hand may be considered if the principal is satisfied that under
normal circumstances they would have been received by the date and time for closing of tenders and
that the delay was beyond the control of the tenderer.
Other: Late tenders sent by other forms of delivery or transmission will not be considered.
Closing of tenders
Generally allow at least 4 weeks. See AS 4120 clause 6.4 for defaults.
Date: >
Time: >
Place for lodgement
Tender box location: >
Address for postal tenders: >

1.7 PROCEDURES AFTER TENDER PERIOD


Refer to RAIA Advisory Note AN15.08.105 and to AS 4120 clauses 4(j), 4(l), 6.3, 6.5, 6.6, 7.2 and 8.
Topics covered in these references include return of tender documents, confidentiality and rights to intellectual property, late
tenders, tender validity period, opening of tenders, errors in tenders, time extension if too few received, re-calling tenders,
notification of tenderers, ethical evaluation of tenders including criteria, non-conforming tenders, tender negotiation, publication
of tenders, return of tender documents, tender report and recommendations, interviews, initiation of contract and preparation of
contract documents.
On qualified tenders, see also RAIA Advisory Note AN15.08.601.
Tender validity period
General: Unless withdrawn, tenders must remain valid from the date and time for closing of tenders,
for the following period: >
Commonly no more than 4 weeks, rarely more than 8 weeks. Stipulate here, or require tenderers to nominate on the tender
form.
Public opening of tenders
Date: >
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TENDERING GENERAL

Time: >
Public acknowledgment of tenders received
General: A list of tenderers may be posted by the close of business on the day following the closing of
tenders. Do not consider this listing to be advice of which tender, if any, will be accepted.
Location of notice board: >
Evaluation of tenders
Edit the list to suit the project (e.g. CADD format is significant only where a lot of design work will be required of the contractor,
and where the principal has particular requirements). Some of these criteria should have largely been resolved during the pre-
tender period e.g. resources, experience, commitments and performance.
If listing the criteria in order of priority, say so. Weightings would also be very useful to tenderers.
Refer also to the CIDA (Construction and Industry Development Agency) Pre-Qualification Criteria, CIDA 17, 18 and 19
(available from Standards Australia).
General: In evaluating the tenders, the principal may take into consideration the following:
- Conformity with tender documents.
- Capital cost compared with estimated cost.
- Construction period.
- Proposed use of local subcontractors and suppliers.
- Proposed alternatives.
- Alternative working times proposed by the tenderer, and the cost to the principal of providing
contract administration for the work under the contract at those times.
- Maintenance and running costs.
- Design proposals.
- Quality of prototypes.
- Construction program.
- Proposed methods.
- Quality assurance.
- Conflicts of interest.
- Life of proposed equipment.
- Standardisation of proposed equipment.
- Tenderer’s CADD format.
- Value for money.
- Tenderer’s resources.
- Tenderer’s current commitments.
- Tenderer’s previous performance.
- Industrial relations and safety records.
Qualifications: Tenders containing unauthorised alterations, additions or qualifications may be
rejected.
Unpriced items: Costs relating to items not priced will be assumed to have been included elsewhere in
the tender.
Correction of errors in tenders >
State procedures e.g. “Correction of errors in priced bills of quantities is not permitted”. See AS 2124 clause 4.3, AS 4000
clause 2.3. If correction is not permitted, the preferred tenderer (in error) is given the choice of confirming or withdrawing his/her
offer. If correction is permitted, the preferred tenderer is given the choice of confirming or correcting genuine errors in his/her
offer. The choice, and corrections, should all be in writing. In either case, if the tenderer confirms the offer, the priced bill (if any)
should be endorsed to the effect that all rates or prices (except preliminary items and provisional sums) are reduced or
increased in the same proportion as the corrected total. The endorsement should be signed by both parties to the contract.
Arithmetical evaluation of tenders should be confidential; for larger projects a quantity surveyor should be used, particularly
where priced bills are submitted.
Additional information
General: If required, submit additional information, by the stipulated date and time, to allow further
consideration of the tender before any tender is accepted. Failure to meet this requirement may result
in the tender being rejected.

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TENDERING GENERAL

Confidentiality
General: Treat as confidential any information provided after the tender period.
Acceptance of tender
Non-acceptance: The principal is not bound to accept the lowest or any tender, nor to give reasons.
Establish and document reasons for non-acceptance, particularly where the lowest tender is not accepted (unlikely except in
public tenders).
Acceptance: A tender is not accepted until notice in writing of acceptance is:
- Handed to the tenderer.
- Sent by prepaid post to, or left at, the address for service of notices stated in the Tender form.
- Transmitted by facsimile to the tenderer’s facsimile number.
The date of acceptance of tender may be contractually significant. See, for example, AS 2124 clauses 5.4, 5.10, 6.2 and 33.1,
and AS 4000 clauses 6 and 32.
Partial acceptance: Tenders may be accepted for the whole of the work or for the following specific
worksections: >
Include if worksections of work may be awarded separately and state what contracts may be awarded separately.
Formal instrument of agreement: Required.
This paragraph exercises the option in AS 2124 clause 6.2 and AS 4000 clause 6, which describes the procedure for
preparation and execution. AS 2127 is the matching form of the formal instrument of agreement. See also AS 2124 clause 6.1.
Delete the paragraph if not required, or where ABIC MW-1 or ABIC SW-1 are used.
Arrangements for return of tender documents
>
Terms of refund of tender documents deposit:
>
Terms of refund of tender documents deposit: e.g. return of tender documents undamaged within 2 weeks of notification of
acceptance of tender.
Period between acceptance of tender and possession of site
Anticipated maximum period: >
Delete if date for possession is given elsewhere.

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TENDERING GENERAL

2 TENDER FORM

Name of principal
Name of project
Tender
I/We tender to perform the work for the above project as described in, and in accordance with, the
tender documents referenced in the Conditions of tendering and in accordance with the attached
Schedule of rates/Contract sum analysis/priced Bills of quantities and for the lump sum (which
includes specified provisional sums) of
…………………………………………………………………….. including GST (sum in words and figures)
The contract duration will be ....................................................weeks from the date of site possession.
This tender remains open for consideration for ........................weeks from the date and time of closing
of the tender period.
I/We acknowledge the receipt of addenda numbered .......................................during the tender period.
Name of tenderer
ABN/ACN
Telephone
Facsimile
Tenderer’s address or registered business
office address
Address for service of notices
Tenderer’s bank and branch address
Execution if tenderer is an individual or
unincorporated body
Tenderer’s signature
Witness’ signature
Execution of tenderer is a company
The common seal of the tenderer was affixed in
accordance with the Articles of Association
Director’s signature
Secretary’s signature
OR
Authorised officer’s signature
Witness’ signature
Date of tender

Customise the form to suit the project, before issuing. Leave in keywords and relevant instructions to tenderers. Tenderers may
retype the form. See also the subclause Tender form, in the Conditions of tendering, which gives further instructions to
tenderers.
Name of principal
Specifier to complete. Offer is to the principal.
Name of project
Specifier to complete.
Tender
Tender documents may need to be listed, by the specifier, in their entirety. See AS 2125 for example.
Specifier to edit costing information requirements initially. Options include the following:

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TENDERING GENERAL

• Lump sum only.


• Lump sum and one of Schedule of rates, Contract sum analysis or Bills of quantities.
• Schedule of rates only.
Lump sum prompt is to be completed by tenderers. GST will be identified and levied progressively as work is completed.
Specifier may delete contract duration prompt or pre-complete if the period is specified, or leave blank if tenderers are to
nominate a period.
Specifier may delete tender validity period prompt or pre-complete if the period is specified, or leave blank if tenderers are to
nominate a period.
On the GST refer to RAIA Advisory Note AN02.04.604.
Addenda prompt to be completed by tenderers. Extensions of the tender period should also be acknowledged.
Name of tenderer, etc.
To be completed by tenderers. Offer is from the tenderer.
Tenderer’s bank and branch address
If a bond is sought by the principal as surety, the identity of sureties, the sum of the bond, and the amount in the tender sum for
the provision of the bond, may need to be stated here.
Date of tender
The date of the tender may be contractually significant.

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PRELIMINARIES GENERAL

PRELIMINARIES

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to the general requirements of the owner and allows for the selection of a contract. The project
specific version may include site security arrangements, occupancy constraints, adjoining properties constraints, owner's site
office and other temporary facilities, project signage, provisional sums, requirements for progress photographs, authority
requirements, survey requirements, owner-supplied items, separate contracts, some aspects of cost adjustment, and pest
eradication.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
For example Preliminaries for the following contracts have also been prepared:
• ABIC MW-1 – Major works contract.
• ABIC SW-1 – Simple works contract.
• AS 2124 – General conditions of contract.
• AS 4000 – General conditions of contract.
• AS 4905 – Minor works contract conditions (Superintendent administered).
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• None.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection. For example:
• On incorporation of the owner’s policies (e.g. apprentice employment, prohibition of smoking, union labour employment,
existing site allowances, procurement policies, insurance arrangements), see RAIA Advisory Note AN15.01.603 (the
standard preliminaries of many public works authorities include clauses on policy - this worksection includes some prompts
but no text).
• The contractor’s preliminaries are not included (e.g. scaffolds, lunch sheds, cranes, site security) except where these relate
to ‘persons other than contractor’ (who may be either separate contractors or persons identified by the architect who
become subcontractors).
Worksection cross referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• An outline description of the works should be located in the contract and the contract documents should be listed.
• Consider incorporating development approval conditions that are the responsibility of the Contractor.
• This worksection should be read in the context of the general conditions of contract, any special conditions of contract, and
any separately specified quality assurance requirements.
See also the Commentary.

1 GENERAL

1.1 GENERAL
General conditions
Contract: >
Insert the name of the contract selected for the project.
This reference properly belongs in the Tendering worksection. Include here if Tendering is not used.
Interpretation
General: The words “principal”, and “contract administrator” have the same meaning, respectively, as
“owner” and “architect”, unless the context requires otherwise.
The selected contract form may use the terms “architect”, “owner”, and “contractor”, as does this NATSPEC Preliminaries
material. Edit this worksection to suit the selected contract .If the terms “owner” and “architect” are used in the selected contract

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PRELIMINARIES GENERAL

and are also used throughout the project specification (e.g. by global change to the NATSPEC worksections), this clause is
unnecessary and should be deleted. However, NATSPEC technical worksections use the terms “principal” and “contract
administrator”, as these have more general application.
Cross reference: The clause Interpretation, in the General requirements worksection, also applies.

1.2 THE SITE


See the selected contract section on the site.
Site restrictions
Entry permits: Make available, to persons entering designated secure areas, valid entry permits.
Ensure these persons comply with conditions of entry.
For high security projects only. Delete default security arrangements if not required.
Designated secure areas: >
Show the area (which may be the whole site) on the drawings, or describe here if this is straightforward.
Conditions of entry: >
e.g. Identification, security checks and the like, imposed by the owner.
List: At least 10 working days before entry is required, submit the full name, address, and date and
place of birth of persons required to enter designated secure areas.
- Purpose of submission: Review.
The specified 10 working day period is arbitrary - vary as required.
Site limitations: Comply with the following restrictions on the use of the site:
>
If not shown on the drawings, give details of easements, restrictions arising out of the actions of adjoining land owners,
limitations related to continued occupancy by the owner, toxic ground conditions and the like, including maximum noise levels
and hours of work not covered by local authority conditions (dealt with under Miscellaneous, below). See also the
Commentary.
Access: Access on to and within the site, use of the site for temporary works and constructional plant,
including working and storage areas, location of offices, workshops, sheds, roads and parking, is
restricted to the following areas:
>
e.g. “Shown on drawing A001”, “To be determined”.
Occupied premises
Refer also to clauses of the selected contract on possession and access.
General: For the parts of the site designated as occupied premises in the Occupied premises
schedule:
- Allow occupants to continue in secure possession and occupancy of the premises for the required
period.
- Make available safe access for occupants.
- Arrange work to minimise nuisance to occupants and ensure their safety.
- Protect occupants against weather, dust, dirt, water or other nuisance, by such means as temporary
screens.
Proposals: Submit details of proposed methods.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
Occupied premises schedule
Occupants Occupied premises Period of occupancy

Complete the schedule if the owner or occupants authorised by the owner will remain in possession of part of the site.

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PRELIMINARIES GENERAL

Occupants: e.g. “The owner”, “The owner’s ... department”, “The public”, or name other persons or organisations.
Occupied premises: Describe, or refer to marked areas on the drawings.
Period of occupancy: e.g. “Duration of the contract”.
No smoking policy >
Appropriate for work in occupied premises where the occupants are similarly constrained. Sometimes a standard owner’s policy
for all projects.
Protection of persons and property
Temporary works: Provide and maintain required barricades, guards, fencing, shoring, temporary
roadways, footpaths, signs, lighting, watching and traffic flagging.
Edit to complement local authority requirements scheduled in Authority conditions schedule under Miscellaneous, below.
This paragraph should describe the owner’s requirements only. The responsibility for these items is usually the contractor’s.
Public viewing area: >
Describe or locate on drawings.
Accessways, services: Do not obstruct or damage roadways and footpaths, drains and watercourses
and other existing services in use on or adjacent to the site. Determine the location of such services.
Delete if noted in the Authority conditions schedule.
Property: Do not interfere with or damage property which is to remain on or adjacent to the site,
including adjoining property encroaching onto the site, and trees.
Control of run off stormwater: >
Generally, the contractor’s responsibility. Delete or describe here any particular requirements of the owner.
Rectification
Accessways, services: Rectify immediately any obstruction or damage to roadways and footpaths,
drains and watercourses and other existing services in use on or adjacent to the site. Provide
temporary services whilst repairs are carried out.
Property: Rectify immediately any interference or damage to property which is to remain on or
adjacent to the site, including adjoining property encroaching onto the site, and trees.
Delete if rectification is included in the Authority conditions schedule.
Existing services
General: Attend to existing services as follows:
- If the service is to be continued, repair, divert or relocate as required. If the service crosses the line
of a required trench, or will lose support when the trench is excavated, provide permanent support
for the existing service.
- If the service is to be abandoned, cut and seal or disconnect, and make safe.
Proposals: Submit proposals for action to be taken with respect to existing services before starting this
work. Minimise the number and duration of interruptions.
- Purpose of submission: For review.
Adjoining property
Notice: At least 10 working days before commencing work, submit to owners and occupants of
adjoining property written notice of intention to commence work and an outline description of the type
and extent of work.
Conditions for work on adjoining property: >
The owner is responsible for obtaining permission from adjoining owners, including for work such as swinging crane jibs,
erection of scaffolding and construction of formwork. Describe any conditions that may have been agreed to by the owner.
Revealed encroachments: If the works reveal unknown encroachments of adjoining property on to the
site or of existing site structures on to adjoining property, immediately seek instructions.
Records: For properties described in the Adjoining properties to be recorded schedule:
- Inspect the properties with the architect and owners and occupants of the properties, before
commencement of work.
- Make detailed records of conditions existing within the properties, especially structural defects and
other damage or defacement.

NATSPEC iii [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES GENERAL

- Arrange for at least 2 copies of each record, including drawings, written descriptions, and
photographs, to be endorsed by the owners and occupants, or their representatives, as evidence of
conditions existing before commencement of work.
See RAIA Advisory Note AN11.01.101 on project record keeping.
Endorsed copies: Submit one endorsed copy of each record. Keep the other endorsed copy on site.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
Adjoining properties to be recorded schedule
Title Owner Description

Complete the schedule if there is danger of damage to adjoining property, including the owner’s own, and if precautionary
inspections and records need to be made. See RAIA Advisory Note AN13.01.102 on party walls, AN13.04.100 on inspections,
and AN18.01.401 on inadvertent building on adjoining property.

1.3 CONSTRUCTION PLANT


Access roads
Temporary roads: >
Include if the construction of temporary roads is required to protect or minimise damage to the owner’s property.
Owner’s existing roads: Use only designated roads.
- Location: >
Parking
Owner’s existing parking areas: Use only designated parking areas.
- Number of spaces: >
- Location: >
Indicate designated roads on the drawings. Proposals for control of traffic on the owner’s property by the contractor should be
submitted for review. Off-site traffic control needs authority approval - the contractor’s responsibility.
Use of existing services
General: Existing services may be used as temporary services for the performance of the contract
subject to conditions stated in the Existing services schedule.
Existing services schedule
Service Conditions of use

If existing services, including telephones or permanent building lighting, may be used for contract purposes, list them here and
state any conditions applying to their use, e.g. “The existing water service on the site, at no charge”, “Do not disrupt continuous
service to owner”, “Pay for connections”, “Provide separate metering and reimburse owner”, “Fully maintain the service”. You
may wish to clarify the situation after practical completion i.e. the owner is not liable for services, water, fuel used by the
contractor after this point.
Owner’s site office
General: Provide a weather-tight site office for the use of the owner or the owner’s agents before
major site operations are started and as follows:
- Pay charges for services.
- Maintain in good order and in clean condition, with secure access, for duration of the work.
- Obtain permission for removal.
- Remove on completion.

NATSPEC iv [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES GENERAL

Vary as necessary to suit the circumstances. A standard drawing, if available, may be substituted for part or all of this item,
including the schedule. The subclause and schedule assume that only one office is required (i.e. the architect and other
consultants share with the clerk of works, if any - see RAIA Advisory Note AN16.01.101 on the Clerk of Works. ABIC MW-1
makes no mention of a Clerk of Works, however accordingly this Preliminaries assumes that there will not be one, since the role
of the Clerk of Works is not defined). The contractor need only provide what has been specified. Reformat as required.
Owner’s site office schedule
User: >
Floor area: >
Structure: >
Floor: >
Furniture and fittings: >
Desk, chairs, filing cabinet, set-out table, plan rack, locker, shelving, meeting table and chairs for six people.
Telephones: >
Facsimile: >
Modem: >
Services: >
Tea making facilities, evaporative cooler, fans, toilet facilities (any gender requirements), lights, power points, heater, walkie-
talkie, public address link-up and the like.
Signage: >
Security: >
Parking: >
Protective clothing
Safety helmets: Make available safety helmets for the use of visitors.
- Standard: To AS/NZS 1801, Type 1.
- StandardsMark: Required.
Number of helmets: >
Temporary services >
Temporary services are generally the business of the contractor. If it is necessary to specify particular requirements, do so here,
e.g. temporary services for owner’s facilities if construction activities interfere, power for testing, temporary distribution boards,
special lighting requirements, water for testing, metering and payments for services. Consider other temporary services, e.g.
gas, compressed air. Use of lift cars, new services, stairs and escalators (i.e. the works) may also need to be addressed -
generally not to be used without consent and protection, maintenance and restoration required.
Temporary fence >
Provide text only if a fence is required by the owner to secure occupied premises or the like. Normally site security is the
responsibility of the contractor. Specify in the Fences and external walls worksection for example, and cross-refer, or specify
here. A clause of this name does not exist as such in NATSPEC material. Requirements of regulatory authorities may conflict.
Note that hoardings are generally a local authority requirement and need not be specified in most circumstances.
Project signboards
General: Provide project-specific signboards and the following:
- Locate where directed.
- Maintain in good condition for duration of the work.
- Obtain permission for removal.
- Remove on completion.
Other signboards: Obtain approval before display of advertisements or provision of other signboards.
Project signboard description
Best shown on the drawings. Components may be provided by the architect - modify as required.
Location: >
Size: >
Text, graphics: >
Insert, e.g. name of the project, the owner, contractor, architect, engineer, quantity surveyor.
Other details: >

NATSPEC v [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES GENERAL

1.4 BUILDING THE WORKS


Surveys
Edit Surveys if instructions are required additional to those in selected contract sections dealing with Owner’s obligations and
Contractor’s obligations e.g. employment of licensed surveyor to check tolerances of structural elements such as position of
columns, verticality of columns and facades, and floor levels. Also, provision of equipment and labour to assist checks by the
architect. See RAIA Advisory Note AN13.01.101.
Setting out: >
Check the selected contract. Additional information required here may include data and survey marks (pegs, bench marks etc.)
necessary for setting out. If this information is available, state how it can be obtained e.g. identify and supply the survey. If it is
not, state how it is to be provided by the owner e.g. source, timing, or leave it to the administering architect to sort out.
Check surveys: >
e.g. “Required”.
Final survey: >
e.g. “Required”.
Survey marks
Protection of the contractor’s survey marks is the contractor’s obligation. Check the selected contract.
Definition: The term “survey mark” means a survey peg, bench mark, reference mark, signal,
alignment, level mark or any other mark used or intended to be used for the purpose of setting out,
checking or measuring the work.
Care of survey marks: Preserve and maintain the owner’s survey marks in their true positions.
Rectification: If the owner’s survey marks are disturbed or obliterated, immediately give notice and
rectify the disturbance or obliteration.
Safety
Accidents: Promptly notify the architect of the occurrence of the following:
- Accidents involving death or personal injury.
- Accidents involving loss of time.
- Incidents with accident potential such as equipment failure, slides and cave-ins.
Accident reports: Submit reports of accidents.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
Contractor's representative
General: Must be accessible, and fluent in English and technical terminology.
Subcontracting
General: Submit a complete list of proposed subcontractors and suppliers.
Program of work
Construction program: Show the following:
- Sequence of work.
- Critical paths of activities related to the work.
- Allowance for holidays.
- Activity inter-relationships.
- External dependencies including provision of access, document approvals and work by others.
- Periods within which various stages or parts of the work are to be executed.
Revise these submission requirements as necessary.
Time scale: Working days.
Updated program: Identify changes since the previous version, and show the estimated percentage of
completion for each item of work.
Program chart: Display in the contractor’s site office an up-to-date bar chart and network diagram
based on the construction program.

NATSPEC vi [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES GENERAL

Order of work schedule


Portion of work Order of work Time of work

If it is necessary to direct the contractor to perform the works in a particular order, or to complete stages or parts of the work in a
particular sequence or at stated times, give the directions here. For example, the contractor will need to know the dates by
which different parts of an existing building will be vacated, or the beginning and end of the building “season” (if any) in a
national park or campus.
Alternatively, the directions may be given in the form of a construction program issued to the contractor as part of the contract
documents. Either way the requirements are contractual, unlike the program of work.
Site meetings
General: Hold and attend site meetings throughout the contract and ensure attendance of appropriate
subcontractors, the architect, and appropriate consultants.
Frequency: >
The frequency of meetings is best agreed by the architect and contractor, as being the most appropriate for the particular
project, and may vary. It is helpful if meetings coincide with the timing of progress claims, though not essential.
Minutes: Keep minutes of site meetings. Within 5 working days after each meeting, submit to each
party written copies of the minutes.
- Purpose of submission: Review.
Delete if the architect is to take and distribute the minutes.
Contacts: At the first site meeting, submit names and telephone numbers of responsible persons who
may be contacted after hours during the course of the contract.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
Progress photographs
General: Take colour progress photographs within 5 working days before each site meeting. At each
site meeting submit 2 sets of glossy prints, and the negatives or digital files. Identify the project, date,
time, location and orientation.
Delete this subclause if these will be taken by the architect or by a separate contractor. If the latter, list in ‘Persons other than
contractor’, below. Consider mounting, size, and a default number e.g. 2 site photographs from different directions, and 5
interior photographs.
Purpose of submission: Information only.
Minimum frequency: >
Minimum number: >
Format: >
Items supplied by owner
General: Materials and other items identified in the Items to be supplied schedule will be supplied
free of charge to the contractor for installation in the execution of the works. Unload and take delivery
of them, inspect them for defects and then take care of them. If defects are found, advise. Return
unused items to the owner.
Conditions of supply: >
Notice: >
Notice: For delivery of critical items under the control of the architect/owner (e.g. statues, electrical equipment). If there is not
adequate storage available, action may be required.

NATSPEC vii [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES GENERAL

Items to be supplied schedule


Location Item Quantity Date

Date: Of delivery or availability, to permit preparation of program.


Changes to existing
General: At least 5 working days before changing the following existing items, give notice:
>
The items may be part of existing structures, services, survey marks, etc.

1.5 COMPLETION OF THE WORKS


Final cleaning
General: Before practical completion, clean throughout, including interior and exterior surfaces
exposed to view. Vacuum carpeted and soft surfaces. Clean debris from the site, roofs, gutters,
downpipes and drainage systems. Remove waste and surplus materials.
Samples: Remove non-incorporated samples, prototypes and sample panels.
Reinstatement
General: Before practical completion, clean and repair damage caused by installation or use of
temporary work and restore existing facilities used during construction to original condition.
Adjoining property
Evaluation: At practical completion, for properties described in the Adjoining properties to be
recorded schedule inspect the properties with the architect and owners and occupants of the
properties, recording any damage that has occurred since the pre-commencement inspection.
Pest eradication
General: Employ suitably qualified pest exterminators. At practical completion submit a certificate
stating that completed works are free of pest types identified in the Pest eradication treatments
schedule.
Pest eradication treatments schedule
Pest type to be treated Eradication method

e.g. “Exterminator’s recommendation”. On birds and buildings, see BDP EDG DES56.
Removal of plant
General: Within 10 working days after practical completion, remove temporary works and construction
plant no longer required. Remove the balance before the end of the defects liability period.
Separable parts
Further conditions: >
Check the selected contract allows for the inclusion of separable parts in practical completion.
There may be further conditions regarding separable parts not identified in the selected contract, which should therefore be
defined here.

1.6 PAYMENT FOR THE WORKS


Import costs
Include the following in the contract price only if risk of change is being taken by the owner. It is contrary to the policy of many
public sector authorities. In such cases, delete the entire clause.

NATSPEC viii [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES GENERAL

Definition: Import costs include costs attributable to exchange rates, customs or import duty, and
primage of imported content of items purchased for incorporation in the works.
Adjustment: If there are changes in rates applying to import costs of items listed in the Import cost
adjustment schedule, add or deduct the amount of the difference to or from the contract sum, as
applicable.
Import cost adjustment schedule
Item Country of origin Import cost

Anticipated progress claims schedule


Adjust if necessary to align with the procedure for progress claims set out in the selected contract. Ideally the schedule will
address each trade or package, not just the total claim. This will be intimately linked to the program of work.
General: At commencement of the works, submit a schedule of anticipated progress claims which will
be made throughout the contract. Submit a revised schedule with each progress claim.
Purpose of submission: Information only.
Progress claims
Break-down: With each progress claim, submit a statement of amounts claimed in respect of each
worksection or trade heading designated in the specification.
This subclause should be modified if there is a priced bill of quantities.
Purpose of submission: Review.
Method of measurement
General: In accordance with the principles of the Australian Standard Method of Measurement of
Building Works (ASMM).
Other civil engineering work: To AS 1181.

1.7 MISCELLANEOUS
Contractor and owner to observe confidentiality
Publicity: Do not issue information concerning the project for publication in the media without prior
written approval of the owner. Refer to the owner enquiries from the media concerning the project.
Check the selected contract. It may be optional.
Compliance with the law
Requirements of authorities: The owner, before entering into the contract, has given the notices, paid
the fees, and obtained the permits, approvals and other authorisations stated in the Prior
applications and approvals schedule.
On occupational health and safety requirements see RAIA Advisory Note AN14.01.102. The roles of private certifiers are not
covered in these Notes or in this Commentary, and vary between jurisdictions.
Prior applications and approvals schedule
Prior notices given and Fees paid Permits, approvals and
applications made authorisations received

List the applications made, e.g. “Building application to ... Council”, fees paid, and approvals received, e.g. “Building approval
dated ...”. See RAIA Advisory Note AN13.02.00.100 on local government and other authorities.
This information may also be provided in Tendering.

NATSPEC ix [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES GENERAL

Authority conditions schedule


Authority Document Condition

Authorities commonly impose conditions governing noise, access, dust, hours of operation, inspections and traffic control. The
contractor is obliged by law to comply with environmental protection legislation and with local authority requirements. The
contract cannot interfere with that obligation, but may stipulate more stringent requirements for contract purposes. Consider
specifying any such requirements here in a separate schedule. Responsibility for conditions, if any, imposed by local authorities
needs to be resolved. Consider scheduling here those conditions which affect the contractor. Coordinate with Site limitations:
under Site restrictions, above. Ultimately, all the conditions are the responsibility of the applicant (owner) as far as the local
authorities are concerned.

NATSPEC x [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – ABIC MW-1 GENERAL

PRELIMINARIES – ABIC MW-1

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to the general requirements of the owner. The project specific version may include site security
arrangements, occupancy constraints, adjoining properties constraints, owner’s site office and other temporary facilities, project
signage, provisional sums, requirements for progress photographs, authority requirements, survey requirements, owner-
supplied items, separate contracts, some aspects of cost adjustment, and pest eradication.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
For example Preliminaries for the following contracts have also been prepared for:
• ABIC SW-1 – Simple works contract.
• AS 2124 – General conditions of contract.
• AS 4000 – General conditions of contract.
• AS 4905 – Minor works contract conditions (Superintendent administered).
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• None.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection. For example:
• On incorporation of the owner’s policies (e.g. apprentice employment, prohibition of smoking, union labour employment,
existing site allowances, procurement policies, insurance arrangements), see RAIA Advisory Note AN15.01.603 (the
standard preliminaries of many public works authorities include clauses on policy - this worksection includes some prompts
but no text).
• The contractor’s preliminaries are not included (e.g. scaffolds, lunch sheds, cranes, site security) except where these relate
to ‘persons other than contractor’ (who may be either separate contractors or persons identified by the architect who
become subcontractors).
Worksection cross referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• An outline description of the works should be located in the Introduction to ABIC MW-1 at Item 6, and the listing of contract
documents, should be located in the Schedules to ABIC MW-1 at Schedule 3 Order of precedence of contract documents.
• Consider incorporating development approval conditions that are the responsibility of the Contractor.
• This worksection should be read in the context of the general conditions of contract, any special conditions of contract, and
any separately specified quality assurance requirements.
See also the Commentary.

1 GENERAL

1.1 GENERAL
General conditions
Contract: To ABIC MW-1 Australian Building Industry Contract – Major works contract, issued by the
Royal Australian Institute of Architects and Master Builders Association.
This information is included in the Tendering worksection. If Tendering is included in the project specification omit this
subclause.
Interpretation
See ABIC MW-1 Section S Definitions.
General: The words “principal”, and “contract administrator” have the same meaning, respectively, as
“owner” and “architect”, unless the context requires otherwise.

NATSPEC i [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – ABIC MW-1 GENERAL

The ABIC MW-1 forms use the terms “architect”, “owner”, and “contractor”, as does this NATSPEC Preliminaries material. If the
terms “owner” and “architect” are also used throughout the project specification (e.g. by global change to the NATSPEC
worksections), this clause is unnecessary and should be deleted. However, NATSPEC technical worksections use the terms
“principal” and “contract administrator”, as these have more general application.
Cross reference: The clause Interpretation, in the General requirements worksection, also applies.

1.2 THE SITE


See ABIC MW-1 Section F The site.
Site restrictions
For high security projects only. Delete default security arrangements if not required.
Entry permits: Make available, to persons entering designated secure areas, valid entry permits.
Ensure these persons comply with conditions of entry.
Designated secure areas: >
Show the area (which may be the whole site) on the drawings, or describe here if this is straightforward.
Conditions of entry: >
Identification, security checks and the like, imposed by the owner.
Personnel: At least 10 working days before entry is required, submit the full name, address, and date
and place of birth of persons required to enter designated secure areas.
- Purpose of submission: Review.
The specified 10 working day period is arbitrary - vary as required.
Site limitations: Comply with the following restrictions on the use of the site:
>
If not shown on the drawings, give details of easements, restrictions arising out of the actions of adjoining land owners,
limitations related to continued occupancy by the owner, toxic ground conditions and the like, including maximum noise levels
and hours of work not covered by local authority conditions in the Authority conditions schedule below. See also the
Commentary.
Access: Access on to and within the site, use of the site for temporary works and constructional plant,
including working and storage areas, location of offices, workshops, sheds, roads and parking, is
restricted to the following areas:
>
e.g. “Shown on drawing A001”, “To be determined”.
Occupied premises
Refer also to ABIC MW-1 clauses F1 and F2 on possession of and access to the site.
General: For the parts of the site designated as occupied premises in the Occupied premises
schedule:
- Allow occupants to continue in secure possession and occupancy of the premises for the required
period.
- Make available safe access for occupants.
- Arrange work to minimise nuisance to occupants and ensure their safety.
- Protect occupants against weather, dust, dirt, water or other nuisance, by such means as temporary
screens.
Proposals: Submit details of proposed methods.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
Occupied premises schedule
Occupants Occupied premises Period of occupancy

Complete the schedule if the owner or occupants authorised by the owner will remain in possession of part of the site.

NATSPEC ii [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – ABIC MW-1 GENERAL

Occupants: e.g. “The owner”, “The owner’s ... department”, “The public”, or name other persons or organisations.
Occupied premises: Describe, or refer to marked areas on the drawings.
Period of occupancy: e.g. “Duration of the contract”.
No smoking policy >
Appropriate for work in occupied premises where the occupants are similarly constrained. Sometimes a standard owner’s policy
for all projects.
Protection of persons and property
Temporary works: Provide and maintain required barricades, guards, fencing, shoring, temporary
roadways, footpaths, signs, lighting, watching and traffic flagging.
Edit to complement local authority requirements scheduled in Authority conditions schedule under Miscellaneous, below.
This paragraph should describe the owner’s requirements only. The responsibility for these items is usually the contractor’s.
Public viewing area: >
Accessways, services: Do not obstruct or damage roadways and footpaths, drains and watercourses
and other existing services in use on or adjacent to the site. Determine the location of such services.
Property: Do not interfere with or damage property which is to remain on or adjacent to the site,
including adjoining property encroaching onto the site, and trees.
Control of run off stormwater: >
Generally, the contractor’s responsibility. Delete or describe here any particular requirements of the owner.
Rectification
Accessways, services: Rectify immediately any obstruction or damage to roadways and footpaths,
drains and watercourses and other existing services in use on or adjacent to the site. Provide
temporary services whilst repairs are carried out.
Property: Rectify immediately any interference or damage to property which is to remain on or
adjacent to the site, including adjoining property encroaching onto the site, and trees.
Delete if rectification is included in the Authority conditions schedule.
Existing services
General: Attend to existing services as follows:
- If the service is to be continued, repair, divert or relocate as required. If the service crosses the line
of a required trench, or will lose support when the trench is excavated, provide permanent support
for the existing service.
- If the service is to be abandoned, cut and seal or disconnect, and make safe.
Proposals: Submit proposals for action to be taken with respect to existing services before starting this
work. Minimise the number and duration of interruptions.
- Purpose of submission: For review.
Adjoining property
Notice: At least 10 working days before commencing work, submit to owners and occupants of
adjoining property written notice of intention to commence work and an outline description of the type
and extent of work.
Conditions for work on adjoining property: >
The owner is responsible for obtaining permission from adjoining owners, including for work such as swinging crane jibs,
erection of scaffolding and construction of formwork. Describe any conditions that may have been agreed to by the owner.
Revealed encroachments: If the works reveal unknown encroachments of adjoining property on to the
site or of existing site structures on to adjoining property, immediately seek instructions.
Records: For properties described in the Adjoining properties to be recorded schedule:
- Inspect the properties with the architect and owners and occupants of the properties, before
commencement of work.
- Make detailed records of conditions existing within the properties, especially structural defects and
other damage or defacement.
- Arrange for at least 2 copies of each record, including drawings, written descriptions, and
photographs, to be endorsed by the owners and occupants, or their representatives, as evidence of
conditions existing before commencement of work.
See RAIA Advisory Note AN11.01.101 on project records.

NATSPEC iii [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – ABIC MW-1 GENERAL

Endorsed copies: Submit one endorsed copy of each record. Keep the other endorsed copy on site.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
Adjoining properties to be recorded schedule
Title Owner Description

Complete the schedule if there is danger of damage to adjoining property, including the owner’s own, and if precautionary
inspections and records need to be made. See RAIA Advisory Note AN13.01.102 on party walls, AN13.04.100 on inspections,
and AN18.01.401 on inadvertent building on adjoining property.

1.3 CONSTRUCTION PLANT


Access roads
Temporary roads: >
Include, if the construction of temporary roads is required to protect or minimise damage to the owner’s property.
Owner’s existing roads: Use only designated roads.
- Location: >
Parking
Owner’s existing parking areas: Use only designated parking areas.
- Number of spaces: >
- Location: >
Indicate designated roads on the drawings. Proposals for control of traffic on the owner’s property by the contractor should be
submitted for review. Off-site traffic control needs authority approval - the contractor’s responsibility.
Use of existing services
General: Existing services may be used as temporary services for the performance of the contract
subject to conditions stated in the Existing services schedule.
Existing services schedule
Service Conditions of use

If existing services, including telephones or permanent building lighting, may be used for contract purposes, list them here and
state any conditions applying to their use, e.g. “The existing water service on the site, at no charge”, “Do not disrupt continuous
service to owner”, “Pay for connections”, “Provide separate metering and reimburse owner”, “Fully maintain the service”. You
may wish to clarify the situation after practical completion i.e. the owner is not liable for services, water, fuel used by the
contractor after this point.
Owner’s site office
General: Provide a weather-tight site office for the use of the owner or the owner’s agents before
major site operations are started and as follows:
- Pay charges for services.
- Maintain in good order and in clean condition, with secure access, for duration of the work.
- Obtain permission for removal.
- Remove on completion.
Vary as necessary to suit the circumstances. A standard drawing, if available, may be substituted for part or all of this item,
including the schedule. The subclause and schedule assume that only one office is required (i.e. the architect and other
consultants share with the Clerk of Works, if any - see RAIA Advisory Note AN16.01.101 on the Clerk of Works. ABIC MW-1

NATSPEC iv [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – ABIC MW-1 GENERAL

makes no mention of a Clerk of Works, however accordingly this Preliminaries assumes that there will not be one, since the role
of the Clerk of Works is not defined). The contractor need only provide what has been specified. Reformat as required.
Owner’s site office schedule
User: >
Floor area: >
Structure: >
Floor: >
Furniture and fittings: >
Desk, chairs, filing cabinet, set-out table, plan rack, locker, shelving, meeting table and chairs for six people.
Telephones: >
Facsimile: >
Modem: >
Services: >
Tea making facilities, evaporative cooler, fans, toilet facilities (any gender requirements), lights, power points, heater, walkie-
talkie, public address link-up and the like.
Signage: >
Security: >
Parking: >
Protective clothing
Safety helmets: Make available safety helmets for the use of visitors.
- Standard: To AS/NZS 1801, Type 1.
- StandardsMark: Required.
Number of helmets: >
Temporary services >
Temporary services are generally the business of the contractor. If it is necessary to specify particular requirements, do so here,
e.g. temporary services for owner’s facilities if construction activities interfere, power for testing, temporary distribution boards,
special lighting requirements, water for testing, metering and payments for services. Consider other temporary services, e.g.
gas, compressed air. Use of lift cars, new services, stairs and escalators (i.e. the works) may also need to be addressed -
generally not to be used without consent and protection, maintenance and restoration required.
Temporary fence >
Provide text only if a fence is required by the owner to secure occupied premises or the like. Normally site security is the
responsibility of the contractor. Specify in the Fences and external walls worksection for example, and cross-refer, or specify
here. A clause of this name does not exist as such in NATSPEC material. Requirements of regulatory authorities may conflict.
Note that hoardings are generally a local authority requirement and need not be specified in most circumstances.
Project signboards
General: Provide project-specific signboards and the following:
- Locate where directed.
- Maintain in good condition for duration of the work.
- Obtain permission for removal.
- Remove on completion.
Other signboards: Obtain approval before display of advertisements or provision of other signboards.
Project signboard description
Best shown on the drawings. Components may be provided by the architect - modify as required.
Location: >
Size: >
Text, graphics: >
Insert, e.g. name of the project, the owner, contractor, architect, engineer, quantity surveyor.
Other details: >

NATSPEC v [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – ABIC MW-1 GENERAL

1.4 BUILDING THE WORKS


See ABIC MW-1 Section G Building the works.
Surveys
Edit Surveys if instructions are required additional to those in ABIC MW-1 clause G1 Owner’s obligations and G2 Contractor’s
obligations e.g. employment of licensed surveyor to check tolerances of structural elements such as position of columns,
verticality of columns and facades, and floor levels. Also, provision of equipment and labour to assist checks by the architect.
See RAIA Advisory Note AN13.01.101 on survey information.
Setting out: >
Mentioned in ABIC MW-1 clause G1 and G2. Information required may include data and survey marks (pegs, bench marks etc.)
necessary for setting out. If this information is available, state how it can be obtained e.g. identify and supply the survey. If it is
not, state how it is to be provided by the owner e.g. source, timing, or leave it to the administering architect to sort out.
Check surveys: >
e.g. “Required”.
Final survey: >
e.g. “Required”.
Survey marks
Inferred in ABIC MW-1 clause G1. Protection of the contractor’s survey marks is the contractor’s business.
Definition: The term “survey mark” means a survey peg, bench mark, reference mark, signal,
alignment, level mark or any other mark used or intended to be used for the purpose of setting out,
checking or measuring the work.
Care of survey marks: Preserve and maintain the owner’s survey marks in their true positions.
Rectification: If the owner’s survey marks are disturbed or obliterated, immediately give notice and
rectify the disturbance or obliteration.
Safety
Health and safety is mentioned in ABIC MW-1 clause G2 the Contractor’s obligations.
Accidents: Promptly notify the architect of the occurrence of the following:
- Accidents involving death or personal injury.
- Accidents involving loss of time.
- Incidents with accident potential such as equipment failure, slides and cave-ins.
Accident reports: Submit reports of accidents.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
Contractor's representative
General: Must be accessible, and fluent in English and technical terminology.
Subcontracting
General: Submit a complete list of proposed subcontractors and suppliers.
See ABIC MW-1 clause G4 Subcontracting.
Program of work
Construction program: Show the following:
- Sequence of work.
- Critical paths of activities related to the work.
- Allowance for holidays.
- Activity inter-relationships.
- External dependencies including provision of access, document approvals and work by others.
- Periods within which various stages or parts of the work are to be executed.
Revise these submission requirements as necessary.
Time scale: Working days.
Updated program: Identify changes since the previous version, and show the estimated percentage of
completion for each item of work.
See ABIC MW-1 clause G6 on the Contractor updating his program.

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PRELIMINARIES – ABIC MW-1 GENERAL

Program chart: Display in the contractor’s site office an up-to-date bar chart and network diagram
based on the construction program.
Order of work schedule
Portion of work Order of work Time of work

If it is necessary to direct the contractor to perform the works in a particular order, or to complete stages or parts of the work in a
particular sequence or at stated times, give the directions here. For example, the contractor will need to know the dates by
which different parts of an existing building will be vacated, or the beginning and end of the building “season” (if any) in a
national park or campus. Alternatively, the directions may be given in the form of a construction program issued to the
contractor as part of the contract documents. Either way the requirements are contractual, unlike the program of work.
Site meetings
General: Hold and attend site meetings throughout the contract and ensure attendance of appropriate
subcontractors, the architect, and appropriate consultants.
Frequency: >
The frequency of meetings is best agreed by the architect and contractor, as being the most appropriate for the particular
project, and may vary. It is helpful if meetings coincide with the timing of progress claims, though not essential.
Minutes: Keep minutes of site meetings. Within 5 working days after each meeting, submit to each
party written copies of the minutes.
- Purpose of submission: Review.
Delete if the architect is to take and distribute the minutes.
Contacts: At the first site meeting, submit names and telephone numbers of responsible persons who
may be contacted after hours during the course of the contract.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
Progress photographs
General: Take colour progress photographs within 5 working days before each site meeting. At each
site meeting submit 2 sets of glossy prints, and the negatives or digital files. Identify the project, date,
time, location and orientation.
Delete this subclause if these will be taken by the architect or by a separate contractor. If the latter, list in ‘Persons other than
contractor’, below. Consider mounting, size, and a default number e.g. 2 site photographs from different directions, and 5
interior photographs.
Purpose of submission: Information only.
Minimum frequency: >
Minimum number: >
Format: >
Items supplied by owner
General: Materials and other items identified in the Items to be supplied schedule will be supplied
free of charge to the contractor for installation in the execution of the works. Unload and take delivery
of them, inspect them for defects and then take care of them. If defects are found, advise. Return
unused items to the owner.
Conditions of supply: >
Notice: >
For delivery of critical items under the control of the architect/owner (e.g. statues, electrical equipment). If there is not adequate
storage available, action may be required.

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PRELIMINARIES – ABIC MW-1 GENERAL

Items to be supplied schedule


Location Item Quantity Date

Date: Of delivery or availability, to permit preparation of program.


Changes to existing
General: At least 5 working days before changing the following existing items, give notice >
The items may be part of existing structures, services, survey marks, etc.

1.5 COMPLETION OF THE WORKS


See ABIC MW-1 Section M Completion of the works.
Final cleaning
General: Before practical completion, clean throughout, including interior and exterior surfaces
exposed to view. Vacuum carpeted and soft surfaces. Clean debris from the site, roofs, gutters,
downpipes and drainage systems. Remove waste and surplus materials.
Samples: Remove non-incorporated samples, prototypes and sample panels.
Reinstatement
General: Before practical completion, clean and repair damage caused by installation or use of
temporary work and restore existing facilities used during construction to original condition.
Adjoining property
Evaluation: At practical completion, for properties described in the Adjoining properties to be
recorded schedule inspect the properties with the architect and owners and occupants of the
properties, recording any damage that has occurred since the pre-commencement inspection.
Pest eradication
General: Employ suitably qualified pest exterminators. At practical completion submit a certificate
stating that completed works are free of pest types identified in the Pest eradication treatments
schedule.
Pest eradication treatments schedule
Pest type to be treated Eradication method

e.g. “Exterminator’s recommendation”. On birds and buildings, see BDP EDG DES56.
Removal of plant
General: Within 10 working days after practical completion, remove temporary works and construction
plant no longer required. Remove the balance before the end of the defects liability period.
Separable parts
Further conditions: >
See ABIC MW-1 clauses M1.3, M8 and M9, and Schedule 1 at Item 21 on Completion of the works. There may be further
conditions regarding separable parts not identified in ABIC MW-1, which should therefore be defined here.

1.6 PAYMENT FOR THE WORKS


Import costs
See ABIC MW-1 clause N1 Contract price. Include only if risk of change is being taken by the owner. It is contrary to the policy
of many public sector authorities. In such cases, delete the entire clause.

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PRELIMINARIES – ABIC MW-1 GENERAL

Definition: Import costs include costs attributable to exchange rates, customs or import duty, and
primage of imported content of items purchased for incorporation in the works.
Adjustment: If there are changes in rates applying to import costs of items listed in the Import cost
adjustment schedule, add or deduct the amount of the difference to or from the contract sum, as
applicable.
Import cost adjustment schedule
Item Country of origin Import cost

Anticipated progress claims


General: At commencement of the works, submit a schedule of anticipated progress claims which will
be made throughout the contract. Submit a revised schedule with each progress claim.
Purpose of submission: Information only.
Progress claims
Break-down: With each progress claim, submit a statement of amounts claimed in respect of each
worksection or trade heading designated in the specification.
This subclause should be modified if there is a priced bill of quantities. Bills of quantities are referred to under Section H, Claims
to adjust the contract.
Purpose of submission: Review.
Method of measurement
General: In accordance with the principles of the Australian Standard Method of Measurement of
Building Works (ASMM).
Other civil engineering work: To AS 1181.

1.7 MISCELLANEOUS
See ABIC MW-1 Section R Miscellaneous.
Compliance with the law
Requirements of authorities: The owner, before entering into the contract, has given the notices, paid
the fees, and obtained the permits, approvals and other authorisations stated in the Prior
applications and approvals schedule.
See ABIC MW-1 clause R9 on Compliance with the law. On occupational health and safety requirements see RAIA Advisory
Note AN14.01.102. This may be covered by ABIC MW-1 clause G2 Contractor’s obligations. The roles of private certifiers are
not covered in these Instructions or in this Commentary, and vary between jurisdictions.
Prior applications and approvals schedule
Prior notices given and Fees paid Permits, approvals and
applications made authorisations received

List the applications made, e.g. “Building application to ... Council”, fees paid, and approvals received, e.g. “Building approval
dated ...”. See RAIA Advisory Note AN13.02.00.100 on local government and other authorities.
This information may also be provided in Tendering.

NATSPEC ix [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – ABIC MW-1 GENERAL

Authority conditions schedule


Authority Document Condition

Authorities commonly impose conditions governing noise, access, dust, hours of operation, inspections and traffic control. The
contractor is obliged by law to comply with environmental protection legislation and with local authority requirements. The
contract cannot interfere with that obligation, but may stipulate more stringent requirements for contract purposes. Consider
specifying any such requirements here in a separate schedule. Responsibility for conditions, if any, imposed by local authorities
needs to be resolved. Consider scheduling here those conditions which affect the contractor. Coordinate with Site limitations:
under Site restrictions, above. Ultimately, all the conditions are the responsibility of the applicant (owner) as far as the local
authorities are concerned.

NATSPEC x [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – ABIC SW-1 GENERAL

PRELIMINARIES – ABIC SW-1

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to the general requirements of the owner. The project specific version may include site security
arrangements, occupancy constraints, adjoining properties constraints, owner’s site office and other temporary facilities, project
signage, provisional sums, requirements for progress photographs, authority requirements, survey requirements, owner-
supplied items, separate contracts, some aspects of cost adjustment, and pest eradication.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Preliminaries for the following contracts have also been prepared for:
• ABIC MW-1 – Major works contract.
• AS 2124 – General conditions of contract.
• AS 4000 – General conditions of contract.
• AS 4905 – Minor works contract conditions (Superintendent administered).
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• None.
Material not included in NATSPEC
A number of topics are not covered by this worksection but may need to be considered.
• On incorporation of the owner’s policies (e.g. apprentice employment, prohibition of smoking, union labour employment,
existing site allowances, procurement policies, insurance arrangements), see RAIA Advisory Note AN15.01.603 (the
standard preliminaries of many public works authorities include clauses on policy - this worksection includes some prompts
but no text).
• The contractor’s preliminaries are not included (e.g. scaffolds, lunch sheds, cranes, site security) except where these relate
to ‘persons other than contractor’ (who may be either separate contractors or persons identified by the architect who
become subcontractors). See ABIC SW-1 clause K3 – Architect may instruct contractor to use particular person for
provisional or prime cost sum.
Worksection cross-referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• An outline description of the works, and the schedule of contract documents, should be located in Item 5 The works of the
Introduction to ABIC SW-1 and Schedule 3 Order of precedence of contract documents, respectively.
• Consider incorporating development approval conditions that are the responsibility of the Contractor.
• This worksection should be read in the context of the general conditions of contract, any special conditions of contract
(including state variation), and any separately specified quality assurance requirements.
See also the Commentary.

1 GENERAL

1.1 GENERAL
See ABIC SW-1 Section A Overview.
General conditions
General: To ABIC SW-1 (2002) Simple Works Contract, issued by the Royal Australian Institute of
Architects and Master Builders Association.
This information is included in the Tendering worksection. If Tendering is included in the project specification omit this
subclause.
Interpretation
See ABIC SW-1 Section S Definitions.
General: The words “principal”, and “contract administrator”, have the same meaning, respectively, as
“owner”, and “architect”, unless the context requires otherwise.
NATSPEC i [Insert date]
PRELIMINARIES – ABIC SW-1 GENERAL

The ABIC forms use the terms architect, owner, and contractor, as does this NATSPEC Preliminaries material. If the terms
“owner” and “architect” are also used throughout the project specification (e.g. by global change to the NATSPEC Template),
this clause is unnecessary and should be deleted. However, NATSPEC technical worksections use the terms “principal” and
“contract administrator”, as these have more general application.
Cross reference: The clause Interpretation, in the General requirements worksection, also applies.

1.2 THE SITE


See ABIC SW-1 Item 6 Architect to administer contract of the Introduction and Section F The site.
Site restrictions
Site limitations: Comply with the following restrictions on the use of the site:
>
e.g. Jackhammer and compressor silencing may need to be stipulated. See AS 2436, on construction site noise control. On
excavation, for example, see RAIA Advisory Note AN16.09.401.
Access: Access onto and within the site, use of the site for temporary works and constructional plant,
including working and storage areas, location of offices, workshops, sheds, roads and parking, is
restricted to the following areas:
>
e.g. “Shown on drawing A001”, “To be determined”.
Occupied premises
Refer also to ABIC SW-1 clauses F1 Owner to give contractor possession of the site and F2 Contractor’s obligations in relation
to the site on possession and access.
General: For the parts of the site designated as occupied premises in the Occupied premises
schedule:
- Allow occupants to continue in secure possession and occupancy of the premises for the required
period.
- Make available safe access for occupants.
- Arrange work to minimise nuisance to occupants and ensure their safety.
- Protect occupants against weather, dust, dirt, water or other nuisance, by such means as temporary
screens.
Proposals: Submit details of proposed methods.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
Occupied premises schedule
Occupants Occupied premises Period of occupancy

Complete the schedule if the owner or occupants authorised by the owner will remain in possession of part of the site.
Occupants: e.g. “The owner”, “The owner’s ... department”, “The public”, or name other persons or organisations.
Occupied premises: Describe, or refer to marked areas on the drawings.
Period of occupancy: e.g. “Duration of the contract”.
No smoking policy >
Appropriate for work in occupied premises where the occupants are similarly constrained. Sometimes a standard owner’s policy
for all projects.
Protection of persons and property
Temporary works: Provide and maintain required barricades, guards, fencing, shoring, temporary
roadways, footpaths, signs, lighting, watching and traffic flagging.
Edit to complement local authority requirements scheduled in Authority conditions schedule under Miscellaneous, below.
This paragraph should describe the owner’s requirements only. The responsibility for these items is usually the contractor’s.

NATSPEC ii [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – ABIC SW-1 GENERAL

Accessways, services: Do not obstruct or damage roadways and footpaths, drains and watercourses
and other existing services in use on or adjacent to the site. Determine the location of such services.
Property: Do not interfere with or damage property which is to remain on or adjacent to the site,
including adjoining property encroaching onto the site, and trees.
Control of run off stormwater: >
Generally, the contractor’s responsibility. Delete or describe here any particular requirements of the owner.
Rectification
Accessways, services: Rectify immediately any obstruction or damage to roadways and footpaths,
drains and watercourses and other existing services in use on or adjacent to the site. Provide
temporary services whilst repairs are carried out.
Property: Rectify immediately any interference or damage to property which is to remain on or
adjacent to the site, including adjoining property encroaching onto the site, and trees.
Delete if rectification is included in the Authority conditions schedule.
Existing services
General: Attend to existing services as follows:
- If the service is to be continued, repair, divert or relocate as required. If the service crosses the line
of a required trench, or will lose support when the trench is excavated, provide permanent support
for the existing service.
- If the service is to be abandoned, cut and seal or disconnect, and make safe.
Proposals: Submit proposals for action to be taken with respect to existing services before starting this
work. Minimise the number and duration of interruptions.
- Purpose of submission: For review.
Adjoining property
Notice: At least 10 working days before commencing work, submit to owners and occupants of
adjoining property written notice of intention to commence work and an outline description of the type
and extent of work.
Conditions for work on adjoining property: >
The owner is responsible for obtaining permission from adjoining owners, including for work such as swinging crane jibs,
erection of scaffolding and construction of formwork. Describe any conditions that may have been agreed to by the owner.
Revealed encroachments: If the works reveal unknown encroachments of adjoining property on to the
site or of existing site structures on to adjoining property, immediately seek instructions.
Records: For properties described in the Adjoining properties to be recorded schedule:
- Inspect the properties with the architect and owners and occupants of the properties, before
commencement of work.
- Make detailed records of conditions existing within the properties, especially structural defects and
other damage or defacement.
- Arrange for at least 2 copies of each record, including drawings, written descriptions, and
photographs, to be endorsed by the owners and occupants, or their representatives, as evidence of
conditions existing before commencement of work.
See RAIA Advisory Note AN11.01.101 on project records.
Endorsed copies: Submit one endorsed copy of each record. Keep the other endorsed copy on site.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
Adjoining properties to be recorded schedule
Title Owner Description

Complete the schedule if there is danger of damage to adjoining property, including the owner’s own, and if precautionary
inspections and records need to be made. See RAIA Advisory Note AN13.01.102 on party walls, AN13.04.100 on inspections,
and AN18.01.401 on inadvertent building on adjoining property.

NATSPEC iii [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – ABIC SW-1 GENERAL

1.3 CONSTRUCTION PLANT


Use of existing services
General: Existing services may be used as temporary services for the performance of the contract
subject to conditions stated in the Existing services schedule.
Existing services schedule
Service Conditions of use

If existing services, including telephones or permanent building lighting, may be used for contract purposes, list them here and
state any conditions applying to their use, e.g. “The existing water service on the site, at no charge”, “Do not disrupt continuous
service to owner”, “Pay for connections”, “Provide separate metering and reimburse owner”, “Fully maintain the service”. You
may wish to clarify the situation after practical completion i.e. the owner is not liable for services, water, fuel used by the
contractor after this point.
Protective clothing
Safety helmets: Make available safety helmets for the use of visitors.
- Standard: To AS/NZS 1801, Type 1.
- StandardsMark: Required.
Number of helmets: >
Temporary services >
Temporary services are generally the business of the contractor. If it is necessary to specify particular requirements, do so here,
e.g. temporary services for owner’s facilities if construction activities interfere, power for testing, temporary distribution boards,
special lighting requirements, water for testing, metering and payments for services.
Temporary fence >
Provide text only if a fence is required by the owner to secure occupied premises or the like. Normally site security is the
responsibility of the contractor. Specify in the Fences and external walls worksection for example, and cross-refer, or specify
here. A clause of this name does not exist as such in NATSPEC material. Requirements of regulatory authorities may conflict.
Note that hoardings are generally a local authority requirement and need not be specified in most circumstances.
Project signboards
General: Provide project-specific signboards and as follows:
- Locate where directed.
- Maintain in good condition for duration of the work.
- Obtain permission for removal.
- Remove on completion.
Other signboards: Obtain approval before display of advertisements or provision of other signboards.
Project signboard description
Best shown on the drawings. Components may be provided by the architect modify as required.
Location: >
Size: >
Text, graphics: >
Insert, e.g. name of the project, the owner, contractor, architect, engineer, quantity surveyor.
Other details: >

1.4 BUILDING THE WORKS


See ABIC SW-1 Section G Building the works.
Surveys
Edit Surveys if instructions are required additional to those in ABIC SW-1 clause G2 e.g. employment of licensed surveyor to
check tolerances of structural elements such as position of columns, verticality of columns and facades, and floor levels. Also,

NATSPEC iv [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – ABIC SW-1 GENERAL

provision of equipment and labour to assist checks by the architect. See RAIA Advisory Note AN13.01.101 on survey
information.
Setting out: >
Mentioned in ABIC SW-1 clause G2. Information required may include data and survey marks (pegs, bench marks etc.)
necessary for setting out. If this information is available, state how it can be obtained e.g. identify and supply the survey. If it is
not, state how it is to be provided by the owner e.g. source, timing, or leave it to the administering architect to sort out.
Survey marks
Inferred in ABIC SW-1 clause G2. Protection of the contractor’s survey marks is the contractor’s business.
Definition: The term “survey mark” means a survey peg, bench mark, reference mark, signal,
alignment, level mark or any other mark used or intended to be used for the purpose of setting out,
checking or measuring the work.
Care of survey marks: Preserve and maintain the owner’s survey marks in their true positions.
Rectification: If the owner’s survey marks are disturbed or obliterated, immediately give notice and
rectify the disturbance or obliteration.
Safety
Health and safety is mentioned in ABIC SW-1 clause G2 The contractor’s obligations while building the works.
Accidents: Promptly notify the architect of the occurrence of the following:
- Accidents involving death or personal injury.
- Accidents involving loss of time.
- Incidents with accident potential such as equipment failure, slides and cave-ins.
Accident reports: Submit reports of accidents.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
Contractor's representative
General: Must be accessible, and fluent in English and technical terminology.
Subcontracting
General: Submit a complete list of proposed subcontractors and suppliers.
See ABIC SW-1 clause G4 Subcontracting.
Program of work
Construction program: Show the following:
- Sequence of work.
- Allowance for holidays.
- Activity inter-relationships.
- External dependencies including provision of access, document approvals and work by others.
- Periods within which various stages or parts of the work are to be executed.
Revise default submission requirements as necessary.
Time scale: Working days.
Updated program: Identify changes since the previous version, and show the estimated percentage of
completion for each item of work.
See ABIC SW-1 clause G6.1 Contractor to give an updated program.
Program chart: Display in the contractor’s site office an up-to-date bar chart and network diagram
based on the construction program.
Order of work schedule
Portion of work Order of work Time of work

If it is necessary to direct the contractor to perform the works in a particular order, or to complete stages or parts of the work in a
particular sequence or at stated times, give the directions here. For example, the contractor will need to know the dates by

NATSPEC v [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – ABIC SW-1 GENERAL

which different parts of an existing building will be vacated, or the beginning and end of the building “season” (if any) in a
national park or campus. Alternatively, the directions may be given in the form of a construction program issued to the
contractor as part of the contract documents. Either way the requirements are contractual, unlike the program of work.
Site meetings
General: Hold and attend site meetings throughout the contract and ensure attendance of appropriate
subcontractors, the architect, and appropriate consultants.
Frequency: >
The frequency of meetings is best agreed by the architect and contractor, as being the most appropriate for the particular
project, and may vary. It is helpful if meetings coincide with the timing of progress claims, though not essential.
Minutes: Keep minutes of site meetings. Within 5 working days after each meeting, submit to each
party written copies of the minutes.
Delete if the architect is to take and distribute the minutes.
- Purpose of submission: Review.
Contacts: At the first site meeting, submit names and telephone numbers of responsible persons who
may be contacted after hours during the course of the contract.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
Items supplied by owner
General: Materials and other items identified in the Items to be supplied schedule will be supplied
free of charge to the contractor for installation in the execution of the works. Unload and take delivery
of them, inspect them for defects and then take care of them. If defects are found, advise. Return
unused items to the owner.
Conditions of supply: >
Notice: >
For delivery of critical items under the control of the architect/owner (e.g. statues, electrical equipment). If there is not adequate
storage available, action may be required.
Items to be supplied schedule
Location Item Quantity Date

Date: Of delivery or availability, to permit preparation of program.


Changes to existing
Notice: At least 5 working days before changing the following existing items, give notice:
>
The items may be part of existing structures, services, survey marks, etc.

1.5 COMPLETION OF THE WORKS


See ABIC SW-1 Section M Completion of the works.

Final cleaning
Lamp and filter replacement, and the like, is dealt with in the various SERVICES worksections.
General: Before practical completion, clean throughout, including interior and exterior surfaces
exposed to view. Vacuum carpeted and soft surfaces. Clean debris from the site, roofs, gutters,
downpipes and drainage systems. Remove waste and surplus materials.
Samples: Remove non-incorporated samples, prototypes and sample panels.
Reinstatement
General: Before practical completion, clean and repair damage caused by installation or use of
temporary work and restore existing facilities used during construction to original condition.

NATSPEC vi [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – ABIC SW-1 GENERAL

Adjoining property
Evaluation: At practical completion, for properties described in the Adjoining properties to be
recorded schedule inspect the properties with the architect and owners and occupants of the
properties, recording any damage that has occurred since the pre-commencement inspection.
Pest eradication
General: Employ suitably qualified pest exterminators. At practical completion submit a certificate
stating that completed works are free of pest types identified in the Pest eradication treatments
schedule.
Pest eradication treatments schedule
Pest type to be treated Eradication method

e.g. “Exterminator’s recommendation”. On birds and buildings, see BDP EDG Note DES56.
Removal of plant
General: Within 10 working days after practical completion, remove temporary works and construction
plant no longer required. Remove the balance before the end of the defects liability period.

1.6 PAYMENT FOR THE WORKS


See ABIC SW-1 Section N Payment for the works. It is assumed that the contingency sum is reserved outside the contract.
Import costs
See ABIC SW-1 clause N1Contract price. Include only if risk of change is being taken by the owner. It is contrary to the policy of
many public sector authorities. In such cases, delete the entire clause.
Definition: Import costs include costs attributable to exchange rates, customs or import duty, and
primage of imported content of items purchased for incorporation in the works.
Adjustment: If there are changes in rates applying to import costs of items listed in the Import cost
adjustment schedule, add or deduct the amount of the difference to or from the contract sum, as
applicable.
Import cost adjustment schedule
Item Country of origin Import cost

Anticipated progress payments


See ABIC SW-1 clauses N3-N15. Ideally the schedule will address each trade or package, not just the total claim. This will be
intimately linked to the program of work.
General: At commencement of the works, submit a schedule of anticipated progress claims which will
be made throughout the contract. Submit a revised schedule with each progress claim.
Purpose of submission: Information only.
Progress claims
Break down: With each progress claim, submit a statement of amounts claimed in respect of each
worksection or trade heading designated in the specification.
This subclause should be modified if there is a priced bill of quantities (not apparently anticipated in ABIC SW-1).
Purpose of submission: Review.
Method of measurement
General: In accordance with the principles of the Australian Standard Method of Measurement of
Building Works (ASMM).
Other civil engineering work: To AS 1181.
NATSPEC vii [Insert date]
PRELIMINARIES – ABIC SW-1 GENERAL

1.7 MISCELLANEOUS
See ABIC SW-1 Section R Miscellaneous.
Governing law
See ABIC SW-1 clause R8 Governing law. On occupational health and safety requirements see RAIA Advisory Note
AN14.01.102. This may be covered by ABIC SW-1 clause G2 Contractor’s obligations. The roles of private certifiers are not
covered in these Notes or in this Commentary, and vary between jurisdictions.
Requirements of authorities: The owner, before entering into the contract, has given the notices, paid
the fees, and obtained the permits, approvals and other authorisations stated in the Prior
applications and approvals schedule.
Prior applications and approvals schedule
Prior notices given and Fees paid Permits, approvals and
applications made authorisations received

See ABIC SW-1 clause A4 Obligations of owner. The owner is obliged to obtain and provide to the contractor, any statutory
approvals required to build the works.
List the applications made, e.g. “Building application to ... Council”, fees paid, and approvals received, e.g. “Building approval
dated ...”. See RAIA Advisory Note AN13.02.00.100 on local government and other authorities.
This information may also be provided in Tendering.
Authority conditions schedule
Authority Document Condition

Authorities commonly impose conditions governing noise, access, dust, hours of operation, inspections and traffic control. The
contractor is obliged by law to comply with environmental protection legislation and with local authority requirements. The
contract cannot interfere with that obligation, but may stipulate more stringent requirements for contract purposes. Consider
specifying any such requirements here in a separate schedule. Responsibility for conditions, if any, imposed by local authorities
needs to be resolved. Consider scheduling here those conditions which affect the contractor. Coordinate with Site limitations:
under Site restrictions, above. Ultimately, all the conditions are the responsibility of the applicant (owner) as far as the local
authorities are concerned.

NATSPEC viii [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 2124 GENERAL

PRELIMINARIES – AS 2124

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to the general requirements of the principal. The project specific version may include site security
arrangements, occupancy constraints, adjoining properties constraints, principal’s site office and other temporary facilities,
project signage, provisional sums, requirements for progress photographs, authority requirements, survey requirements,
principal-supplied items, separate contracts, some aspects of cost adjustment, and pest eradication.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Preliminaries for the following contracts have also been prepared:
• ABIC SW-1 – Simple works contract.
• ABIC MW-1 – Major works contract.
• AS 4000 – General conditions of contract.
• AS 4905 – Minor works contract conditions (Superintendent administered).
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• None.
Material not included in NATSPEC
A number of topics are not covered by this worksection but may need to be considered:
• On incorporation of the principal’s policies (e.g. apprentice employment, prohibition of smoking, union labour employment,
existing site allowances, procurement policies, insurance arrangements), see RAIA Advisory Note AN15.01.603 (the
standard preliminaries of many public works authorities include clauses on policy - this worksection includes some prompts
but no text).
• On security of payment, AS 2124 Amdt. No.1 directs that expert advice be sought on any relevant jurisdiction legislation.
• Consider incorporating development approval conditions that are the responsibility of the Contractor.
• This worksection does not cover contractor’s preliminaries (e.g. scaffolds, lunch sheds, cranes, site security) except where
these relate to selected subcontractors.
Worksection cross-referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• The location and general description of the works should be given only on the tender form (e.g. AS 2125). There is no
provision for it to be given elsewhere. AS 2124 seems to take the view that a short contractual description may be more
trouble than it’s worth - due to potential conflict with the scope of works as defined by the totality of the contract documents.
• Consider incorporating development approval conditions that are the responsibility of the Contractor.
• This worksection should be read in the context of the general conditions of contract, any special conditions of contract, and
any separately specified quality assurance requirements.

1 GENERAL

1.1 GENERAL
General conditions
General: To AS 2124, General conditions of contract, published by SAI Global.
This subclause is optional - the reference is usually from the general conditions to the specification. This reference properly
belongs in Tendering (see AS 2125) and the Form of agreement (AS 2127), and does not need to be repeated. Similarly the
schedule of contract documents should be covered in these other documents, and not here as well.
Interpretation
General: The word “contract administrator” has the same meaning as “superintendent”.
AS 2124 uses the term “superintendent”. If the term “superintendent” is used throughout the project specification (e.g. by global
change to the NATSPEC Template), this clause is unnecessary and should be deleted. However, NATSPEC technical
worksections use the term “contract administrator” as this has more general application.

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PRELIMINARIES – AS 2124 GENERAL

Cross reference: The clause Interpretation, in the General requirements worksection, also applies.

1.2 SELECTED AND NOMINATED SUBCONTRACTORS


See AS 2124 clause 10 Selected and nominated subcontractors. Clause 9 Assignment and subcontracting deals with approvals
of general subcontractors for work identified in Annexure A – note clause 9.2 paragraph 3 – any global requirements could be
stipulated here.
Nominated subcontract work
If nominated subcontractors or suppliers are known at tender, the nominations may be included in the tender and contract
documents. Nominated subcontractors to be assigned or novated to the contractor should be identified in the tender documents
(see AS 2124 clause 10.3, paragraphs 2 and 3). Note AS 2124 clause 10.4 paragraph 3, on contractor responsibility for design
or suitability.
Facilities: Refer to nominated subcontract documentation.
See AS 2124 clause 10.3 paragraph 4, and AS 2545 clause 47 and Annexure A Services and facilities. Supplement as
necessary e.g. site access, storage areas, additional “attendance”, cranage, cleaning up, protection, car parking, safe working,
other temporary services, temporary supports.
Contractor/nominated subcontractor interfaces: Refer to nominated subcontract documentation.
Separate contracts
Work concurrent to this contract: The following works on site, to be executed by persons engaged by
the principal, are not included in this contract:
>
List here separate works by entities such as artists, special tradesmen and their assistants, the site photographer and the like.
Do this only if there would otherwise be ambiguity e.g. something necessarily shown on the drawings such as equipment
installed “by others” or designated “not in contract” which could be mistaken for part of this contract.
Work before this contract: >
Work subsequent to this contract: >
Work before this contract: and Work subsequent to this contract: Only if necessary for clarification and then only if not covered
elsewhere. Demolition is an example of the former. The latter is important where the present contract includes provision for
future installations, additions and the like.

1.3 PROVISIONAL SUMS


See AS 2124 clause 11.
Provisional sums
General: Provisional sums identified in the Provisional sums schedule are for purposes stated in
relevant worksections of the specification.
If bills of quantities are used, this information should be located there, in which case delete this subclause (but include a
reference).Try to avoid using provisional sums. They may be used for dealing with the work of nominated subcontractors and
suppliers. Try also to avoid the use of provisional quantities. There is no provision for them in AS 2124 (but see the definition of
“Schedule of Rates” in AS 2124 clause 2 Interpretation). Valuation would also need to be resolved. See also the Commentary.
Provisional sums schedule
Item Where specified Provisional sum ($)

Item: The list may include the contingency sum, if any, although many principals require that this element of the budget is not
revealed to the contractor. Refer to RAIA Advisory Note AN16.05.101 on financial control. Identify each item by quoting the
specification clause title which refers to it. The sums themselves should only be scheduled here.

1.4 LATENT CONDITIONS


See AS 2124 clause 12.

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PRELIMINARIES – AS 2124 GENERAL

General
General: Other conditions which are latent conditions:
>
List here any other conditions to be regarded as latent conditions. See AS 2124 clause 12.1(b) Definition. SAA HB42 includes a
pro-forma for clause 12.2 Notification.

1.5 PATENTS, COPYRIGHT AND OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS


See AS 2124 clause 13. Patents, copyright and other intellectual property rights.
General
Infringement: >
The principal warrants that there are no infringements “unless otherwise provided in the Contract” – identify them here, if any, or
in the relevant technical worksection. This clause should be rarely used.

1.6 STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS


See AS 2124 clause 14 Statutory requirements.
Requirements of authorities
General: The principal, before entering into the contract, has given the notices, paid the fees, and
obtained the permits, approvals and other authorisations stated in the Prior applications and
approvals schedule.
On occupational health and safety requirements see RAIA Advisory Note AN14.01.102. This may be covered by AS 2124
clause 14.1 Complying with statutory requirements. . The roles of private certifiers are not covered in these Notes or in this
Commentary, and vary between jurisdictions.
Prior applications and approvals schedule
Prior notices given and Fees paid Permits, approvals and
applications made authorisations received

List the applications made, e.g. “Building application to ... Council”, fees paid, and approvals received, e.g. “Building approval
dated ...”. This may be of limited application to projects in the public sector. See AS 2124 clause 14.1, last paragraph.
This information may also be provided in Tendering.
Authority conditions schedule
Authority Document Condition

Responsibility for conditions, if any, imposed by local authorities needs to be resolved. Consider scheduling here those
conditions which affect the contractor. It is suggested that the superintendent should incorporate authorities’ requirements in the
documents as far as possible. Coordinate with Site limitations: under Site restrictions, below. Ultimately, all the conditions are
the responsibility of the applicant (principal) as far as the local authorities are concerned.

1.7 PROTECTION OF PEOPLE AND PROPERTY


See AS 2124 clause 15 Protection of people and property.
General
Public viewing area: >
Occupied premises
If premises are occupied, the selection of the insurance alternative in AS 2124 clauses 18 Insurance of the works and 19 Public
liability insurance will be affected - in most circumstances it would be sensible for the principal to insure (second alternative); the

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principal should obtain advice. Do not give advice on insurance matters. Note that some domestic policies void automatically
during construction.
General: For the parts of the site designated as occupied premises in the Occupied premises
schedule:
- Permit occupants to continue in secure possession and occupancy of the premises for the required
period.
- Make available safe access for occupants.
- Arrange work to minimise nuisance to occupants and ensure their safety.
- Protect occupants against weather, dust, dirt, water or other nuisance, by such means as temporary
screens.
Proposals: Submit details of proposed methods.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
Occupied premises schedule
Occupants Occupied premises Period of occupancy

Complete the schedule if the principal or occupants authorised by the principal will remain in possession of part of the site.
Occupants: e.g. “The principal”, “The principal’s ... department”, “The public”, or name other persons or organisations.
Occupied premises: Describe, or refer to marked areas on the drawings.
Period of occupancy: e.g. “Duration of the contract”.
No smoking policy >
Appropriate for work in occupied premises where the occupants are similarly constrained. Sometimes a standard principal’s
policy for all projects.
Safety
Accidents: Promptly notify the superintendent of the occurrence, of the following:
- Accidents involving death or personal injury.
- Accidents involving loss of time.
- Incidents with accident potential such as equipment failure, slides and cave-ins.
Accident reports: Submit reports of accidents.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
Accidents: and Accident reports: The contractor is subject to stringent public and occupational health and safety law. Delete the
clause if it is not considered appropriate. See also the Commentary
Access roads
Temporary roads: >
If construction of temporary roads is required to protect or minimise damage to the principal’s property.
Principal’s existing roads: Use only designated roads.
- Location: >
Indicate designated roads on the drawings. Proposals for control of traffic on the principal’s property by the contractor should be
submitted for review. Off-site traffic control needs authority approval – the contractor’s responsibility.
Protective clothing
Safety helmets: Make available safety helmets for the use of visitors.
- Standards: To AS/NZS 1801, Type 1.
- StandardsMark: Required.
Number of helmets: >

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1.8 CARE OF THE WORK AND REINSTATEMENT OF DAMAGE/DAMAGE TO PERSONS AND


PROPERTY OTHER THAN THE WORKS
See AS 2124 clauses 16 Care of the work and reinstatement of property and 17 Damage to persons and property other than the
works.
General
Damage to services: Do not obstruct or damage roadways and footpaths, drains and watercourses
and other existing services in use on or adjacent to the site. Determine the location of such services.
Rectify immediately any obstruction or damage to such services and provide temporary services whilst
repairs are carried out.
Damage to property: Do not interfere with or damage property which is to remain on or adjacent to the
site, including adjoining property encroaching onto the site, and trees. Rectify immediately any
interference or damage to such property.
Existing services
General: Attend to existing services as follows:
- If the service is to be continued, repair, divert or relocate as required. If such a service crosses the
line of a required trench, or will lose support when the trench is excavated, provide permanent
support for the existing service.
- If the service is to be abandoned, cut and seal or disconnect, and make safe.
Proposals: Submit proposals for action to be taken with respect to existing services before starting this
work. Minimise the number and duration of interruptions.
- Purpose of submission: For review.
Adjoining property
Notice: At least 14 days before commencing work, submit to owners and occupants of adjoining
property written notice of intention to commence work and an outline description of the type and extent
of work.
Conditions for work on adjoining property: >
The principal may have obtained permission from adjoining owners, including for work such as swinging crane jibs, erection of
scaffolding and construction of formwork. Some indication of the type and extent of the work may therefore already have been
given by the principal.
Records: For properties described in the Adjoining properties to be recorded schedule:
- Inspect the properties with the superintendent and owners and occupants of the properties, prior to
and on completion of the works.
- At the initial inspection, make detailed records of conditions existing within the properties, especially
structural defects and other damage or defacement.
- Arrange for at least 2 copies of each record, including drawings, written descriptions, and
photographs, to be endorsed by the owners and occupants, or their representatives, as evidence of
conditions existing before commencement of work.
See RAIA Advisory Note AN11.01.101.
Endorsed copies: Submit one endorsed copy of each record. Keep the other endorsed copy on site.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
Adjoining properties to be recorded schedule
Title Owner Description

Complete the schedule if there is danger of damage to adjoining property, including the principal’s own, and if precautionary
inspections and records need to be made. See RAIA Advisory Note AN13.01.102 for party walls, AN13.04.100 for inspections,
and AN18.01.401 on inadvertent building on adjoining property.

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Reinstatement
General: Clean and repair damage caused by installation or use of temporary work and restore
existing facilities used during construction to original condition.
An expansion of AS 2124 clause 16.2 Reinstatement. Delete if considered redundant.
Excepted risks >
Excepted risks are referred to at AS 2124 clause 16.3(b) Excepted risks.

1.9 CLERK OF WORKS AND INSPECTORS


See AS 2124 clause 22 Clerk of works and inspectors.
Identity: If not known, state “To be advised”, or delete. AS 2124 seems to anticipate that this notice will be provided during the
course of the contract.
Identity and functions of the superintendent’s representative may also be defined in the preliminaries - see AS 2124 clause 24
Superintendent’s representative, paragraph 2.
Clerk of works
Identity: >
Inspectors
Identity: >

1.10 SITE
See AS 2124 clause 27 Site.
Access
Not including clerk of works, inspectors, separate contracts (persons engaged to execute work). If not known, state “To be
advised”.
General: Further to AS 2124 clause 27.2, the following persons require, and are authorised to have,
access to the work: >
Delivery before possession >
AS 2124 clause 27.3 Delivery of materials to and work on site before possession permits such delivery only with approval.
Site restrictions
Entry permits: Make available, to persons entering designated secure areas, valid entry permits.
Ensure these persons comply with conditions of entry.
For high security projects only.
Designated secure areas: >
Show the area (which may be the whole site) on the drawings, or describe here if this is straightforward.
Conditions of entry: >
Identification, security checks and the like, imposed by the principal.
List: At least 14 days before entry is required, submit the full name, address, and date and place of
birth of persons required to enter designated secure areas.
- Purpose of submission: Review.
The specified 14 day period is arbitrary – vary as required.
Site limitations: Comply with the following restrictions on the use of the site:
>
If not shown on the drawings, give details of easements, restrictions arising out of the actions of adjoining land owners,
limitations related to continued occupancy by the principal, toxic ground conditions and the like, including maximum noise levels
and hours of work not covered by local authority conditions. Jackhammer and compressor silencing may need to be stipulated,
for example. See AS 2436 on construction site noise control. On excavation, for example, see RAIA Advisory Note
AN16.09.401.
Exemptions to the general requirements of AS 2124 clause 27.4 Use of site by contractor should also be given.
Restrictions: Access on to and around the site, and use of the site for temporary works and
constructional plant, including working and storage areas, location of offices, workshops, sheds, roads
and parking is restricted to the following areas:
>

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e.g. “Shown on drawing A001”, “To be determined”.

1.11 SETTING OUT THE WORKS


See AS 2124 clause 28 Setting out the works. Survey marks other than those necessary to set out the works should also be
“specified” (clause 28.1).
Surveys
Use if instructions are required additional to those in AS 2124 clause 28.1 Setting out e.g. employment of licensed surveyor to
check tolerances of structural elements such as position of columns, verticality of columns and facades, and floor levels. Also,
provision of equipment and labour to assist checks by the superintendent. See RAIA Advisory Note AN13.01.101. SAA HB31 is
a useful collection of extracts from standards dealing with building construction tolerances.
Setting out: >
Check surveys: >
Final survey: >

1.12 MATERIALS, LABOUR AND CONSTRUCTIONAL PLANT


See AS 2124 clause 29 Materials, labour and construction plant.
Apprentice employment policy >
Public sector principals, in particular, commonly have such a policy and require that it be stated in the preliminaries. There is no
clear consensus on inclusion of policy in the preliminaries.
Principal’s site office
Provide a weather-tight site office for the use of the principal or the principal’s nominees before major
site operations are started and include the following:
- Pay charges for services.
- Maintain in good order and in clean condition, with secure access, for duration of the work.
- Obtain permission for removal.
- Remove on completion.
Vary as necessary to suit the circumstances. A standard drawing, if available, may be substituted for part or all of this item,
including the schedule.
The subclause and schedule assume that only one office is required (i.e. the superintendent and other consultants share with
the clerk of works, if any – see RAIA Advisory Note AN16.01.101 no reference to AS 2124). The contractor need only provide
what has been specified. Reformat as required.
Principal’s site office schedule
User: >
Floor area: >
Structure: >
Floor: >
Furniture and fittings: >
Desk, chairs, filing cabinet, set-out table, plan rack, locker, shelving, meeting table and chairs for six people.
Telephones: >
Facsimile: >
Services: >
Tea making facilities, evaporative cooler, fans, toilet facilities (any gender requirements?), lights, power points, heater, walkie-
talkie, public address link-up.
Signage: >
Security: >
Parking: >
Temporary services >
Temporary services are generally the business of the contractor. If it is necessary to specify particular requirements, do so here,
e.g. temporary services for principal’s facilities if construction activities interfere, power for testing, temporary distribution boards,
special lighting requirements, water for testing, metering and payments for services. Consider other temporary services, e.g.

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gas, compressed air. Use of lift cars, new services, stairs and escalators (i.e. the works) may also need to be addressed -
generally, not to be used without consent, and protection, maintenance and restoration required.
Temporary fence >
Provide text only if a fence is required by the principal to secure occupied premises or the like. Normally site security is the
responsibility of the contractor.
Specify in the Fences and external walls worksection, and cross-refer, or specify here. A clause of this name does not exist as
such in NATSPEC material. Requirements of regulatory authorities may conflict. Note that hoardings are generally a local
authority requirement and need not be specified in most circumstances.
Use of existing services
Existing services may be used as temporary services for the performance of the contract subject to
conditions stated in the Existing services schedule.
Existing services schedule
Service Conditions of use

If existing services, including telephones or permanent building lighting, may be used for contract purposes, list them here and
state any conditions applying to their use, e.g. “The existing water service on the site, at no charge”, “Do not disrupt continuous
service to principal”, “Pay for connections”, “Provide separate metering and reimburse principal”, “Fully maintain the service”.
You may wish to clarify the situation after practical completion i.e. the principal is not liable for services, water, fuel used by the
contractor after this point.

Parking
Principal’s existing parking areas: Use only designated parking areas.
- Number of spaces: >
- Location: >
Project signboard
Provide project-specific signboards:
- Locate where directed.
- Maintain in good condition for duration of the work.
- Obtain written permission for removal.
- Remove on completion.
Other signboards: Obtain approval before display of advertisements or provision of other signboards.
Project signboard schedule
Best shown on the drawings. Components may be provided by the superintendent - modify as required.
Location: >
Size: >
Text, graphics: >
Insert, e.g. name of the project, the principal, contractor, superintendent, engineer, quantity surveyor.
Other details: >
Product particulars schedule
Items Particulars required

Stipulate items (e.g. mechanical plant), and particulars required (e.g. performance characteristics), further to AS 2124 clause
29.3 - if any. Coordinate with mechanical engineer etc.

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1.13 MATERIALS AND WORK


See AS 2124 clause 30.1 Quality of materials and work, which defaults to new materials. Be clear where second-hand materials
are permitted or required.
The requirement for full-time competent supervisors, with appropriate experience and training, may need to be specified in
some cases. See also AS 2124 clause 25 Contractor’s representative on off-site representatives. Remember the advice in RAIA
Advisory Note AN16.01.605.
Requirements vary across the country for many trades. General plumbers and electricians (special class) must be licensed in
every state and territory.
Options in AS 2124 clauses 30.3 Defective materials or work, 30.5 Acceptance of Defective materials or work and 30.6
Generally are best dealt with on a case-by-case (reactive) basis.
Items supplied by principal
Materials and other items identified in the Items to be supplied schedule will be supplied free of
charge to the contractor for installation in the execution of the works. Unload and take delivery of them
and inspect them for defects. If defects are found, advise. Return unused items to the principal.
Contractor is to care for these items as required in AS 2124 clause 16.1 Care of the work under the contract paragraph 2. The
value of these items is to be given in Annexure A.
If quality assurance is required, the principal as a supplier to the contractor will need to supply items which are consistent with
quality requirements of the works, and certify this, or advise which items are not consistent. This could be extended to the
contract documents themselves – are they current, complete, unambiguous?

Items to be supplied schedule


Location Item Quantity Date

Date: Of delivery or availability, to permit preparation of program.


Conditions of supply: >
Notice: >
For delivery of critical items under the control of the superintendent/principal (e.g. statues, electrical equipment). If there is not
adequate storage available, action may be required.
Changes to existing
At least 7 days before changing the following existing items, give notice:
>
The items may be part of existing structures, services, survey marks, etc.
Run off >
Generally, the contractor’s business. However, requirements for control of run off onto or from the principal’s property need to
be stated.

1.14 WORKING HOURS


See AS 2124 clause 32 Working hours.
General
Hours: >
Days: >

1.15 PROGRESS AND PROGRAMMING OF THE WORKS


See AS 2124 clause 33 Progress and programming of he works.
Order of work >
This subclause exercises the option in AS 2124 clause 33.1 Rate of progress paragraph 5.
If it is necessary to direct the contractor to perform the works in a particular order, or to complete stages or parts of the work in a
particular sequence or at stated times, give the directions here. For example, the contractor will need to know the dates by

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which different parts of an existing building will be vacated, or the beginning and end of the building “season” (if any) in a
national park or campus.
Alternatively, the directions may be given in the form of a construction program issued to the contractor as part of the contract
documents. Either way the requirements are contractual, unlike the program of work (see below).
Program of work
This subclause establishes only the basic requirements for a construction program. See RAIA Advisory Note AN16.06.102, and
AS 2124 clause 33.2 Construction program– this subclause exercises the option in that clause. The program may be either
furnished (non-contractual) or contractual, according to clause 33.2 – this subclause assumes that it is non-contractual.
Construction program: Within 14 days after the date for possession of the site, submit a construction
program showing the following:
- Sequence of work.
- Critical paths of activities related to the work.
- Allowance for holidays.
- Activity inter-relationships.
- External dependencies including provision of access, document approvals and work by others.
- Periods within which various stages or parts of the work are to be executed.
Revise default submission requirements as necessary. For larger projects this list may be supplemented by the following:
• Plant and labour resources and projected productivity rates for each activity.
• Site mobilisation.
• Procurement activities, such as subcontract tendering and appointment.
• Order dates and lead times for major components.
• Time allowed for product certification of imported goods.
• Time allowed for testing and commissioning of major items of equipment.
• Preparation and approvals for contractor’s documents.
Identification of critical path activities, and network formatting rather than bar chart or tables, may be appropriate in some cases
(unlikely for small building works). Edit the text accordingly.
Revisions: Revise the construction program as required by the progress of the work. Submit revisions
with each progress claim. Identify changes since the previous version, and show the estimated
percentage of completion for each item of work.
For larger projects, this clause may be extended to cover extensions of time granted, and actions dealing with deviations from
program. A progress report dealing with off-site work may also be required.
Program chart: Display in the contractor’s site office an up-to-date bar chart and network diagram
based on construction program.
Purpose of submissions: Information only.
Site meetings
Refer to RAIA Advisory Notes AN02.01.301, AN02.01.302, AN11.01.100, and AN16.06.102 recommendation 3.09. Agendas
may be required on large projects.
Hold and attend site meetings throughout the contract and ensure attendance of appropriate
subcontractors, the superintendent, and appropriate consultants.
Frequency: >
The frequency of meetings is best agreed by the superintendent and contractor as being the most appropriate for the particular
project, and may vary. It is helpful if meetings coincide with the timing of progress claims, though not essential.
Minutes: Keep minutes of site meetings. Within 5 working days after each meeting, submit to each
party written copies of the minutes.
- Purpose of submission: Review.
Delete if the superintendent is to take and distribute the minutes.
Contacts: At the first site meeting, submit names and telephone numbers of responsible persons who
may be contacted after hours during the course of the contract.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
See AS 2124 clause 25 Contractor’s representative paragraph 2.

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Progress photographs
Delete this subclause if these will be taken by the superintendent or by a separate contractor. If the latter, list in Separate
contracts. Consider mounting, size, and a default number e.g. 2 site photographs from different directions, and 5 interior
photographs.
AS 2124 clause 8.4 Supply of documents by contractor defaults to 5 copies of “documents” or the number stated in the
Annexure.
Take colour progress photographs within 7 days before each site meeting. At each site meeting
submit 2 sets of glossy prints, and the negatives. Identify project, date, time, location and orientation.
Purpose of submission: Information only.
Minimum frequency: >
Minimum number: >
Format: >

1.16 TIMES FOR COMMENCEMENT AND PRACTICAL COMPLETION


See AS 2124 clause 35 Times for commencement and practical completion.
General
Options in AS 2124 clause 35.1 Time for commencement of work on the site. There is no provision for these options in
Annexure A, though they may be better dealt with as special conditions of contract.
Period of notice for commencement of work on site:
>
Time from possession for commencement of work on site:
>

1.17 CLEANING UP
See AS 2124 clause 38 Cleaning up.
Final cleaning
General: Before practical completion, clean throughout, including interior and exterior surfaces
exposed to view. Vacuum carpeted and soft surfaces. Clean debris from site, roofs, gutters,
downpipes and drainage systems. Remove waste, surplus materials and rubbish.
Samples: Remove non-incorporated samples, prototypes and sample panels.
Removal of temporary works and constructional plant
See also AS 2124 clause 29.2 Removable of materials and constructional plant, which is more about non-removal. A global
requirement not to remove plant or materials from the site may be provided here.
Time for removal: >
AS 2124 clause 38 Cleaning up paragraphs 2 and 3 deal with general removal and allow for postponement. If anticipated at
documents (unlikely), resolve here. Otherwise, delete.
Pest eradication
Employ suitably qualified pest exterminators. Submit certificate to the superintendent stating that
completed works are free of pest types identified in the Pest eradication treatments schedule.
Pest eradication treatments schedule
Pest type to be treated Eradication method

Eradication method: e.g. “Exterminator’s recommendation”.

1.18 CERTIFICATES AND PAYMENTS


See AS 2124 clause 42 Certificates and payments.

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Payment claims break-down


This subclause partly exercises the option in AS 2124 clause 42.1 Payment claims, certificates, calculations and time for
payment paragraph 1, but should be modified if there is a priced bill of quantities. Proof of payment of subcontractors and
suppliers is covered by AS 2124 clause 43Payment of workers and subcontractors.
Break down: With each progress claim submit a statement of amounts claimed in respect of each
worksection or trade heading designated in the specification, together with variations included in the
claim.
Bills of quantities: >
Purpose of submission: Review.
Import costs
Include only if risk of change is being taken by the principal. It is contrary to the policy of many public sector authorities. In such
cases, delete the subclause. See also AS 2124 clause 42.1 Payment claims, certificates, calculations and time for payment
paragraph 6(i).
Definition: Import costs include costs attributable to exchange rates, customs or import duty, and
primage of imported content of items purchased for incorporation in the works.
Adjustment: If there are changes in rates applying to import costs of items listed in the Import cost
adjustment schedule, add or deduct the amount of the difference to or from the contract sum, as
applicable.
Import cost adjustment schedule
Item Country of origin Import cost

Method of measurement
General: In accordance with the principles of the Australian Standard Method of Measurement of
Building Works (ASMM).
Other civil engineering work: To AS 1181.

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PRELIMINARIES – AS 4000

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to the general requirements of the principal. The project specific version may include site security
arrangements, occupancy constraints, adjoining properties constraints, principal’s site office and other temporary facilities,
project signage, provisional sums, requirements for progress photographs, authority requirements, survey requirements,
principal-supplied items, separate contracts, some aspects of cost adjustment, and pest eradication.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Preliminaries for the following contracts have also been prepared:
• ABIC SW-1 – Simple works contract.
• ABIC MW-1 – Major works contract.
• AS 2124 – General conditions of contract.
• AS 4905 – Minor works contract conditions (Superintendent administered).
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• None.
Material not included in NATSPEC
A number of topics are not covered by this worksection but may need to be considered:
• On incorporation of the principal’s policies (e.g. apprentice employment, prohibition of smoking, union labour employment,
existing site allowances, procurement policies, insurance arrangements), see RAIA Advisory Note AN15.01.603 (the
standard preliminaries of many public works authorities include clauses on policy - this worksection includes some prompts
but no text).
• On security of payments, AS 4000 Amdt. No.2 directs that expert advice be sought on any relevant jurisdiction legislation.
• Consider incorporating development approval conditions that are the responsibility of the Contractor.
• This worksection does not cover contractor’s preliminaries (e.g. scaffolds, lunch sheds, cranes, site security) except where
these relate to selected subcontractors.
Worksection cross-referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• The location and general description of the works should be given only on the tender form. There is no provision for it to be
given elsewhere. AS 4000 seems to take the view that a short contractual description may be more trouble than it’s worth –
due to potential conflict with the scope of works as defined by the totality of the contract documents. On scope, see
AS 4000 clause 28 paragraph 1 which states that the contractor is to provide everything necessary “for the proper
performance of the Contractor’s obligations”, except as otherwise provided.
• The location and general description of the works should be given only on the tender form. There is no provision for it to be
given elsewhere. AS 4000 seems to take the view that a short contractual description may be more trouble than it’s worth –
due to potential conflict with the scope of works as defined by the totality of the contract documents.
• Consider incorporating development approval conditions that are the responsibility of the Contractor.
• This worksection should be read in the context of the general conditions of contract, any special conditions of contract, and
any separately specified quality assurance requirements.

1 GENERAL

1.1 GENERAL
General conditions
General: To AS 4000–1997, General conditions of contract, published by SAI Global.
This subclause is optional - the reference to the contract is usually from the general conditions to the specification. This
reference properly belongs in Tendering and the Form of agreement, and does not need to be carried over here. Similarly the
schedule of contract documents should be covered in AS 4000 Annexure Part A Item 15, and not here as well.

NATSPEC i [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4000 GENERAL

Interpretation
General: The word “contract administrator” has the same meaning as “superintendent”.
AS 4000 uses the term “superintendent”. If the term “superintendent” is used throughout the project specification (e.g. by global
change to the NATSPEC worksections), this clause is unnecessary and should be deleted. However, NATSPEC technical
worksections use the term “contract administrator” as this has more general application.
Cross reference: The clause Interpretation, in the General requirements worksection, also applies.

1.2 PROVISIONAL SUMS


Refer to AS 4000 clause 3 Provisional sums.
Provisional sums
General: Provisional sums identified in the Provisional sums schedule are for purposes stated in
relevant worksections of the specification.
If bills of quantities are used, this information should be located there, in which case substitute text and schedule with a
reference to them in the bills of quantities. Refer also to the Commentary.
Provisional sums schedule
Item Where specified Provisional sum ($)

The list may include the contingency sum, if any, although many principals require that this element of the budget is not
revealed to the contractor. Refer to RAIA Advisory Note AN16.05.101 on financial control. Identify each item by quoting the
specification clause title (and number) which refers to it. The sums themselves should only be scheduled here.

1.3 CONTRACT DOCUMENTS


Refer to AS 4000 clause 8 Contract documents.
Contractor-supplied documents
Number of copies: >
A general default responding to AS 4000 clause 8.3 paragraph 1. The various documents required are stipulated in each
technical worksection. Check the General requirements worksection for duplication.
Documents required to be checked by superintendent:
>
Better stated where the documents are listed. Responding to AS 4000 clause 8.3 paragraph 2(a).
Confidential information
The following principal-supplied information is confidential:
>
Responding to AS 4000 clause 8.5 paragraph 1.
Confidentiality agreement: Required.
Or, “Not required”. Responding to AS 4000 clause 8.5 paragraph 2.

1.4 ASSIGNMENT AND SUBCONTRACTING


Refer to AS 4000 clause 9 Assignment and subcontracting. Clause 9 deals with approvals of general subcontractors for work
identified in Annexure Part A – note clause 9.2 paragraph 3 - any global requirements could be stipulated here.
Selected subcontract work
According to AS 4000 clause 9.3 paragraph 1, a Selected subcontractors schedule should be provided in Tendering, and not
here, because decisions about which if any of these subcontractors are to be employed should be taken before the contract is
agreed. There is no provision in this contract for nominated subcontracts. See also the Commentary.
Facilities: Refer to selected subcontract documentation.
Contractor/selected subcontractor interfaces: Refer to selected subcontract documentation.

NATSPEC ii [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4000 GENERAL

Novated subcontract work


Refer to AS 4000 clause 9.4. A pro-forma deed of novation prepared with the advice of the principles legal advisors must be
included in the tender documents.
Facilities: Refer to novated subcontract documentation.
Contractor/novated subcontractor interfaces: Refer to novated subcontract documentation.
Contractor’s responsibility
Exceptions: >
Responding to AS 4000 clause 9.5. There are unlikely to be any exceptions.
Separate contracts
Work concurrent to this contract: The following works on site, to be executed by persons engaged by
the principal, are not included in this contract:
Coordinate with Site – Access for others, below. List here separate works by entities such as artists, special tradesmen and
their assistants, the site photographer and the like. Do this only if there would otherwise be ambiguity e.g. something
necessarily shown on the drawings such as equipment installed “by others” or designated “not in contract” which could be
mistaken for part of this contract.
Work before this contract: >
Work subsequent to this contract: >
Work before this contract: and Work subsequent to this contract: Only if necessary for clarification and then only if not covered
elsewhere. Demolition is an example of the former. The latter is important where the present contract includes provision for
future installations, additions and the like.

1.5 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS


Refer to AS 4000 clause 10 Intellectual property rights.
General
Infringements: >
Responding to AS 4000 clause 10 paragraph 1. The principal warrants that there are no infringements “unless otherwise
provided in the Contract”. List known infringements by the principal of intellectual property rights, if any, here or in the relevant
technical worksection. This subclause should be rarely used.

1.6 LEGISLATIVE REQUIREMENTS


Refer to AS 4000 clause 11 Legislative requirements.
Compliance
The principal, before entering into the contract, has given the notices, paid the fees, and obtained the
permits, approvals and other authorisations stated in the Prior applications and approvals
schedule.
On occupational health and safety requirements see RAIA Advisory Note AN14.01.612. This may be covered by AS 4000
clause 11.1. The roles of private certifiers are not covered in these Notes or in this Commentary, and vary between jurisdictions.
Prior applications and approvals schedule
Prior notices given and Fees paid Permits, approvals and
applications made Authorisations received

Responds to AS 4000 clause 11.1, and intended to deal proactively where possible with exceptions “directed by the
Superintendent”. Others will be given in Annexure Part A, for which the same sort of detail should be given. The Administration
Manual provides a form for directing the principal to satisfy certain legal requirements. List the applications made, e.g. “Building
application to ... Council”, fees paid, and approvals received, e.g. “Building approval dated ...”. This may be of limited application
to projects in the public sector. This information may also be provided in Tendering.

NATSPEC iii [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4000 GENERAL

Authority conditions schedule


Authority Document Condition

Responsibility for conditions, if any, imposed by local authorities needs to be resolved.


Consider scheduling here those conditions which affect the contractor. It is suggested that the superintendent should
incorporate authorities’ requirements in the documents as far as possible. Coordinate with Site - Site restrictions/Site limitations,
below. Ultimately, all the conditions are the responsibility of the applicant (generally the principal) as far as the local authorities
are concerned.

1.7 PROTECTION OF PEOPLE AND PROPERTY


Refer to AS 4000 clause 12 Protection of people and property.
General
Public viewing area: >
Occupied premises
If premises are occupied, the selection of the insurance alternatives in AS 4000 clauses 16 and 17 will be affected – in most
circumstances it would be sensible for the principal to insure (second alternative); the principal should obtain advice. Do not give
advice on insurance matters. Note that some domestic policies void automatically during construction.
For the parts of the site designated as occupied premises in the Occupied premises schedule:
- Permit occupants to continue in secure possession and occupancy of the premises for the required
period.
- Make available safe access for occupants.
- Arrange work to minimise nuisance to occupants and ensure their safety.
- Protect occupants against weather, dust, dirt, water or other nuisance, by such means as temporary
screens.
Proposals: Submit details of proposed methods.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
Occupied premises schedule
Occupants Occupied premises Period of occupancy

Complete the schedule if the principal or occupants authorised by the principal will remain in possession of part of the site.
Occupants: e.g. “The principal”, “The principal’s ... department”, “The public”, or name other persons or organisations.
Occupied premises: Describe, or refer to marked areas on the drawings.
Period of occupancy: e.g. “Duration of the contract”.
No smoking policy >
Appropriate for work in occupied premises where the occupants are similarly constrained. Sometimes a standard principal’s
policy for all projects.
Safety
Accidents: Promptly notify the superintendent of the occurrence of the following:
- Accidents involving death or personal injury.
- Accidents involving loss of time.
- Incidents with accident potential such as equipment failure, slides and cave-ins.
Accident reports: Submit reports of accidents.

NATSPEC iv [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4000 GENERAL

- Purpose of submission: Information only.


Accidents: and Accident reports: The contractor is subject to stringent public and occupational health and safety law. See also
the Commentary.
Protective clothing
Rubber boots and safety boots are also often required on building sites, but it is perhaps unreasonable to expect the contractor
to supply them in a full range of sizes to visitors without charge and without notice. The superintendent should supply a properly
fitting helmet and boots for his, or her, own use.
Safety helmets: Make available safety helmets for the use of visitors.
- Standard: To AS/NZS 1801, Type 1.
- StandardsMark: Required.
Number of helmets: >
Adjoining property
Protection: Do not interfere with or damage property which is to remain on or adjacent to the site,
including adjoining property encroaching onto the site, and trees.
Notice: At least 14 days before commencing work, submit to owners and occupants of adjoining
property written notice of intention to commence work and an outline description of the type and extent
of work.
Conditions for work on adjoining property: >
The principal may have obtained permission from adjoining owners, including for work such as swinging crane jibs, erection of
scaffolding and construction of formwork. Some indication of the type and extent of the work may therefore already have been
given by the principal.
Records: For properties described in the Adjoining properties to be recorded schedule:
For keeping project records, see RAIA Advisory Note AN11.01.101.
- Inspect the properties with the superintendent and owners and occupants of the properties, before
commencement of work.
- Make detailed records of conditions existing within the properties, especially structural defects and
other damage or defacement.
- Arrange for at least 2 copies of each record, including drawings, written descriptions, and
photographs, to be endorsed by the owners and occupants, or their representatives, as evidence of
conditions existing before commencement of work.
Endorsed copies: Submit one endorsed copy of each record. Keep the other endorsed copy on site.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
Adjoining properties to be recorded schedule
Title Owner Description

Complete the schedule if there is danger of damage to adjoining property, including the principal’s own, and if precautionary
inspections and records need to be made. See RAIA Advisory Note AN13.01.102 for party walls, AN13.04.100 for inspections,
and AN18.01.401 on inadvertent building on adjoining property.

Access roads
Temporary roads: >
If construction of temporary roads is required to protect or minimise damage to the principal’s property.
Principal’s existing roads: Use only designated roads.
- Location: >
Indicate designated roads on the drawings. Proposals for control of traffic on the principal’s property by the contractor should be
submitted for review. Off-site traffic control needs authority approval – the contractor’s responsibility.

NATSPEC v [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4000 GENERAL

Services
General: Do not obstruct or damage roadways and footpaths, drains and watercourses and other
existing services in use on or adjacent to the site. Determine the location of such services.

1.8 CARE OF THE WORK AND REINSTATEMENT OF DAMAGE


Refer to AS 4000 clause 14 Care of work and reinstatement of damage.
Existing services
Attendance: Attend to existing services as follows:
- If the service is to be continued, repair, divert or relocate as required. If such a service crosses the
line of a required trench, or will lose support when the trench is excavated, provide permanent
support for the existing service.
- If the service is to be abandoned, cut and seal or disconnect, and make safe.
Proposals: Submit proposals for action to be taken with respect to existing services before starting this
work. Minimise the number and duration of interruptions.
- Purpose of submission: For review.
Excepted risks >
Responds to AS 4000 clause 14.3(b).

1.9 DAMAGE TO PERSONS AND PROPERTY OTHER THAN WUC


Refer to AS 4000 clause 15 Damage to persons and property other than WUC (work under the Contract)
Property on the site
Repair of services: Rectify immediately any obstruction or damage to roadways and footpaths, drains
and watercourses and other existing services in use on the site. Provide temporary services whilst
repairs are carried out.
Repair of property: Rectify immediately any interference or damage to property which is to remain on
the site, including trees.
Reinstatement
General: Clean and repair damage caused by installation or use of temporary work and restore
existing facilities used during construction to original condition.
An extension of AS 4000 clause 14.2.
Adjoining property
Repair of services: Rectify immediately any obstruction or damage to roadways and footpaths, drains
and watercourses and other existing services adjacent to the site. Provide temporary services whilst
repairs are carried out.
Repair of property: Rectify immediately any interference or damage to property which is adjacent to
the site, including adjoining property encroaching onto the site, and trees.
Records: For properties described in the Adjoining properties to be recorded schedule inspect the
properties with the superintendent and owners and occupants of the properties, on completion of the
works, recording any damage that has occurred since the pre-commencement inspection.
Direction
Oral direction not permitted: >
Written confirmation not required: >
Responds to AS 4000 clause 20 paragraph 2, which is a little ambiguous - are the exceptions about oral direction or written
confirmation, or both? In any case, there are unlikely to be any. If you can think of any in advance, list them here.

1.10 SUPERINTENDENT’S REPRESENTATIVE


Refer to AS 4000 clause 21on the Superintendent’s representative.
Further to AS 4000 clause 22 Contractor’s representative, the requirement for full-time competent supervisors, with appropriate
experience and training, may need to be specified in some cases. Remember the advice in RAIA Advisory Note AN16.01.605 –
the Architect does not supervise the works.
Superintendent’s representatives
Responds to AS 4000 clause 21(c). More can be nominated as the work progresses, of course. The Administration Manual
provides a form for the purpose.

NATSPEC vi [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4000 GENERAL

Name: >
Delegated function: >

1.11 SITE
Refer to AS 4000 clause 24 Site.
Possession
Approved uses not connected with WUC: >
Responds to AS 4000 clause 24.1 paragraph 2.
Access for others
The following persons are engaged by the principal to carry out work on the site other than WUC: >
Responds to AS 4000 clause 24.2 paragraph 1. Not including clerk of works, inspectors, separate contracts (persons engaged
to execute work). If not known, state “To be advised”. There is no explicit provision in this contract for principal’s clerks of works
and inspectors. The Administration Manual provides a form for authorising other persons to have site access.
Site restrictions
Entry permits: Make available, to persons entering designated secure areas, valid entry permits.
Ensure these persons comply with conditions of entry.
For high security projects only.
Designated secure areas: >
Show the area (which may be the whole site) on the drawings, or describe here if this is straightforward.
Conditions of entry: >
Identification, security checks and the like, imposed by the principal.
List: At least 14 days before entry is required, submit the full name, address, and date and place of
birth of persons required to enter designated secure areas.
- Purpose of submission: Review.
The specified 14 day period is arbitrary - vary as required.
Site limitations: Comply with the following restrictions on the use of the site:
>
If not shown on the drawings, give details here. See also the Commentary.
Restrictions: Access on to and around the site, and use of the site for temporary works and
constructional plant, including working and storage areas, location of offices, workshops, sheds, roads
and parking is restricted to the following areas:
>
e.g. “Shown on drawing A001”, “To be determined”.

1.12 SETTING OUT THE WORKS


Refer to AS 4000 clause 26 Setting out the works.
Setting out
Supply of information: >
Responding to AS 4000 clause 26.1 – includes data and survey marks (pegs, benchmarks etc.) necessary for setting out. If this
information is available, state how it can be obtained e.g. identify and supply the survey. If it is not, state how it is to be provided
by the principal e.g. source, timing, or leave it to the superintendent to sort out. The Administration Manual provides a form for
the supply of setting out information.
Surveys
Use if instructions are required additional to those in AS 4000 clause 26.1 e.g. employment of licensed surveyor to check
tolerances of structural elements such as position of columns, verticality of columns and facades, and floor levels. Use also for
provision of equipment and labour to assist checks by the superintendent. See RAIA Advisory Note AN13.01.101 on survey
information.
Setting out: >
Check surveys: >
Final survey: >

NATSPEC vii [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4000 GENERAL

1.13 CLEANING UP
Refer to AS 4000 clause 27 Cleaning up.
Final cleaning
Lamp and filter replacement, and the like, are dealt with in the various SERVICES worksections. Progressive cleaning is
generally, the contractor’s business, though the Administration Manual provides a form for directing the contractor to clean up.
Work in occupied premises, or where debris may find its way off-site onto principal’s property or adjoining property, will need to
be dealt with here.
General: Before practical completion, clean throughout, including interior and exterior surfaces
exposed to view. Vacuum carpeted and soft surfaces. Clean debris from site, roofs, gutters,
downpipes and drainage systems. Remove waste, surplus materials and rubbish.
Samples: Remove non-incorporated samples, prototypes and sample panels.
Removal of temporary works and constructional plant
Time for removal: >
AS 4000 clause 27 paragraph 2 deals with general removal and allows for postponement. If anticipated at documents (unlikely),
resolve here. Otherwise, delete.
Pest eradication
Employ suitably qualified pest exterminators. Submit certificate to the superintendent stating that
completed works are free of pest types identified in the Pest eradication treatments schedule.
Pest eradication treatments schedule
Pest type to be treated Eradication method

Eradication method: e.g. “Exterminator’s recommendation”. On birds and buildings, see BDP EDG Note DES56.

1.14 MATERIALS, LABOUR AND CONSTRUCTION PLANT


Refer to AS 4000 clause 28 Materials, labour and construction plant and clause 29 Quality. Clause 29.1 Quality of material and
work is the subject matter of the specification at large, of course. It defaults to new materials. Be clear where second-hand
materials are permitted or required. Clause 29.2 is expanded in the Quality worksection. Options in AS 4000 clauses 29.3, 29.4
and 29.5 are best dealt with on a case-by-case (reactive) basis. Clause 30 Examination and testing, is expanded in the General
requirements worksection.
Items supplied by principal
A partial response to AS 4000 clause 28 paragraph 1. The contractor is to care for these items as required in AS 4000 clause
14.1 paragraph 2. The value of these items is to be given in Annexure Part A Item 20(d).
If quality assurance is required, the principal as a supplier to the contractor will need to supply items which are consistent with
quality requirements of the works, and certify this, or advise which items are not consistent. This could be extended to the
contract documents themselves - are they current, complete, unambiguous?
General: Materials and other items identified in the Items to be supplied schedule will be supplied
free of charge to the contractor for installation in the execution of the works. Unload and take delivery
of them and inspect them for defects. If defects are found, advise. Return unused items to the
principal.
Conditions of supply: >
Notice: >
For delivery of critical items under the control of the superintendent/principal (e.g. statues, electrical equipment). If there is not
adequate storage available, action may be required.

NATSPEC viii [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4000 GENERAL

Items to be supplied schedule


Location Item Quantity Date

Date: Of delivery or availability, to permit preparation of program.


Use of existing services
Existing services may be used as temporary services for the performance of the contract subject to
conditions stated in the Existing services schedule.
A partial response to AS 4000 clause 28 paragraph 1.
Existing services schedule
Service Conditions of use

If existing services, including telephones or permanent building lighting, may be used for contract purposes, list them here and
state any conditions applying to their use, e.g. “The existing water service on the site, at no charge”, “Do not disrupt continuous
service to principal”, “Pay for connections”, “Provide separate metering and reimburse principal”, “Fully maintain the service”.
You may wish to clarify the situation after practical completion i.e. the principal is not liable for services, water, fuel used by the
contractor after this point.
Parking
Principal’s existing parking areas: Use only designated parking areas.
- Number of spaces: >
- Location: >
A partial response to AS 4000 clause 28 paragraph 1.
Items supplied by contractor
Items Particulars required

Responds to AS 4000 clause 28 paragraph 2. Generally, best dealt with in the appropriate technical worksection. Stipulate
items (e.g. mechanical plant), and particulars required (e.g. performance characteristics). Coordinate with mechanical engineer
etc. The Administration Manual provides a form for arranging inspection of manufacture and so forth of materials, and another
for the supply of particulars.

Removal of materials and constructional plant


>
Responds to AS 4000 clause 28 paragraph 3, which is more about non-removal. A global requirement not to remove plant or
materials from the site may be appropriate here. The Administration Manual provides a form for directing the contractor to not
remove materials or plant.

Apprentice employment policy >


Public sector principals, in particular, commonly have such a policy and require that it be stated in the preliminaries. There is no
clear consensus on inclusion of policy in the preliminaries.

Principal’s site office


Vary as necessary to suit the circumstances. A standard drawing, if available, may be substituted for part or all of this item,
including the schedule.

NATSPEC ix [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4000 GENERAL

The subclause and prompts assume that only one office is required (i.e. the superintendent and other consultants share – on
the clerk of works, see RAIA Advisory Note AN16.01.101, no reference to AS 4000). The contractor need only provide what has
been specified. Reformat as required.
Provide a weather-tight site office for the use of the principal or the principal’s nominees before major
site operations are started and include the following:
- Pay charges for services.
- Maintain in good order and in clean condition, with secure access, for duration of the work.
- Obtain permission for removal.
- Remove on completion.
Principal’s site office description
User: >
Floor area: >
Structure: >
Floor: >
Furniture and fittings: >
Desk, chairs, filing cabinet, set-out table, plan rack, locker, shelving, meeting table and chairs for six people.
Telephones: >
Facsimile: >
Services: >
Tea making facilities, evaporative cooler, fans, toilet facilities (any gender requirements?), lights, power points, heater, walkie-
talkie, public address link-up.
Signage: >
Security: >
Parking: >
Temporary services >
Temporary services are generally the business of the contractor. If it is necessary to specify particular requirements, do so here,
e.g. temporary services for principal’s facilities if construction activities interfere, power for testing, temporary distribution boards,
special lighting requirements, water for testing, metering and payments for services. Consider other temporary services, e.g.
gas, compressed air. Use of lift cars, new services, stairs and escalators (i.e. the works) may also need to be addressed -
generally, not to be used without consent, and protection, maintenance and restoration required.
Temporary fence >
Provide text only if a fence is required by the principal to secure occupied premises or the like. Normally site security is the
responsibility of the contractor.
Specify in the Landscape – fences and barriers worksection, and cross-refer, or specify here. A clause of this name does not
exist as such in NATSPEC material. Requirements of regulatory authorities may conflict. Note that hoardings are generally a
local authority requirement and need not be specified in most circumstances.
Project signboard
General: Provide project-specific signboards and include the following:
- Locate where directed.
- Maintain in good condition for duration of the work.
- Obtain written permission for removal.
- Remove on completion.
Other signboards: Obtain approval before display of advertisements or provision of other signboards.
Project signboard description
Best shown on the drawings. Components may be provided by the superintendent - modify as required.
Location: >
Size: >
Text, graphics: >
Insert, e.g. name of the project, the principal, contractor, superintendent, engineer, quantity surveyor.
Other details: >

NATSPEC x [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4000 GENERAL

Changes to existing
At least 7 days before changing the following existing items, give notice:
>
The items may be part of existing structures, services, survey marks, etc.
Run off >
Generally, the contractor’s business. However, requirements for control of run off onto the principal’s property need to be stated.

1.15 WORKING HOURS


Responds to AS 4000 clause 31 Working hours.
General
Working hours and days must be notified before work commences on site. Local authority requirements on this topic, if any,
should be stated here.
Working hours: >
Working days: >

1.16 PROGRAMMING
Refer to AS 4000 clause 32 Programming.
Order of work schedule
Portion of work Order of work Time of work

Responds to AS 4000 clause 32 paragraph 3. If it is necessary to direct the contractor to perform the works in a particular order,
or to complete stages or parts of the work in a particular sequence or at stated times, give the directions here. For example, the
contractor will need to know the dates by which different parts of an existing building will be vacated, or the beginning and end
of the building “season” (if any) in a national park or campus. The Administration Manual includes a form for the purpose.
Alternatively, the directions may be given in the form of a construction program issued to the contractor as part of the contract
documents. Either way the requirements are contractual.
Program of work
Responds to AS 4000 clause 32 paragraph 5. This subclause establishes only the basic requirements for a construction
program. The Administration Manual provides a form for the purpose. On the architect’s role in expediting the works, see RAIA
Advisory Note AN16.06.102. The program is contractual.
Construction program: Within 14 days after the date for possession of the site, submit a construction
program showing the following:
- Sequence of work.
- Critical paths of activities related to the work.
- Allowance for holidays.
- Activity inter-relationships.
- External dependencies including provision of access, document approvals and work by others.
- Periods within which various stages or parts of the work are to be executed.
Revise default submission requirements as necessary. See also the Commentary.
Revisions: Revise the construction program as required by the progress of the work. Submit revisions
with each progress claim. Identify changes since the previous version, and show the estimated
percentage of completion for each item of work.
For larger projects, this clause may be extended to cover extensions of time granted, and actions dealing with deviations from
program. A progress report dealing with off-site work may also be required.
Program chart: Display in the contractor’s site office an up-to-date bar chart and network diagram
based on construction program.

NATSPEC xi [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4000 GENERAL

Site meetings
General: Hold and attend site meetings throughout the contract and ensure attendance of appropriate
subcontractors, the superintendent, and appropriate consultants.
Refer to RAIA Advisory Notes AN02.01.301, AN02.01.302, AN11.01.100, and AN16.06.102 recommendation 3.09 on the
principle attending site meetings. Agendas may be required on large projects.
Frequency: >
The frequency of meetings is best agreed by the superintendent and contractor as being the most appropriate for the particular
project, and may vary. It is helpful if meetings coincide with the timing of progress claims, though not essential.
Minutes: Keep minutes of site meetings. Within 5 working days after each meeting, submit to each
party written copies of the minutes.
- Purpose of submission: Review.
Delete if the superintendent is to take and distribute the minutes.
Contacts: At the first site meeting, submit names and telephone numbers of responsible persons who
may be contacted after hours during the course of the contract.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
See AS 4000 clause 22 paragraph 2.
Progress photographs
Delete this subclause if these will be taken by the superintendent or by a separate contractor. If the latter, list in Separate
contracts. Consider mounting, size, and a default number e.g. 2 site photographs from different directions, and 5 interior
photographs.
AS 4000 Annexure Part A Item 15 defaults to 5 copies for principal-supplied documents. Coordinate with Contract documents –
Contractor-supplied documents/Number of copies, above.
General: Take colour progress photographs within 7 days before each site meeting. At each site
meeting submit 2 sets of glossy prints, and a digital record. Identify project, date, time, location and
orientation.
Define the digital record format.
Purpose of submission: Information only.
Minimum frequency: >
Minimum number: >
Format: >

1.17 PAYMENT
Refer to AS 4000 clause 3 Payment.
Progress claims
This subclause expands the requirement in AS 4000 clause 37.1 paragraph 3, but should be modified if there is a priced bill of
quantities. Proof of payment of subcontractors and suppliers is covered by AS 4000 clause 38.
Break down: With each progress claim submit a statement of amounts claimed in respect of each
worksection or trade heading designated in the specification, together with variations included in the
claim.
Bills of quantities: >
Purpose of submission: Review.
Import costs
Include only if risk of change is being taken by the principal. It is contrary to the policy of many public sector authorities. In such
cases, delete the subclause.
Definition: Import costs include costs attributable to exchange rates, customs or import duty, and
primage of imported content of items purchased for incorporation in the works.
Adjustment: If there are changes in rates applying to import costs of items listed in the Import cost
adjustment schedule, add or deduct the amount of the difference to or from the contract sum, as
applicable.

NATSPEC xii [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4000 GENERAL

Import cost adjustment schedule


Item Country of origin Import cost

Method of measurement
General: In accordance with the principles of the Australian Standard Method of Measurement of
Building Works (ASMM).
Other civil engineering work: To AS 1181.

NATSPEC xiii [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4905 GENERAL

PRELIMINARIES – AS 4905

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to the general requirements of the principal. The project specific version may include site security
arrangements, occupancy constraints, adjoining properties constraints, principal’s site office and other temporary facilities,
project signage, provisional sums, requirements for progress photographs, authority requirements, survey requirements,
principal-supplied items, separate contracts, some aspects of cost adjustment, and pest eradication.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Preliminaries for the following contracts have also been prepared:
• ABIC SW-1 – Simple works contract.
• ABIC MW-1 – Major works contract.
• AS 2124 – General conditions of contract.
• AS 4000 – General conditions of contract.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• None.
Material not included in NATSPEC
A number of topics are not covered by this worksection but may need to be considered:
• On incorporation of the principal’s policies (e.g. apprentice employment, prohibition of smoking, union labour employment,
existing site allowances, procurement policies, insurance arrangements), see RAIA Advisory Note AN15.01.603 (the
standard preliminaries of many public works authorities include clauses on policy - this worksection includes some prompts
but no text).
• On the subject of security of payments and limiting liability the preface directs that expert advice be sought on any relevant
jurisdiction legislation.
• Consider incorporating development approval conditions that are the responsibility of the Contractor.
• This worksection does not cover contractor’s preliminaries (e.g. scaffolds, lunch sheds, cranes, site security) except where
these relate to selected subcontractors.
Worksection cross-referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• The location and general description of the works should be given only on the tender form. There is no provision for it to be
given elsewhere. AS 4000 seems to take the view that a short contractual description may be more trouble than it’s worth -
due to potential conflict with the scope of works as defined by the totality of the contract documents. On scope, see
AS 4000 clause 28 paragraph 1 which states that the contractor is to provide everything necessary “for the proper
performance of the Contractor’s obligations”, except as otherwise provided.
• The location and general description of the works should be given only on the tender form (e.g. AS 2125). There is no
provision for it to be given elsewhere. AS 2124 seems to take the view that a short contractual description may be more
trouble than it’s worth - due to potential conflict with the scope of works as defined by the totality of the contract documents.
• Consider incorporating development approval conditions that are the responsibility of the Contractor.
• This worksection should be read in the context of the general conditions of contract, any special conditions of contract, and
any separately specified quality assurance requirements.

1 GENERAL

1.1 GENERAL
General conditions
General: To AS 4905, Minor works contract conditions (superintendent administered), published by
SAI Global.
This information is included in Tendering worksection. If Tendering is included in the project specification omit this subclause.

NATSPEC i [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4905 GENERAL

Interpretation
General: The word “contract administrator” has the same meaning as “superintendent”.
AS 4905 uses the term “superintendent”. If the term “superintendent” is used throughout the project specification (e.g. by global
change to the NATSPEC Template), this clause is unnecessary and should be deleted. However NATSPEC technical
worksections use the term “contract administrator” as this has more general application.
Cross reference: The clause Interpretation, in the General requirements worksection, also applies.

1.2 SUBCONTRACTING
See AS 4905 clause 6.2. which deals only with approval for part of the work to be subcontracted without relieving the Contractor
of liability.
Separate contracts
Work concurrent to this contract: The following works on site, to be carried out by persons engaged by
the principal, are not included in this contract:
>
List here separate works by entities such as artists, special tradesmen and their assistants, the site photographer and the like.
Do this only if there would otherwise be ambiguity e.g. something necessarily shown on the drawings such as equipment
installed “by others” or designated “not in contract” which could be mistaken for part of this contract.
Work before this contract: >
Work subsequent to this contract: >
Work before this contract: and Work subsequent to this contract: Only if necessary for clarification and then only if not covered
elsewhere. Demolition is an example of the former. The latter is important where the present contract includes provision for
future installations, additions and the like.

1.3 PROVISIONAL SUMS


Provisional sums
Provisional sums identified in the Provisional sums schedule are for purposes stated in relevant
worksections of the specification.
See the Commentary.
Provisional sums schedule
Item Where specified Provisional sum ($)

Item: The list may include the contingency sum, if any, although many principals require that this element of the budget is not
revealed to the contractor. Refer to RAIA Advisory Note AN16.05.101 on financial control. Identify each item by quoting the
specification clause title which refers to it. The sums themselves should only be scheduled here.

1.4 LATENT CONDITIONS


General
Other conditions which are latent conditions: >
List here any other conditions to be regarded as latent conditions.

1.5 STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS


Requirements of authorities
The principal, before entering into the contract, has given the notices, paid the fees, and obtained the
permits, approvals and other authorisations stated in the Prior applications and approvals
schedule.

NATSPEC ii [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4905 GENERAL

Prior applications and approvals schedule


Prior notices given and Fees paid Permits, approvals and
applications made authorisations received

List the applications made, e.g. “Building application to ... Council”, fees paid, and approvals received, e.g. “Building approval
dated ...”. This may be of limited application to projects in the public sector.
This information may also be provided in Tendering.
Authority conditions schedule
Authority Document Condition

Responsibility for conditions, if any, imposed by local authorities needs to be resolved. Consider scheduling here those
conditions which affect the contractor. It is suggested that the superintendent should incorporate authorities’ requirements in the
documents as far as possible. Coordinate with Site limitations: under Site restrictions, below. Ultimately, all the conditions are
the responsibility of the applicant (principal) as far as the local authorities are concerned.

1.6 PROTECTION OF PEOPLE AND PROPERTY


See AS 4905 clause 8 Protection.
General
Public viewing area: >
Occupied premises
If premises are occupied the insurance will be affected - in most circumstances it would be sensible for the principal to insure;
the principal should obtain advice. Do not give advice on insurance matters. Note that some domestic policies are rendered void
automatically during construction.
For the parts of the site designated as occupied premises in the Occupied premises schedule:
- Permit occupants to continue in secure possession and occupancy of the premises for the required
period.
- Provide safe access for occupants.
- Arrange work to minimise nuisance to occupants and ensure their safety.
- Protect occupants against weather, dust, dirt, water or other nuisance, by such means as temporary
screens.
Proposals: Submit details of proposed methods.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
Occupied premises schedule
Occupants Occupied premises Period of occupancy

Complete the schedule if the principal or occupants authorised by the principal will remain in possession of part of the site.
Occupants: e.g. “The principal”, “The principal’s ... department”, “The public”, or name other persons or organisations.
Occupied premises: Describe, or refer to marked areas on the drawings.
Period of occupancy: e.g. “Duration of the contract”.

NATSPEC iii [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4905 GENERAL

No smoking policy >


Appropriate for work in occupied premises where the occupants are similarly constrained. Sometimes a standard principal’s
policy for all projects.
Safety
Accidents: Promptly notify the superintendent of the occurrence, of the following:
- Accidents involving death or personal injury.
- Accidents involving loss of time.
- Incidents with accident potential such as equipment failure, slides and cave-ins.
Accident reports: Submit reports of accidents.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
Accidents: and Accident reports: The contractor is subject to stringent public and occupational health and safety law. Delete the
clause if it is not considered appropriate. See also the Commentary
Access roads
Temporary roads: >
If construction of temporary roads is required to protect or minimise damage to the principal’s property.
Principal’s existing roads: Use only designated roads.
- Location: >
Indicate designated roads on the drawings. Proposals for control of traffic on the principal’s property by the contractor should be
submitted for review. Off-site traffic control needs authority approval – the contractor’s responsibility.
Protective clothing
Safety helmets: Make available safety helmets for the use of visitors.
- Standards: To AS/NZS 1801, Type 1.
- StandardsMark: Required.
Number of helmets: >

1.7 CARE OF THE WORK AND REINSTATEMENT OF DAMAGE/DAMAGE TO PERSONS AND


PROPERTY OTHER THAN THE WORKS
See AS 4905 clauses 8 Protection and 9 Care of the work and reinstatement of damage.
General
Damage to services: Do not obstruct or damage roadways and footpaths, drains and watercourses
and other existing services in use on or next to the site. Determine the location of such services.
Rectify immediately any obstruction or damage to such services and provide temporary services whilst
repairs are carried out.
Damage to property: Do not interfere with or damage property which is to remain on or next to the site,
including adjoining property encroaching onto the site, and trees. Rectify immediately any interference
or damage to such property.
Existing services
Attend to existing services as follows:
- If the service is to be continued, repair, divert or relocate as required. If such a service crosses the
line of a required trench, or will lose support when the trench is excavated, provide permanent
support for the existing service.
- If the service is to be abandoned, cut and seal or disconnect, and make safe.
Proposals: Submit proposals for action to be taken with respect to existing services before starting this
work. Minimise the number and duration of interruptions.
- Purpose of submission: For review.
Adjoining property
Notice: At least 14 days before commencing work, submit to owners and occupants of adjoining
property written notice of intention to commence work and an outline description of the type and extent
of work.
Conditions for work on adjoining property: >

NATSPEC iv [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4905 GENERAL

The principal may have obtained permission from adjoining owners, including for work such as swinging crane jibs, erection of
scaffolding and construction of formwork. Some indication of the type and extent of the work may therefore already have been
given by the principal.
Records: For properties described in the Adjoining properties to be recorded schedule:
On project records, see RAIA Advisory Note AN11.01.101.
- Inspect the properties with the superintendent and owners and occupants of the properties, before
and on completion of the works.
- At the initial inspection, make detailed records of conditions existing within the properties, especially
structural defects and other damage or defacement.
- Arrange for at least 2 copies of each record, including drawings, written descriptions, and
photographs, to be endorsed by the owners and occupants, or their representatives, as evidence of
conditions existing before commencement of work.
Endorsed copies: Submit one endorsed copy of each record. Keep the other endorsed copy on site.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
Adjoining properties to be recorded schedule
Title Owner Description

Prepare a schedule if there is danger of damage to adjoining property, including the principal’s own, and if precautionary
inspections and records need to be made. See RAIA Advisory Note AN13.01.102 for party walls, AN13.04.100 for inspections,
and AN18.01.401 on inadvertent building on adjoining property.
Reinstatement
Clean and repair damage caused by installation or use of temporary work and restore existing facilities
used during construction to original condition.
An expansion of AS 4905 clauses 9.2 and 10. Delete if considered redundant.
Excepted risks >
See AS 4905 clause 9.3 Excepted risks.

1.8 REPRESENTATIVES
See AS 4905 clause 16 Representatives.
Superintendent’s representative
Identity: >
If not known, state “To be advised”, or delete. AS 4905 seems to anticipate that this notice will be provided during the course of
the contract.

Contractor’s representative
Identity: >
Identity and functions of the contractor’s representative may also be defined in the preliminaries - see AS 4905 clause 16
paragraph 2 which refers to a competent representative. The requirement for full-time competent supervisors, with appropriate
experience and training, may need to be specified in some cases. Remember the advice in RAIA Advisory Note AN16.01.605,
architects do not supervise

1.9 SITE
See AS 4905 clause 17 Site.
Access
Not including superintendent's representative, inspectors, separate contracts (persons engaged to execute work). If not known,
state “To be advised”.
General: Further to AS 4305 clause 15, the following persons require, and are authorised to have,
access to the work: >

NATSPEC v [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4905 GENERAL

Delivery before possession >


Site restrictions
Entry permits: Make available, to persons entering designated secure areas, valid entry permits.
Ensure these persons comply with conditions of entry.
For high security projects only.
Designated secure areas: >
Show the area (which may be the whole site) on the drawings, or describe here if this is straightforward.
Conditions of entry: >
Identification, security checks and the like, imposed by the principal.
List: At least 14 days before entry is required, submit the full name, address, and date and place of
birth of persons required to enter designated secure areas.
- Purpose of submission: Review.
The specified 14 day period is arbitrary – vary as required.
Site limitations: Comply with the following restrictions on the use of the site:
>
If not shown on the drawings, give details here. See also the Commentary.
Restrictions: Access on to and around the site, and use of the site for temporary works and
constructional plant, including working and storage areas, location of offices, workshops, sheds, roads
and parking is restricted to the following areas:
>
e.g. “Shown on drawing A001”, “To be determined”.
Surveys
Use if instructions are required e.g. employment of licensed surveyor to check tolerances of structural elements such as position
of columns, verticality of columns and facades, and floor levels. Also, provision of equipment and labour to assist checks by the
superintendent. See RAIA Advisory Note AN13.01.101. SAA HB31 is a useful collection of extracts from standards dealing with
building construction tolerances.
Setting out: >
Check surveys: >
Final survey: >
Temporary services >
Temporary services are generally the business of the contractor. If it is necessary to specify particular requirements, do so here,
e.g. temporary services for principal’s facilities if construction activities interfere, power for testing, temporary distribution boards,
special lighting requirements, water for testing, metering and payments for services. Consider other temporary services, e.g.
gas, compressed air. Use of lift cars, new services, stairs and escalators (i.e. the works) may also need to be addressed -
generally, not to be used without consent, and protection, maintenance and restoration required.
Temporary fence >
Provide text only if a fence is required by the principal to secure occupied premises or the like. Normally site security is the
responsibility of the contractor.
Specify in the Fences and external walls worksection, and cross-refer, or specify here. A clause of this name does not exist as
such in NATSPEC material. Requirements of regulatory authorities may conflict. Note that hoardings are generally a local
authority requirement and need not be specified in most circumstances.
Use of existing services
Existing services may be used as temporary services for the performance of the contract subject to
conditions stated in the Existing services schedule.
Existing services schedule
Service Conditions of use

NATSPEC vi [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4905 GENERAL

If existing services, including telephones or permanent building lighting, may be used for contract purposes, list them here and
state any conditions applying to their use, e.g. “The existing water service on the site, at no charge”, “Do not disrupt continuous
service to principal”, “Pay for connections”, “Provide separate metering and reimburse principal”, “Fully maintain the service”.
You may wish to clarify the situation after practical completion i.e. the principal is not liable for services, water, fuel used by the
contractor after this point.
Parking
Principal’s existing parking areas: Use only designated parking areas.
- Number of spaces: >
- Location: >
Project signboard
Provide project-specific signboards and do the following:
- Locate where directed.
- Maintain in good condition for duration of the work.
- Obtain written permission for removal.
- Remove on completion.
Other signboards: Obtain approval before display of advertisements or provision of other signboards.
Project signboard schedule
Best shown on the drawings. Components may be provided by the superintendent - modify as required.
Location: >
Size: >
Text, graphics: >
Insert, e.g. name of the project, the principal, contractor, superintendent, engineer, quantity surveyor.
Other details: >
Product particulars schedule
Items Particulars required

Stipulate items (e.g. mechanical plant), and particulars required (e.g. performance characteristics). Coordinate with mechanical
engineer etc.
Final cleaning
Before practical completion, clean throughout, including interior and exterior surfaces exposed to view.
Vacuum carpeted and soft surfaces. Clean debris from site, roofs, gutters, downpipes and drainage
systems. Remove waste, surplus materials and rubbish.
Samples: Remove non-incorporated samples, prototypes and sample panels.
Pest eradication
Employ suitably qualified pest exterminators. Submit certificate to the superintendent stating that
completed works are free of pest types identified in the Pest eradication treatments schedule.
Pest eradication treatments schedule
Pest type to be treated Eradication method

1.10 MATERIALS AND WORK


See AS 4905 clause 18.1 Quality of material and work, which refers to new materials. Be clear where second-hand materials
are permitted or required. Options in AS 4905 clause 18.2 Defective work are best dealt with on a case-by-case (reactive) basis.

NATSPEC vii [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4905 GENERAL

Apprentice employment policy >


Public sector principals, in particular, commonly have such a policy and require that it be stated in the preliminaries. There is no
clear consensus on inclusion of policy in the preliminaries. Delete if not required.
Items supplied by principal
Materials and other items identified in the Items to be supplied schedule will be supplied free of
charge to the contractor for installation in the execution of the works. Unload and take delivery of them
and inspect them for defects. If defects are found, advise. Return unused items to the principal.
The contractor is to care for these items as generally required in AS 4905 clause 9.1 (a) although not specifically stated. The
value of these items is to be given in the items to be supplied schedule.
If quality assurance is required, the principal as a supplier to the contractor will need to supply items which are consistent with
quality requirements of the works, and certify this, or advise which items are not consistent. This could be extended to the
contract documents themselves - are they current, complete, unambiguous?
Items to be supplied schedule
Location Item Quantity Date

Date: Of delivery or availability, to permit preparation of program.


Value of materials: >
Conditions of supply: >
Notice: >
For delivery of critical items under the control of the superintendent/principal (e.g. statues, electrical equipment). If there is not
adequate storage available, action may be required.
Changes to existing
The items may be part of existing structures, services, survey marks, etc.
At least 7 days before changing the following existing items, give notice:
>
Progressive cleaning >
Generally, the contractor’s business. Work in occupied premises, or where debris may find its way off-site onto principal’s
property will need to be dealt with here.
Final cleaning >
Lamp and filter replacement, and the like, is dealt with in the various SERVICES worksections.

Pest eradication treatments schedule


Eradication method: >
e.g. “Exterminator’s recommendation”. On birds and buildings, see BDP EDG Note DES56.
Run off >
Generally, the contractor’s business. However, requirements for control of run off onto or from the principal’s property need to
be stated.

1.11 WORKING HOURS


General
Hours: >
Days: >
AS 4905 makes no reference to working hours, however if required these may be stated in the preliminaries, if not then they
may be notified before work commences on site. Local authority requirements, if any, should be stated here.

1.12 PROGRESS, PROGRAMMING AND SUSPENSION


See AS 4905 clause 19 Programming and suspension.

NATSPEC viii [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4905 GENERAL

Order of work >


If it is necessary to direct the contractor to perform the works in a particular order, or to complete stages or parts of the work in a
particular sequence or at stated times, give the directions here. For example, the contractor will need to know the dates by
which different parts of an existing building will be vacated, or the beginning and end of the building “season” (if any) in a
national park or campus.
Alternatively, the directions may be given in the form of a construction program issued to the contractor as part of the contract
documents. Either way requirements are contractual, unlike the program of work below.
Program of work
This clause establishes only the basic requirements for a construction program. See RAIA Advisory Note AN16.06.102, and
AS 4905 clause 19- this subclause exercises the option in that clause. The program may be either furnished (non-contractual)
or contractual, - this subclause assumes that it is non-contractual.
Construction program: Within 14 days after the date for possession of the site, submit a construction
program showing the following:
- Sequence of work.
- Critical paths of activities related to the work.
- Allowance for holidays.
- Activity inter-relationships.
- External dependencies including provision of access, document approvals and work by others.
- Periods within which various stages or parts of the work are to be executed.
Revise default submission requirements as necessary.
Revisions: Revise the construction program as required by the progress of the work. Submit revisions
with each progress claim. Identify changes since the previous version, and show the estimated
percentage of completion for each item of work.
Program chart: Display in the contractor’s site office an up-to-date bar chart and network diagram
based on construction program.
Purpose of submissions: Information only.
Site meetings
Hold and attend site meetings throughout the contract and ensure attendance of appropriate
subcontractors, the superintendent, and appropriate consultants.
Refer to RAIA Advisory Notes AN02.01.301, AN02.01.302, AN11.01.100, and AN16.06.102 recommendation 3.09.
Frequency: >
The frequency of meetings is best agreed by the superintendent and contractor as being the most appropriate for the particular
project, and may vary. It is helpful if meetings coincide with the timing of progress claims, though not essential.
Minutes: Keep minutes of site meetings. Within 5 working days after each meeting, submit to each
party written copies of the minutes.
- Purpose of submission: Review.
Delete if the superintendent is to take and distribute the minutes.
Contacts: At the first site meeting, submit names and telephone numbers of responsible persons who
may be contacted after hours during the course of the contract.
- Purpose of submission: Information only.
See AS 4905 clause 4 Service of notice.
Progress photographs
Delete this subclause if these will be taken by the superintendent or by a separate contractor. If the latter, list in Separate
contracts. Consider mounting, size, and a default number e.g. 2 site photographs from different directions, and 5 interior
photographs.
Take colour progress photographs within 7 days before each site meeting. At each site meeting
submit 2 sets of glossy prints, and the negatives. Identify project, date, time, location and orientation.
Purpose of submission: Information only.
Minimum frequency: >
Minimum number: >
Format: >

NATSPEC ix [Insert date]


PRELIMINARIES – AS 4905 GENERAL

1.13 CERTIFICATES AND PAYMENTS


See AS 4905 clause 23 Payment.
Payment claims break-down
This subclause partly exercises the option in AS 4905 clause 2.1 Performance and payment.
Break down: With each progress claim submit a statement of amounts claimed in respect of each
worksection or trade heading designated in the specification, together with variations included in the
claim.
Purpose of submission: Review.
Import costs
Delete if contrary to policy of the principle. Include only if risk of change is being taken by the principal. It is contrary to the policy
of many public sector authorities. In such cases, delete the subclause.
Definition: Import costs include costs attributable to exchange rates, customs or import duty, and
primage of imported content of items purchased for incorporation in the works.
Adjustment: If there are changes in rates applying to import costs of items listed in the Import cost
adjustment schedule, add or deduct the amount of the difference to or from the contract sum, as
applicable.
Import cost adjustment schedule
Item Country of origin Import cost

Delete if contrary to policy of the principle.


Method of measurement
In accordance with the principles of the Australian Standard Method of Measurement of Building
Works (ASMM).
Other civil engineering work: To AS 1181.

NATSPEC x [Insert date]


QUALITY GENERAL

QUALITY

Worksection application
This worksection is based on AS/NZS ISO 9001, with default choices made for options within that standard. In common with
NATSPEC worksections, it addresses a head contractor. The head contractor will, as part of a project quality system, pass on to
subcontractors and suppliers any relevant QA requirements required by the head contract.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Pre-contract assessment is covered in the NATSPEC Tendering worksection.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
None. No quality-related issues are dealt with in NATSPEC Preliminaries.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC
Worksection cross-referencing
None.
Specifying quality systems
In terms of each technical worksection in the project specification there are four quality assurance options:
1. Overall QA is not required, and QA is not required for the particular worksection.
• This is the likely scenario for most projects in the near future (where QA is either not required by the client or is not
available in the market place), and for most small or simple contracts.
• Recommendation: Do nothing
2. Overall QA is not required, but QA is required for all, or part, of the particular worksection.
• This is likely to apply to traditional projects in which one or two packages are design-and-construct (D&C) e.g.
airconditioning, curtain walls. D&C subcontractors are more likely to have quality systems in place than either other
subcontractors or general contractors, in the short term.
• Recommendation: It is best to prepare a version of the Quality worksection which is specific to the requirements of the
technical worksection, titled accordingly e.g. “Light timber framing - Quality”. In the technical worksection, under the clause
Cross references, refer to this document e.g. “Light timber framing - Quality, for quality assurance”.
3. Overall QA is required, and the same standard applies to the particular worksection.
• This will apply to projects which are entirely D&C, or which are entirely based on working drawings and specification (the
traditional situation), or which are entirely installation-only, for example. The second is becoming less common, especially
on larger projects.
• Recommendation: Only worksection-specific variations (e.g. traceability) need to be scheduled. These can be either
scheduled centrally, in the Quality worksection itself, or under a new clause, Quality assurance in each technical
worksection - in which case import the relevant schedules from the Quality worksection and complete them as required. If
scheduled centrally, simply provide a Quality worksection in the documents.
4. Overall QA is required, but a different (more demanding) standard applies to all, or part, of the particular
worksection.
• This will become progressively more common. It applies, for example, to projects which are generally traditional but which
have one or more D&C packages (especially services). This will be the norm for many government projects.
• Recommendation: Worksection-specific variations will be more extensive than for the third option. They might cover
design and servicing, for example. Import the relevant schedules from the Quality worksection and complete them as
required. Note that it is not possible, in this option, for a lesser (or even no) standard to apply to the technical worksection.

1 GENERAL

1.1 INTERPRETATION
Definitions
The base document for quality systems definitions is AS/NZS ISO 9000. The terms defined in this worksection are terms used in
this worksection and not defined satisfactorily, if at all, elsewhere.
General: For the purposes of this worksection the following definitions apply:
- Quality package: A designated part of the works, which may include the whole works, for which an
individual quality system is required.

NATSPEC i [Insert date]


QUALITY GENERAL

- Superintendent: Agent of the principal i.e. of the purchaser or customer.


- Contractor: The supplier of a product to the principal, for the defined quality package, and the
supplier’s subcontractors and suppliers in turn.
- Product: That which is supplied by the contractor, which may be either of the following:
. Tangible (e.g. a built item).
. Intangible (including services such as design and delivery of tangible product).
. Both.
- Servicing: “After sales” service, repairs, maintenance.

1.2 QUALITY SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS


Quality system schedule
Quality package Activities included Standard Options
The whole of the works All AS/NZS ISO 9001 See below

This schedule has been pre-completed for the simplest option – amend as appropriate. Complete the remainder only where the
general requirements governing the head contract need to be varied for a few particular packages. Alternatively prepare an
entire Quality system schedule for each affected technical worksection of the specification.
Quality package: Generally equates to a trade worksection or a subcontract/supply package.
Activities included: Probably clear from the quality package but may specifically comprise design, development, production,
installation, maintenance or inspection and test.
Options: Some of the options may be clarified in the other schedules in this worksection, or even in other worksections – do not
repeat.
Document control
Changes to documents: Review and approve changes to documents using the same functions or
organisations that performed the original review and approval of those documents, except as
described in the Document control schedule.
Refer to AS/NZS ISO 9001 clause 4.2.3 Control of documents.
Document control schedule
Quality package Documents to be reviewed and Other designated organisation
approved

You may decide that other organisations can, in some cases, review and approve the changes, in which case these
organisations must be identified, using the schedule, along with the particular characteristics/limitations of their role. Otherwise,
delete this schedule, and modify the text of Changes to documents.
Purchasing
External audits: Carry out pre-tender surveys of subcontractors and suppliers and audit subcontractors
and suppliers as necessary. The surveys and audits are to be performed by an approved auditor.
Include audit and surveillance proposals in the package quality plan along with results of pre-tender
surveys.
Not explicitly required by the AS/NZS ISO 9000 series. Strictly, audits of quality systems should be carried out by qualified
auditors. The contractor is unlikely to possess such skills. It is therefore in everyone’s interest if these audits are carried out by a
suitable third party such as a certified auditor. Delete if not required.
Verification: The superintendent may verify at source, or upon receipt, that purchased product
conforms to requirements.

NATSPEC ii [Insert date]


QUALITY GENERAL

Refer to AS/NZS ISO 9001 clause 7.4.3 Verification of purchased product. The right to verify product only exists where
specified, as here. Delete if you do not wish to exercise this option.
Product identification and traceability
General: Conform to the Product identification and traceability schedule.
Product identification and traceability schedule
Quality package Product Traceability Product Method
required identification
required

If only a few products need to be identified or traceable, schedule them here, otherwise schedule in each worksection as
necessary. Delete if you do not wish to exercise this option.

Control of nonconforming product


Concession: Before the provision or repair of nonconforming product, report the proposal to the
superintendent for concession. Do not provide or repair nonconforming product without concession.
Delete if you do not wish to exercise this option.
Concession: (i.e. waiver) Refer to AS/NZS ISO 9001 clause 8.3 Control of nonconforming product. The text may need to be
qualified to avoid excessive intervention by the superintendent.
Quality records
Retention: Conform to the Quality records retention schedule.
Assumes the documents will be retained by the contractor – vary if not the case. Refer to AS/NZS ISO 9001 clause 4.2.4
Control of records.
Evaluation: Make quality records available to the superintendent for evaluation, within 2 days of the
initial request.
AS/NZS ISO 9001 (clause 4.2.4) states that “records shall remain legible, readily identifiable and retrievable”.
Delete if you do not wish to exercise this option.
Period of evaluation: To be agreed at each request, but at least 5 working days.
Needs to be specified, or agreed. It should be a reasonable period and may vary depending on which records are being
evaluated. The Template gives 5 days as a default minimum.
Quality records retention schedule
Quality package Retention period Location during Form for retention Content of
retention period documents

Quality package: e.g. The whole of the works.


Retention period: e.g. 7 years from the date of final completion. T
Location during retention period: e.g. Principal’s office, contractor’s office, superintendent’s office, fire-proof safe, etc.
Form for retention: e.g. Digitised on computer, microfiche, paper copies (consider environmental conditions).
Content of documents: e.g. Completed pro-formas evidencing compliance with the system, including audit reports. They do not
comprise all project documents.

1.3 SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS


Note that the AS/NZS ISO 9000 series requires only that the contractor document procedures and instructions. Quality plans
and quality manuals as such are not required, hence their inclusion under this clause title.

NATSPEC iii [Insert date]


QUALITY GENERAL

Quality plan approval


General: Submit to the superintendent, for approval, a quality plan for each quality package, at least
10 working days before work on that package commences. Keep on site a copy of the approved
quality plan.
Quality plan
General: Comply with the recommendations of AS/NZS ISO 9004.5. Include inspection and test plans.
Quality manual: Conform to the recommendations of AS/NZS ISO 10013.
Audit plan: Conform to the recommendations of AS ISO 19011 clause 6.4.
Extrinsic audits
Identity of the auditor: >
e.g. Auditors employed by organisations such as National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA), Quality Assurance
Services, Bureau Veritas Australasia, and Lloyd’s Register.
Other compliance audits
General: Compliance audits of particular activities will be carried out by the auditor at times to be
agreed.
Particular activities: >
Nominate the activities considered critical to achieving the program. Resolve timing as the job progresses.

NATSPEC iv [Insert date]


GENERAL REQUIREMENTS GENERAL

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Worksection application
This worksection draws together administrative material which is common to most if not all of the technical worksections and
which should therefore be brought to the attention of subcontractors and others using that material. Each technical worksection
includes a cross reference to that effect. General requirements covers topics such as referenced documents, interpretation,
inspection and tests, samples and contractor’s submissions, materials and components, installation, marking and completion.
The project specification for this worksection may describe acceptable forms of warranty, notice required for inspections, and
acceptable testing authorities. It will also define the relationship between the complete project specification and the drawings.
The worksection should be read in the context of the general conditions of contract, any special conditions of contract, the
project preliminaries, and any separately specified quality assurance requirements.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• Interiors general requirements for Interiors fitout works.
• Mechanical general requirements for Mechanical Services.
• Hydraulic general requirements for Hydraulic Services
• Electrical general requirements for Electrical Services.
NATSPEC worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, if this worksection is used, to provide a complete specification:
• None.
Associated material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by this worksection. For which you may need to create new text.
Worksection cross-referencing
Other worksections that reference this worksection are:
• All.

1 GENERAL

NATSPEC does not recommend the use of SCOPE OF WORK clauses. If you wish to include such a general description you
may add it here, or in the corresponding location of selected worksections.

1.1 PRECEDENCE
Precedence
General: Requirements of subsequent worksections of the specification override conflicting
requirements in this worksection.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


Common technical requirements
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
- Quality.
- Adhesives, sealants and fasteners.
- Fire-stopping.
- Metals and prefinishes.
- Termite management.
- Timber finishes and treatment.
Delete as appropriate.
Cross referencing
Within the text:
- Worksection titles are indicated by Italicised text.
- Clause titles are indicated by Bold text.

NATSPEC i [Insert date]


GENERAL REQUIREMENTS GENERAL

1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS


Contractual relationships
General: Responsibilities and duties of the principal, contractor and contract administrator are not
altered by requirements in the documents referenced in this specification.
Current editions
General: Use referenced documents which are the editions, with amendments, current 3 months
before the closing date for tenders, except where other editions or amendments are required by
statutory authorities.
Editions cited in the BCA (for example) may not accord with the general requirement, hence the exception.
- Site copies: >
List here any copies of standards required to be held on site.

1.4 INTERPRETATION
Abbreviations
General: For the purposes of this worksection the abbreviations given below apply.
- APAS: Australian Paint Approval Scheme.
- AS: Australian Standard.
- BCA: Building Code of Australia.
- CFC: Compressed fibre cement.
- DPC: Damp proof course.
- MS: Mild steel.
- NATA: National Association of Testing Authorities.
- NZS: New Zealand Standard.
- PCA: Plumbing Code of Australia.
- SS: Stainless steel.
- SSL: Scientific Services Laboratory – ActivFire register or fire protection equipment.
Define here any you wish to include globally, otherwise define in the worksections they appear. Add/delete as appropriate.
Definitions
General: For the purposes of this worksection the definitions given below apply.
As a technical generic worksection it is beyond the scope of NATSPEC to offer any management system to handle the approval
process. Consequently definitions and directions such as“approved” do not appear as default text. Where appropriate, a prompt
is given indicating an approval could be required. If adding a definition, the following text may be useful:
Approved: “Approved”, “reviewed”, “directed”, “rejected”, “endorsed” and similar expressions mean “approved (reviewed,
directed, rejected, endorsed) in writing by the contract administrator”.
- Attendance: “Attendance”, “provide attendance” and similar expressions mean “give assistance for
examination and testing”.
- Contract administrator: “Contract administrator” has the same meaning as “architect” or
“superintendent” and is the person appointed by the “owner” or “principal”.
- Geotechnical site investigation: The process of evaluating the geotechnical characteristics of the
site in the context of existing or proposed construction.
- Give notice: “Give notice”, “submit”, “advise”, “inform” and similar expressions mean “give notice
(submit, advise, inform) in writing to the contract administrator”.
- Hold point: The activity cannot proceed without the approval of the contract administrator.
- IP: "IP", "IP code", "IP rating" and similar expression have the same meaning as "IP Code" in
AS 60529.
- Maintenance period: Synonymous with “Defects liability period”.
- Obtain: “Obtain”, “seek” and similar expressions mean “obtain (seek) in writing from the contract
administrator”.
- Professional engineer: A person who is listed on the National Professional Engineers Register
(NPER) in the relevant discipline at the relevant time.

NATSPEC ii [Insert date]


GENERAL REQUIREMENTS GENERAL

- Metallic-coated steel: Includes zinc-coated steel, zinc/iron alloy-coated steel, and aluminium/zinc-
coated steel.
- Pipe: Includes pipe and tube.
- Principal: “Principal” has the same meaning as “owner”, “client” and “proprietor” and is the party to
whom the Contractor is legally bound to construct the works.
- Proprietary: “Proprietary” mean identifiable by naming manufacturer, supplier, installer, trade name,
brand name, catalogue or reference number.
- Provide: “Provide” and similar expressions mean “supply and install”. Installation shall include
development of the design beyond that documented.
- Tests:
. Pre-completion tests: Tests carried out before completion tests.
* Type tests: Tests carried out on an item identical with a production item, before delivery to
the site.
* Production tests: Tests carried out on a purchased item, before delivery to the site.
* Site tests: Tests carried out on site.
. Completion tests: Tests carried out on completed installations or systems before the date for
practical completion, to demonstrate that the installation or system, including components,
controls and equipment, operates correctly, safely and efficiently, and meets performance and
other requirements. The superintendent may direct that completion tests be carried out after the
date for practical completion.
- Registered testing authority:
. The CSIRO Division of Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology (CSIRO-MIT).
. An authority registered by the National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA) to test in the
relevant field.
. An organisation outside Australia recognised by NATA through a mutual recognition agreement.
- Required: Means required by the documents, the local council or statutory authorities.
- If required: A conditional specification term for work which may be shown in the documents or be a
legislative requirement.
- Samples: Includes samples, prototypes and sample panels.
- Supply: “Supply”, “furnish” and similar expressions mean “supply only”.
- Verification: Provision of evidence or proof that a performance requirement has been met or a
default exists.
- Witness points: Provides an opportunity to attend an activity but does not involve an obligation. The
activity can proceed without approval from the contract administrator.

1.5 CONTRACT DOCUMENTS


Services diagrammatic layouts
General: Layouts of service lines, plant and equipment shown on the drawings are diagrammatic only,
except where figured dimensions are provided or calculable.
Before commencing work:
- Obtain measurements and other necessary information.
- Coordinate the design and installation in conjunction with all trades.
Levels
General: Spot levels take precedence over contour lines and ground profile lines.

1.6 PERFORMANCE
General
General: If required, provide structures, installations and components as follows:
- Fixed access ways: To AS 1657.
- Structural design actions: To AS/NZS 1170.0 and the Structural design actions schedule.
The independent application by professionals or specialist contractors of the requirements of structural codes for the design and
construction of building components or elements is an established and integral part of the construction process.

NATSPEC iii [Insert date]


GENERAL REQUIREMENTS GENERAL

Certain actions for which design methods are set out in the various parts of AS/NZS 1170 Structural design actions need to be
specified by means of the appropriate quantities which must be described using the correct terms, symbols and units

1.7 INSPECTION
Notice
General: Minimum notice for inspections to be made:
>
e.g. on-site: 4 hours, off-site: 2 working days. Increase if your office is remote from the site.
Inspection: If notice of inspection is required in respect of parts of the works that are to be concealed,
advise when the inspection can be made before concealment.
Attendance
General: Provide attendance.

1.8 SUBMISSIONS
Some NATSPEC technical worksections provide for specifying particular requirements for shop drawings, contractor’s
schedules, and other documentation, including their content. Contractor’s submissions may include manufacturer-generated
material and contractor-generated material, required where selection of important items has been by the contractor.
Authorities
Authorities’ approvals: Submit documents showing approval by the authorities whose requirements
apply to the work.
Correspondence: Submit copies of correspondence and notes of meetings with authorities whose
requirements apply to the work.
Electronic submissions
File format: >
e.g. Drawing: AutoCAD dwg., Text document: pdf.
Transmission medium: >
e.g. email, floppy disk, CD ROM. Note that email may be limited to 4 or 5 MB file size and some systems reject zip files.
Hard copy submissions
Quantity:
- Bound documents: >
e.g. As follows or as called for in the proposed contract:
• 3 sets as paper prints.
• 1 set as reproducible (plastic) prints.
• 2 sets as CAD files in AutoCad *.DXF format on disk using approved layering and drawing conventions.
• 2 sets as CAD files in AutoCad *.DWG format on disk using approved layering and drawing conventions.
- Loose documents larger than A3: One transparency on heavyweight plastic film the same size as
the standard contract drawings.
- Loose documents up to and including A3: One copy.
Standard contract drawing size: >
e.g. A1, B1. If you can photocopy documents of this size you may not need transparencies – edit the subclause to suit.
Drawings and documents to be supplied or transferred in electronic format may have special requirements.
Errors
General: If a submission contains errors, make a new or amended submission as appropriate,
indicating changes made since the previous submission.
Identification
General: Identify the project, contractor, subcontractor or supplier, manufacturer, applicable product,
model number and options, as appropriate and include pertinent contract document references.
Include service connection requirements and product certification. Identify proposals for non-
compliance with project requirements, and characteristics which may be detrimental to successful
performance of the completed work.

NATSPEC iv [Insert date]


GENERAL REQUIREMENTS GENERAL

Inspection and testing plan


General: Submit an inspection and testing plan which is consistent with the construction program.
Include particulars of test stages and procedures.
Test reports: Submit written reports on nominated tests.
Notice
Minimum notice: >
e.g. 5 working days. Timing for particular submissions, such as QA manuals, should be specified in the appropriate technical
worksections. The requirement here is a catch-all default.
Materials and components
Product certification: If products must conform to product certification schemes, submit evidence of
conformance.
Product data: For proprietary equipment, submit the manufacturer’s product data as follows:
- Technical specifications and drawings.
- Type-test reports.
- Performance and rating tables.
- Recommendations for installation and maintenance.
- Additional product data for services equipment:
. Model name, designation and number.
. Country of origin and manufacture.
. Capacity of all system elements.
. Size, including required clearances for installation.
. Materials used in the construction.
Proposed products schedules: If major products are not specified as proprietary items, submit a
schedule of those proposed for use within 3 weeks of site possession.
Samples
Consider setting up a procedure for acceptance criteria, storage and location, and verification with site deliveries.
Submission: Submit nominated samples.
Incorporation of samples: If it is intended to incorporate samples into the works, submit proposals.
Incorporate samples in the works which have been endorsed for incorporation. Do not incorporate
other samples.
Retention of samples: Keep endorsed samples in good condition on site, until practical completion.
Where prototypes are called for in worksections consider setting up a protocol for approval and for the approved prototype to be
the benchmark of quality for all subsequent work.

Shop drawings
Specific requirements for shop drawings should be specified in the appropriate worksection. See RAIA Advisory Note
AN16.01.100 for advice on the processing of shop drawings. The “Review” stamp suggested in that document should also be
used. If a contractor’s submission is rejected, reasons must be given
General: If required, submit dimensioned drawings showing details of the fabrication and installation of
services and equipment, including relationship to building structure and other services, cable type and
size, and marking details.
.See the Commentary on Shop drawing administration.
Diagrammatic layouts: Coordinate work shown diagrammatically in the contract documents, and
submit dimensioned set-out drawings.
Submission medium:
- Electronic: >
- Hard copy: >
Nominate alternatives or include both.
Quantity and format
General: Refer to Submissions.

NATSPEC v [Insert date]


GENERAL REQUIREMENTS GENERAL

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 TESTS
Notice
Notice: Give notice of time and place of nominated tests.
Minimum notice for inspections to be made: >
e.g. on-site: 4 hours, off-site: 2 working days. Increase if your office is remote from the site.
Attendance
General: Provide attendance on tests.
Testing authorities
General: Except for site tests, have tests carried out by a Registered testing authority.
- Reports: Submit copies of test reports, including certificates for type tests, showing the observations
and results of tests and conformance or non-conformance with requirements.
- Site tests: Use instruments calibrated by authorities accredited by a Registered testing authority.

2.2 MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS


Consistency
General: For the whole quantity of each material or product use the same manufacturer or source and
provide consistent type, size, quality and appearance.
Corrosion resistance
General: Conform to the following corrosivity category with regard to worksection corrosion resistance
tables.
Corrosivity category: >
Edit to suit the project with regard to the location of the building and the degree of exposure of external walls e.g. High, Medium,
Low as defined in the Commentary Corrosivity table.
Corrosion resistance tables are provided in worksections covering materials that require corrosion protection. The project
corrosivity category will then determine which of the Corrosion resistance tables are applicable. Where these corrosion
resistance tables occur you should edit out the ones not applicable to eliminate any design/selection decisions by the builder.
Such as:
• Adhesives, sealants and fasteners.
• Brick and block construction.
• Partitions – brick and block
• Plastering.
• Mechanical general requirements.
Manufacturers’ or suppliers’ recommendations
Proprietary items: Select, if no selection is given, and transport, deliver, store, handle, protect, finish,
adjust, prepare for use, and provide manufactured items in accordance with the current written
recommendations and instructions of the manufacturer or supplier.
Proprietary systems/assemblies: Assemble, install or fix to substrate in accordance with the current
written recommendations and instructions of the manufacturer or supplier.
Project modifications: Advise of activities that supplement, or are contrary to, manufacturer’s or
suppliers’ written recommendations and instructions.
Product certification: If products must comply with product certification schemes, provide them in
accordance with the certification requirements.
Proprietary items
Implication: Identification of a proprietary item does not necessarily imply exclusive preference for the
item so identified, but indicates the necessary properties of the item.
Alternatives: If alternatives are proposed, submit proposed alternatives and include samples, available
technical information, reasons for proposed substitutions and cost. If necessary, provide an English
translation. State if provision of proposed alternatives will necessitate alteration to other parts of the
works and advise consequent costs.
Consider adding the following: The builder shall be responsible for the cost of evaluation of proposed alternatives, whether
approved or not. The costs shall be calculated at the current charge-out rates of the relevant consultant(s).

NATSPEC vi [Insert date]


GENERAL REQUIREMENTS GENERAL

Sealed containers
General: If materials or products are supplied by the manufacturer in closed or sealed containers or
packages, bring the materials or products to point of use in the original containers or packages.
Sources policy
General: >
e.g. A preference for Australian or New Zealand goods.

3 EXECUTION

3.1 COMPLETION
Samples
General: Remove unincorporated samples on completion.
Warranties
General: Name the Principal as warrantee in conformance with the Warranty schedule. Register with
manufacturers as necessary. Retain copies delivered with components and equipment.
Check that the principal/proprietor is to be the warrantee - vary accordingly. The principal/proprietor may not be the owner or
end user in every case, for example.
Commencement: Commence warranty periods at practical completion or at acceptance of installation,
if acceptance is not concurrent with practical completion.
Approval of installer: If installation is not by manufacturer, and product warranty is conditional on the
manufacturer’s approval of the installer, submit the manufacturer’s written approval of the installing
firm.
Schedule all warranties in the Warranty schedule of this worksection or in the appropriate technical worksection. If located in
technical worksections edit this clause and delete the schedule. See also the Commentary.

3.2 RECORD DRAWINGS


General
General: Submit record drawings. Show the “as installed” locations of building elements, plant and
equipment. Include “as installed” amendments to shop drawings. Show off-the-grid dimensions where
applicable.
Date for submission: Within 2 weeks after practical completion.
Changes made during the defects liability (maintenance) period may require a re-issue of the drawings completed at practical
completion. Specify if this requirement is applicable.

Accuracy
Documents: Incorporate all modifications made during the progress of the work and testing period.
Show any provisions for the future.
Endorsement: Sign and date all record drawings. Keep one set of shop drawings on site at all times
expressly for the purpose of marking changes made during the progress of the works.
Drawing layout
General: Use the same borders and title block as the contract drawings.
Quantity and format
General: Refer to Submissions.

3.3 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUALS


General
General: Submit operation and maintenance manuals for installations.
Authors and compilers: Personnel experienced in the maintenance and operation of equipment and
systems installed, and with editorial ability.
Referenced documents: If referenced documents or technical worksections require that manuals be
submitted, include corresponding material in the operation and maintenance manuals.
Subdivision: By installation or system, depending on project size.
Date for submission: Within 2 weeks after practical completion.

NATSPEC vii [Insert date]


GENERAL REQUIREMENTS GENERAL

Contents
General: Include the following:
- Certificates:
. Certificates from authorities.
. Copies of manufacturers’ warranties.
. Product certification.
- Directory: Names, addresses, and telephone and facsimile numbers of principal consultant,
subconsultants, contractor, subcontractors and names of responsible parties.
- Drawings:
. Record drawings, full size.
- Drawings and technical data: As necessary for the efficient operation and maintenance of the
installation.
- Equipment descriptions:
. Name, address and telephone and facsimile numbers of the manufacturer and supplier of items of
equipment installed, together with catalogue list numbers.
. Schedules (system by system) of equipment, stating locations, duties, performance figures and
dates of manufacture. Provide a unique code number cross-referenced to the record and
diagrammatic drawings and schedules, including spare parts schedule, for each item of
equipment installed.
- Maintenance procedures:
. Detailed recommendations for preventative maintenance frequency and procedures.
. Manufacturer’s technical literature as appropriate. Register with manufacturer as necessary.
Retain copies delivered with equipment.
. Safe trouble-shooting, disassembly, repair and reassembly, cleaning, alignment and adjustment,
balancing and checking procedures. Provide logical step-by-step sequence of instructions for
each procedure.
. Schedule of spares recommended to be held on site, being those items subject to wear or
deterioration and which may involve the principal in extended deliveries when replacements are
required. Include complete nomenclature and model numbers, and local sources of supply.
- Operation procedures:
. Manufacturers’ technical literature as appropriate.
- Table of contents: For each volume. Title to match cover.
Format – electronic copies
Printing: Provide material that can be legibly printed on A4 size paper.
Scope: Provide the same material as specified for hardcopy in electronic format.
Quantity and format: Refer to Electronic submissions.
Format – hard copy
General: A4 size loose leaf, in commercial quality, 4 ring binders with hard covers, each indexed,
divided and titled. Include the following features:
- Cover: Identify each binder with typed or printed title “OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
MANUAL”, to spine. Identify title of project, volume number, volume subject matter, and date of
issue.
- Dividers: Durable divider for each separate element, with typed description of system and major
equipment components. Clearly print short titles under laminated plastic tabs.
- Drawings: Fold drawings to A4 size and accommodate them in the binders so that they may be
unfolded without being detached from the rings. Provide with reinforced punched binder tabs.
- Pagination: Number pages.
- Ring size: 50 mm maximum, with compressor bars.
- Text: Manufacturers’ printed data, including associated diagrams, or typewritten, single-sided on
bond paper, in clear concise English.
Number of copies: 3.

NATSPEC viii [Insert date]


GENERAL REQUIREMENTS GENERAL

3.4 CLEANING
Final cleaning
General: Before practical completion, clean throughout, including all exterior and interior surfaces
except those totally and permanently concealed from view.
Labels: Remove all labels not required for maintenance.

4 SELECTIONS

4.1 SCHEDULES
Structural design actions schedule
For sources of quantities see the Commentary under Structural design actions.

Quantity and symbol Type or location


A B C
Permanent, imposed and other actions
Additional to AS/NZS 1170.1
Earthquake actions
Acceleration coefficient, α
Earthquake design category
Probability factor, Kp
Snow and ice actions
Characteristic value of snow load on ground, sg
Exposure reduction coefficient, Ce
Hill shape multiplier, Mh
Wind actions
Direction multiplier, Md
Regional ultimate limit state design wind speed,
VR(ultimate)
Regional serviceability limit state design wind
speed, VR(serviceability)
Shielding multiplier, Ms
Terrain category
Topographic multiplier, Mt

AS/NZS 1170.0 specifies general procedures and criteria for the structural design of a building or structure in limit states format.
It covers the following actions:
• Permanent action (formerly dead load).
• Imposed action (formerly live load).
• Wind.
• Snow.
• Earthquake.
• Liquid pressure.
• Ground water.
• Rainwater ponding.
• Earth pressure.

NATSPEC ix [Insert date]


GENERAL REQUIREMENTS GENERAL

Use this schedule to specify design values to be used by contractors undertaking detailed design of components.
Warranty schedule
Warranty Form Period

Refer to RAIA Advisory Note AN14.02.100 which offers a form of warranty with an appendix, as a guide only. The form(s)
required should be provided as part of the contract documentation.

NATSPEC x [Insert date]


ADHESIVES, SEALANTS AND FASTENERS GENERAL

ADHESIVES, SEALANTS AND FASTENERS

There is a Product Partner for this worksection. Click the logo to be redirected to their page.
Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to the most commonly used adhesives, sealants and fastener and provides basic defaults.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• There are no directly related NATSPEC worksections.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection. For example:
This worksection does not include adhesives for:
• Lining.
• Joinery.
• Ceramic tiling and Stone and terrazzo tiling.
• Resilient finishes.
• Applied timber flooring.
• Wall papering.
which are specific to particular some worksections and will be found there.
This worksection does not include sealants for:
• Fire-stopping
• Curtain walls.
• Windows.
• Structural glazing.
• Glass blockwork.
• Tiling.
• Resilient finishes.
• Stainless steel benching.
which are specific to particular worksections and will be found there.
Worksection cross referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• General requirements.
• Mechanical general requirements.
• Hydraulic general requirements.
• Hydraulic design and install.
• Electrical general requirements.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• Add any novel material to this specification.

1 GENERAL

1.1 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.

NATSPEC i [Insert date]


ADHESIVES, SEALANTS AND FASTENERS GENERAL

The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
>
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

2 EXECUTION

2.1 ADHESIVES AND SEALANTS


Standards
Many types of adhesives in widespread use are not covered by Australian standards.
There is some overlap between adhesives and sealants. For example, silicone sealants are widely used as construction
adhesives.
Mastic adhesive: To AS 2329.
Non-structural adhesive for timber: To AS 2754.3.
Polymer emulsion adhesive for timber: To AS 2754.2, not inferior to Type 3 if required to be water-
resistant.
Sealing compound (polyurethane, polysulphide, acrylic):
- Single component: To ASTM C920.
Sealing compound (silicone):
- Single component: To TT-S-1543B.
Performance
General: Provide adhesives and sealants capable of transmitting imposed loads, sufficient to ensure
the rigidity of the assembly, or integrity of the joint and which will not cause discolouration of finished
surfaces.
Installed sealant tests
Sampling: For each sealant test take 3 samples of installed and cured sealant, each at least 50 mm
long, from completed joints.
Testing: Test to the standard applicable to the sealant type, and to conform to the Installed sealant
tests schedule.
Reinstatement: Make good the joints from which the samples were taken.
Installed sealant tests schedule
Item to be tested Property to be tested Applicable standard

2.2 SEALANT JOINTING


Preparation for jointing
General: Immediately before jointing remove loose particles from the joint, using oil-free compressed
air.

NATSPEC ii [Insert date]


ADHESIVES, SEALANTS AND FASTENERS GENERAL

Taping
General: Protect the surface on each side of the joint using 50 mm wide masking tape or equivalent
means. On completion of pointing remove the tape and remove any stains or marks from the surface.
Jointing materials
General: Provide recommended jointing and pointing materials which are compatible with each other
and with the contact surfaces and non staining to finished surfaces. Do not provide bituminous
materials on absorbent surfaces.
Priming: Apply the recommended primer to the surfaces in contact with sealant materials.
Sealant colour: >
Extend these selections to cover multiple locations, or omit and note in the Selections of applicable worksections.
Foamed materials (in compressible fillers and backing rods): Closed cell or impregnated types which
do not absorb water.
Bond breaking: Provide backing rods, and other back-up materials for sealants, which do not adhere
to the sealant.
Sealant proportions
Depth of elastomeric sealant: One half the joint width, or 6 mm, whichever is the greater.
Sealant application
General: Apply the sealant to dry joint surfaces using a pneumatic applicator gun. Do not apply the
sealant in unsuitable weather conditions (e.g. when the ambient temperature is outside the range 5 –
40°C) or outside the recommended working time for the material or the primer.
Joint finish
General: Produced a smooth, slightly concave surface using a tool designed for the purpose.
Protection
General: Protect the joint from inclement weather during the setting or curing period of the material.
Edge to edge joints
Method of sealing: >

2.3 FASTENERS
Conformance to these standards is particularly important for structural applications and where durability is an issue (e.g.
exposed coastal sites). A number of these standards exist partly to ensure dimensional compatibility e.g. between nuts and
bolts, and are based on international standards.
Mild steel, aluminium and zinc-plated fasteners should not be used in CCA treated timbers. Epoxy coated, brass, silicon bronze,
monel or stainless steel are preferred.
The product grade in the Bolts, Nuts and Screws cited standards refers to the quality of the product and to the size of the
tolerances where grade A is the most precise and grade C is the least precise.
General
Masonry anchors: To be proprietary expansion or chemical types.
Plain washers: To AS 1237.1.
- Provide washers to the heads and nuts of bolts, and the nuts of coach bolts.
Plugs: To be proprietary purpose-made plastic.
Powder-actuated fasteners: To AS/NZS 1873.4.
Steel nails: To AS 2334.
- Length: At least 2.5 x the thickness of the member being secured, and at least 4 x the thickness if
the member is plywood or building board < 10 mm thick.
Unified hexagon bolts, screws and nuts: To AS/NZS 2465.
Bolts
Coach bolts: To AS/NZS 1390.
Hexagon bolts Grades A and B: To AS 1110.1.
Hexagon bolts Grade C: To AS 1111.1.
Corrosion resistance
Designate the corrosivity category of the project in General requirements. Delete from the following the tables for corrosivity
categories that do not apply.

NATSPEC iii [Insert date]


ADHESIVES, SEALANTS AND FASTENERS GENERAL

Steel products: Conform to the Corrosion resistance table or provide proprietary products with
metallic and/or organic coatings of equivalent corrosion resistance.
Corrosion resistance table – Low corrosivity category
Situation1 Self Threaded fasteners and Powder actuated fasteners: Material or
drilling anchors: Material or minimum local metallic coating
screws to minimum local metallic thickness (µm)
AS 3566: coating thickness (µm)
Class
Internal 1 Electroplated zinc 4 Electroplated zinc 4
External 3 Electroplated zinc or galvanize Stainless 316
30
1
Situation:
- Internal: Includes building fabric protected from salt and moisture by vapour barriers, sarking,
sheathing and building wraps.
- External: Includes external leaf and air spaces behind single skin brickwork or blockwork walls.

Corrosion resistance table – medium corrosivity category


Situation1 Self Threaded fasteners and Powder actuated fasteners: Material or
drilling anchors: Material or minimum local metallic coating
screws to minimum local metallic thickness (µm)
AS 3566: coating thickness (µm)
Class
Internal 2 Electroplated zinc 12 Electroplated zinc 12
External 4 Hot-dip galvanize 50 Stainless 316
1
Situation:
- Internal: Includes building fabric protected from salt and moisture by vapour barriers, sarking,
sheathing and building wraps.
- External: Includes external leaf and air spaces behind single skin brickwork or blockwork walls.

Corrosion resistance table – high corrosivity category


Situation2 Self Threaded fasteners and Powder actuated fasteners: Material or
drilling anchors: Material or minimum local metallic coating
screws to minimum local metallic thickness (µm)
AS 3566: coating thickness (µm)
Class
Internal 3 Electroplated zinc or galvanize Stainless 316
30

External Stainless Stainless 316 Stainless 316


316
1
Situation:
- Internal: Includes building fabric protected from salt and moisture by vapour barriers, sarking,
sheathing and building wraps.
- External: Includes external leaf and air spaces behind single skin brickwork or blockwork walls.

This table is an interpretation of various standards and the BCA. Edit to suit the project. Do not expect the contractor to
determine the Corrosivity category. Coordinate with other worksections.
Note that the Corrosivity categories relate to those in AS/NZS 2312 which are more recent than in AS 3700. See General
requirements for more discussion.
AS/NZS 2312 has two categories ‘Very high’ and ‘Inland tropical’ which are not addressed here nor in AS 3700. Outside the
categories given in the table, particularly closer to surf coasts consider corrosion protection requirements in more detail.

Finishes
Electroplating:
- Metric thread: To AS 1897.

NATSPEC iv [Insert date]


ADHESIVES, SEALANTS AND FASTENERS GENERAL

- Imperial thread: To AS 4397.


Galvanizing:
- Threaded fasteners: To AS 1214.
- Other fasteners: To AS/NZS 4680.
Mild steel fasteners: Galvanize if:
- Exposed to weather.
- Embedded in masonry.
- In external timbers such as weatherboards or decking.
- In contact with chemically treated timber.
Nuts
Hexagon chamfered thin nuts Grades A and B: To AS 1112.4.
Hexagon nuts Grade C: To AS 1112.3.
Hexagon nuts Style 1 Grades A and B: To AS 1112.1.
Hexagon nuts Style 2 Grades A and B: To AS 1112.2.
Performance
Provide fasteners capable of transmitting the loads imposed, and sufficient to ensure the rigidity of the
assembly.
Screws
Coach screws: To AS/NZS 1393.
Hexagon screws Grades A and B: To AS 1110.2.
Hexagon screws: Grade C To AS 1111.2.
Hexagon socket screws: To AS 1420 and AS/NZS 1421.
Machine screws: To AS/NZS 1427.
Self-drilling screws: To AS 3566.1 and AS 3566.2.
Tapping screws:
- Crossed recessed countersunk (flat – common head style): To AS/NZS 4407.
- Crossed recessed pan: To AS/NZS 4406.
- Crossed recessed raised countersunk (oval): To AS/NZS 4408.
- Hexagon: To AS/NZS 4402.
- Hexagon flange: To AS/NZS 4410.
- Hexagon washer: To AS/NZS 4409.
- Slotted countersunk (flat – common head style): To AS/NZS 4404.
- Slotted pan: To AS/NZS 4403.
- Slotted raised countersunk (oval – common head style): To AS/NZS 4405.

NATSPEC v [Insert date]


FIRE-STOPPING GENERAL

FIRE-STOPPING

There is a Product Partner for this worksection. Click the logo to be redirected to their page.
Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to the requirements for fire-stopping which flow from the deemed-to-satisfy BCA clauses C3.15
(Fire protection of openings for service installations) and C3.16 (Fire protection of construction joints).
Clauses which are deemed-to-satisfy in the BCA must be specified if they are to apply in the project. BCA clause C3.15
references several alternatives including:
• AS 4072.1 (and AS 1530.4), for type testing of service penetration fire protection.
• BCA Specification C3.15, for installation of certain metal pipes, sanitary plumbing, wires and cables, and electrical switches
and outlets.
Clause C3.16 references AS 1530.4, for type testing of construction joint fire protection.
For fire-stopping the relevant requirements boil down to those in AS 4072.1, which references AS 1530.4, and those in BCA
Specification C3.15 clause 7. It is suggested that the specification be based on AS 4072.1, for simplicity. AS 4072.1 contains
several options which need to be addressed.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• Ductwork fire-stopping. For fire dampers in ductwork at penetrations – see the Ductwork worksection. C3.15 references
AS/NZS 1668.1, for installation of HVAC ducts and equipment (not relevant to this worksection). It may be necessary to
remove combustible insulation from insulated pipes and ducts where such services penetrate fire-rated elements, and
replace it with mineral wool (non-combustible) insulation.
• Curtain wall fire-stopping (between slabs and curtain walls, and inside hollow curtain walls at the floor slab) may be
specified in that worksection (see Curtain walls – Fire-stopping), or here.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection. For example:
• Fire-stopping of penetrations. Fire-stopping of penetrations and of control joints is quite different. The former are static –
simple friction-fitting of mineral wool is often enough. The latter are dynamic - adhesion and the ability to move are
essential.
Worksection cross referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• General requirements.
• Hydraulic general requirements.
• Electrical general requirements.
• Mechanical general requirements.
Coordination with services engineers for service penetrations e.g. locations, sleeving (see General requirements - Building
penetrations), re-penetration, penetrant details (e.g. materials, contents and sizes) and penetration sizes, is essential. The
number of service penetrations should be minimised, and they should be kept as small as practicable. Fire-stopping of power
wiring at penetrations must conform to the Wiring Rules (AS/NZS 3000 clause 1.7.13).
Coordination with structural engineers is also required, for control joint fire-stopping and to ensure that service penetrations are
non-loadbearing.
Ensure that fire-stopping is specified consistently, without duplication or gaps - ideally only once, in this worksection. Service
penetrations will often contain several services e.g. fire, power, water supply. The specification of fire-stopping can easily get
out of hand if tackled in more than one worksection.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• Individual penetrations to be fire-stopped could be identified and coded, for scheduling here, for example.
• Coordination with drawings is also vital.

NATSPEC i [Insert date]


FIRE-STOPPING GENERAL

1 GENERAL

1.1 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
>
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

1.2 GENERAL STANDARDS


General
Because fire-stopping is controlled through the BCA, specification of proprietary items must conform to BCA requirements,
reflected in this worksection. In particular, type testing to AS 4072.1 and/or AS 1530.4 and/or BCA Specification C3.15 clause 7
will be required. Type testing to overseas standards may be acceptable to the building control officer, but in this case one is
working outside the deemed-to-satisfy solutions in the BCA, on which this worksection is based. Amend accordingly.
Service penetration fire-stopping systems: To BCA clause C3.15.
The deemed-to-satisfy BCA clauses C3.15(a) & (b) require, somewhat redundantly, type testing to both AS 4072.1 and
AS 1530.4. AS 4072.1 covers design, type testing, installation and certification of fire-stopping at service penetrations through
fire-rated elements, and control joints between fire-rated elements. Clause C3.15(b) offers a partial exemption in return for some
restrictions.
The deemed-to-satisfy BCA clauses C3.15(d), (e), (f) & (g) require installation of fire-stopping to BCA Specification C3.15 Part 7
Fire-stopping. This covers material, installation and type testing. If these clauses are to be worked to, then the design of the
penetrations must take into account the restrictions imposed in them, and in Specification C3.15 at large.
The BCA clauses are alternatives - C3.15(a) is the most straightforward, effectively just citing AS 4072.1. Amend the paragraph
if appropriate.
Control joint fire-stopping systems: To AS 4072.1.
Or, to BCA clause C3.16.
The deemed-to-satisfy BCA clause C3.16 requires type testing to AS 1530.4, which is cited in AS 4072.1, so these alternatives
amount to nearly the same thing. But AS 4072.1 (Appendix A, clause A6) advises that “The standard fire test (i.e. AS 1530.4) on
elements containing control joints is a test for joints within elements and not between different elements”. Nevertheless, it is the
standard fire test which is used, and supplemented by other tests, in AS 4072.1.
Use of AS 4072.1 is probably preferred. Amend the paragraph if desired.

1.3 INSPECTION
A pre-installation conference before beginning fire-stopping might be appropriate. If so, say so e.g. “Hold a meeting at the job
site with the fire-stopping materials manufacturer and installer to review the fire-stopping requirements. Give notice.”
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made of the following:
- Service penetrations completed and ready for fire-stopping.
- Finished fire-stopping, before being concealed.
Include authority inspections if appropriate. Consider an inspection to check for adhesion and curing.
Add Hold points, if required.

NATSPEC ii [Insert date]


FIRE-STOPPING GENERAL

1.4 TESTS
AS 4072.1 provides several options which may need to be addressed.
Service penetration fire-stopping systems
Insulation measurements: Required.
See AS 4072.1 clause 3.1.5. BCA clause C3.15(b) allows an exemption for the insulation criteria if the penetrating service is
protected so that combustible material cannot be located within 100 mm of it, and is not in a required exit. If this is not the case,
or if this specification is to clause C3.15(a) (the default provided above), then insulation failure needs to be evaluated.
Control joint fire-stopping systems
Physical performance: In accordance with the recommendations of AS 4072.1 Appendix C.
- Project joint width (mm): >
- Project movement amplitude (mm): >
- Number of 24 hour cycles (minimum): >
Informative in the standard. See AS 4072.1 clause 2.4.2. The manufacturer should have type-tested the system to this test
already. Provide the prompted information to ensure that the width and amplitude used in the test correspond to the project
width and amplitude.
• Project movement amplitude: Expected settlement, live load and thermal movement and so on. Consult structural
engineer.
• Number of 24 hour cycles: To be agreed between sponsor i.e. manufacturer, and testing authority. Specify only if no type
test has been done, and if the project is paying for the test.
Multiple penetration fire-stopping systems
Insulation measurements: Required.
See AS 4072.1 clause 3.1.8. If insulation failure needs to be evaluated, say so.
Services
End conditions: >
i.e. Sealed or unsealed on the exposed side. See AS 4072.1 clause 3.1.9, which defaults to unsealed.
Support: >
i.e. Allow for relative movement, or not. See AS 4072.1 clause 3.1.11.

1.5 SAMPLES
Sample panels
General: Supply a sample panel of each fire-stopping assembly, on representative substrates. If built
into the works, mark them.
Perhaps limit to those assemblies exposed to view, since quality of finish will be more important e.g. colour, pattern and to those
assemblies specified without reference to brand.
Size: 500 mm run for junction seals and 500 x 500 mm area for penetration seals.

1.6 SUBMISSIONS
Consider shop drawings for penetrations, wall/slab intersections, changes of plane, control joints, expansion joints and blank
openings.
Manufacturers’ information
Type tests: Submit type test certificates, including drawings of tested details, for each specified or
proposed fire-stopping system.
- Physical performance: Submit report to AS 4072.1 Appendix C.
See the Commentary for more information.
Product data: Submit evidence that systems specified without reference to brand conform to specified
requirements.
Instructions: Submit copies of relevant manufacturers’ instructions, for systems specified without
reference to brand.
Material safety data sheets (MSDS): Submit MSDS for systems specified without reference to brand.
Notice
General: Give notice if substrates or penetrants or both are not suitable for fire-stopping.

NATSPEC iii [Insert date]


FIRE-STOPPING GENERAL

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 MATERIALS
See the Commentary for more information.

General
Shelf life: Ensure materials used have not exceeded their shelf life.
Toxic materials: Free of asbestos and lead and free of, nor requiring the use of, toxic solvents.
Specify low-VOC solvents if desired. Some clues might be had from SUSDP Appendix P Uniform Paint Standard.
Toxicity in fire: Non-toxic.
Fire-stop mortars
Type: Re-enterable cement-based compound, mixed with water. Non-shrinking, moisture resistant.
Insoluble in water after setting.
For large penetrations. Setting time typically 60 min., curing time 24 hours depending upon the temperature and humidity during
curing.
Formulated compound of incombustible fibres
Material: Formulated compound mixed with mineral fibres, non-shrinking, moisture resistant. Insoluble
in water after setting.
Not for joints.
Fibre stuffing
Not for joints. Alkaline water contamination of the backer or filler materials may cause corrosion of metallic penetrating items.
Material: Mineral fibre stuffing insulation, dry and free of other contaminants.
Or, ceramic. Or, glass fibre and thermosetting resins.
Standard: >
e.g. ASTM C 665, Type I.
Sealant: >
To keep in the dust. e.g. Lightweight, low density, PVC based, non-asbestos setting compound formulated to mix easily with
water.
Fire-stop composite sheets >
Usually for re-penetrations. Mechanically fixed, sealed with intumescents.
Fire-stop sealants
Material: Elastomeric sealant. Soft, permanently flexible, non-sag, non-shrinking, moisture resistant.
Capable of providing a smoke-tight, gas-tight and waterproof seal when properly installed. Insoluble in
water after setting.
Supplied in sealants and foams. For joints. Working time typically 10 min., curing time 7 days.
Material: Or, multiple component.
Fire-stop foams
Material: Single component compound of reactive foam ingredients, non-shrinking, moisture resistant.
Insoluble in water after setting.
For joints. Setting time typically 1 – 4 min. at 24°C.
Material: Or, multiple component. Two component is common.
Fire-stop putty
Material: Single component, mouldable, permanently flexible, non-shrinking, moisture resistant,
intumescent compound which expands on exposure to surface heat gain, forming a high-volume
thermally insulating char that closes gaps and voids, resists the turbulence of a severe fire. Capable of
being placed by hand to form an immediate fire seal. Insoluble in water after setting.
For joints. Intumescent materials come as sealants, wraps, mastics, putty and coatings, and as part of collar systems for pipes.
Setting time typically 15 - 30 min., curing time over 3 hours. Intumescents are used for combustible penetrants such as
insulated and plastic piping.
Product certification
Certifire: >

NATSPEC iv [Insert date]


FIRE-STOPPING GENERAL

e.g. “Required”.
Certifire Australia Pty Ltd, a partnership between Scientific Services Laboratories (SSL) and Warrington Fire Research (Aust),
operates the Certifire Scheme for passive fire protection systems. The scheme covers suppliers of fire protection systems and
the contractors who install these systems. The scheme certifies that the system has been assessed against a specific Certifire
schedule. The schedules require testing to relevant Australian standards and a quality assurance scheme to be in place. A
register of current certificates is available on the Certifire Australia website at www.certifire.com.au.
Fire-stopping materials schedule
Properties Fire-stopping codes
FS1 FS2 FS3
Material or component
Elongation/shrinkage (%)
Potential expansion (minimum)
Adhesion and bond to substrate (kPa)
Compressive strength (kPa)
Density (kg/m³)
Vapour permeability (ng/Pa.s.m2)
Air permeability (L/s.m2)
Durability in service
Surface durability
Toxicity
Recycled content
Re-penetrability
Surface texture
Colour

Also consider where dust-free applications are required.


Elongation/shrinkage: Can vary from 5 to 1800%, depending on the material.
Potential expansion: Intumescents only. Should be at least 200 to 300%. Most intumescents offer 800 to 1000%.
3
Density: Very variable. For mineral fibre stuffing - at least 8kg/m .
Vapour permeability: If penetrated wall is in the plane of the of the vapour retarder.
Air permeability: If penetrated wall is in the plane of the of the air barrier.
Durability in service: e.g. 10 years, 25 years.
Surface durability: When traffic runs over the fire-stop.
Recycled content: Mineral fibre products may well contain a % of recycled content. A minimum could be specified for these
products.
Colour: e.g. Black, dark grey. If being used in areas exposed to view, in which case this may not be the only extra consideration.
Final cured colour can also indicate the correct mix formulation and expected performance.

2.2 COMPONENTS
Fire-stop collars
Material: Mechanical device with incombustible intumescent fillers covered with sheet steel jacket.
Airtight and watertight.
Not for joints.
Material: Or, may be filled with fire-stop silicone.

NATSPEC v [Insert date]


FIRE-STOPPING GENERAL

Fire-stop pillows
Material: Formed self-contained compressible flexible mineral fibre in cloth bags, rated to permit
frequent changes in service.
Usually for re-penetrations.
Material: Or, may be filled with intumescent material.
Accessories
Primer: >
As recommended by manufacturer for substrates.
Permanent dam material: Non-combustible.
For intumescents, fire-stop mortars and fire-stop silicones. Delete if dam material is not to be permanent.
- Type: >
e.g. Mineral fibreboard, ceramic fibre matting, mineral fibre matting, sheet metal, alumina silicate fibre board. Backers may
include urethane foam rod, or glass fibre rope.
Metal lath: >
For cable tray penetrations - used to enclose both sides of the vertical penetration, to keep fire-stop pillows in place, and to
prevent unauthorised or accidental removal of fire-stopping.
Installation accessories: Provide clips, collars, fasteners, temporary stops and dams, and other
devices required to position, support and contain fire-stopping and accessories.
Mineral wool often needs clips or retainers to hold it in place.
Product certification
Certifire: >
e.g. “Required”.

3 EXECUTION

3.1 EXECUTION GENERALLY


AS 4072.1 clause 1.5 requires installation to conform to manufacturer’s instructions, and to the standard.
General
Extent: Fire-stop and smoke-stop interruptions to fire-rated assemblies, materials and components,
including penetrations through fire-rated elements, breaks within fire-rated elements (e.g. expansion
joints), and junctions between fire-rated elements. The Fire-stopping systems schedule is not
necessarily comprehensive.
For this paragraph to work, fire-rated elements must be identified, either on the drawings, or in a schedule. Add curtain wall fire-
stopping if not covered in that worksection - this is at a junction between a fire-rated element (slab) and a non-fire-rated element
(curtain wall), so doesn’t fit into the description provided.
Sequence: Fire-stop after services have been installed through penetrations and properly spaced and
supported, after sleeving where appropriate, and after removal of temporary lines, but before
restricting access to the penetrations, including before dry lining.
Installer qualifications: >
e.g. “Experienced (minimum 5 years documented) in the installation of fire-stopping that is similar in material, design, and extent
to that specified.” Contractor’s certification that the installer has the specified experience may also be required, as might
evidence of the manufacturers’ approval, licensing and supervision of the installer(s).
Ventilation: Supply ventilation for non-aqueous solvent-cured materials.
Density: Apply fire-stopping material to uniform density.
Fire-stopping exposed to view: Finish surfaces to a uniform and level condition.
Cable separation: Maintain.
Protection: Protect adjacent surfaces from damage arising through installation of fire-stopping. Protect
completed fire-stopping from damage arising from other work.
Loose or damaged fire-stopping material: Remove and replace.
Penetrations by pipes and ducts: Allow for thermal movement of the pipes and ducts.

NATSPEC vi [Insert date]


FIRE-STOPPING GENERAL

Preventing displacement: Reinforce or support fire-stopping materials with non-combustible materials


when:
- The unsupported span of the fire-stopping materials > 100 mm.
- The fire-stopping materials are non-rigid (unless shown to be satisfactory by test).
Environmental management: >
Intumescents, fire-stop mortar and fire-stop silicone require special handling - refer to material safety data sheets for OH&S and
environmental issues.
Ambient conditions: >
Consider a blanket requirement to maintain building temperature at over 5°C during and after installation. Some specifications
suggest that the permanent HVAC should be in operation. Application temperature for multi-component foams and water based
products is critical. Consult manufacturer’s data. Generally do not apply materials when temperature of substrate material and
ambient air is below 5°C, and maintain this minimum temperature before, during, and for 3 days after installation of materials.
Cold-temperature products are available.
Large openings: Provide fire-stopping capable of supporting the same loads as the surrounding
element or provide similar structural support around the opening.
Applies to vertical and horizontal openings. Alternatively, protect to ensure that the fire-stopping never has to support such
loads. One specification suggests that openings in floors larger than 100 mm would require this. Fire-stopping is supposed to be
non-load-bearing in the sense of carrying structural loads.
Preparation
Cleaning: Clean substrates of dirt, dust, grease, oil, loose material, and other matter which may affect
bond of fire-stop material.
Primer: Clean and dry substrates for primers and sealants.
Restraint: Install backing and/or damming materials to arrest liquid material leakage. Remove
temporary dams after material has cured.

3.2 SYSTEMS
A fire-stopping system can be defined as the sum of the fire-stopping, substrates and penetrants. This worksection can only
describe the first.
Fire-stop mortars
Ambient conditions: Do not install below 5°C.
Formulated compound of incombustible fibres
Installation: >
Adapt manufacturer’s instructions to project requirements to completely close openings.
Fibre stuffing
Installation: Compress to 40% of its uncompressed volume.
Installation of inert stuffing is not temperature dependant.
Fire-stop composite sheets
Installation: >
Adapt manufacturer’s instructions to project requirements to completely close openings.
Fire-stop sealants
Ambient conditions: Do not store above 32°C. Do not install outside the temperature range
recommended by the sealant manufacturer. Do not install when humidity exceeds that recommended
by the sealant manufacturer for safe installation.
Fire-stop foams
Ambient conditions: Do not store above 32°C. Do not install below 15°C or above 32°C. Do not apply
when temperature of substrate and air is below 15°C. Maintain this minimum temperature before,
during and for 3 days after installation.
Refer to product information.
Installation: Test substrates for adhesion and prime if necessary. Place in layers to ensure
homogenous density, filling cavities and spaces. Place sealant to completely seal junctions with
adjacent dissimilar materials.

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FIRE-STOPPING GENERAL

Fire-stop putty
Ambient conditions: Do not install below 5°C. Do not allow the material to freeze.
Adapt manufacturer’s instructions to project requirements to completely close openings.
Installation: >
Fire-stop collars
Installation: >
Adapt manufacturer’s instructions to project requirements to completely close openings.

Fire-stop pillows
Ambient conditions: Do not install in conditions outside of the manufacturer’s recommendations.
Fire-stopping systems schedule
Location Substrate Penetrants Fire-stopping FRL Resistance to
code the incipient
spread of fire
Fire walls
Stair walls
Room to room n/a
partitions -
head/slab
junction
Room to room metallic pipe
partitions and conduit
Room to room non-metallic
partitions pipe and
conduit
Floors metallic pipe
and conduit
Curtain wall, n/a
between slab
and inner face of
curtain wall

Other matters which should be considered include exposure to view, protection against mechanical damage, and access to
penetrations e.g. for penetrations subject to servicing or modification, or for penetrations for future expansion.
Location: These are only some examples. The nature of the penetrating service(s) is an important consideration. The BCA
restricts some installations e.g. clause C3.15(e) is restricted to sanitary plumbing, metal or UPVC, penetrating floors, and
located in a fire isolated sanitary compartment. So maybe C3.15 types need to be identified here (but see commentary to
General standards). May need to be more specific, unless shown on the drawings e.g. which walls are fire walls? Individual
penetrations, coded on the drawings, may need to be identified instead e.g. penetrations P1, P4 and P22 may have fire-
stopping code FS3, etc. The point is to avoid ambiguity.
A list of some typical applications for fire-stopping follows:
• Penetrations through fire-rated masonry, concrete and plasterboard partitions and walls.
• Edge of floor slabs at curtain wall and precast concrete panels.
• Top of fire-rated masonry and plasterboard partitions.
• Intersection of fire-rated masonry and plasterboard partitions.
• Control and sway joints in fire-rated masonry and plasterboard partitions and walls.
• Openings for building services through fire-rated floor slabs, ceilings and roofs.
• Openings and sleeves installed for future use through fire separations.
• Around mechanical and electrical assemblies penetrating fire separations.
Fire-stopping code: Defined in the Fire-stopping materials schedule, above. These codes could also be used on the
drawings, though this might be redundant, depending on how Location: has been described.
FRL: See BCA clause C3.15. The same fire-stopping system may be able to provide different levels of fire rating.

NATSPEC viii [Insert date]


FIRE-STOPPING GENERAL

Resistance to the incipient spread of fire: See BCA clause C3.15. The same fire-stopping system may be able to provide
different levels of fire rating.
Labelling
Label each fire-stopping installation with a permanently fixed tag or sticker containing the following
information:
- Manufacturer’s name.
- Name and address of installer.
- Date of installation.

3.3 COMPLETION SUBMISSIONS


Consider specifying completion tests, involving (for example) a series of 5 fog tests at random locations. Fog units (machines)
should have a formulation output range of 6.8 L/h. Formulation particle size 0.5 – 25 microns. Fogging agent should be non-
toxic, non-staining and should provide a heavy fog at 30 ppm with a permissible airborne level concentration of 50 ppm. Fog at
3
a rate of 4 s / 2.8 m . Maintain the fog density until inspection is complete. Failure occurs if any penetration, joint or void, under
this worksection, emits visible fog.
Certification
General: Submit evidence of compliance, in accordance with the recommendations of AS 4072.1
Appendix B.
Informative in the standard.
Certification: Submit a completed certification document for installed fire-stopped penetrations and
control joints.
- Form: To Figure B1 of AS 4072.1.
Schedule: Submit a schedule of installed fire-stopped penetrations and control joints.
- Form: To Figure B2 of AS 4072.1.
User manual
For fire-stopping systems which are intended to be modified in service, submit user manual.

3.4 MAINTENANCE
Cleaning
Remove spilled and excess fire-stopping materials without damaging other work.

NATSPEC ix [Insert date]


METALS AND PREFINISHES GENERAL

METALS AND PREFINISHES

There is a Product Partner for this worksection. Click the logo to be redirected to their page.
Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to aluminium and aluminium alloys, steel, coated steel and stainless steel, copper and copper
alloys, brazing, welding, electroplating, anodising, metal spraying, powder coating and prepainting. It identifies relevant
standards for metal alloys and forms, and for prefinishing, selecting default grades in some instances for the most commonly
used metals and a variety of shop finishes. There are many relevant standards, but none are central.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• Steel - hot dip galvanized coatings, for fabrication.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements, for corrosion resistance defaults.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection. For example:
• Linishing.
Worksection cross referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• General requirements.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• Specify metals and prefinishes in the office Schedule of finishes format.
• Define mill, sand blasted, bead blasted, scratched, linished, polished and other self finishes by reference to approved
samples.
• Note General requirements text default “Retention of samples: Keep endorsed samples in good condition on site, until
practical completion”.

1 GENERAL

1.1 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
>
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

NATSPEC i [Insert date]


METALS AND PREFINISHES GENERAL

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 METALS
Generally particular grades or alloys should be specified in the appropriate worksection, though some defaults are provided
here.
Aluminium and aluminium alloys
Drawn pipe: To AS/NZS 1867.
Drawn rod, bar and strip: To AS/NZS 1865.
Extrusions: To AS/NZS 1866.
Plate and sheets: To AS/NZS 1734.
Coated steel
Electrogalvanizing ferrous hollow and open sections: To AS 4750.
Hot-dip galvanizing (zinc):
- Ferrous open sections by an in-line process: To AS/NZS 4791.
- Ferrous hollow sections by a continuous or specialised process: To AS/NZS 4792.
Metallic-coated sheet: To AS 1397.
- Thickness: Metal thicknesses specified are base metal thicknesses.
See the Commentary for more information.
Steel wire: To AS/NZS 4534.
Copper and copper alloys
Casting: To AS 1565.
Plate, sheet and strip: To AS 1566.
Rods, bars and sections: To AS/NZS 1567.
Stainless steel
Bars: To ASTM A276.
Plate, sheet and strip: To ASTM A240/A240M.
Welded pipe (round): To AS 1769.
Welded pipe (square): To ASTM A554.
Steel
Sheet: To AS/NZS 1595.
Structural bars and sections: To AS/NZS 3679.1.
Structural hollow section: To AS 1163.
Steel for prefinishes
Cold rolled bar: To AS 1443 “bright”.
Cold rolled sheet: To AS/NZS 1595.
- Designation: CA2S-E.
Electric resistance welded pipe: To AS 1450 “bright”.

3 EXECUTION

Specify the type of metal finish when specifying the article to which it applies. If the minimum coating thicknesses in the
worksection are not acceptable, specify the preferred thickness. See also the Finishes subsection in Structural steel. On
terminology see AS 4108.

3.1 GENERAL
Brazing
General: Ensure brazed joints have sufficient lap to provide a mechanically sound joint.
Butt joints: Do not use butt jointing for joints subject to loads. If butt joints are used, do not rely on the
filler metal fillet only.
Filler metal: To AS 1167.1.

NATSPEC ii [Insert date]


METALS AND PREFINISHES GENERAL

Damage
General: If prefinishes are damaged, including damage caused by unauthorised site cutting or drilling,
remove and replace the damaged item.
Finishing
Visible joints: Finish visible joints made by welding, brazing or soldering using methods appropriate to
the class of work (including grinding or buffing) before further treatment such as painting, galvanizing
or electroplating. Ensure self-finished metals are without surface colour variations after jointing.
Preparation
General: Before applying decorative or protective prefinishes to metal components, complete welding,
cutting, drilling and other fabrication, and prepare the surface using a suitable method.
Standard: To AS 1627.
Priming steel surfaces: If site painting is specified to otherwise uncoated mild steel or similar surfaces:
- Prime after fabrication and before delivery to the works.
- After installation, repair damaged priming and complete the coverage to unprimed surfaces.
Repair
General: If a repair is required to metallic coated sheet or electrogalvanized on inline galvanized steel
products, clean the affected area and apply a two-pack organic primer to AS/NZS 3750.9 or APAS-
2916.
Welding
Aluminium: To AS 1665.
Stainless steel: To AS/NZS 1554.6.
Steel: To AS/NZS 1554.1.

3.2 SELF FINISHING


Mechanical finishes
Bright finished copper alloy surfaces: For indoor applications, apply a clear lacquer protecting coating.

3.3 ELECTROPLATING
For information on some related occupational health and safety issues, see NOHSC Guide “Electroplating”.
Electroplated coatings
Chromium on metals: To AS 1192.
Nickel on metals: To AS 1192.
Service condition number: At least 2.
Service condition number: 2 is for moderate indoor (e.g. bathrooms) and 1 for mild service conditions.
Zinc on iron or steel: To AS 1789.

3.4 ANODISING
Anodising
Standard: To AS 1231.
Thickness grade:
- Indoor applications: At least AA10.
- Outdoor applications: At least AA25.

3.5 METAL SPRAYING


Metal spray
Standard: To ISO 2063.
Minimum thicknesses:
- Indoor applications: 125 µm.
- Outdoor applications: 175 µm.
Process: Electric arc.
Seal coat: Cover the metal spray finish with two coats of vinyl seal to a total dry film thickness of
80 µm.

NATSPEC iii [Insert date]


METALS AND PREFINISHES GENERAL

Seal coat: For enhanced performance in aggressive environments, or as a decorative finish. If a seal coat is required to metal
spray finishes, state “Seal coat: Required” when specifying the article to be metal sprayed.

3.6 POWDER COATING


Preparation
General: Use chemical pretreatments. If recommended, provide conversion coatings.
Aluminium: Pretreat to AS 3715 Appendix G.
Galvanized steel: Clean by immersing in a suitable alkaline or acidic solution, apply a zinc phosphate
chemical conversion coating, rinse and degas.
Unprotected steel: Remove rust to the recommendations of AS 1627.4 to grade Sa 2½ of AS 1627.9.
Clean by immersing in trichloroethylene or an alkaline solution, and apply a coat of iron phosphate.
AS 1627.9 grade Sa 2½ is for “very thorough blast cleaning”.
Thermoset powder coating
Standards: To AS 3715 or AS/NZS 4506 as appropriate.
External use: APAS-0155/2.
Finish: Full gloss.
Internal use: APAS-0155/1.

3.7 PREPAINTING
Air-drying enamel
Application: Spray or brush.
Finish: Full gloss.
General use:
- Primer: Two-pack epoxy primer to APAS-2971.
- Top coats: 2 coats to APAS-0015/1.
Oil resistant use:
- Primer: Two-pack epoxy primer to APAS-2971.
- Top coats: 2 coats to APAS-0024/1.
Equipment paint system
Description: Brush or spray application using paint as follows:
- Full gloss enamel finish coats, oil and petrol resistant: APAS-0024/1, two coats.
- Prime coat to metal surfaces generally: APAS-0032 or APAS-0162/1.
- Prime coat to zinc-coated steel: APAS-0134.
- Undercoat: APAS-0029.
High performance organic coatings
Description: Factory applied spray coatings on aluminium products, including polyvinylidene fluoride
(PVF2) coatings.
Standards: To AAMA 2604 and AS/NZS 2728.
Prepainted metal products
Standard: To AS/NZS 2728.
Product finish: >
AS/NZS 2728 provides for three levels of finish, standard, enhanced and industrial.
Product type: Not lower than the type appropriate to the field of application.
See AS/NZS 2728 clause 1.4.
Stoving enamel
Application: Spray or dip.
Internal use:
- Primer: To APAS-0065.
- Topcoat: To APAS-0066/3.

NATSPEC iv [Insert date]


METALS AND PREFINISHES GENERAL

Two-pack liquid coating


Application: Spray.
Finish: Full gloss.
Primer: Two pack epoxy primer to APAS-2971.
Topcoat:
- Internal use: Proprietary polyurethane or epoxy acrylic system.
- External use: Proprietary polyurethane system.

4 SELECTIONS

Nominate the finish for metal items in the appropriate worksection.

NATSPEC v [Insert date]


TERMITE CONTROL MANAGEMENT GENERAL

TERMITE CONTROL MANAGEMENT

There is a Product Partner for this worksection. Click the logo to be redirected to their page.
Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to various chemical and non-chemical systems which may be used, alone or in combination, to
provide termite management. They need to be integrated to be effective and so are located together. They may impact on
Earthwork, In situ concrete, Brick and block construction, and so on. The core standard is AS 3660.1 (Termite management –
New building work), cited in the BCA.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• The concrete slab where used as a termite barrier to AS 3660.1, Coordinate with the concrete worksections where slabs-
on-ground to AS 2870 are used as part of the termite control system. AS 3660.1 cites this standard for this purpose.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
• Concrete in situ where a concrete slab is used as a termite barrier.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection. For example:
• Systems and materials not specifically cited in AS 3660.1 but which meet the performance criteria of this Standard. See
AS 3660.1 clause 1.3.
Worksection cross referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• General requirements.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• Termite barriers are not described elsewhere - having the different types collected in one worksection permits ready
specification coordination of composite installations. Nevertheless coordination with other worksections, such as Concrete
in situ, Brick and block construction, Structural timber and Light timber framing, is essential.

5 GENERAL

5.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
Provide termite management materials and systems.
Conform to the Schedule.

5.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
>

NATSPEC i [Insert date]


TERMITE CONTROL MANAGEMENT GENERAL

List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

5.3 STANDARD
General
Termite barriers: To AS 3660.1.
AS 3660.1 is cited in the BCA which allows impervious termite shields to be used as damp-proof courses.
See AS 3660.2 and AS 3660.3 for termite management in existing buildings and for timber pest inspections of existing buildings,
see AS 4349.3.

5.4 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made of the completed termite barriers.
Hold points, if required, should be inserted here.

5.5 TESTS
Chemical soil barriers – reticulation systems
Type testing: To AS 3660.1 Appendix E.

5.6 SUBMISSIONS
Tests
Submit a Registered testing authority laboratory analysis certificate of chemical soil barrier type testing
to Appendix E.

6 PRODUCTS

Many termite control problems will be avoided if termite resistant structural materials are used.

6.1 NON-CHEMICAL BARRIERS


Concrete slab barrier
Standard: To AS 3660.1 Section 4.
Services penetration barrier type: >
Proprietary UPVC pipe shields at slab penetrations may be used as termite barriers, at least in NSW, Victoria and NT.
Proprietary stainless steel pipe shields at slab penetrations may be used as termite barriers, at least in NSW, Victoria and parts
of Queensland. The manufacturers claim compliance with AS 3660.1. Stainless steel mesh can also be used. It is assumed that
the slab is built to AS 2870 - coordinate. One such barrier, the Alumite Collar, has a CSIRO Appraisal (No. 221).
Termite cap and strip shields
Standard: To AS 3660.1 Section 5.
Material: >
Galvanized steel, sheet copper, stainless steel, aluminium alloy, alloys of copper and zinc and woven stainless steel mesh. See
AS 3660.1 clause 5.1.
Woven stainless steel mesh barriers
Standard: To AS 3660.1 Section 6.
The Termi-Mesh Termite Control System is what is described in the standard.
Graded stone particles barriers
The Granitgard Physical Termite Barrier System is what is described in the standard, and has a CSIRO Appraisal (No. 166). It
also has an ABCB Certificate of National Accrediation.
Standard: To AS 3660.1 Section 7.
Capping system: >
Include additional termite strip shielding, ant capping or cap sealing, to complete the system for certification and warranty.

NATSPEC ii [Insert date]


TERMITE CONTROL MANAGEMENT GENERAL

6.2 CHEMICAL SOIL BARRIERS


General
Standard: To AS 3660.1 Section 8.
Spray application
Chemical: >
Chlorpyrifos and synthetic pyrethroids are not persistent in soils and must be reapplied regularly.
Under slabs-on-ground, such a barrier will probably require renewal within 6-10 years - well within the economic life of most
buildings. For example, the Dursban and Remfos (no longer available) product label advises that the expected life of an
underfloor barrier is 6 years north of the Tropic of Capricorn, and 10 years south of it, and for an external barrier the expected
life is 3 and 5 years respectively.
Renewal of spray applied termiticide under slabs-on-ground can be a very messy operation and may expose occupants to the
chemicals used. Accordingly renewal is usually limited to the slab perimeter, particularly because this is where around 60% of
termite attacks occur, and because any termites that were under the slab should be long dead, having been exposed to
termiticide for a number of years.
Reticulation systems
Chemical: >
An alternative approach using termiticides is the use of under-slab reticulation systems, developed to overcome the problem of
reapplication under the slab. These systems include:
• ALTIS Anti-Termite Irrigation System, by ALTIS (CSIRO Appraisal No. 145 and 222).
• SlabSet.
• Termiguard systems (CSIRO Appraisals No. 198, 212 and 230).
Chemical: NRA-approved chemicals include David Grays Micro-Lo Chlorpyrifos Termiticide and Insecticide, and Standard
Remfos Post-Construction Termiticide and Insecticide, by BMD Investments/ Australian Chemical Engineering. Some under-
slab reticulation systems, for example, rely on the slab forming part of the barrier, as do slab penetration systems.
Non-soil matrix barrier
Type: >
See AS 3660.1 clause 2.3.4 and Table 1 which refers to barriers in a non-soil matrix. KORDON TMB and KORDON TB are
manufactured by Aventis ES. KORDON TMB can also be used as a damp-proof membrane (CSIRO Appraisal No. 216).
KORDON TB is a perimeter and penetration barrier (CSIRO Appraisal No. 255).

7 EXECUTION

7.1 NON-CHEMICAL BARRIERS


Concrete slab barrier
Standard: To AS 3660.1 Section 4.
Termite cap and strip shields
Standard: To AS 3660.1 Section 5.
Woven stainless steel mesh barriers
Standard: To AS 3660.1 Section 6.
Graded stone particles barriers
Standard: To AS 3660.1 Section 7.

7.2 CHEMICAL SOIL BARRIERS


General
Standard: To AS 3660.1 Section 8.

7.3 COMPLETION
Consider including a requirement for an insurance policy, if one is available in the market.
Termite barrier notice
Provide a durable notice permanently fixed in a prominent location to BCA Volume 1 Part B1.4 (i) (ii)
and AS 3660.1 Appendix A.

NATSPEC iii [Insert date]


TERMITE CONTROL MANAGEMENT GENERAL

This sign is nominated in Signs and display statutory signs. If Signs and display is included in the project specification delete
and cross refer as appropriate.
Waste materials
Progressively cleaning: Ensure that no waste materials which could attract termites remain on the site.
Warranty
Terms: >
Completion inspection
At the end of the defects liability period, inspect the termite control systems and submit a report on
their efficacy and status.
Annual inspection is recommended. Accordingly, there should be one at the end of the normal 12 month defects liability period.

8 SELECTIONS

8.1 SCHEDULE
Termite barriers schedule
Barrier designation TB1 TB2 TB3
Location
Slab
Slab penetrations
Slab control joints and footing/slab joints
Under slabs
Building perimeters
Under suspended floors
Timber poles and posts

Composite barriers are possible, as are different types in different locations (e.g. some parts of the building may have slab-on-
ground floors, others may have suspended timber floors). Careful reading of AS 3660.1 is essential. See the Commentary for an
example of a completed schedule.

NATSPEC iv [Insert date]


TIMBER FINISHES AND TREATMENT GENERAL

TIMBER FINISHES AND TREATMENT

There is a Product Partner for this worksection. Click the logo to be redirected to their page.
Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to timber durability and preservative treatment, to the AS 1604 series (Specification for
preservative treatment). It is aligned to regulations in NSW and Queensland and with other general issues such as moisture
content.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• Floor sanding and finishing.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection.
Worksection cross referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
Cross reference to this worksection for timber finishes and treatment and finishes, as applicable, from:
• Structural timber.
• Light timber framing.
• Flooring and decking.
A schedule of a timber finishes and treatments may also be appropriate.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: Provide finished and treated timbers.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
>
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

NATSPEC i [Insert date]


TIMBER FINISHES AND TREATMENT GENERAL

1.3 INTERPRETATION
Definitions
General: For the purposes of this worksection the definitions given below apply.
- Plywood: To AS/NZS 4491.
- “Standard trade common names”: To AS/NZS 1148.
- Groups of timbers: Terms employed for that purpose in relevant Australian standards.
The Definitions subclause can be edited to suit the project or deleted if not required.

1.4 SUBMISSIONS
Materials
Rainforest species: Submit source certification.
You may wish to introduce exclusions.
Pressure preservative treatment: For timber required to be pressure treated, submit a certificate or
other satisfactory evidence showing that the timber has been treated.

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 TIMBER
Durability
General: Provide timbers having natural durability appropriate to the conditions of use, or preservative-
treated timber of equivalent durability.
Natural durability class of heartwood: To AS 5604.
Minimum requirements:
- Class 1: Timbers in contact with ground.
- Class 2: Timbers above ground, not in continuous contact with moisture, well ventilated, protected
from moisture but exposed to the weather.
- Class 3: Timbers above ground, not in continuous contact with moisture, well ventilated, protected
with a finish, and well maintained.
- Class 4: Timbers fully protected from moisture, indoors, above ground, and well ventilated.
Durability schedule
Location or application Natural durability

Lyctus susceptible timbers


General: Do not provide timbers containing Lyctus susceptible sapwood.
This subclause does not preclude the use of Lyctus susceptible species. If the sapwood has been suitably immunised it is not
longer Lyctus susceptible, and can be used. See AS 1604.1 Appendix A, for hardwoods not susceptible to lyctid attack.
Preservative treatment
For a simple walk-through of the generic concepts as well as the main requirements of the AS/NZS 1604 series, see
SAA HB164.
Glued laminated timber products: To AS/NZS 1604.5.
- Hazard classification: To Table A1.
Laminated veneer lumber (LVL): To AS/NZS 1604.4.
- Hazard classification. To Table A1.
Plywood: To AS/NZS 1604.3.
- Hazard classification: To Table A1.
Reconstituted wood-based products: To AS/NZS 1604.2.
NATSPEC ii [Insert date]
TIMBER FINISHES AND TREATMENT GENERAL

- Hazard classification: To Table A1.


Sawn and round timber: To AS 1604.1.
- Hazard classification: To Table D1.
Preservative treatment schedule
Type of timber Location Preservative treatment

Water-repellent treatment
Repellent: To APAS-0096.
Moisture content
Tolerance: Make milled and dressed products from timbers seasoned as follows:
- To within 3% of the equilibrium moisture content appropriate to the timber and its intended
conditions of use.
- To 10 – 15% moisture content.
- With no more than 3% difference between any 2 pieces in any one group.
Test: To AS/NZS 1080.1.
Moisture content for special site conditions: >
Protection: Protect timber and timber products stored on site from moisture and weather. For milled,
prefinished, prefabricated and similar elements which are protected in the final structure, provide
temporary weather protection until the permanent covering is in place.
Finished sizes
General: Provide milled timbers with actual dimensions which are at least the stated dimensions,
except for dimensions qualified by a term such as “nominal” or “out of” to which industry standards for
finished sizes apply.
Unseasoned timber
General: If unseasoned timber is used, or if variations in moisture are likely, allow for shrinkage,
swelling and differential movement.
Surface finish
Hardwood: To AS 2796.1 Table B1.
Softwood: To AS 4785.1 Table B1.
Terms such as “sawn”, “fine sawn”, “dressed”, “sanded” and “fine sanded” may be sufficient for ordinary purposes. Timber
advisory services and timber promotion bodies can advise on timber surfaces.
AS 2796.1 Table B1 and AS 4785.1 Table B1 specify limits of machining imperfections and surface finish imperfections on
exposed surfaces.

2.2 VENEERS
Tabulate if more than one type of decorative timber or vinyl veneer is required. Use schedule only if basic defaults in Template
are not suitable for certain applications. A blanket reference to the standard will not necessarily give you the material or the
standard you require.
Timber veneer
Veneer quality: To AS/NZS 2270.
Grades (minimum requirement):
- Select grade, veneer quality A, for visible surfaces to have clear finish or to have no coated finish.
- General purpose grade, veneer quality B, for other visible surfaces.
Decorative timber veneer (grade S)
Veneered item: >
e.g. “Flush doors”, “Cupboard doors”, “Cupboard ends”, “Bench tops”.
Veneer timber species: >

NATSPEC iii [Insert date]


TIMBER FINISHES AND TREATMENT GENERAL

Type of cut: >


e.g. “Sliced”, “Semi-rotary peeled” or “Rotary peeled”.
Matching arrangement: >
“Book”, “Centre”, “Diamond”, “Random” or “Slip”.
Vinyl veneer
Type: Proprietary unbacked vinyl fabric factory-bonded to the designated surface.
Veneered item: >
Type and pattern: >
Use manufacturer’s brand name or “To approved sample”.

3 EXECUTION

3.1 WORKMANSHIP
Ploughing
General: Back plough boards liable to warp (e.g. if exposed externally on one face). Make the width,
depth and distribution of ploughs appropriate to the dimensions of the board and degree of exposure.
Painting
Edges: Chamfer edges of work to receive paint or similar coatings.
Priming: For woodwork to be painted, prime hidden surfaces before assembly.

NATSPEC iv [Insert date]


DEMOLITION SITE

DEMOLITION

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to demolition of existing buildings, structures and services including planning and execution of the
work, protection and support of adjacent structures and removal of demolished material.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection. For example:
• Permanent shoring or underpinning which should be detailed on the project drawings.
• Provisions to be set in place for the use of explosives.
Worksection cross referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• Prepare a demolition plan to your office documentation policy

1 GENERAL

1.1 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
>
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

1.2 STANDARD
General
Demolition: To AS 2601.

1.3 INTERPRETATION
Demolished materials classes
Salvaged for re-use: Demolished materials scheduled for re-use in the works.
Salvaged for disposal: Demolished materials scheduled for re-use elsewhere.
Demolished for re-use: Non-scheduled demolished materials proposed by contractor for re-use in the
works.
Demolished for removal: Other demolished materials.

NATSPEC i [Insert date]


DEMOLITION SITE

Dilapidation record
The photographic and written record made before commencement of demolition work of the condition
of the existing building, adjacent buildings, and other relevant structures or facilities.

1.4 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made of the following:
- Adjacent structures before commencement of demolition.
- Services before disconnection or diversion.
- Trees specified to be retained, before commencement of demolition.
- Contents of building before commencement of demolition.
- Structure after stripping and removal of roof coverings and other external cladding.
- Underground structures after demolition above them.
- Excavations remaining after removal of underground work.
- Site after removal of demolished materials.
- Services after reconnection or diversion.
Add Hold points, if required.

1.5 SUBMISSIONS
Authorities
Conditions of contract cover compliance with authorities’ requirements and protection of persons and property. Do not repeat.
Use this clause only if evidence of compliance is required, and if necessary, amend the list given.
Evidence of compliance: Before commencing demolition, submit evidence of the following:
- Requirements of authorities relating to the work under the contract have been ascertained.
- A permit to demolish has been obtained from the appropriate authority.
- A scaffold permit has been obtained from the appropriate authority (if scaffolding is proposed to be
used).
- Precautions necessary for protection of persons and property have been taken and suitable
protective and safety devices provided to the approval of the relevant authority.
- Treatment for rodent infestation has been carried out and a certificate has been obtained from the
appropriate authority.
- Fees and other costs have been paid.
Investigation and work plan
An investigation and work plan is required by AS 2601 for all work involving structures or hazardous materials. The amount of
investigation and planning will vary with the extent and complexity of the work. The principal may make available drawings of
the existing structure and other information relevant to the investigation. On contractual considerations see AS 2601 clause
B2.4 and B2.5 on plans and specifications.
Work plan: Submit the work plan before demolition or stripping work. Include the following information:
- The method of protection and support for adjacent property.
- Locations and details of necessary service deviations and terminations.
- If removal of asbestos or of material containing asbestos is required, the information specified in
NOHSC 2002 Code of Practice for the Safe Removal of Asbestos. Include information to be
supplied to the removalist clause 1.1, and information to be supplied by the approved removalist
clause 1.2.
Refer also to RAIA Advisory Note AN14.01.902, to the Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Union (CFMEU) document
“Asbestos Kills” and AS 2601 clause 1.6.2 on removal of hazardous substances. AS 4964 provides laboratories with a method
of qualitative identification of amosite, crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos in bulk building materials and soils by polarised light
microscopy and dispersion staining techniques.
- Confirmation of the sequence of work if specified in Demolition below.
- To AS 2601 Section 2.
Approval of a local authority may not apply to minor work. If not required, delete.

NATSPEC ii [Insert date]


DEMOLITION SITE

Records
Dilapidation record: Submit a copy of the dilapidation record for inspection. Submit to each owner of
each adjacent property a copy of the part of the record relating to that property, and obtain their written
agreement to the contents of the record, prior to commencement of demolition.

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 DEMOLISHED MATERIALS


Most forms of general conditions of contract (e.g. AS 2124, AS 4000) include provisions for valuable minerals, fossils and relics
found on the site. These remain the property of the principal. ABIC MW-1 and ABIC SW-1 do not include this provision.
Demolished materials
Ownership: Ownership of demolished materials is described in the Demolished materials classes
table.
Reuse: If it is proposed to reuse demolished materials in the works, submit proposals.
Relocation details are commonly shown on the drawings. Salvage and re-use should be encouraged from an environmental
point of view and make sense where it is difficult to match existing items for maintenance, replacement or alteration purposes.
Local authorities often need to know the extent of use of second hand material. Reworking of existing material before re-use
should be specified in the appropriate worksections.
Salvage: Recover without damage materials to be salvaged, for reuse in conformance with the
Salvaged materials for reuse schedule or for disposal in conformance with the Salvaged materials
for disposal schedule.
Removal: Remove from the site demolished materials which are the property of the contractor. Do not
burn or bury on site.
- Transit: Prevent spillage of demolishing materials in transit.
Burial of harmless non-degradable material such as bricks may be permitted to reduce costs. If so say so and allocate a
location.
Demolished materials classes table
Class Ownership
Salvaged for reuse Principal/Proprietor
Salvaged for disposal Principal/Proprietor
Demolished for re-use Principal/Proprietor
Demolished for removal Contractor

Salvaged for re-use: e.g. hardware, equipment. If re-use is not permitted either delete or state “Re-use not permitted”.
Demolished for re-use: e.g. hardcore. On the use of recycled concrete and masonry materials, see SAA HB155.
Salvaged materials for re-use schedule
Item for re-use Location for re-use

Salvaged materials for disposal schedule


Item for disposal Location for disposal

NATSPEC iii [Insert date]


DEMOLITION SITE

For items “salvaged for disposal”. The contractor may be required to deliver them to storage or to another construction site e.g.
“Deliver to ...”.

3 EXECUTION

3.1 SUPPORT
Major support work, if known in advance to be necessary, should usually be designed by the structural engineer and included as
part of the contract, in which case it should be shown on the drawings and specified.

Temporary support
General: If temporary support is required, certification for its design and installation is required from a
professional engineer engaged by the contractor.
Existing buildings: Until permanent support is provided, provide temporary support for sections of
existing buildings which are to be altered and which normally rely for support on work to be
demolished.
Ground support: Support excavations for demolition of underground structures.
Adjacent structures: Provide supports to adjacent structures where necessary, sufficient to prevent
damage resulting from the works.
- Lateral supports: Provide lateral support equal to that given by the structure to be demolished.
- Vertical supports: Provide vertical support where necessary using piling or underpinning or both.
See AS 2601 clause 1.7 for protection of adjoining buildings and E5.1 on basements and other below-ground structures.
Permanent supports
General: If permanent supports for adjacent structures are necessary and are not described, give
notice and obtain instructions.

3.2 PROTECTION
Encroachment
General: Prevent the encroachment of demolished materials onto adjoining property, including public
places.
Weather protection
General: If walls or roofs are opened for alterations and additions or the surfaces of adjoining buildings
are exposed, provide temporary covers to prevent water penetration. Provide covers to protect
existing plant and equipment and materials intended for re-use.
Dust protection
General: Provide dust-proof screens, bulkheads and covers to protect existing finishes and the
immediate environment from dust and debris.
Security
General: If a wall or roof is opened for alterations and additions, provide security against unauthorised
entry to the building.
Temporary screens
General: Fill the whole of designated temporary openings or other spaces using dust and
weatherproof temporary screens, fixed securely to the existing structure, and install to ensure
appropriate shedding of water to avoid damage to retained existing elements or adjacent structures
and contents.
Type: Timber framed screens sheeted with fibre cement and painted. Seal the junctions between the
screens and the openings.
Designated openings: >
Temporary access
General: Provide a substantial temporary doorset fitted with a rim deadlock, and remove on
completion of demolition.
Exposed surfaces
The treatment of exposed surfaces of adjoining properties will vary according to the circumstances, and can usually be
determined only after the surfaces are exposed. Specify here any anticipated treatment,

NATSPEC iv [Insert date]


DEMOLITION SITE

General: Where necessary protect and weatherproof the surfaces of adjacent structures exposed by
demolition.
Treatment of exposed surface: >
e.g. 200 µm thick pigmented polyethylene sheeting lapped and taped at joints and fixed with 75 x 38 mm battens at 600 mm
centres both ways, or permanent covering such as cement render or metal cladding. Special consideration will need to be given
to horizontal surfaces over building elements being retained.

3.3 DEMOLITION
Scope of work clauses are not recommended. Preferably show the extent of demolition on drawings supplemented with drawing
notes. Refer to AS 2601 clauses 1.5 for health and safety, 1.6 for hazardous surfaces and 1.7 for protection.
Dilapidation record
Include the dilapidation record in the contract documents which are signed by the parties.
Purpose: Use the dilapidation record to assess the damage and making good arising out of demolition
work.
Availability: Keep the records of the investigations on site and available for inspection until practical
completion of the contract.
Encroachment
General: If encroachments from adjacent structures are encountered and are not described, give
notice and obtain instructions.
Sequence >
If a particular sequence is required and is not shown on the drawings, specify it here. This could apply to structural alterations or
work to be completed in stages, and should be incorporated in the work plan prepared by the contractor.
Concrete slabs
General: Using a diamond saw, neatly cut back or trim to new alignment with a clean true face existing
concrete slabs to be partially demolished or penetrated.
Explosives
General: Do not use explosives.

3.4 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS


AS 2601 clause 1.6 specifies examination of the site to determine the presence of noxious, toxic or explosive materials or
conditions, and identification of hazardous materials as part of the investigation of the structure and site. This clause is
additional and requires notice to be given in all cases where hazardous materials are found.
General
General: Hazardous materials that have already been identified are set out in the Identified
hazardous materials schedule.
Identified hazardous materials schedule
Item Hazardous material Component

Complete where known or shown on the drawings. Delete if no survey of hazardous materials has been undertaken.

Hazardous materials
General: Give notice immediately hazardous materials or conditions are found, including the following:
- Asbestos or material containing asbestos.
- Flammable or explosive liquids or gases.
- Toxic, infective or contaminated materials.
- Radiation or radioactive materials.
- Noxious or explosive chemicals.
- Tanks or other containers which have been used for storage of explosive, toxic, infective or
contaminated substances.

NATSPEC v [Insert date]


DEMOLITION SITE

3.5 COMPLETION
Notice of completion
General: Give at least 7 working days’ notice of completion of demolition so that adjacent structures
may be inspected following completion of demolition.
Making good: Make good any damage arising out of demolition work. Obtain written acceptance from
the owner of each adjoining property of completeness and standard of making good.
Temporary support
General: Clear away at completion of demolition.

NATSPEC vi [Insert date]


SITE PREPARATION SITE

SITE PREPARATION

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to clearing, environmental protection and retention of trees.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• Earthwork.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection. For example:
• None.
Worksection cross referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• Show the location and type of temporary and permanent erosion and sediment control on the drawings.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: The aim of this worksection is to clear the site and put in place adequate environmental
controls to allow the commencement of earthworks and/or building works.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
>
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

1.3 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made of the following:
- Enclosures to trees to be retained.
- Trees to be removed.
Add Hold points, if required.

NATSPEC 7 [Insert date]


SITE PREPARATION SITE

1.4 SUBMISSIONS
Materials
Submit details of materials proposed, including the following:
- Provision of cleared vegetation for mulching.
Execution
Submit the methods and equipment proposed for the earthworks, including the following:
- Dewatering and groundwater control and disposal of surface water.
- Control of erosion, contamination and sedimentation of the site, surrounding areas and drainage
systems.
- Dust control.
- Noise control.
- Vibration control.

2 EXECUTION

2.1 TEMPORARY LANDSCAPE FENCING


Fence dimensions
Height: 1200 mm.
Maximum post spacing: 5000 mm.
Components sizes
Corner and gate posts: Hardwood or preservative-treated softwood, 250 mm diameter.
Intermediate posts: Star picket.
Gate: Provide a suitable hinged gate with a gate latch.
Wire: Top, intermediate and bottom rows of 3.2 mm plain galvanized steel wire. Thread the top wire
through pieces of plastic tube and through corner posts.
Removal
Completion: Remove the fence at the end of the planting establishment period.

2.2 TREES
Tree protection
Warning sign: Display a sign in a prominent position at each entrance to the site, warning that trees
and plantings are to be protected during the contract. Remove on completion.
Lettering: Road sign type sans serif letters, 100 mm high, in red on a white background, to AS 1744.
Trees to be retained
Describe species, location, etc., if not shown on the drawings. For evaluating damages to trees, refer to the draft Australian
standard DR 99307 Trees: Amenity Valuation. For tree surgery, refer to the Landscaping worksection.
Marking: Mark trees and shrubs to be retained using suitable non-injurious, easily visible and
removable means of identification.
Tags: 100 x 50 mm zincanneal tags, painted yellow and lettered to conform with the tree number on
the drawings. Secure tags to trees using loose galvanized steel wire bands.
Trees to be retained: >
e.g. “Trees which need not be removed for construction operations”. If trees to be retained are not shown on the drawings
describe them here, particularly those within the contractor’s site area.
Tree enclosures: Provide temporary protective enclosures or guards at the drip line.
Delete this paragraph if enclosures are not required, or the method of protecting trees is to be left to the contractor. Ideally the
enclosure should be at or beyond the drip line to minimise the possibility of damage to root areas.
Wire enclosures: Four strands of fencing wire, or plastic mesh barrier, supported on star pickets
spaced at not more than 4 m.
Mesh enclosures: F62 reinforcing mesh 1800 mm high wired to 2400 mm long star pickets, driven
600 mm into the ground, spaced 1800 mm apart at a minimum distance of 1 m from the tree trunk.

NATSPEC 8 [Insert date]


SITE PREPARATION SITE

Sheeting to excavations: Where excavations are to be made near trees, add continuous 900 mm high
corrugated galvanized steel sheeting, bedded 150 mm into the ground, wired to the enclosure.
Trees to be enclosed: >
If not shown on the drawings specify them here.
Type of enclosure: >
More robust methods of enclosure may be appropriate in some cases.
Work on trees: If it is proposed to perform work on trees, give notice and obtain instructions.
Removal: If a tree is damaged and repair work is considered impractical, or is attempted and fails, give
notice and obtain instructions.
Consider the implications of local government tree preservation orders and the normal requirements for approval before trees
can be removed.
Work near trees
Harmful materials: Keep the area within the dripline free of construction material and debris. Do not
place bulk materials and harmful materials under or near trees. Do not place spoil from excavations
against tree trunks. Prevent wind-blown materials such as cement from harming trees and plants.
Damage: Prevent damage to tree bark. Do not attach stays, guys and the like to trees.
Work under trees: Do not remove topsoil from, or add topsoil to, the area within the dripline of the
trees.
Excavation: If excavation is required near trees to be retained, give notice and obtain instructions.
Open up excavations under tree canopies for as short a period as possible.
Hand methods: Use hand methods to locate, expose and cleanly remove the roots on the line of
excavation. If it is necessary to excavate within the drip line, use hand methods such that root systems
are preserved intact and undamaged.
Roots: Do not cut tree roots exceeding 50 mm diameter. Where it is necessary to cut tree roots, use
means such that the cutting does not unduly disturb the remaining root system. Immediately after
cutting, apply a bituminous fungicidal sealant to the cut surface to prevent the incursion of rot or
disease.
Backfilling: Backfill to excavations around tree roots with a mixture consisting of three parts by volume
of topsoil and one part of well rotted compost with a neutral pH value, free from weed growth and
harmful materials. Place the backfill layers, each of 300 mm maximum depth, compacted to a dry
density similar to that of the original or surrounding soil. Do not backfill around tree trunks to a height
greater than 300 mm above the original ground surface. Immediately after backfilling, thoroughly water
the root zone surrounding the tree.
Compacted ground: Do not compact the ground under trees. If compaction occurs, give notice and
obtain instructions.
Watering: Water trees as necessary, including where roots are exposed at ambient temperature
> 35°C.

2.3 TREE PROTECTION


Warning sign
General: Display a sign in a prominent position at each entrance to the site, warning that trees and
plantings are to be protected during the contract. Remove on completion.
Lettering: Road sign type sans serif letters, 100 mm high, in red on a white background, to AS 1744.
Tree enclosures
General: Provide temporary protective enclosures or guards at the drip line.
Wire enclosures: Four strands of fencing wire, or plastic mesh barrier, supported on star pickets
spaced at not more than 4 m.
Mesh enclosures: F62 reinforcing mesh 1800 mm high wired to 2400 mm long star pickets, driven
600 mm into the ground, spaced 1800 mm apart at a minimum distance of 1 m from the tree trunk.
Sheeting to excavations: Where excavations are to be made near trees, add continuous 900 mm high
corrugated galvanized steel sheeting, bedded 150 mm into the ground, wired to the enclosure.
Trees to be enclosed: >
Type of enclosure: >

NATSPEC 9 [Insert date]


SITE PREPARATION SITE

2.4 EXISTING SERVICES


Marking
General: Before commencing earthworks, locate and mark existing underground services in the areas
which will be affected by the earthworks operations including clearing, excavating and trenching.
Excavation
General: Do not excavate by machine within 1 m of existing underground services.
DIAL 1100 BEFORE YOU DIG is a free service, from anywhere in Australia, of locating underground pipe and cables (possible
within two working days). See www.dialbeforeyoudig.com.au.

2.5 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


See AS ISO 14050 for definitions of fundamental concepts related to environmental management and BDP DES29 for a
checklist of environmental issues on major construction sites.
Dust protection
Provide dust-proof screens, bulkheads and covers to protect existing finishes and the immediate
environment from dust and debris.
Erosion control
General: Plan and carry out the work so as to avoid erosion, contamination, and sedimentation of the
site, surrounding areas, and drainage systems.
Permanent erosion control measures should be designed as part of the works. Temporary measures are the responsibility of the
contractor; however in special cases it may be necessary to specify particular requirements for some of the temporary measures
to be adopted.
Temporary erosion control measures
Staging: Stage operations (e.g. clearing, stripping).
Restoration: Progressively restore disturbed areas.
Drains: Provide temporary drains and catch drains.
Dispersal: Divert and disperse concentrated flows to points where the water can pass through the site
without damage.
Spreader banks or other structures: Disperse concentrated run-off.
Silt traps: Construct and maintain silt traps to prevent discharge of scoured material to downstream
areas.
Temporary grassing: Required.
Or other treatment to disturbed areas (e.g. contour ploughing).
Temporary fencing: Required.
Maintenance: After each rain inspect, clean, and repair if required, temporary erosion and sediment
control works.
Removal: Remove temporary erosion control measures when they are no longer required.
Dewatering
General: Keep groundworks free of water. Provide and maintain slopes, crowns and drains on
excavations and embankments to ensure free drainage. Place construction, including fill, masonry,
concrete and services, on ground from which free water has been removed. Prevent water flow over
freshly laid work.
Dewatering operations as necessary to keep the works free of surface water. These could include, where necessary, pumping
from excavations or external dewatering by deep wells or well points.
Dewatering system: >
Where a particular dewatering system is necessary for design reasons or as part of the permanent work, specify requirements
here or show on the drawings.

2.6 SITE CLEARING


Extent
Ensure that landscaped areas are shown as such on the drawings if they are to be cleared as specified. If site clearing is
sufficiently variable and extensive, consider making a special drawing.
General: Clear only the following site areas:

NATSPEC 10 [Insert date]


SITE PREPARATION SITE

- Areas to be occupied by works such as buildings, paving, excavation, regrading and landscaping.
- Other areas designated to be cleared.
Contractor’s site areas: If not included within the areas specified above, clear generally only to the
extent necessary for the performance of the works.
Clearing and grubbing
Clearing: Remove everything on or above the site surface, including rubbish, scrap, grass, vegetable
matter and organic debris, scrub, trees, timber, stumps, boulders and rubble.
Grubbing: Grub out stumps and roots over 75 mm diameter to a minimum depth of 500 mm below
subgrade under buildings, embankments or paving, or 300 mm below finished surface in unpaved
areas. Holes remaining after grubbing shall be backfilled with sand material to prevent ponding of
water. The material shall be compacted to the relative density of the existing adjacent ground material.
Clearing: and Grubbing: Will apply to most areas.
Old works: Remove old works, including slabs, foundations, pavings, drains and manholes found on
the surface.

2.7 DISPOSAL OF MATERIALS


Disposal
General: Remove cleared and grubbed material from the site and dispose of legally.
Surplus material: >
If cleared and grubbed material is to be disposed of other than by removal from the site specify here.
Mulch
Put cleared vegetation through a chipper. Reduce to pieces not larger than 75 x 50 x 15 mm and
stockpile for re-use as mulch.
Include if mulch can be reused on site. Exclude noxious weeds and material which it may not be possible to chip (e.g. ironbark).

NATSPEC 11 [Insert date]


EARTHWORK SITE

EARTHWORK

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to topsoil removal, excavation, filling and compaction.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• Demolition.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
• Site preparation.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection. For example:
• Gabions and retaining structures.
Worksection cross referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• Pavement base and subbase.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• Show earthwork levels, extent and slope of permanent/temporary batters and location of temporary/permanent retaining
structures required as part of the earthworks on the drawings.
• Approximate locations of unsuitable materials/contaminated materials identified in the geotechnical report should be shown
on the drawings.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: Provide earthwork surfaces for building, pavement and landscaping works that are as
follows:
- In conformance with the level tolerances specified.
- Have been tested by a NATA registered geotechnical testing authority.
- In conformance with the compaction requirements specified.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
>
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

NATSPEC 12 [Insert date]


EARTHWORK SITE

1.3 INTERPRETATION
Definitions
General: For the purposes of this worksection the definitions given below apply.
- Standard: To AS 1348.
The terms “subgrade”, “subbase”, “base course”, “intermediate course”, etc., are used in this worksection in accordance with the
definitions in AS 1348.
Add specific terms if needed. See AS 1348 and AS 2870.
- Description and classification of soils: To AS 1726.
- Bad ground: Ground unsuitable for the purposes of the works, including fill liable to subsidence,
ground containing cavities, faults or fissures, ground contaminated by harmful substances and
ground which is or becomes soft, wet or unstable.
- Base: One or more layers of material usually constituting the uppermost structural element of a
pavement and on which the surfacing may be placed, which may be composed of fine crushed rock,
natural gravel, broken stone, stabilised material, asphalt or Portland cement concrete.
- Discrepancy: A difference between contract information about the site and conditions encountered
on the site, including but not limited to discrepancies concerning the following:
. The nature or quantity of the material to be excavated or placed.
. Existing site levels.
. Services or other obstructions beneath the site surface.
- Line of influence: A line extending downward and outward from the bottom edge of a footing, slab or
pavement and defining the extent of foundation material having influence on the stability or support
of the footings, slab or pavement.
- Rock: Monolithic material with volume greater than 0.5 m3 which cannot be removed until broken up
either by explosives or by rippers or percussion tools.
Alternatively a different definition for rock may be given. Use definitions appropriate to the size of project and likely excavation
methods. A definition in general use in the locality may be appropriate. Another definition is given in AS 2870.
- Subbase: The material laid on the subgrade below the base either for the purpose of making up
additional pavement thickness required, to prevent intrusion of the subgrade into the base, or to
provide a working platform.
- Subgrade: The trimmed or prepared portion of the formation on which the pavement or slab is
constructed. Generally taken to relate to the upper line of the formation.
See AS 3798 clause 1.3.11, where “pavement” has a wider meaning.
Refer also to Records of measurement, below.
The Definitions subclause can be edited to suit the project or deleted if not required.

1.4 GEOTECHNICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SITE INVESTIGATION


Report
General: The geotechnical and environmental site investigation report provided is for information only.
The geotechnical information and information on contaminants given is information on the nature of
the ground at each tested part. It is not a complete description of conditions existing at or below
ground level.
Include the report in the tender documents, or inform tenderers where the report is available. If no geotechnical and
environmental site investigation has been carried out, delete the clause. See AS 1726. See also “Guidelines for the provision of
geotechnical information in construction contracts” published by the Institution of Engineers, Australia. On selective provision of
available data, see AS 3798 clause 3.3(b).
For potentially contaminated soil see ANZECC/NRMMC, the guide standards AS 4874, AS 4482.1 and AS 4482.2 and
BDP EDG GEN32. On contaminants, see AS 3798 clauses 2(x) and 4.2(b), AS 4482 Parts 1 and 2 and ANZECC/NRMMC.
AS 4964 provides laboratories with a method of qualitative identification of amosite, crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos in bulk
building materials and soils by polarised light microscopy and dispersion staining techniques.

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1.5 NOTICE
As found site conditions
General: If the following are encountered, give notice immediately and obtain instructions before
carrying out any further work in the affected area:
- Bad ground.
If bad ground is known but the extent is uncertain, consider including a provisional quantity for removal and replacement of
unsuitable material.
Procedures for dealing with rock and bad ground will depend on the conditions of contract.
- Discrepancies.
- Rock.
- Springs, seepages.
- Topsoil > 100 mm deep.

1.6 RECORDS OF MEASUREMENT


Notice that the items are ready for measurement is required to be given in Inspection. Once notice has been given the onus is
on the contract administrator to act so as to avoid delay, either by completing the measurement or by giving a direction to
proceed.
You may care to state that the contractor is not entitled to contract variation or extension of time for excavation in excess of that
required by the contract, including excavation below required depths, or additional excavation which the contractor may elect to
undertake to permit the use of certain constructional plant, and any consequent additional backfilling, compacting or testing.
Excavation and backfilling
Agreed quantities: If a schedule of rates applies, provisional quantities are specified, or there are
variations to the contract levels or dimensions of excavations, do not commence backfilling or place
permanent works in the excavation until the following have been agreed and recorded:
- Depths of excavations related to the datum.
- Final plan dimensions of excavations.
- Quantities of excavations in rock.
Method of measurement: To be by registered surveyor unless otherwise agreed.
If excavation or rock excavation is to be measured for payment purposes ensure that the method of measurement is specified,
and that the conditions for measurement and payment are defined in the contract. Method of measurement may be deleted here
if covered in the conditions of contract or preliminaries.
Rock
Level and class: If rock is to be measured for payment purposes, whether as extra over excavation of
material other than rock or for adjustment of provisional measurements, do not remove the rock until
the commencing levels and the classes of rock have been determined.
If rock is not to be paid for at a separate rate, delete or substitute a subclause such as the following:
“Rock excavation
Excavate the ground as found. No additional payment will be made for rock excavation.”

1.7 PROVISIONAL DEPTHS


Contract depths
General: The footing or pier depths shown on the drawings are provisional.
Use this clause only if there is uncertainty about the depths to attain designed bearing values.

1.8 EXPLOSIVES
General
General: Do not use explosives.
Or, if explosives are only permitted in particular locations specify the restrictions here. If there is any likelihood that the
contractor may be permitted to use explosives for removal of rock, state that approval is required and list the information
required in the submission for approval such as name of specialist subcontractor, type of explosives, protection and safety
measures. Refer to AS 2187.1 and AS 2187.2.

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1.9 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made of the following:
- Items to be measured as listed in Records of measurement.
- Areas to be cleared and/or stripped of topsoil.
- Areas stripped of topsoil.
- Excavation completed to contract levels or founding material.
- Proof roll subgrade prior to placing fill.
- Filling completed to contract levels.
- Stockpiled topsoil before spreading.
Add Hold points, if required.

1.10 TESTS
This worksection does not rely on statistical methods as outlined in AS 3798 Appendix D. The use of these methods is common
practice for large projects, e.g. major roadworks. See AS 3789 clause 5.1. For testing rock, see AS 4133. If the density test
locations and frequency given in this worksection do not apply, state the requirements here.
Geotechnical testing authority
General: Use a NATA registered geotechnical testing authority.
From AS 3798 clause B2. Or, give the name of a geotechnical testing authority here.
Level of responsibility to AS 3798 Appendix B:
>
i.e. Level 1, Level 2 or Level 3.
Compaction control tests
Compaction control tests: To AS 1289.5.4.1 or AS 1289.5.7.1.
Compaction control test frequency
2
From AS 3798 Table 8.1. Alter as required e.g. per 1000 m , per 1000 t, per load, or number of tests required. If frequency of
testing depends on location state the different requirements for each location. The required frequency may need adjustment on
large scale or concentrated operations e.g. filling of gullies, farm dams. Where specific recommendations for test frequency are
given in the geotechnical report for the site these should replace the AS 3798 outline listed below.
Standard: To AS 3798 Table 8.1.
Site area > 1500 m2: At least (whichever requires the most tests):
- 1 test per layer or 200 mm thickness per material type per 2500 m2.
- 1 test per 500 m3 distributed evenly throughout full depth and area.
- 3 tests per visit.
Site area 500 – 1500 m2: At least (whichever requires the most tests):
- 1 test per layer or 200 mm thickness per 1000 m2.
- 1 test per 200 m3 distributed evenly throughout full depth and area.
- 1 test per allotment per layer.
Site area < 500 m2: At least (whichever requires the most tests):
- 1 test per layer or 200 mm thickness per 500 m2.
- 1 test per 100 m3 distributed evenly throughout full depth and area.
- 3 tests per visit.
Confined operations: 1 test per 2 layers per 50 m2.
Imported fill tests
Imported fill: >
Consult the geotechnical and environmental engineer in relation to geotechnical and environmental tests required and the
frequency of these test and outline here. Delete where imported fill is not required.

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1.11 SUBMISSIONS
Design
Calculations: Submit calculations to show that proposed excavations and temporary supports,
including where applicable supports for adjacent structures, will be stable and safe.
Tests
Imported fill: Submit certification or test results which establish the compliance of imported fill with the
contract.
Compaction: Submit certification and/or test results in accordance with the specified level of
responsibility to AS 3798.
Materials
General: Submit details of materials proposed, including the following:
- Sources of imported fill.
Execution
General: Submit the methods and equipment proposed for the groundworks, including the following:
- Dewatering and groundwater control and disposal of surface water.
- Excavation methods, stages, clearances, batters and temporary supports.
- Stockpiles and borrow pits.
- Placing and compaction methods and stages.

1.12 TOLERANCES
Tolerances
Finish: Finish the surface to the required level, grade and shape within the following tolerances:
- Under building slabs and loadbearing elements: + 0, -25 mm.
- Pavement subgrades; + 0, - 40 mm.
- Batters: No steeper than the slope shown on the drawings. Flatter slopes shall not impact on
boundaries or required clearances to buildings, pavements or landscaping.
- Other ground surfaces: ± 50 mm, provided the area remains free draining and matches adjacent
construction where required. Provide smoothness as normally produced by a scraper blade.
AS 3798 clause 3.3(a)(v) refers to “standard of surface trim”. State any other tolerances on levels or dimensions. Particular
tolerances may be required for work prepared for separate or future contracts.

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 FILL MATERIALS


See AS 3798 Section 4.
Fill material generally
General: Inorganic, non-perishable material.
On terminology, see AS 3798 clause 3.3(a)(iv).
Sulfur content: Do not provide filling with sulfur content exceeding 0.5% within 500 mm of cement
bound elements (for example concrete structures or masonry) unless such elements are protected by
impermeable membranes or equivalent means.
Excluded materials:
- Organic soils.
- Materials contaminated through past site usage.
- Materials which contain substances which can be dissolved or leached out, or which undergo
volume change or loss of strength when disturbed and exposed to moisture.
- Silts or silt-like materials.
- Fill containing wood, metal, plastic, boulders or other deleterious material.
Re-use of material recovered from excavation
General: Re-use of excavated material: >

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“Permitted” or “Not permitted” based on advice from the geotechnical and environmental engineer. Excavated material may not
be suitable for reuse where it is contaminated or possesses problematic geotechnical properties.
Excluded areas: >
Where use of site excavated material is permitted, describe here any areas of contamination or unsuitable material which are
excluded from reuse or make reference to the drawings. Delete if not applicable.
Imported fill
Imported fill: Material complying with the following:
>
Consult the geotechnical and environmental engineer for specific requirements applicable to the site. Delete where no
importation of fill is required.

3 EXECUTION

3.1 REMOVAL OF TOPSOIL


General
From AS 3798 clause 6.1.5.
Extent: Areas to be cut and areas to be filled and areas to be occupied by structures, pavements,
embankments and the like.
Maximum depth: 100 mm.
The depth specified should be varied to suit the recommendations of the geotechnical report.

Re-use of removed topsoil


General: Re-use of removed topsoil: >
“Permitted’ or “Not permitted” based on available area for respreading and advice from environmental engineer in relation to
contamination.
Topsoil stockpiles
General: Stockpile site topsoil intended for re-use and imported topsoil where necessary. Establish
stockpiles to heights not exceeding 1.5 m. Provide adequate drainage and erosion protection. Do not
burn off or remove plant growth which may occur during storage. Do not allow traffic on stockpiles. If a
stockpile is to remain for more than four weeks, sow with temporary grass. Protect the topsoil
stockpiles from contamination by other excavated material, weeds and building debris.
Delete this subclause where reuse of topsoil is not permitted.
Disposal of excess topsoil
General: Remove excess topsoil from the site and dispose of legally.
Delete this subclause where all topsoil is being reused.

3.2 EXCAVATION
Ensure that the drawings give the information necessary to enable the contractor to perform the groundworks accurately. Show
the required finished surface levels of slabs, paving, filled or landscaped areas and the like, and show or specify the thickness of
the materials superimposed on the subgrade surface - slabs, slab bases, topsoil layers, and so on. It is the contractor’s
responsibility to make allowance for these, and for compaction or settlement, when determining the site surface levels and
profiles. See AS 3798 clauses 6.1.6 and 6.1.7.
Extent
Site surface: Excavate over the site to give correct levels and profiles as the basis for construction,
pavements, filling and landscaping. Make allowance for compaction or settlement.
Arrange levels and grading to prevent surface water flowing into or under habitable areas during storms.
Footings: Excavate for footings, pits, wells and shafts, to the required sizes and depths. Confirm that
bearing capacity is adequate.
Crawl space: Provide clear space under timber floor bearers.
Provide access to subfloor areas for inspection and maintenance. Timber floors require regular termite inspection. Where
services and drains run in subfloor areas access for inspection and maintenance must also be provided.
- Minimum clearance: 400 mm.

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Or 600 mm. May be specified here or shown on the drawings. Local regulations may apply.
Existing footings
If excavation is required below the line of influence of an existing footing, use methods including
(temporary) shoring or underpinning which maintain the support of the footing and ensure that the
structure and finishes supported by the footing are not damaged.
Proof rolling
Extent: Proof roll excavations for pavements, filling and non-spanning slabs on ground to determine
the extent of any bad ground.
Proof rolling method:
Refer to AS 3798. Consult geotechnical engineer.
- Roller type and size: >
e.g. “10 t (or 20 t) vibrating (or static) smooth drum”.
- Number of passes: >
- Settlement limit (mm): >
Rock excavation
General: Excavate the ground as found. No additional payment will be made for rock excavation.
Disposal of excess excavated material
General: Remove excess excavated material from the site and dispose of legally.
Include this subclause where volume of excavated material exceeds the fill required for the site. Where the fill is contaminated
consult the environmental engineer for advice in relation to classification of fill and disposal requirements.

3.3 SUBGRADES AFFECTED BY MOISTURE


General
General: Where the subgrade is unable to support construction equipment, or it is not possible to
compact the overlying pavement only because of a high moisture content, perform one or more of the
following:
- Allow the subgrade to dry until it will support equipment and allow compaction.
- Scarify the subgrade to a depth of 150 mm, work as necessary to accelerate drying, and recompact
when the moisture content is satisfactory.
- Excavate the wet material and remove to spoil, and backfill excavated areas.

3.4 BEARING SURFACES


General
General: Provide even plane bearing surfaces for loadbearing elements including footings. Step to
accommodate level changes. Make the steps to the appropriate courses if supporting masonry.
Show steps in footings on the drawings.
Deterioration
General: If the bearing surface deteriorates because of water or other cause, excavate further to a
sound surface before placing the loadbearing element.

3.5 REINSTATEMENT OF EXCAVATION


General
General: Where excavation exceeds the required depth, or deteriorates, reinstate to the correct depth,
level and bearing value.
Particular
General: Below or within the “line of influence” of footings, beams, or other structural elements:
Concrete of strength equal to the structural element, minimum 15 MPa.
Below slabs or pavements: Provide selected filling compacted to the specified density. In cut
subgrades if the over excavation is less than 100 mm, do not backfill, but make good by increasing the
thickness of the layer above. Backfill rock depressions and over excavation of subsoil drains using
coarse subsoil filter.

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3.6 SUPPORTING EXCAVATIONS


Removal of supports
General: Remove temporary supports progressively as backfilling proceeds.
Voids
General: Guard against the formation of voids outside sheeting or sheet piling if used. Fill and
compact voids to a dry density similar to that of the surrounding material.

3.7 ADJACENT STRUCTURES


Temporary supports
General: Provide supports to adjacent structures where necessary, sufficient to prevent damage
arising from the works.
Lateral supports: Provide lateral support using shoring.
Vertical supports: Provide vertical support where necessary using piling or underpinning or both.
Permanent supports
General: If permanent supports for adjacent structures are necessary and are not described, give
notice and obtain instructions.
Major work, if known in advance to be necessary, should usually be designed by the structural engineer and included as part of
the contract, in which case it should be shown on the drawings.
Encroachments
General: If encroachments from adjacent structures are encountered and are not shown on the
drawings, give notice and obtain instructions.
Line of influence
Angle from horizontal: >
The angle may be defined here or left for site determination.
Typical angles are 30° for granular material, 45° for stiff clay.

3.8 ROCK BOLTING


General
General: Provide proprietary high strength steel bars or tubes anchored into holes drilled in the rock
and tensioned against plates bearing on the rock face to provide temporary or permanent support for
the rock face.
Show rock bolting requirements, if any, on the drawings.
Protection
General: Protect permanent rock bolts by grouting the drilled hole with cement grout after tensioning
the rock bolt. Protect the bearing plate and the exposed portion of rock bolt and anchorage with a
protective coating or by embedment in concrete.

3.9 PREPARATION FOR FILLING


See AS 3798 clause 6.1.
General
General: Prepare the ground surface before placing fill (including topsoil fill), ground slabs or load
bearing elements. Shape to assist drainage. Remove materials which will inhibit or prevent satisfactory
placement of fill layers, loose material, debris and organic matter. Compact the ground exposed after
stripping or excavation in conformance with the Compaction schedule.
Benching
General: If fill is to be placed on a surface which slopes more than 1:4, bench the surface to form a
key for the fill. As each layer of fill is placed, cut the existing ground surface progressively to form a
series of horizontal steps > 1 m in width and > 100 mm deep. Recompact the excavated material as
part of the filling. Shape to provide free drainage.
See AS 3798 clause 6.1.6.
Under earth mounds
General: Cultivate the ground to a depth of 200 mm before mound formation.

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Under slabs, paving and embankments


General: Compact the ground to achieve the densities specified in the Compaction schedule. If
necessary loosen the ground to a depth of > 200 mm and adjust the moisture content before
compaction to a density consistent with subsequent filling.
Rock ledges
General: Remove overhanging rock ledges.

3.10 PLACING FILL


See AS 3798 clause 6.2.2.
AS 2870 and AS 3798 provide guidance on construction requirements and the specification of earthworks generally, including
filling and compaction. AS 2870 is cited in the BCA at clause F1.10, for damp-proofing under slabs on ground. AS 3798 clause
5.1 recommends placing material directly from cut to fill, to minimise problems with moisture content.
General
Layers: Place fill in near-horizontal layers of uniform thickness, deposited systematically across the fill
area.
Extent: Place and compact fill to the designated dimensions, levels, grades, and cross sections so that
the surface is always self draining.
Edges: At junctions of fill and existing surfaces, do not feather the edges.
Mix: Place fill in a uniform mixture.
Previous fill: Before placing subsequent fill layers, ensure that previously accepted layers still conform
to requirements, including moisture content.
Protection: Protect the works from damage due to compaction operations. Where necessary, limit the
size of compaction equipment or compact by hand. Commence compacting each layer at the structure
and proceed away from it.
Partially completed structures are vulnerable to damage during compaction.
Their protection is the contractor’s responsibility, but consider whether special precautions need to be taken.
Protective covering: Do not disturb or damage the protective covering of membranes during
backfilling.
Protective boarding for membranes is specified in the Waterproofing worksection.
Placing at structures
General: Place and compact fill in layers simultaneously on both sides of structures, culverts and
pipelines to avoid differential loading. Carefully place first layers of fill over the top of structures.
Concrete: Do not place fill against concrete until the concrete has been in place for 21 days unless the
structure is supported by struts or 85% of the design concrete strength is achieved.

3.11 COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR FILL AND SUBGRADE


See AS 3798 Section 5 for guidelines on compaction criteria for commercial and residential developments.
Testing to AS 1289 generally does not apply to use of ripped rock or coarse material as fill i.e. soils with more than 20% by
mass of particles coarser than 37.5 mm. See AS 3798 clauses 5.3 and 5.4. Where use of coarse fill material is proposed seek
geotechnical advice.
Density
General: Compact the subgrade and each layer of fill to the required depth and density, as a
systematic construction operation and to conform to the Compaction table. Shape surfaces to
provide drainage and prevent ponding.

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Compaction table
Location Cohesive soils. Cohesionless soils.
Minimum dry density Minimum density
ratio (standard index to AS 1289.5.6.1
compaction) to
AS 1289.5.1.1
Residential:
- Lot fill, house sites. 95 std 65
Commercial:
- Fills to support minor loadings incl. floor loadings 98 std 70
< 20 kPa and isolated pad or strip footings
< 100 kPa.
Pavements:
- Fill to support pavements 95 std 65
- Subgrade to 300 mm deep 98 std 80

Based on AS 3798 Table 5.1.


AS 1289 provides two standards of compaction for laboratory determination of maximum dry density. Method 5.1.1 specifies a
3
compactive effort of 596 kJ/m and the result is reported as “standard maximum dry density”. Method 5.2.1 specifies a
3
compactive effort of 2703 kJ/m and the result is reported as “modified maximum dry density”.
While standard maximum dry density is commonly used in building works, the modified maximum density is more often specified
for civil engineering works. The compactive effort required in the field to obtain a given dry density ratio using modified
maximum density is considerably more than it is using standard maximum dry density.
From AS 3798 clause 6.2.5.
Excavated and stripped ground surface: After excavation and/or stripping, these surfaces should also
be compacted in conformance with the Compaction table to a minium depth of 150 mm.
From AS 3798 Table 5.1 Note 7.
Maximum rock and lump size in layer after compaction: 2/3 compacted layer thickness.
AS 3798 clause 6.2.2.
Fill batter faces: Either compact separately, or overfill and cut back. Form roughened surfaces to the
faces.
Moisture content
General: Adjust the moisture content of fill during compaction within the range of 85 – 115% of the
optimum moisture content determined by AS 1289.5.1.1 or AS 1289.5.2.1 as appropriate, in order to
achieve the required density.
This worksection requires adjustment of the moisture content of filling at time of compaction to 85 – 115% of optimum. If
different or more particular requirements apply specify them here. If specifying moisture content in Compaction schedule
delete this subclause.

3.12 GRADING
External areas
General: Grade to give falls away from buildings, minimum 1:100.
Subfloor areas
General: Grade the ground surface under suspended floors to drain ground or surface water away
from buildings without ponding.

3.13 COMPLETION
Protection and repair
Protection: Protect from damage the trees and shrubs to be retained, including those beyond the site
area, both above and below ground.
Repair: Repair trees damaged during the work.
Temporary works
Tree enclosures: Remove temporary tree enclosures at completion.
Tree marking: Remove temporary marks and tags at completion.

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Temporary supports: Remove temporary supports to adjacent structures at completion.


Records
Certified records of measurement: Submit a certified copy of the agreed records of measurement.
Construction records
General: Submit the following:
- Geotechnical site visit record; and
- Earthworks summary report, or daily geotechnical reports.
Earthworks summary report, or daily geotechnical reports: Alternatives – select first for smaller projects, second for large
projects.
Content: At least the following:
From AS 3798 clause 3.4.
- The areas in which fill is placed.
- Levels after stripping.
- Location of any trees or large shrubs that may have been removed.
- Materials exposed after stripping and the criteria upon which the decision to cease stripping was
made.
- Levels after completion of the filling.
- Types of fill materials in various zones.
- Location and level of each compliance test, together with test results. State if a test is a retest of an
area which was previously rejected.
- Action taken where testing indicated that the specified criteria had not been met.
- Any areas where fill material or compaction was to be of a greater or lesser standard than
elsewhere on site.
Format: To AS 3798 Appendix C.
Modify as appropriate.

3.14 SITE RESTORATION


Requirement
General: Where existing ground surfaces are not required to be varied as part of the works, restore
them to the condition existing at the commencement of the contract.

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SERVICE TRENCHING

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to trenching for underground services.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• Site preparation for work near trees.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection. For example:
• This worksection does not include any particular laying and bedding requirements such as clearance under pipe collars,
mortar bedding and the like, and any special requirements for trench widths, depths, gradients.
Worksection cross referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• Hydraulic design and install.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: Provide trenching safe for workers and adjacent structures, and suitable for receiving
services and to be backfilled so as to have no adverse impact on following work or the completed
project.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
>
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.
• Hydraulic general requirements.
• Electrical general requirements.
• Mechanical general requirements.

1.3 DESIGN
Shoring and lining systems
Steel shoring and trench lining systems: To AS 4744.1.

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1.4 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made at the following stages:
- Service trenches excavated before laying the service.
- Services laid in trenches and ready for backfilling.
Add Hold points, if required.

1.5 TESTS
Density tests
Testing authority: Have density tests of pipe bedding and backfilling carried out by a Registered
testing authority.
Test methods:
- Field dry density: AS 1289.5.3.2 or AS 1289.5.3.5.
- Standard maximum dry density: AS 1289.5.1.1.
- Dry density ratio: AS 1289.5.4.1.
- Density index: AS 1289.5.6.1.

2 EXECUTION

2.1 EXCAVATING
Existing surfaces
General: Before excavating trenches, saw-cut existing concrete and bituminous surfaces on each side
of the trench to provide a straight even joint. Lift and store unit paving for later reinstatement.
Excavation
General: Excavate for underground services:
- To required lines and levels.
- Straight between personnel access ways, inspection points and junctions.
- With vertical sides and uniform grades.
Trench widths
General: Keep trench widths to the minimum consistent with the laying and bedding of the relevant
service and construction of personnel access ways and pits.
Trench depths
General: As required by the relevant service and its bedding method.
Notice: If excavation is necessary below the zone of influence of the underside of adjacent footings,
give notice, and provide support for the footings as instructed.
Obstructions
General: Clear trenches of sharp projections. Cut back roots encountered in trenches to at least
600 mm clear of services. Remove other obstructions including stumps and boulders which may
interfere with services or bedding.
See also Work near trees in the Site preparation worksection, regarding cutting of roots. If Site preparation is not included in
the project specification import the clause here.

Dewatering
General: Keep trenches free of water. Place bedding material, services and backfilling on firm ground
free of surface water.
Excess excavation
General: If trench excavation exceeds the correct depth, reinstate to the correct depth and bearing
value using compacted bedding material or sand stabilised with 1 part of cement to 20 parts of sand
by weight.

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2.2 BORING
Subcontractor
General: If under road boring is required in lieu of trenches, engage a suitably qualified subcontractor
to do the work.
Process
General: Ensure a tight fit to the service pipes. If voids are encountered, fill by pressure grouting.

2.3 BACKFILLING
General
General: Backfill service trenches as soon as possible after the service has been laid and bedded, if
possible on the same working day. Place the backfill in layers ≤ 150 mm thick and compact to the
nominated density which applies to the location of the trenches as shown on the drawings or in
conformance with the Backfill density schedule.
Backfill density schedule
Density test Test sample Location
method frequency
A B C

Ensure that the required densities are nominated in the drawings or nominate them here.
Marking services
Underground marking tape: To AS/NZS 2648.1.
Backfill material
General: General fill with no stones greater than 25 mm occurring within 150 mm of the service, or
other materials as required for particular services or locations. Well graded, inorganic, non-perishable
material, maximum size 75 mm, plasticity index ≤ 55%.
Under roads and paved areas and within 4 m of building: Coarse sand, controlled low strength
material or fine crushed rock.
In topsoil areas: Complete the backfilling with topsoil for at least the top 100 mm.
In reactive clay: In sites classified M, M-D, H, H-D or E to AS 2870, reuse excavated site material at a
moisture content within ± 1% of that of the adjoining in situ clay.

2.4 REINSTATEMENT OF SURFACES


General
General: Reinstate existing surfaces removed or disturbed by trench excavations to match existing
and adjacent work.
Lawn areas
General: Provide 150 mm of loam and resow the lawn over the trench and other disturbed areas.
Paving and roads
General: Reinstate to match adjacent work, paved surfaces and assets disturbed or removed during
excavation of trenching.
Concrete surfaces
General: Reinstate concrete surfaces to the original level. If required, provide steel reinforcement with
dowels into the adjacent concrete.
Bituminous surfaces
General: Provide crushed rock base and subbase to match the existing pavement. Prime coat the
edges of the existing surfacing with bitumen. Lay and compact hot-mix asphalt so that the edges are
flush and the centre is cambered 10 mm above the existing pavement. If hot pre-mix is not available,
cold pre-mix may be used.
Minimum asphalt thickness: 50 mm or the adjacent pavement thickness, whichever is thicker.

NATSPEC 25 [Insert date]


SERVICE TRENCHING SITE

Segmental paving
General: Provide sand bedding and compacted crushed rock base, if required to match the existing
construction. Reinstate the paving units.

NATSPEC 26 [Insert date]


STORMWATER – SITE SITE

STORMWATER – SITE

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to stormwater drainage principally associated with pavements.
This template overlaps with Stormwater – building and the latter should be used for internal stormwater piping as roof water and
for simple external systems. Both may be used on a project according to the division of professional and/or contracting
responsibility.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• Stormwater – buildings.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection. For example:
• Stormwater detention.
Worksection cross referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• You should detail the stormwater system on the drawings including the point of connection to the Network Utility Operator
mains.
• Typical issues to be considered in packaging include:
. - Connection to Network Utility Operator services.
. - Drains (underlay, surrounds).
. - If part of the stormwater work is detained by a hydraulic consultant under Stormwater – building consider the means
of demarcation (e.g. 1 m from the building).
• Substantial cable and pipe ducts for other services may require connection to the stormwater system. If so, coordinate
work.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: Provide stormwater installation.
If this worksection is used in conjunction with Stormwater – building you may need to define what part of the work this
worksection covers to and what Stormwater – building covers.
Selections: Conform to the Selections.
Design
If the contractor is to design part of the system include details of the design responsibility here. For example specify only the
minimum requirements, if any, and arrange for the contractor to supply the additional information needed to specify the system.
See also Hydraulic design and install.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.

NATSPEC 27 [Insert date]


STORMWATER – SITE SITE

The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
>
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.
Delete worksections if they are not relevant (e.g. Hydraulic pumps).
The Hydraulic general requirements worksection should not be deleted as it contains material on which this worksection
depends.

1.3 INTERPRETATION
Definitions
General: For the purposes of this worksection the definitions given below apply.
- Pipe surround: Includes pipe overlay, pipe side support, side zone and haunch zone.
The Definitions subclause can be edited to suit the project or deleted if not required.

1.4 STANDARDS
Stormwater drainage
Standard: To AS/NZS 3500.3.
AS/NZS 3500.3 is a comprehensive specification for the supply, installation and testing of stormwater drains. It may be relied
upon subject to the particular requirements, if any, of the Network Utility Operator and of the project. AS 3500.3 also covers
scope and performance requirements.

1.5 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made of the following:
- Excavated surfaces prior to placing pipe bedding material.
- Formwork and reinforcement prior to placing cast in situ concrete.
- Pipe joints prior to covering.
- Placing of cast in situ concrete.
- Upon completion.
Add or delete as required. Hold points, if required, should be inserted here.

1.6 SUBMISSIONS
Samples
General: Submit samples of the following:
- Each type of imported pipe bedding material.
- Each type of filter material.
If samples are to be tested, the size is determined by the type of test. AS 1141.0 lists the aggregate tests.
Products – documentation
Conformance: Produce documentary evidence that the pipes conform to the requirements of this
worksection.

NATSPEC 28 [Insert date]


STORMWATER – SITE SITE

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 MATERIALS
Concrete and mortar
Concrete: To AS 1379.
- Grade: N20.
Portland cement: To AS 3972.
- Type: GP.
Steel reinforcement: To AS/NZS 4671.
Joints
Solvent cement and priming fluid: To AS/NZS 3879.
Pipe and fittings
Fibre reinforced cement (FRC): To AS 4139.
- < 450 mm diameter: To be pre-socketed at one end with a factory fitted Adcol coupling.
- > 450 mm diameter: To have a purpose machined internal spigot and socket system within the pipe
wall.
Glass-reinforced polyester (GRP): To AS 3571.
Manhole covers and frames: To AS 1830 and AS 1831.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC): To AS 1254, AS/NZS 1260, AS 1273.
Polyethylene (PE): To AS/NZS 4129, AS/NZS 4130 or ISO 8770, AS 2033.
Precast concrete: To AS 4058.
Rubber ring joints/elastomeric seals: To AS 1646.
Subsoil: To AS 2439.1.
Vitrified clay or ceramic: To AS 1741.
Bedding material
General: Bedding material for the bed and haunch zones shall consist of a granular material having a
grading, determined by AS 1141.
Conformance: Comply with the Bedding material grading table.
Bedding material grading schedule
Sieve size (mm) Weight passing %
Bed and haunch Side zones
75.0 - 100
19.0 100 -
9.5 - 50-100
2.36 50-100 30-100
0.60 20-90 15-50
0.30 10-60 -
0.15 0-25 -
0.075 0-10 0-25

NATSPEC 29 [Insert date]


STORMWATER – SITE SITE

3 EXECUTION

See the Commentary for more information on surface and subsoil drainage systems

3.1 TOLERANCES
General
General: Conform to the Pipeline tolerances table. These tolerances are conditional on falls to
outlets being maintained and no part of a pipeline being at less than the designated gradient.
Pipeline tolerances table
Permissible angular deviation Permissible displacement from
from alignment alignment
Horizontal 1 in 300 15 mm
Vertical 1 in 500 5 mm

These are fair and reasonable tolerances. But delete if you do not intend to enforce them or have you own objective or
subjective standards which you prefer to rely on.

3.2 STORMWATER DRAINS


Location
General: Provide stormwater drains to connect downpipes, surface drains, subsoil drains and drainage
pits to the outlet point or point of connection. Make sure that location of piping will not interfere with
other services and building elements not yet installed or built. Subject to the preceding and
documented layouts, follow the most direct route with the least number of changes in direction.
Downpipe connections: Turn up branch pipelines with bends to meet the downpipe, finishing 50 mm
(nominal) above finished ground or pavement level. Seal joints between downpipes and drains.
Laying
General: Lay in straight lines between changes in direction or grade with socket end placed upstream.
If other pipes are adjacent, set each pipe true to line and complete each joint before laying the next
pipe. If work is not continuous cap open ends to prevent entry of foreign matter.
Bedding
General: Grade the underlay evenly to the gradient of the pipeline.
Standard: In accordance with AS 3725 and AS 3725 Supplement 1.
Bedding type: >
U, H1, H2, H3, HS1, HS2, HS3 in accordance with AS 3725. Alternatively specify the bedding type on the drawings.
Layers: All material shall be compacted in layers not exceeding 150 mm compacted thickness.
Lifting holes
General: Lifting holes in all pipes shall be sealed with plastic preformed plugs or 3:1 sand:cement
mortar, before the commencement of backfilling.
Trench backfill
General: The remainder of the trench to the underside of the subgrade shall be backfilled with fill
material in accordance with the Earthwork worksection.
Anchor blocks
General: If necessary to restrain lateral and axial movement of the stormwater pipes provide anchor
blocks at junctions and changes of grade or direction.
Encasement
General: Conform to the Stormwater pipeline schedule.
Location: Encase the pipeline in concrete at least 150 mm above and below the pipe, and 150 mm
each side or the width of the trench, whichever is the greater.
Concrete: Grade N20 to AS 1379.
State where encasement is required in the Stormwater pipeline schedule or show extent on the drawings. Delete the
subclause if concrete encasement is not required.

NATSPEC 30 [Insert date]


STORMWATER – SITE SITE

3.3 SUBSOIL DRAINS


Preferably show the pipework, pipe surround and filter fabric (if any) on the drawings. Alternatively, specify the requirements in
the Subsoil pipeline schedule. Do not duplicate.
General
General: Provide subsoil drains to intercept groundwater seepage and prevent water build-up behind
walls and under floors and pavements. Connect subsoil drains to surface drains or to the stormwater
drainage system as applicable. Conform to the Subsoil pipeline schedule.
Trench width: ≥ 450 mm.
Pipe depth: Provide the following minimum clear depths, measured to the crown of the pipe, where the
pipe passes below the following elements:
- 100 mm below subgrade level of the pavement, kerb or channel.
- 100 mm below the average gradient of the bottom of footings.
- 450 mm below the finished surface of unpaved ground.
This text may not suit the project requirements. See AS/NZS 3500.3 Section 7. Select the pipe and surround to suit the material
being protected or retained and the permeability required.
Jointing
General: At junctions of subsoil pipes provide tees, couplings or adaptors to AS 2439.1.
Pipe underlay
General: Grade the trench floor evenly to the gradient of the pipeline. If the trench floor is rock, correct
any irregularities with compacted bedding material. Bed piping on a continuous underlay of bedding
material, at least 75 mm thick after compaction. Lay the pipe with one line of perforations at the
bottom.
Chases: If necessary, form chases to prevent projections such as sockets and flanges from bearing on
the trench bottom or underlay.
This text may not suit the project requirements.
See AS/NZS 3500.3 Figures 6.1 and 7.1. Pipe bedding is specified in AS/NZS 3500.3 clause 7.4.3.
For other than minor works, if bedding requirements are not shown on the drawings, consult the engineer and specify the
bedding for each application (pipe type and trench condition) consistent with assumptions made in the design.
Pipe surrounds
General: Place the material in the pipe surround in layers ≤ 200 mm loose thickness, and compact
without damaging or displacing the piping.
Depth of overlay:
- To the underside of the bases of overlying structures such as pavements, slabs and channels.
- To within 150 mm of the finished surface of unpaved or landscaped areas.
For material, see AS/NZS 3500.3 clause 7.3.6. If the pipe surround is not shown on the drawings, specify it here.
Filter fabric
See the Commentary for more information.
General: Provide polymeric fabric formed from plastic yarn composed of at least 85% by weight
propylene, ethylene, amide or vinyledenechloride, and containing stabilisers or inhibitors which
provide resistance to deterioration due to ultraviolet light.
Consider including the type: e.g. woven or non woven. Be clear also about whether trench is to be partly filled with aggregate
and over wrapped by filter fabric.
Marking: To AS 3705.
Protection: Provide heavy duty protective covering. Store clear of the ground and out of direct sunlight.
During installation do not expose the filter fabric to sunlight for more than 14 days.
Filter socks
General: Provide polyester permeable socks capable of retaining particles of 0.25 mm size. Securely
fit or join the sock at each joint.

3.4 PITS
See the Commentary for more information.

NATSPEC 31 [Insert date]


STORMWATER – SITE SITE

Finish to exposed surfaces


General: Provide a smooth, seamless finish, using steel trowelled render or concrete cast in steel
forms.
Corners: Cove or splay internal corners.
Metal access covers and grates
Standard: To AS 3996.
Cover levels: Top of cover or grate, including frame:
- In paved areas: Flush with the paving surface.
- In landscaped areas: 25 mm above finished surface.
- Gratings taking surface water runoff: Locate to receive runoff without ponding.

3.5 TESTING
Pre-completion tests
General: Before backfilling or concealing, carry out the following tests:
- Site stormwater drains and main internal drains: Air or water pressure test to AS 3500.3 Section 10.
Leaks: If leaks are found, rectify and re-test.

3.6 COMPLETION
Cleaning
General: Clean and flush the whole installation.

4 SELECTIONS

4.1 STORMWATER
Stormwater pipeline schedule
Type or location
A B C
Pipe material and nominal size
Class
Jointing
Bedding
Pipe support
Concrete encasement

Notes on the Stormwater pipeline schedule.


Type or location: Preferably show the type and size of stormwater pipelines and jointing and bedding requirements on the
drawings. Alternatively, requirements not shown on the drawings or specified in AS/NZS 3500.3 or the Template may be
specified here.
See AS/NZS 3500.3 Section 2 for types of materials and limitations on the use of each material for stormwater installations i.e.
AS 2032 (for flexible pipes as defined) which allows the use of various bedding materials subject to approval, but does not
specify required densities. Consult with relevant authorities about other restrictions on the use of particular materials.
List all locations or functions for which there is a different type, class or size of pipe.
Pipe material: Class:, and Jointing: Specify the material, including load and size class or grade, and jointing (e.g. for concrete
pipes, rubber ring) by reference to the appropriate Australian standard or by proprietary name. Pipe standards include
AS/NZS 1254, AS/NZS 1260, AS 1281, AS 1741, AS 4058 and AS 4139. See, for example, Appendix B to AS 4058, for items to
be specified.
Concrete encasement: Nominate locations where encasement is required e.g. Required, Not required. If no encasement is
required or extent is shown on the drawings, delete row from table.

NATSPEC 32 [Insert date]


STORMWATER – SITE SITE

Pipe bedding schedule


Type or location
A B C
Bedding application
Bedding zone
Material and grading
Required density

Notes on the Pipe bedding schedule.


Bedding application: Use a mark number (1, 2, 3 etc.) or describe the pipe and trench condition.
Bedding zone: e.g. underlay, haunch, side, overlay. See AS/NZS 3500.3 Figure 7.1 and clause 7.3.6.
Material and grading: Specify locally available materials.
Required density: Specify the required dry density ratio or density index.
Lined surface drain schedule
Type or location
A B C
Lining material
Size (mm)
Grating

Notes on the Lined surface drain schedule.


Lining material: Insert lining material and, if appropriate, its class.
Subsoil pipeline schedule
Type or location
A B C
Trench depth (mm)
Pipe size (nominal)
Pipe type
Pipe class
Other requirements

Notes on the Subsoil pipeline schedule.


Pipe type: and Pipe class: e.g. Type 1 corrugated pipe class 200 to AS 2439.1. AS/NZS 3500.3 clause 2.7 specifies plastic pipe
to AS 2439.1 which is a performance specification covering both corrugated (Type 1) and smooth wall (Type 2) pipe. It classifies
the pipe by strength class and allows use of any suitable plastic material. Other types of porous pipe (terra cotta, concrete, etc.)
may be more suitable in some locations.
Pit schedule
Type or location
A B C
Size (mm)
Cover type
Remarks

NATSPEC 33 [Insert date]


LANDSCAPE – WALLING SITE

LANDSCAPE – WALLING

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to retaining and free standing walls up to 750 mm high.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. See for example:
• Site preparation.
• Earthwork for excavation and filling.
• Landscape – fences and barriers for lightweight fences and barriers.
• Landscape – soils for soils.
• Landscape – soft surfaces for grassed surfaces.
• Landscape – plants for plants and planting.
• Trees supply for the supply of new trees.
• Irrigation for irrigation.
• Landscape – furniture and fixtures for installed equipment associated with landscaped works.
• Segmental pavers – mortar bed for external stone, ceramic and cementitious paving.
• Segmental pavers – sand bed for external unit paving.
• Concrete formwork, Concrete reinforcement and Concrete in situ for footings and other concrete structures.
• Brick and block construction for masonry walls.
• Tensioned membrane structures for shade structures.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection.
Worksection cross-referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• This worksection relies on fully detailed landscape drawings including location and type of walls, dimensions, pattern or
bond and size of units.
• Retaining walls over 750 mm high. Obtain structural engineering advice. See also the guidance given in Clay Brick and
Paver Institute Technical Notes 21A and 21B.
• Import the appropriate building specification worksections for landscape structures.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: Provide for walls of ≤ 750 mm in height:
- Complete for their function.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.

NATSPEC 34 [Insert date]


LANDSCAPE – WALLING SITE

The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
- Termite control management for protection of timber elements from termite attack.
- Timber finishes and treatment for preservative treatment.
- Concrete formwork, Concrete reinforcement and Concrete in situ for footings and other concrete
structures.
- Brick and block construction for masonry walls.
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes, do not repeat them here.). You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

1.3 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so inspection may be made of the following:
- Setting out before commencement of construction.
- Filter fabric and subsurface drainage in place before backfilling.
Hold points, if required, should be inserted here.

1.4 SUBMISSIONS
Samples
Submit samples as follows: >
Insert samples required such as masonry units, timber units, the shade structure fabric.

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 TIMBER
Hazard class
General: As defined in AS 1604.1.
Site hazard class: >
Select the appropriate hazard class. AS 1604 1 identifies 6 hazard classes (H1 – H6).Table
Hardwood
General: To AS 2796.1 Section 2.
- Grade: To AS 2796.2: >
AS 2796.2 specifies Grades in Appendix A.
For structural purposes: To AS 2082.
Durability class: To AS 1720.2.
- Class: >
Nominate Durability class 1 unless a service life of less than 25 years is appropriate. Alternatively, using Hazard class, nominate
a preservative treatment.
Softwood
General: To AS 4785.1 Section 2.
- Grade: To AS 4785.2: >
Seasoned cypress pine: To AS 1810 Section 2.
- Grade: >

NATSPEC 35 [Insert date]


LANDSCAPE – WALLING SITE

AS 1810 specifies, Grades 1 and 2, in descending order, in Appendix A,


For structural purposes: To AS 2858.
Preservative treatment: Provide only timbers with preservative treatment appropriate to the Hazard
class.
Cut surfaces: Provide supplementary preservative treatment to all cut and damaged surfaces.

2.2 STEEL
Steel tubes
Posts, rails, stays: To AS 1163.
- Grade: C350L0.
Posts are available shop painted but may be site painted.

Wire
Chainwire, cable wire, tie wire and barbed wire: To AS 2423.
AS 2423 covers fencing wire, wire netting and chainwire and requires that all products for fencing be protected against corrosion
by application of a metallic coating during manufacture, optionally overlaid with an organic coating. See AS 2423 clause 1.3.13.
Coating: >
Organic coatings include PVC (black or green), PE (polyethylene or polythene), plastic and powder. Barbed wire may be
supplied with a metallic coating or with a plastic or a thin organic coating. See AS 2423 clause 3.3.7.

2.3 CONCRETE
General
Standard: To AS 1379.
Exposure classification: To AS 3600 Table 4.3.
Grade: Where there are cast in metal items:
- Exposure classification:
. A1, A2: N25.
. B1: N32.
. B2, C: N40.
. Otherwise: N20.
For Engineer designed concrete structures delete this clause and provide appropriate concrete worksections from Building
Standard or Basic packages.

2.4 DRY STONE WALLS


Preferably show location, wall dimensions (height, thickness), pattern or bond, stone sizes and shapes, coursing, copings, face
finish, etc., on the drawings.

Walling stone
Weathered stone is more expensive than quarried, and generally not as readily available.
Natural stone: Stone of uniform quality, sound and free from defects liable to affect its strength,
appearance or durability.
Field stone: Local weathered uncut random sized natural stones.
Quarried stone: Cut or uncut random or regular size stone.
Source of supply: >
e.g. “Boulders recovered from excavations”.
Minimum unit size (mm): >
Dimensions, volume, or both.

2.5 SLEEPER WALLS


Preferably show location, wall dimensions and other relevant defaults on the drawings.
Sleepers
General: To AS 3818.2.

NATSPEC 36 [Insert date]


LANDSCAPE – WALLING SITE

Hardwood: Sound durability class or preservative treated hardwood railway sleepers.


Softwood: Sound preservative-treated softwood sleepers.
Source of supply: >

2.6 CRIB WALLS


General
Type: Proprietary system of interlocking precast concrete or preservative treated timber cribs with
selected backfill placed and compacted progressively with the crib to form a retaining wall.
Product: >

2.7 GABIONS
General
Type: Proprietary system of rock filled wire baskets.
Product: >

2.8 EARTH REINFORCEMENT


General
Type: Proprietary system of galvanized steel strips or steel mesh strips placed in layers with
compacted selected fill and connected to precast concrete facing panels to form vertical retaining
walls. Provide the necessary accessories including levelling pad, bearing pads, and joint fillers or
covers to keep the selected fill material out of the panel joints.
Product: >

2.9 FILTER FABRIC


Consult manufacturers for information about available fabrics, including their properties and recommended applications. See
AS 3704 for a glossary of terms used for geotextiles.
General
Type: Polymeric fabric formed from a plastic yarn composed of at least 85% by weight of propylene,
ethylene, amide or vinyledenechloride and containing stabilisers or inhibitors to make the filaments
resistant to deterioration due to ultraviolet light.
Identification and marking: To AS 3705.
Product: >
Location: >
Protection
General: Provide heavy duty protective covering. Store clear of the ground and out of direct sunlight.
During installation do not expose the filter fabric to sunlight for more than 14 days.

3 EXECUTION

3.1 GENERAL
Set out
General: Set out the positions of walls and furniture and mark the positions of furniture.
Clearing
Extent: Except trees or shrubs to be retained, clear vegetation within 1 m of the landscape walls. Grub
out stumps and roots of removed trees or shrubs and trim the grass to ground level, but do not remove
the topsoil.
Excavation
Extent: Excavate for foundations and footings.

3.2 DRY STONE WALLS


Construction
Generally: Select the stones for their locations and lay them in the wall with the minimum of
stonecutting as follows:

NATSPEC 37 [Insert date]


LANDSCAPE – WALLING SITE

- Each stone is stable, non-rocking, and firmly interlocked with its neighbours without mortar.
- The wall face shows reasonably regular, flat and vertical stone faces.
- Vertical joints or perpends between stones are spanned by the next stone above.
- Stones are laid generally as through stones whenever possible.
- At least 50% of footings, 30% of wall stones, and all coping stones are laid as through stones.
Pattern or bond: >
e.g. “ Random rubble”, “Squared rubble”, “Rubble brought to courses”. Preferably show typical pattern on elevations.
Face finish: >
e.g. “Natural weathered face”, “Quarry faced”.
Footings: Select the largest, flattest and most regular stones for footings, and set them one third of
their depth into the ground.
Copings: Select stones of reasonably uniform size and finish the top of the wall to a level line.
Retaining walls
Construction: Where dry stone walls act as retaining walls, construct the stonework to be free draining
through the wall. Batter back the wall face 50 – 70 mm for every 300 mm in height. Cap the top of the
wall. Backfill progressively, with a layer at least 300 mm thick of porous material, such as coarse
aggregate or crushed rock in the size range 20 – 40 mm.
Minimum thickness: 450 mm.
Wall face batter: >
Rip-rap retaining walls
Construction: Construct as dry stone retaining walls with large random sized boulders recovered from
excavations, to form gravity walls retaining, and supported by, embankments. Place boulders with
large face down and stepped back from boulders below.

3.3 SLEEPER WALLS


Construction
Wall: Erect sleeper posts at 2 m centres, buried one third. Brace at half height of wall with sleepers
returned into embankment, spiked to posts. Lay sleepers in stretcher bond behind the verticals and
securely spike together at joints and at 2 m centres. Back with hessian or geotextile and place a
100 mm draining layer of coarse sand or fine gravel between the fabric and backfill.
Backing: Backfill to ground level with compacted fine crushed rock, gravels or cement stabilised
rammed earth.

3.4 CRIB WALLS


Construction
Construction: Construct walls in conformance with the manufacturer’s written requirements.
Specify and detail to the recommendations of the product supplier.

3.5 GABIONS
Assembly
Construction: Assemble the baskets and join them together by wiring along edges both horizontally
and vertically before placing the rock fill. Fix the top of the basket by wiring to both the sides and the
diaphragms.

3.6 EARTH REINFORCEMENT


Construction
Construction: Construct walls in conformance with the manufacturer’s written requirements.
Specify and detail to the recommendations of the product supplier.

NATSPEC 38 [Insert date]


LANDSCAPE – FENCES AND BARRIERS SITE

LANDSCAPE – FENCES AND BARRIERS

There is a Product Partner for this worksection. Click the logo to be redirected to their page.
Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to basic fencing including picket and paling (plain paling and lap and cap) fencing, generally for
domestic use; chainwire and welded mesh fencing for industrial, commercial and institutional use; and some types of vehicle
barriers.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. See for example:
• Site preparation.
• Earthwork for excavation and filling.
• Landscape – walling for walls under 750 mm in height.
• Landscape – soils for soils.
• Landscape – soft surfaces for grassed surfaces.
• Landscape – plants for plants and planting.
• Trees supply for the supply of new trees.
• Irrigation for irrigation.
• Landscape – furniture and fixtures for installed equipment associated with landscaped works.
• Segmental pavers – mortar bed for external stone, ceramic and cementitious paving.
• Segmental pavers – sand bed for external unit paving.
• Concrete formwork, Concrete reinforcement and Concrete in situ for footings and other concrete structures.
• Brick and block construction for masonry walls.
• Tensioned membrane structures for shade structures.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection. For example:
• Brush fencing. Brush fencing reportedly relies on brush removed from vulnerable scrubland. Such harvesting may result in
environmental degradation such as erosion.
• Post and rail and post and wire agricultural fencing.
• Tubular fencing, available with a variety of tube patterns and decorative features which can be specified as a proprietary
item.
• Roll formed steel panel fencing which can be specified as a proprietary item.
• Electric fences: For electric fences, see AS 3014 and for electric security fences, see AS 3016.
• Temporary fences (e.g. chainwire fencing) for site security, if a requirement of the principal, may be specified here and
cross referenced by the Preliminaries. A full description in the Preliminaries is probably better.
• Termite management of fences and susceptible to attack.
Worksection cross-referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• Retaining walls over 750 mm high. Obtain structural engineering advice. See also the guidance given in Clay Brick and
Paver Institute Technical Notes 21A and 21B.
• It is likely that there will be local variations on the practice specified here. Check with fencing contractors in your area and
amend the specification material as necessary.

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LANDSCAPE – FENCES AND BARRIERS SITE

• Show on the drawings the location of the fence(s) and the size and position of any gates. Also show or specify the height of
the fence and its relationship to finished ground and any special footing requirements. For example, the default
specification for timber fencing is earth footings. Indicate if and where concrete footings are required.
• If your project has no fencing as such, export separate items from this worksections to other worksections, as required e.g.
bollards, wheel stops and chainwire barriers to Metal fixtures.
• Import the appropriate building specification worksections for landscape structures.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: Provide fences and barrier systems:
- Complete for their function.
- Conforming to the detail and location drawings.
- Firmly fixed in position.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
>
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes, do not repeat them here.). You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work such as:
• Termite management for protection of timber elements from termite attack.
• Timber finishes and treatment for preservative treatment.

1.3 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so inspection may be made of the following:
- Setout prior to construction.
- Footings prior to pouring concrete.
Hold points, if required, should be inserted here.

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 TIMBER
Posts and rails
Hardwood: To AS 2082.
Softwood: To AS 2858.
Delete references to the standards if you are prepared to accept local industry practice or prefer to use locally accepted terms.
A preservative treated radiata pine fence will almost certainly be a more economic proposition compared with hardwood fencing.
AS 2082 and AS 2858 apply, respectively, to hardwoods and softwoods for structural purposes. Stainless steel mesh “boots”
can be used to termite-proof posts in the ground.

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Pickets and palings


Hardwood: To AS 2796.1, Section 8.
- Grade to AS 2796.2: >
AS 2796.2 specifies Select, Medium feature, High feature and Parquet clear Grades in Appendix A.
Softwood: To AS 4785.1, Section 7.
- Grade: To AS 4785.2: >
Seasoned cypress pine: To AS 1810, Section 5.
- Grade: >
AS 1810 specifies, Grades 1 and 2, in descending order, in Appendix A.

2.2 STEEL
Steel tubes
Posts, rails, stays and pickets: To AS 1163.
- Grade: C350L0.
Fence posts are available shop painted but may be site painted.

Wire
Chainwire, cable wire, tie wire and barbed wire: To AS 2423.
AS 2423 covers fencing wire, barbed wire, wire netting and chainwire and requires that all products for fencing be protected
against corrosion by application of a metallic coating during manufacture, optionally overlaid with an organic coating. AS 2423
clause 1.3.13 defines organic coatings.
Coating: >
Organic coatings include PVC (black or green), PE (polyethylene or polythene), plastic and powder. Barbed wire may be
supplied with a metallic coating or with a plastic or a thin organic coating. AS 2423 clause 3.3.7 deals with the topic.

2.3 CONCRETE
General
Standard: To AS 1379 Grade N20.

2.4 VEHICLE BARRIERS


Log barriers
Material: Sawn hardwood, or preservative-treated radiata posts and rails to AS 1604.1.
Size: Diameter range 125 – 150 mm.
Precast concrete wheel stops
Material: Precast concrete units with predrilled holes located 300 mm from each end for fixing to
ground surface.
Size: 2000 x 150 x 100 mm high.
Steel tube bollards
Type: Bollards fabricated from heavy steel tube, to minimum nominal size DN 100, to AS 1074. Seal
free ends with fabricated end caps, spot welded and ground smooth.
Finish: Galvanize after fabrication.

3 EXECUTION

3.1 CONSTRUCTION GENERALLY


Set out
General: Set out the fence line and mark the positions of posts, gates and bracing panels.
Clearing
Fence line: Except trees or shrubs to be retained, clear vegetation within 1 metre of the fence
alignment. Grub out the stumps and roots of removed trees or shrubs and trim the grass to ground
level, but do not remove the topsoil.

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Excavation
Posts: Excavate post holes so that they have vertical sides and a firm base. Spread surplus material
on the principal’s side of the fence.
Erection
Line and level: Erect posts vertically. Set heights to follow the contours of natural ground.
Earth footings
Compaction: Backfill with earth around posts, compacting firmly by hand or machine in 150 mm deep
layers.
Concrete footings
In ground: Place mass concrete around posts and finish with a weathered top falling 25 mm from the
post to ground level.
On slabs: Provide welded and drilled post flanges and fix with 3 masonry anchors per post.

3.2 GATES
Hardware
Provide the following:
- Drop bolt and ferrule to each leaf of double gates.
- Latch to one leaf of double gates.
- Provision for locking by padlock.
- Hinges to ensure smooth operation.
Schedule any particular requirements here e.g. signage, ball bearing lubricated hinges, spring closer, motor drive.
Hand access
General: Where required, provide hand holes to give access from outside to reach locking provision.

3.3 TIMBER FENCING


Radiata pine picket fence
There is no standard for timber fencing.
Height (mm): >
Maximum post spacing: 2400 mm.
Picket pattern: >
Member sizes (dressed):
- Posts: 90 x 90 mm.
- Rails: 70 x 40 mm.
- Pickets: 70 x 19 mm.
Picket spacing: 125 mm maximum.
Footing type: Earth.
Footing size: 200 mm diameter x 600 mm depth.
Picket pattern and Picket spacing: e.g. “gothic”, “pointed”, “rounded”, “colonial” pattern and vary the spacing if required.
Radiata pine paling fence
Height (mm): >
Type: >
Maximum post spacing:
- General: 2400 mm.
- For lap and cap: 2700 mm.
Member sizes (sawn):
- Intermediate posts: 140 x 45 mm.
- End, corner and gate posts: 100 x 100 mm.
- Rails: 75 x 50 mm.
- Capping for lap and cap type: 120 x 35 mm dressed with weathered top.
- Palings:

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. General: 100 x 15 mm.


. For lap and cap: 150 x 15 mm.
Footing type: Earth.
Footing size: 250 mm diameter x 600 mm depth.
Hardwood paling fence
Height (mm): >
Type: >
Maximum post spacing: 2700 mm.
Member sizes (sawn):
- Intermediate posts: 125 x 50 mm.
- End, corner and gate posts: 125 x 125 mm.
- Rails: 75 x 50 mm.
- Capping for lap and cap type: 100 x 50 mm dressed with weathered top.
Or 125 x 75 mm.
- Palings:
. General: 100 x 13 mm.
Or 100 x 19 mm.
. For lap and cap: 150 x 13 mm.
Footing type: Earth.
Or compacted fine crushed rock, gravel or cement stabilised earth.
Footing size: 250 mm diameter x 600 mm depth.
Installation
General: Mortice posts, taper splice rails and nail twice in mortices. Set pickets and palings clear of the
ground.
Or bolt fix to housings.
Picket fence: Nail twice to each rail.
Plain paling fence: Provide 2 rails for fences up to 1800 mm high, and locate 200 mm from the tops
and bottoms of the palings. Close butt palings and nail twice to each rail.
Lap and cap paling fence: Provide 3 rails for fences up to 1800 mm high with the top rail located to
receive the capping, and bottom rail located 200 mm from the bottom of the palings. Close butt larger
palings and nail twice to each rail. Fix smaller palings over joints and nail twice to each rail. Nail
capping to the top rail.
Gates
Ledges and braces: Match fence rails.
Pickets or palings: Match fence.
Or substitute a galvanized steel tube frame if you prefer it for durability and stability.
Steel tube picket fencing
Some products are supplied with pickets of insufficient strength to operate as a security fence.
Product: >
Ensure the pickets comply with AS 1163 Grade C350LO
Finish: >
e.g. Powdercoat
Height: >
Fencing for swimming pools
Design, construction and performance: To AS 1926.1.
Location of fencing for private swimming pools: To AS 1926.2.
Check the local council for additional requirements. AS 1926.1 and AS 1926.2 are referenced in the BCA for safety fencing of
swimming pools. For children’s services centres, the Victoria BCA Appendix references AS 1926.1. AS 2820 covers gate units
for private swimming pools.

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LANDSCAPE – FENCES AND BARRIERS SITE

3.4 CHAINWIRE BARRIERS


Chainwire fencing of the type described here may be used with no rails or with one or two rails and with or without barbed
extensions.
Standard
General: To AS 1725.
Fence dimensions
Maximum post spacing: 3000 mm.
Component sizes
Intermediate posts: 42.4 mm diameter, 2.6 mm wall thickness.
End, corner and gate posts: 60.3 mm diameter, 2.9 mm wall thickness.
Chainwire: 3.15 mm diameter wire woven to form uniform mesh.
- Selvedges: Knuckled.
- Mesh generally: 50 mm.
- Mesh at playing end of sports enclosures: 40 mm.
Tie wire: 2 mm diameter.
Post and rail barriers:
- Rails and gooseneck stay: 33.7 mm diameter, 2.6 mm wall thickness.
Railless barriers:
- Struts: 42.4 mm diameter, 2.6 mm wall thickness.
- Cable wires:
. Two strands: 3.15 mm diameter wire.
. One strand: 4 mm helicoil wire.
Security barriers:
- Chainwire selvedges: Twisted and barbed.
- Barbed wire to security fencing post extensions: Barbs at 95 mm maximum centres.
Installation
Posts: Do not splice members except in posts when splice is embedded at least 150 mm into
concrete. Fit tightly fitting steel caps to posts, except where fixed to overhead structure.
Chainwire: Lace chainwire to end and gate posts. Tie chainwire twice around members at 250 mm
maximum intervals. Twist ends twice and cut off neatly.
Cable wire: Tension cable wire(s) to support chainwire after at least 24 hour curing of concrete
footings.
Footing type: Concrete.
- Footing size:
. Intermediate and end posts: 225 mm diameter x 600 mm depth.
. Corner posts and gate: 225 mm diameter x 900 mm depth.
Bracing:
- Internal partitions: If at least each alternate point is fixed to the overhead structure, bracing is not
required.
Post and rail barriers:
- Rails: Connect rail(s) to posts using bolted split pipe fittings and purpose-made caps and brackets
with rail apertures.
- Continuous rail type fences: Join the rails together in long lengths using purpose-made sleeves or
socketed connections, and pass them through the apertures of caps and brackets on intermediate
posts.
Railless barriers:
- Struts: Provide struts at ends, corners and gates.
Security barriers:
- Security fencing: Strain barbed wire between post extensions.

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LANDSCAPE – FENCES AND BARRIERS SITE

Special purpose enclosures


Tennis court enclosures (railless): Provide double bracing stays to corner posts and every twentieth
intermediate post in multiple (side by side) enclosures. Provide support cables at top and bottom and
at 900 and 1800 mm height. Fix the chainwire on the inside of single enclosures.
Cricket practice net enclosures: Provide a top rail, and support cables at the centre and bottom of the
enclosure’s sides and back, and additional cables at the back at 300 and 600 mm height. Fix the
chainwire on the inside of single enclosures, and on the offside of the (right handed) batsman in
multiple enclosures.
Gates
The gate post sizes and gate details described here should be increased if a pair of gates wider than 3600 mm is required. In
addition sliding gates and motorised gates are available. Draw from the standard manufacturer’s specification if you require
more detail.
Frame tubes: 33.7 mm diameter, 2 mm wall thickness.
Chainwire: Match fence.
Maximum width: 3600 mm.
Security barriers:
- Barbed wire security gate extension supports: 26.9 mm diameter, 2 mm wall thickness.
- Barbed wire: Match fence.
Chainwire barriers schedule
Designation CB1 CB2 CB3
Type of barrier
Height (excluding post extension, if any) (mm)
Post and rail barriers:
- Number of rails
Railless barriers:
- Number of cable wires
Security barriers:
- Post extension height (mm)
- Post extension form
Gates:
- Size (h x w)
- Locking

Height: The standard height of 1850 mm (excluding barbed wire extension) may be used, or varied to suit requirements but
ensure any different height specified suits wire roll widths e.g. 2100 mm or 2400 mm.
Number of rails: and No. of cable wires: The total must equal 3, e.g. a railless fence has three cable wires which are tensioned
to support the chainwire. A two rail fence has one central cable wire.
Post extension form: State “Not applicable”, “Straight” or “Cranked”. If the cranked extension is not to be “indented” state the
direction of cranking.

3.5 WELDED MESH FENCING


The type specified here is for heavy duty industrial, commercial and institutional use. Heights available are 900, 1200, 1500 and
1800 mm.
Lighter grades are available, particularly for domestic use, and a thermoset powder coated system is available.
Fence dimensions
Height (mm): >
Maximum post spacing: 2440 mm.
Component sizes
End, corner and intermediate posts: 42.4 mm diameter, 2.6 mm wall thickness.
Gate posts (personnel): 60.3 mm diameter, 2.9 mm wall thickness.
Gate posts (vehicle): 88.9 mm diameter, 3.2 mm wall thickness.

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LANDSCAPE – FENCES AND BARRIERS SITE

Panel wire:
- Horizontal: 4.95 mm diameter at 75 mm centres.
- Vertical: 4.95 mm diameter at 50 mm centres.
Installation
General: Fit tightly fittings caps to steel posts. Attach panels to posts with fixing clips and M8 x 75 mm
hexagon head bolts before concreting footing.
Footing type: Concrete.
Gates
Frame tubes: 33.7 mm diameter, 2 mm wall thickness.
Wire: Match fence.

3.6 TEMPORARY LANDSCAPE FENCING


If it is felt that temporary fencing measures for tree protection during the contract cannot be left to the contractor, specify them
here, and cross reference from the Site preparation worksection to this worksection.
Fence dimensions
Height: 1200 mm.
Maximum post spacing: 5000 mm.
Component sizes
Corner and gate posts: Hardwood or preservative-treated softwood, 250 mm diameter.
Intermediate posts: Star picket.
Gate: Provide a suitable hinged gate with a gate latch.
Wire: Top, intermediate and bottom rows of 3.2 mm plain galvanized steel wire. Thread the top wire
through pieces of plastic tube and through corner posts.
Removal
Completion: Remove the fence at the end of the planting establishment period.

3.7 VEHICLE BARRIERS


Log barriers
Installation: Check out the posts to receive the rails. Set each post 600 mm into the ground and
surround with compacted fine crushed rock, gravel or cement stabilised rammed earth. Bolt rails to
posts with M12 diameter galvanized bolts and washers, with bolt heads and nuts recessed.
Precast concrete wheel stops
Installation: Drive 12 mm diameter galvanized steel rods 600 mm into the ground to finish 25 mm
below the top of the wheel stop, or bolt the stop to masonry anchors in concrete slabs. Grout the holes
flush to match the concrete finish.
Steel tube bollards
Footing: Encase in a concrete footing at least 600 mm deep x 250 mm diameter.
On slabs: Weld on a 10 mm thick baseplate drilled for 4 bolts, and bolt to masonry anchors.
Filling: Fill the tube with 15 MPa concrete.
Check that wheel stops and bollards are not duplicated in Metal fixtures for general building work.

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LANDSCAPE – SOILS SITE

LANDSCAPE – SOILS

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to soils for landscaping including, rock work, filling, topsoil, topsoil additives, compost and mulch.
Geotechnical site investigation and soil related earthworks are also covered.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. See for example:
• Site preparation.
• Earthwork for excavation and filling.
• Landscape – walling for walls under 750 mm in height.
• Landscape – fences and barriers for lightweight fences and barriers.
• Landscape – soft surfaces for grassed surfaces.
• Landscape – plants for plants and planting.
• Trees supply for the supply of new trees.
• Irrigation for irrigation.
• Landscape – furniture and fixtures for installed equipment associated with landscaped works.
• Segmental pavers – mortar bed for external stone, ceramic and cementitious paving.
• Segmental pavers – sand bed for external unit paving.
• Concrete formwork, Concrete reinforcing and Concrete in situ for footings and other concrete structures.
• Brick and block construction for masonry walls.
• Tensioned membrane structures for shade structures.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
Material not included in NATSPEC
• Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or
use an applicable worksection.
Worksection cross-referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• Show on the drawings the locations and depths of soils to be removed and soils to be provided.
• If the extent of soils to be removed is uncertain, consider allowing for provisional volumes here.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
Selections: Conform to the Selections.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.

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Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
- Earthwork.
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes, do not repeat them here.). You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

1.3 STANDARDS
Soils
General: To AS 4419.

1.4 INTERPRETATION
Definitions
General: For the purposes of this worksection the definitions given below apply.
Bad ground: Ground unsuitable for the purposes of the works, including fill liable to subsidence,
ground containing cavities, faults or fissures, ground contaminated by harmful substances and ground
which is or becomes soft, wet or unstable.
Site rock: Rocks approved for salvage.
Site topsoil: Soil excavated from the site which has the following characteristics:
- Contains organic matter.
- Supports plant life.
- Free from unwanted matter.
Unwanted matter (in topsoil):
- Stones over 25 mm diameter.
- Clay lumps.
- Weeds and tree roots.
- Sticks and rubbish.
- Material toxic to plants.
Imported topsoil:
- Fine: Clay loam, fine sandy loam, sandy clay loam, silty loam, loam.
- Medium: Sandy loam, fine sandy loam.
- Coarse: Sand, loamy sand.
Topsoil mixture: Topsoil and compost or other additives, thoroughly mixed before placing.
Top dressing: A soil which is suitable for surface application to lawn.
The Definitions subclause can be edited to suit the project or deleted if not required.

1.5 GEOTECHNICAL SITE INVESTIGATION


Report
The geotechnical site investigation report provided is for information only. The geotechnical
information and information on contaminants given is information on the nature of the ground at each
tested part. It is not a complete description of conditions existing at or below ground level.
Include the report in the tender documents, or inform tenderers where the report is available. If no geotechnical site investigation
has been carried out, delete the clause. For the minimum requirements of a geotechnical site investigation, see AS 1726. See
also “Guidelines for the provision of geotechnical information in construction contracts” published by the Institution of Engineers,
Australia. On selective provision of available data, see AS 3798 clause 3.3(b).

Notice
If the following are encountered, give notice immediately and obtain instructions before carrying out
any further work in the affected area:
- Bad ground.
If bad ground is known but the extent is uncertain, consider including a provisional quantity for removal and replacement of
unsuitable material.
Procedures for dealing with rock and bad ground will depend on the conditions of contract.

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- Discrepancies.
- Rock.
- Springs, seepages.
- Topsoil > 100 mm deep.

1.6 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so inspection may be made of the following:
- Setting out completed.
- Subgrades cultivated or prepared for placing topsoil.
- Topsoil spread before planting.
- Grassing bed prepared before turfing, seeding, or temporary grassing.
The following may also need to be witnessed:
• Clearing completed.
• Topsoil stockpiles before placing topsoil.
Hold points, if required, should be inserted here.

1.7 TESTS
Soil tests
Sampling: As recommended in AS 4419 Appendix A.
Phosphorous content testing: >
AS 4419 Table 1. This standard requires the bulk density and organic matter content of all soils to be determined. The Table
stipulates the testing regime. Only phosphorous content testing is left unresolved.

1.8 SUBMISSIONS
Samples
General: Submit representative samples of each material, packed to prevent contamination and
labelled to indicate source and content.
Bulk materials: Submit a 5 kg sample of each type specified. Submit bulk material samples, with
required test results, at least 5 working days before bulk deliveries.
Bulk materials include filling, topsoil, topsoil additives, compost and mulch.
Suppliers
The suppliers of topsoil and mulch should generally be approved.
Statements: Submit statements from suppliers of soils and other materials, giving the following, where
applicable:
- Particulars of the supplier’s experience in the required type of work.
- Production capacity for material of the required type, sizes and quantity.
- Lead times for delivery of the material to the site.
Materials
Supplier’s data: Submit supplier’s data including the following:
- Material source of supply for topsoil, filling, stone and filter fabrics.
Compost: Submit a certificate of proof of compost pH value.
Execution
Program: Submit a work program in the form of a bar chart, for the landscape works.
See the Commentary on execution for additional information that may be required.

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LANDSCAPE – SOILS SITE

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 TOPSOIL
Source
General: Import topsoil to the Selections unless the topsoil type can be provided from material
recovered from the site.
Additives
Compliance: If using additives to raise topsoil to the required standard, ensure compliance with the
relevant test criteria.

2.2 COMPOST AND FERTILISER


Compost
General: Provide well rotted vegetative material or animal manure, free from harmful chemicals, grass
and weed growth.
Standard: To AS 4454.
If organic matter is called for, compost may not be necessary. See AS 4454 Table 3.1 for physical and chemical requirements
for composts, mulches and soil conditioners.
Compost schedule
Compost key Location Type Application rate

Type: e.g. spent mushroom compost, if available. Mushroom compost may be alkaline and not generally recommended for use
with native plants in the eastern states. Consider the supply conditions.
Application rate: e.g. 4:1 topsoil:compost, by volume.
Fertiliser
Provide proprietary fertilisers, delivered to the site in sealed bags marked to show manufacturer or
vendor, weight, fertiliser type, N:P:K ratio, recommended uses and application rates.
Fertiliser schedule
Fertiliser key Location N:P:K ratio Application rate

N:P:K ratios and application rates vary greatly depending on conditions of use. Obtain specialist advice. Proprietary fertilizers
meeting the requirements may be named if desired. Consult manufacturers for application rates suitable for individual plantings.
If nothing is stated in the schedule, the General requirements worksection requires the contractor to follow the manufacturers’
recommendations.

3 EXECUTION

3.1 PREPARATION
Vegetative spoil
Remove vegetative spoil from site. Do not burn.
Burning destroys soil bacteria. Avoid if possible. Check with local authority regarding burning before permitting it. If vegetative
spoil is not to be chipped and reused it should be removed from the site.

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Earth mounds
Place clean filling in layers approximately 150 mm thick compacted to 85% of the dry density ratio of
the surrounding soil as determined by AS 1289.5.4.1. Minimise slumping and further internal packing
down. Construct changes in grade over a minimum width of 500 mm to smooth, gradual and rounded
profiles.
Embankment stabilisation
General: Where necessary to prevent erosion or soil movement, stabilise embankments.
Method: Either matting overlay or hydromulching.
Matting generally: Biodegradable fibre reinforced with lightweight polymer mesh. Provide lightweight
material for seeding, medium or heavy weight material for planting.
Matting in high erosion zones: Flexible carbon black UV stabilised interwoven nylon mesh.
Matting installation: Sow before matting is installed, where sowing is required. Plant after matting is
installed, where planting is required. Peg the matting into 300 x 300 mm anchor trenches at top and
bottom, backfill the trenches with soil and compact.
Matting pegs: U-shape galvanized steel, at 1000 x 1000 mm intervals generally, 250 mm at overlaps.
Matting overlay schedule
Location or area Matting description
Type Weight (kg/m2) Thickness (mm)

Matting description: If matting is described as a proprietary item, it may not be necessary to specify the other characteristics
(type, weight, thickness).

3.2 ROCKWORK
Rock work
General: Place rocks while ground formation work is being carried out. Provide site rock, otherwise
provide imported rock. Bury rock two thirds by volume, with weathered faces exposed. Protect the
weathered faces from damage.
Site rock: Stockpile for future placement and accessibility for lifting. Dispose of other rock off site.
Imported rock: Provide rock which has been selected before delivery.
Placed rock schedule
Source Rock type and description Size (mm)

Storage and handling procedures may need special consideration, particularly for very large rocks and rocks from distant
sources.
Source: e.g. quarry or stone supplier (proprietary item).
Rock type and description: May be shown on the drawings. Show or specify the size, especially if the item is unusually large.
Quarried rock is unweathered and generally cheaper and more readily available than weathered rock.
Rock outcrops
General: Protect existing rock, rock shelves and rock outcrops from mechanical damage and surface
defacement.

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LANDSCAPE – SOILS SITE

Rock outcrops schedule


Item Value for damages ($)

Landscape feature rocks would be rocks of such an age, condition or size that they would not be easy to replace. Either show
them as such on the drawings or schedule them here by description. It may also be advisable to arrange for identification on
site.
Value for damages: Monetary compensation if the item cannot be restored or replaced. A true valuation (not a penalty) may be
difficult to assess.

3.3 SUBSOIL
Ripping
General: Rip parallel to the final contours wherever possible. Do not rip when the subsoil is wet or
plastic. Do not rip within the dripline of trees and shrubs to be retained.
Ripping depths: Rip the subsoil to the following typical depths:
- Compacted subsoil: 300 mm.
- Heavily compacted clay subsoil: 450 mm.
- Ripline planting areas: >
e.g. 450 mm. This depth may result in bringing subsoil to the surface, and requires a fairly heavy machine. Consider resolving
depth on site.
Planting beds
Excavated: Excavate to bring the subsoil to at least 300 mm below finished design levels. Shape the
subsoil to fall to subsoil drains where applicable. Break up the subsoil to a further depth of 100 mm.
Unexcavated: Remove weeds, roots, builder’s rubbish and other debris. Bring the planting bed to
75 mm below finished design levels.
Cultivation
Minimum depth: 100 mm.
The 100 mm minimum depth assumes that the subsoil is of sufficiently good quality and it therefore is not necessary to
excavate and to import topsoil. This depth may not be achievable on rocky or steep areas. Vary if required.
Cultivation depths (mm):
- Grassed areas (seeded, turf, strip turf, stolonized):
>
- Hydroseeded or hydromulched areas: >
- Planting areas: >
Services and roots: Do not disturb services or tree roots; if necessary cultivate these areas by hand.
Cultivation: Thoroughly mix in materials required to be incorporated into the subsoil. Cultivate
manually within 300 mm of paths or structures. Remove stones exceeding 25 mm, clods of earth
exceeding 50 mm, and weeds, rubbish or other deleterious material brought to the surface during
cultivation. Trim the surface to design levels after cultivation.
Subsoil preparation schedule
Location Cultivation method

Additives
General: Apply additives after ripping or cultivation and incorporate into the upper 100 mm layer of the
subsoil.
NATSPEC 52 [Insert date]
LANDSCAPE – SOILS SITE

Gypsum: Incorporate at the rate of 0.25 kg/m2.


Subsoil additives schedule
Location Additive type Additive rate

Gypsum may be used where the site topsoil is heavy clay, provided planting is not lime-sensitive, or where the subsoil is heavy
clay, to improve drainage. Other additives include lime or dolomite to reduce acidity in highly acidic soils, and sulfur to reduce
alkalinity in highly alkaline soils. Test the subsoil by chemical and physical analysis to determine appropriate remedial methods.

3.4 TOPSOIL
Placing topsoil
Preferably show on the drawings the areas to be topsoiled and the topsoil depths. Typically the areas would be those required
to be grassed, turfed, or mass planted.
General: Spread the topsoil on the prepared subsoil and grade evenly, making the necessary
allowances to permit the following:
- Required finished levels and contours may be achieved after light compaction.
- Grassed areas may be finished flush with adjacent hard surfaces such as kerbs, paths and mowing
strips.
Contamination: Where diesel oil, cement or other phytotoxic material has been spilt on the subsoil or
topsoil, excavate the contaminated soil, dispose of it off the site, and replace it with site soil or
imported topsoil to restore design levels.
Spreading: On steep batters, if using a chain drag, ensure there is no danger of batter disturbance.
Finishing: Feather edges into adjoining undisturbed ground.
Consolidation
General: Compact lightly and uniformly in 150 mm layers. Avoid differential subsidence and excess
compaction and produce a finished topsoil surface which has the following characteristics:
- Finished to design levels.
- Smooth and free from stones or lumps of soil.
- Graded to drain freely, without ponding, to catchment points.
- Graded evenly into adjoining ground surfaces.
- Ready for planting.
Topsoil depths
Vary if the typical depths specified in the Template are not acceptable.
Spread topsoil to the following typical depths:
- Excavated planting areas: If using organic mulch, 225 mm. If using gravel mulch, 250 mm.
- Irrigated grassed areas generally: 150 mm.
- Irrigated grassed areas, heavy use (e.g. playing fields, playgrounds, public parks): 200 mm.
- Non-irrigated grass areas: 100 mm.
Topsoil application schedule
Soil key Location Type Depth (mm)

Soil key, texture, use and depth may be shown on the drawings. The examples given below are by way of illustration only; vary
as necessary. Obtain specialist advice.

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LANDSCAPE – SOILS SITE

Depth: Delete if Template defaults are acceptable.


Surplus topsoil
General: Spread surplus topsoil on designated areas on site, if any; otherwise, dispose off site.
Designated areas: >

4 SELECTIONS

Schedules refer to selection of proprietary products or to generic products by their properties. Provide their locations either here
or on the drawings.
Duplicate and customise this Schedule, adding and deleting rows and columns, as required.

4.1 TOPSOIL
Topsoil source schedule
Soil key Soil type Mixture

Topsoil particle size table (% passing by mass)


AS sieve aperture Soil textures
Fine Medium Coarse
2.36 100 100 100
1.18 90 – 100 95 – 100 95 – 100
0.60 75 – 100 75 – 100 70 – 90
0.30 57 – 90 55 – 85 30 – 46
0.15 45 – 70 38 – 55 10 – 22
0.075 35 – 55 25 – 35 5 – 10
0.002 2 – 15 2–8

The table is precompleted with typical values. Vary as necessary to suit the project. On large particles, see AS 4419 clause
5.14.
Topsoil properties schedule
Property Type Amount
Nutrient levels Phosphorus (P) (mg/L) 0.7 – 4
Potassium (K) (mg/L) 35 – 250
Sulfur (S) (mg/L) > 40
Calcium (Ca) (mg/L) 50 – 350
Nitrogen (N) (mg/L) ≤ 100
Manganese (Mn) (mg/L) 1 – 15
Nitrogen drawdown
Additives Gypsum (% by volume)
Compost
Other properties Organic matter (% by mass) 20 maximum

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LANDSCAPE – SOILS SITE

Property Type Amount


Wettability
Soil reaction (pH) 6–7
Electrical conductivity
(dS/m)
Dispersibility
Soluble salts (% by mass) 0.1
Moisture content (% by mass)
Toxicity index to AS 3743
Permeability

The schedule is partially precompleted with typical values. Vary as necessary to suit the project.
Nutrient levels: For other elements see AS 3743 Table 2.1.
• Phosphorous: See AS 4419 clause 5.8.
• Nitrogen: See AS 4419 clause 5.7.
• Nitrogen drawdown: See AS 4419 clause 5.9.
Other properties:
• Organic matter: See AS 4419 clause 5.3 and Appendix K.
• Wettability: See AS 4419 clause 5.4.
• Soil reaction: See AS 4419 clause 5.5.
• Electrical conductivity: See AS 4419 clause 5.6.
• Dispersibility: See AS 4419 clause 5.11.
• Toxicity index to AS 3743: See AS 4419 clauses 5.7 and 5.10.
• Permeability: See AS 4419 clause 5.12.
Use of soils schedule
Soil texture classification Use for Depth
Sandy clay
Light clay
Silty clay
Medium clay
Heavy clay

Complete the schedule. Refer to “Soil texture classifications” AS 4419 Appendix I Table I1.
Refer to “Guidance for the selection and use of soils” of AS 4419 Appendix K. Generally, these soil texture classifications are
considered unsuitable for general landscaping purposes, according to this Appendix.

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LANDSCAPE –SOFT SURFACES SITE

LANDSCAPE – SOFT SURFACES

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to grass seeding, hydroseeding and hydromulching, turfing, stolonising and temporary grassing.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. See for example:
• Site preparation.
• Earthwork for excavation and filling.
• Landscape – walling for walls up to 750 mm in height.
• Landscape – fences and barriers for lightweight fences and barriers.
• Landscape – soils for soils.
• Landscape – plants for plants and planting.
• Trees supply for the supply of new trees.
• Irrigation for irrigation.
• Landscape – furniture and fixtures for installed equipment associated with landscaped works.
• Pavement base and subbase.
• Asphaltic concrete.
• Spayed bituminous surfacing.
• Concrete pavement.
• Segmental pavers – mortar bed for external stone, ceramic and cementitious paving.
• Segmental pavers – sand bed for external unit paving.
• Concrete formwork, Concrete reinforcement and Concrete in situ for footings and other concrete structures.
• Brick and block construction for masonry walls.
• Tensioned membrane structures for shade structures.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection.
Worksection cross-referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• This worksection relies on fully detailed landscape drawings.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
Generally: Provide surfaces to the schedules that have been grown to a standard that allows them to
establish rapidly.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.

NATSPEC 56 [Insert date]


LANDSCAPE –SOFT SURFACES SITE

The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
- Site preparation.
- Earthwork.
- Landscape – soils.
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes, do not repeat them here.). You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

1.3 INTERPRETATION
Definitions
General: For the purposes of this worksection the definitions given below apply.
Site topsoil: Soil excavated from the site which has the following characteristics:
- Contains organic matter.
- Supports plant life.
- Free from unwanted matter.
Unwanted matter (in topsoil):
- Stones over 25 mm diameter.
- Clay lumps.
- Weeds and tree roots.
- Sticks and rubbish.
- Material toxic to plants.
Imported topsoil:
- Fine: Clay loam, fine sandy loam, sandy clay loam, silty loam, loam.
- Medium: Sandy loam, fine sandy loam.
- Coarse: Sand, loamy sand.
Topsoil mixture: Topsoil and compost or other additives, thoroughly mixed before placing.
Top dressing: A soil which is suitable for surface application to lawn.
The Definitions subclause can be edited to suit the project or deleted if not required.

1.4 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so inspection may be made of the following
- Clearing completed.
- Setting out completed.
- Grassing bed prepared before turfing, seeding, or temporary grassing.
- Grassing or turfing completed.
Hold points, if required, should be inserted here.

1.5 SUBMISSIONS
Samples
General: Submit representative samples of each material, packed to prevent contamination and
labelled to indicate source and content.

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LANDSCAPE –SOFT SURFACES SITE

Samples schedule
Item Quantity

Item: and Quantity: List any required samples or quantities.


The idea is that the entire material represented by rejected samples may be rejected.
Suppliers
Statements: Submit statements from suppliers, giving the following, where applicable:
- Particulars of the supplier’s experience in the required type of work.
- Production capacity for material of the required type and quantity.
- Lead times for delivery of the material to the site.
Materials
Supplier’s data: Submit supplier’s data including the following:
- Material source of supply.
Execution
Program: Submit a work program in the form of a bar chart, for the landscape works.
Maintenance program: Submit a proposed planting maintenance program.
Material storage on site: Submit proposal.

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 GRASS SEED


Seed
Mixtures: Provide seed mixtures which are thoroughly pre-mixed with a bulking material such as
safflower meal. Deliver to the site in bags marked to show weight, seed species and supplier’s name.
Provide fresh, clean, uncoated new seed. Do not provide wet, mouldy, or otherwise impaired seed.
Purity (minimum): 98%.
Germination viability (minimum): 86%.
Age (maximum) from date of harvest: 2 years.

2.2 FERTILISER
Fertiliser
General: Provide proprietary fertilisers, delivered to the site in sealed bags marked to show
manufacturer or vendor, weight, fertiliser type, N:P:K ratio, recommended uses and application rates.
Fertiliser schedule
Fertiliser key Location N:P:K ratio Application rate

N:P:K ratios and application rates vary greatly depending on conditions of use. The examples given below are by way of
illustration only. Obtain specialist advice. Proprietary fertilizers meeting the requirements may be named if desired. Consult
manufacturers for application rates suitable for individual plantings. If nothing is stated in the schedule, the General
requirements worksection requires the contractor to follow the manufacturers’ recommendations.
Location N:P:K ratio
Hydroseeding 11:34:11

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LANDSCAPE –SOFT SURFACES SITE

Temporary grassing 10:4:6


Turfing 10:4:6
Grassing at time of sowing 11:34:11
Grassing after germination 10:4:6
Individual plantings an approved prolonged release type
Stolonized areas 11:34:11
Planting beds 63:18:28

3 EXECUTION

3.1 PREPARATION
Weed eradication
Herbicide: Eradicate weeds using environmentally acceptable methods, such as a non-residual
glyphosate herbicide in any of its registered formulae, at the recommended maximum rate.
Manual weeding: Regularly remove, by hand, rubbish and weed growth throughout grassed, planted
and mulched areas. Remove weed growth from an area 750 mm diameter around the base of the
trees in grassed areas. Continue eradication throughout the course of the works and during the
planting establishment period.
Weed eradication schedule
Weed type Eradication method or treatment
Acceptable Unacceptable

Specify acceptable (and unacceptable) methods if there is heavy infestation of particular weed types (especially if they are
noxious weeds). Manual removal is preferred when practical.
Vegetative spoil
Disposal: Remove vegetative spoil from site. Do not burn.
Burning destroys soil bacteria. Avoid if possible. Check with local authority regarding burning before permitting it. If vegetative
spoil is not to be chipped and reused it should be removed from the site.

3.2 GRASS SEEDING


See the Commentary on grass seeding.

Preparation
General: Prepare the areas to be sown. Spread the fertiliser evenly over the cultivated bed within 48
hours before sowing, and rake lightly into the surface. If a prepared area becomes compacted from
any cause before sowing can begin, rework the ground surface before sowing.
Sowing
Conditions: Do not sow if frost is likely before the plant has reached an established state, or in periods
of extreme heat, cold or wet, or when wind velocities exceed 8 km/h. Provide even distribution. Lightly
rake the surface to cover the seed.
Sowing schedule
Mix Seed species Location Sowing Application Mowing height
designation method rate (kg/ha) (mm)

NATSPEC 59 [Insert date]


LANDSCAPE –SOFT SURFACES SITE

Use this schedule to identify and describe each of the grass seed mixes to be used in the project, whether for sowing,
hydroseeding, temporary grassing, etc. A separate schedule for each mix designation may be necessary.
Mix designation: e.g. Type A. See the Commentary.
Seed species: and Application rates: Set out as in the typical examples. Identify and describe each of the grass seed mixes to
be used in the project, whether for sowing, hydroseeding, temporary grassing, etc.
Sowing method: Specify any particular requirements additional to those in the Template, or delete this column. The method may
comprise broadcast sowing in two transverse directions, or row sowing, etc., depending on the equipment used and the
conditions.
Mowing height: Different for non-irrigated and irrigated grasses. 30 mm for stoloniferous grasses, 75-150 mm for species with
coarse growth, such as Oats or Rye. Mowing may not be possible on steep banks and may not be desirable where seed mix
includes species with coarse growth.

Rolling
General: Roll the seed bed immediately after sowing.
Roller weight (maximum):
- Clay and packing (heavy) soils: 90 kg/m width.
- Sandy and light soils: 300 kg/m width.
Watering
Before germination: Water the seeded area with a fine spray until the topsoil is moistened to its full
depth. Continue watering until germination to keep the surface damp and the topsoil moist but not
waterlogged.
After germination: Water to maintain a healthy condition, progressively hardened off to the natural
climatic conditions.
Germination
General: Maintain sown areas until the attainment of a dense continuous sward of healthy grass over
the whole of the seeded area, evenly green and of a consistent height.
Reseeding: If germination has not been attained within one month, reseed the sown areas.
Reseeding mixture: >
e.g. the original seed mixture or a modified mixture.
Weeding
Identify special requirements for areas such as steep embankments and broad scale sites where germination is to be by rainfall
only.
Removal: Remove weeds that occur in sown areas.
Spraying: Where necessary spray with a selective herbicide for broad leafed weeds. Do not spray
grass seeded areas within 3 months of germination.
Protection
General: Protect the newly sown areas against traffic until well established.
Protection method: >
e.g. temporary fencing.
Fertilising after germination
Six weeks after germination: Spread fertiliser evenly over the sown area and then water in. Do not
apply the fertiliser to wet grass.
Ten weeks after grass germination: If the planting establishment period carries through the summer
months, spread pelleted sulphate of ammonia at the rate of 250 kg/ha.
Vary the type and timing of the post-sowing application as necessary. Sulphate of ammonia may be required more frequently in
warm wet conditions. On the other hand, it does not suit clover.
Mowing
Height: Mow to maintain the grass height within the required range. Do not remove more than one
third of the grass height at any one time. Carry out the last mowing within 7 days before the end of the
planting establishment period. Remove grass clippings from the site after each mowing.
Removal of grass clippings may not be required - it results in depletion of fertility. Edit as required.

NATSPEC 60 [Insert date]


LANDSCAPE –SOFT SURFACES SITE

3.3 HYDROSEEDING AND HYDROMULCHING


Seed pretreatment
General: Place in a calico bag those species of seed to be pretreated, and immerse for 10 minutes in
water kept at a temperature between 80°C and 95°C. Do not boil. Allow to cool, soak for 24 hours,
then apply immediately.
Obtain advice from the seed supplier on the appropriate pretreatment for the seed species specified and specify here if different
from the Template.
Seed species to be pretreated: >
Obtain advice from the seed supplier.
Hydroseeding mixture
General: A slurry of seed mixture, fertiliser, and water.
Alternatively the fertilizer may be applied as a separate application.
Hydromulching mixture
General: A slurry of seed mixture, fertiliser, mulch and water.
Hydroseeding and hydromulching are alternatives. Edit the above and the schedule as required.
Hydroseeding and hydromulching schedule
Location Seed mix and Mulch type Slurry type Water Binder type
type application and rate
rate (L/ha)

Seed mix and type: e.g. one of the types (A, B, etc.) from the Sowing schedule. May include other than grass seeds (e.g.
shrubs and trees).
Mulch type: Specify mulch type such as straw, fibre.
Slurry type: Either “Hydroseeding mixture” or “Hydromulching mixture”. The materials may be applied in one or several
combinations to suit particular requirements.
Water application rate: The rate will vary according to site conditions, availability and coverage.
Binder type and rate: Specify a binder if required (e.g. on steep slopes or areas exposed to high winds) or write “Not applicable”.
The binder may be applied separately or as part of the mixture. See also the subclause Embankment stabilisation.
Fertiliser
Type and application rate: >
Refer to the Fertilizer schedule.
Application method: >
e.g. “Included in the slurry” or “Separately applied”.
Mixing
Mixer: Thoroughly mix the slurry in a purpose-made mechanical mixer.
Application rates
Seed mixture: The rate applicable to the mix type.
Mulch: At least 2.5 t/ha with seed, or 5 t/ha without seed.
Bitumen emulsion binder: 2000 L/ha of residual bitumen.
Polymer binder: 250 L/ha.
Water: Suitable for the site conditions, and sufficient to assist in the distribution of the seed, fertiliser
and mulch.
Preparation
Bed: Scarify the area to be seeded to provide a firm friable seed bed. If the area is to have added
topsoil, place it before scarifying.

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LANDSCAPE –SOFT SURFACES SITE

Application
General: Moisten the topsoil to its full depth before applying the slurry. Apply the slurry using high
pressure pumping equipment operated by trained personnel. Spray the mixed slurry under pressure,
maintaining a thoroughly mixed supply, operating on a front so that the mixture is evenly distributed
over the area. Complete each front before commencing the next.
Watering
Before germination: Water the seeded area with a fine spray until the topsoil is moistened to its full
depth. Continue watering until germination to keep the surface damp and the topsoil moist but not
waterlogged.
After germination: Water to maintain a healthy condition, progressively hardened off to the natural
climatic conditions.

3.4 TURFING
Turf
Supplier: Obtain turf from a specialist grower of cultivated turf. Provide turf of even thickness, free from
weeds and other foreign matter.
Supply
Elapsed time: Deliver the turf within 24 hours of cutting, and lay it within 36 hours of cutting. Prevent it
from drying out between cutting and laying.
Fertilising
General: Mix the fertiliser thoroughly into the topsoil before placing the turf. Apply lawn fertiliser at the
completion of the first and last mowings, and at other times as required to maintain healthy grass
cover.
Laying
If turf is not laid within 36 hours it should be rolled out on a flat surface with the grass up, and watered as necessary to maintain
a good condition.
General: Lay the turf in the following manner:
- In stretcher pattern with the joints staggered and close butted.
- Parallel with the long sides of level areas, and with contours on slopes.
- To finish flush, after tamping, with adjacent finished surfaces of ground, paving edging, or grass
seeded areas.
Strip turf laying: Close butt the end joints and space the strips 300 mm apart. Apply a layer of top
dressing between the strips of turf. Finish with an even surface.
Tamping
General: Lightly tamp to an even surface immediately after laying. Do not use a roller.
Pegging
Stabilising: On steep slopes peg the turf to prevent downslope movement. Remove the pegs when the
turf is established.
Watering
General: Water immediately after laying until the topsoil is moistened to its full depth. Continue
watering to maintain moisture to this depth. Keep the grass in a healthy condition.
Mowing
Height: Mow to maintain the grass height within the required range. Do not remove more than one
third of the grass height at any one time. Carry out the last mowing within 7 days before the end of the
planting establishment period. Remove grass clippings from the site after each mowing.
Turfing schedule
Turf key Species or Minimum Turf roll size Location Mowing height
variety thickness (mm) (mm)
(mm)

NATSPEC 62 [Insert date]


LANDSCAPE –SOFT SURFACES SITE

Species or variety: and Minimum thickness: e.g. “Couch 20 mm”, “Kikuyu 30 mm”, “Buffalo 30 mm”. Thicker for sandy soils. Site
conditions such as topography or soil conditions may dictate different thicknesses.
Turf roll size: e.g. “1000 x 300 mm”.
Mowing height: Mowing height will vary depending on species and local conditions. Generally lawn heights range between 25 to
50 mm.

Maintenance
General: Maintain turfed areas until the attainment of a dense continuous sward of healthy grass over
the whole turfed area, evenly green and of a consistent height.
Failed turf: Lift failed turf and relay with new turf.
Levels: Where levels have deviated from the design levels after placing and watering, lift turf and
regrade topsoil to achieve design levels.
Top dressing
General: When the turf is established mow, remove cuttings and lightly top dress to a depth of 10 mm.
Rub the dressing well into the joints and correct any unevenness in the turf surface.

3.5 STOLONISING
Stolons
Characteristics: Well established fibrous runners 50 – 100 mm in length, with minimum green leaf
material, obtained from a specialist grower of cultivated turf.
Stolons schedule
Species or variety Stolon length (mm)

Supply
Elapsed time: Deliver stolons to the site within 24 hours of harvesting, and plant them within 36 hours
of arrival on site. Prevent them from drying out between harvesting and planting.
Preparation
General: Prepare the area to be planted by cultivating, fertilising and watering. Ensure that the topsoil
is moistened to its full depth, loose, friable and weed free.
Fertilising
Application: Mix the fertiliser thoroughly into the topsoil before planting the stolons.
Planting
Method: Using a disk sprigger or row planter, mechanically sprig the stolons into the prepared soil to a
minimum depth of half the stolon length, at maximum centre to centre spacings of 150 mm in both
transverse directions over the whole of the planting area, and extending 1 m into adjacent grassed
areas.
Watering
General: Water thoroughly on completion of planting. Keep the topsoil moist to its full depth.
Stimulant
General: Three days after planting, spray with hormone root growth stimulant.
Binding
Application: Immediately after planting in erosion areas, including slopes and drainage swales, spray
with binder at the rate of 250 L/ha.

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LANDSCAPE –SOFT SURFACES SITE

Stolonizing schedule
Stolonizing on slopes greater than 1:3 is not recommended.

Location Species or variety Mowing height (mm) Stimulant

Making good
General: Replant areas that fail to grow.

3.6 TEMPORARY GRASSING


Location >
e.g. stockpiles and earthworks to minimise erosion and weed invasion.
Seed mix type >
Select seed mix based on the required period of cover. Generally use only annual grasses, particularly where areas are to be
permanently planted later.
Preparation
General: Prepare the areas to be sown. Spread fertiliser evenly over the cultivated bed within 48 hours
before sowing, and rake lightly into the surface. If a prepared area becomes compacted before sowing
begins, rework the ground surface before sowing.
Sowing
General: Provide even distribution. Lightly rake the surface to cover the seed.
Watering
General: Immediately after sowing, water to a depth of 100 mm. Thereafter water to obtain
germination and establish grasses. After establishment water only as necessary.
Maintenance
General: Maintain temporary grassing areas until no longer required.
Existing grass
General: Where existing grass or planting is within the landscape contract area, maintain it as for the
corresponding classifications of new grass or planting.
Grassed areas
Maintenance: Commence grass maintenance works at the completion of sowing, hydroseeding and
turfing. Maintain healthy weed-free growth.
Log book
Records: Keep a log book recording when and what maintenance work has been done and what
materials, including toxic materials, have been used. Make the log book available for inspection on
request.

NATSPEC 64 [Insert date]


LANDSCAPE – PLANTS SITE

LANDSCAPE – PLANTS

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to plants, composts, fertilisers, binders, mulching, insect spraying transplanting, tree pruning and
anchorage and is principally concerned with so-called “softworks”.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. See for example:
• Site preparation.
• Earthwork for excavation and filling.
• Landscape – walling for retaining walls and associated masonry or stone walls.
• Landscape – fences and barriers for lightweight fences and barriers.
• Landscape – soils for soils.
• Landscape – soft surfaces for grassed surfaces.
• Trees supply for the supply of new trees.
• Irrigation for irrigation.
• Landscape – furniture and fixtures for installed equipment associated with landscaped works.
• Segmental pavers – sand bed for external unit paving.
• Segmental pavers – mortar bed for external stone, ceramic and cementitious paving.
• Tensioned membrane structures for shade structures.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection.
Worksection cross-referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• This worksection relies on fully detailed landscape drawings.
• Import the appropriate building specification worksections for landscape structures.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: Provide plants to that have been grown to a standard that allows them to establish rapidly
and grow to maturity.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains ‘umbrella’ requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you want to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a multiple-
prime contract package. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent
‘others’, and have no overlaps.

NATSPEC 65 [Insert date]


LANDSCAPE – PLANTS SITE

Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
- Landscape – soils.
- Trees supply.
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes, do not repeat them here.). You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

1.3 INTERPRETATION
Definitions
General: For the purposes of this worksection the definitions given below apply.
Site topsoil: Soil excavated from the site which has the following characteristics:
- Contains organic matter.
- Supports plant life.
- Free from unwanted matter.
Unwanted matter (in topsoil):
- Stones over 25 mm diameter.
- Clay lumps.
- Weeds and tree roots.
- Sticks and rubbish.
- Material toxic to plants.
Imported topsoil:
- Fine: Clay loam, fine sandy loam, sandy clay loam, silty loam, loam.
- Medium: Sandy loam, fine sandy loam.
- Coarse: Sand, loamy sand.
Topsoil mixture: Topsoil and compost or other additives, thoroughly mixed before placing.

1.4 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so inspection may be made of the following:
- Setting out completed.
- Plant holes excavated and prepared for planting.
- Plant material set out before planting.
- Planting, staking and tying completed.
- Completion of planting establishment work.
The following may also need to be witnessed:
• Plant materials delivered to the site.
• Clearing completed.
• Plant materials available at the source of supply.
• Inspections during the planting establishment period, which NATSPEC assumes to be the same as the defects liability
period, may require the presence of the contractor. If this is the case, give sufficient notice.
Hold points, if required, should be inserted here.

1.5 SUBMISSIONS
Suppliers
The suppliers of plants, mulch and seed should generally be approved.
Statements: Submit statements from suppliers of plants and other materials, giving the following,
where applicable:
- Particulars of the supplier’s experience in the required type of work.
- Production capacity for material of the required type, sizes and quantity.

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LANDSCAPE – PLANTS SITE

- Lead times for delivery of the material to the site.


Materials
Supplier’s data: Submit supplier’s data including the following:
- Material source of supply.
Compost: Submit a certificate of proof of compost pH value.
Execution
Program: Submit a work program in the form of a bar chart, for the landscape works.
Maintenance program: Submit a proposed planting maintenance program.
Planting machine: If a planting machine is to be used as an alternative to hand planting, submit
proposal.
Spraying: Submit proposal.
Plants – open rooted stock: If open rooted stock is to be used, submit proposal.
Material site storage: Submit proposal.
Samples
General: Submit representative samples of each material, packed to prevent contamination and
labelled to indicate source and content.
Plant materials - quantity: Submit one plant sample for each 100 of each species or variety, in the
condition in which it is proposed to supply that plant to the site.
The idea is that the entire material represented by rejected samples may be rejected, except that plants with a correctable
defect may be accepted subject to satisfactory corrective treatment.
Samples schedule
Item Quantity

Item: and Quantity: List any required samples or quantities which differ from those in the template.
Soil – type tests
Evidence: Submit test results as follows:
- Sampling: As recommended in AS 4419 Appendix A.
- Phosphorous content testing: >
AS 4419 Table 1. This standard requires the bulk density and organic matter content of all soils to be determined. The Table
stipulates the testing regime. Only phosphorous content testing is left unresolved.

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 COMPOST AND FERTILISER


Compost
General: Provide well rotted vegetative material or animal manure, free from harmful chemicals, grass
and weed growth.
Standard: To AS 4454.
If organic matter is called for, compost may not be necessary. See AS 4454 Table 3.1 for physical and chemical requirements
for composts, mulches and soil conditioners.

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Compost schedule
Compost key Location Type Application rate

Type: e.g. Spent mushroom compost, if available. Mushroom compost may be alkaline and not generally recommended for use
with native plants in the eastern states. Consider the supply conditions.
Application rate: e.g. 4:1 topsoil:compost, by volume.
Fertiliser
General: Provide proprietary fertilisers, delivered to the site in sealed bags marked to show
manufacturer or vendor, weight, fertiliser type, N:P:K ratio, recommended uses and application rates.
Fertiliser schedule
Fertiliser key Location N:P:K ratio Application rate

N:P:K ratios and application rates vary greatly depending on conditions of use. The examples given below are by way of
illustration only. Obtain specialist advice. Proprietary fertilizers meeting the requirements may be named if desired. Consult
manufacturers for application rates suitable for individual plantings. If nothing is stated in the schedule, the General
requirements worksection requires the contractor to follow the manufacturers’ recommendations.
Location N:P:K ratio
Hydroseeding 11:34:11
Temporary grassing 10:4:6
Turfing 10:4:6
Grassing at time of sowing 11:34:11
Grassing after germination 10:4:6
Individual plantings an approved prolonged release type
Stolonized areas 11:34:11
Planting beds 63:18:28

2.2 PLANTS
Plants
Characteristics: Provide plants with the following characteristics:
- Large healthy root systems, with no evidence of root curl, restriction or damage.
- Vigorous, well established, free from disease and pests, of good form consistent with the species or
variety.
- Hardened off, not soft or forced, and suitable for planting in the natural climatic conditions prevailing
at the site.
Trees: Provide trees which, unless required to be multi-stemmed, have a single leading shoot.
Replacement: Replace damaged or failed plants with plants of the same type and size.
Plant containers
General: Supply plants in weed-free containers of the required size.
Open rooted stock: If trees are to be supplied as open rooted stock, ensure this is appropriate to the
species, variety, size, and time of year for planting.
Potting-on: Do not carry out potting-on.

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Potting-on is the transfer of plants into larger soil-filled containers, to prevent them from becoming root-bound. If a need for
potting-on (i.e. long delays) is considered to be likely, tenderers should be required to nominate actual contract rates at the time
of tender. In any case, agree the rates before authorising potting-on, if the principal/proprietor is to bear the cost.
Plant schedule
Plant key Plant Roots Number Plant size (mm)
species required
Container Minimum Plant height
size trunk caliper

Delete if the information is shown on the drawings.


Plant species: Depending on location and species, plants may be open-rooted or balled. Specify accordingly.
Roots: Depending on location and species, plants may be open-rooted or balled. Specify accordingly. Check availability of bare
or open-rooted plants - not for all species, not all year round, not all sizes.
Minimum trunk caliper: For some species the trunk caliper may not relate to height due to growing characteristics of the species.
Labelling
Tag: Label at least one plant of each species or variety in a batch with a durable, readable tag.
Storage
Timing: Deliver plant material to the site on a day to day basis, and plant immediately after delivery.
Specify details of storage requirements, if any, additional to those in the Template. Site storage should be avoided if the plants
can be held off-site until needed. If site storage cannot be avoided, the plants must be kept in good condition on the site,
adequately protected from frost, wind, sun and vermin by appropriate storage methods, including an on-site nursery of sufficient
size, with provision for watering the stock.

2.3 MULCH
Mulch
General: Provide mulch which is free of deleterious and extraneous matter such as soil, weeds and
sticks.
Standard: To AS 4454.
Organic mulches: Free of stones.
Mulch material: Brush chippings and leaf litter recovered from site clearing, if available; otherwise, pine
bark.
Organic mulch types
Brush chippings and leaf litter: Vegetative material processed through a chipper to pieces not larger
than 75 x 50 x 15 mm.
- Material permitted: Leaf matter and tree loppings from Eucalyptus, Tristania and Pinus species.
- Material not permitted: Leaf matter and tree loppings from privet, camphor laurel, coral tree, poplar,
willow, and noxious weeds.
Pine bark: From mature trees, graded in size from 50 x 50 x 25 mm to 25 x 15 x 15 mm, free from
wood slivers.
Pine flake: Pinus species sapwood slivers of size range 250 x 25 mm to 30 x 3 mm, including
fragments of pine bark.
Straw: Cereal straw, wood fibre, or other suitable vegetative material (but not meadow hay) free from
weeds and seeds, applied in conjunction with a bitumen emulsion or polymer binder.
Inorganic mulch types
Washed river pebble: Uniform size or graded material in the size range 6 – 10 mm.
Decomposed granite gravel: Uniform size or graded material in the size range 5 – 20 mm, of uniform
colour and low plasticity. Keep clear of plant stems.
Crushed quartz: Uniform size or graded material in the size range 5 – 20 mm, of uniform colour.
Marble chip gravel: Uniform size or graded material in the size range 5 – 20 mm, of uniform colour.

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Slate: Plum slate slivers in the size range 5 – 25 mm.


Shale: Uniform size or graded material, no particles smaller than 0.1 mm diameter.
Scoria: Uniform size or graded material.
Binders
Generally: Provide materials suitable for cold spray application to stabilise mulched or seeded
surfaces on banks or high erosion areas.
Type: >
Binder type: Specify a binder if required (e.g. on steep slopes).
Bitumen emulsion
Standard: To AS 1160.
Designation: ASS/170-60, containing no ingredients toxic to plants.
Polymer
A suitable polymer based emulsion.

3 EXECUTION

3.1 PREPARATION
Weed eradication
Herbicide: Eradicate weeds using environmentally acceptable methods, such as a non-residual
glyphosate herbicide in any of its registered formulae, at the recommended maximum rate.
Removal: Regularly remove, by hand, rubbish and weed growth throughout grassed, planted and
mulched areas. Remove weed growth from an area 750 mm diameter around the base of the trees in
grassed areas. Continue eradication throughout the course of the works and during the planting
establishment period.
Weed eradication schedule
Weed type Eradication method or treatment
Acceptable Unacceptable

It may be advisable to specify acceptable (and unacceptable) methods if there is heavy infestation of particular weed types
(especially if they are noxious weeds). Manual removal is preferred when practical.
Vegetative spoil
Disposal: Remove vegetative spoil from site. Do not burn.

3.2 PLANTING
Individual plantings in grassed areas
Method: Excavate a hole to twice the diameter of the root ball and at least 100 mm deeper than the
root ball. Break up the base of the hole to a further depth of 100 mm, and loosen compacted sides of
the hole to prevent confinement of root growth.
Ripline planting
Method: Rip the row and excavate a plant hole for each plant large enough to accept the root ball plus
0.1 m³ of backfilling with topsoil. Clear weeds and other vegetative material within 300 mm radius of
the plants. If planting holes are excavated by mechanical means increase the hole size by 100 mm
and loosen compacted sides to prevent confinement of root growth.
Developments in tubestock planting using purpose-made machinery show this to be an economically viable tool for broadscale
revegetation. Specification will depend on machinery and site conditions. Backfilling with topsoil may not be necessary.

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Locations
General: If it appears necessary to vary plant locations and spacings to avoid service lines, or to cover
the area uniformly, or for other reasons, give notice.
Planting conditions
Weather: Do not plant in unsuitable weather conditions such as extreme heat, cold, wind or rain. In
other than sandy soils, suspend excavation when the soil is wet, or during frost periods.
Watering
Timing: Thoroughly water the plants before planting, immediately after planting, and as required to
maintain growth rates free of stress.
Placing
Method: Remove the plant from the container with minimum disturbance to the root ball, ensure that
the root ball is moist and place it in its final position, in the centre of the hole and plumb, and with the
top soil level of the plant root ball level with the finished surface of the surrounding soil.
If individual locations are not nominated or required show those areas on the drawings.

Fertilising
Pellets: In planting beds and individual plantings, place fertiliser pellets around the plants at the time of
planting.
Application rate (kg/ha): >
Nominate a rate if manufacturer’s recommendations are not acceptable.
Backfilling
General: Backfill with topsoil mixture. Lightly tamp and water to eliminate air pockets. Ensure that
topsoil is not placed over the top of the root ball, so that the plant stem remains the same height above
ground as it was in the container.
Watering basins for plants in grass
Method: Except in irrigated grassed areas and normally moist areas, construct a watering basin
around the base of each individual plant, consisting of a raised ring of soil capable of holding at least
10 L.
Plant surrounds schedule
Plant key Plant Watering Mulch depth Mulch area Matting type Matting size
species basin size (mm) (m2) (mm)
(L)

A watering basin may not be required in high rainfall areas or naturally wet soils.
Watering basin size: Specify here only if different from the minimum capacity in the Template. This will vary with site conditions
and species. For large deciduous trees, for example, a minimum of 20 L would be appropriate. Common dimensions are
750 mm diameter and 100 mm deep for pots up to 5 L, and 1000 mm diameter and 100 mm deep for pots larger than 5 L.
Matting type: A proprietary weed suppressant matting can be used instead of mulch.

3.3 TRANSPLANTING
Use only for small trees and shrubs up to 3 m high; not for general application. Seek specialist advice on transplanting
significant plants. The majority of native trees and shrubs do not readily transplant.
Notice
General: Give sufficient notice before transplanting.
Conditions
Timing: Select a time for transplanting having regard to the appropriate season, time of actual
operation, root ball diameter and depth, lifting methods, weather conditions and the like.
Lifting
Method: Two days before transplanting of each specimen, thoroughly irrigate it to the full depth of the
root ball. Minimise the cutting of roots. Cut roots with sharp tools. Do not fracture the ball of soil

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LANDSCAPE – PLANTS SITE

around the root system, but maintain it in firm condition during transplanting by wrapping in
appropriate open weave material (e.g. hessian), securely tied.
Planting
Disturbance: Avoid disturbance to the root ball and plant. Remove the root ball wrapping and ties by
cutting.
Pruning
General: Prune as directed where selective pruning of branches or canopy is necessary.
Standard: To AS 4373.
Watering
General: At the completion of transplanting, water the root ball thoroughly and continue to water until
established.
Transplanting schedule
Species Method Pruning Notification

Pruning: Some plants require canopy pruning, some require stem pruning, and some require no pruning. Site conditions and
species will dictate.
Notification: Nominate lead time before transplanting.

3.4 MULCHING
Placing mulch
General: Place mulch to the required depth, clear of plant stems, and rake to an even surface flush
with the surrounding finished levels. Spread and roll mulch so that after settling, or after rolling, it is
smooth and evenly graded between design surface levels sloped towards the base of plant stems in
plantation beds, and not closer to the stem than 50 mm in the case of gravel mulches.
In mass planted areas: Place after the preparation of the planting bed but before planting and other
work.
In smaller areas (e.g. planter boxes): Place after the preparation of the planting bed, planting and
other work.
Extent: To surrounds of plants planted in riplines and grass areas, provide mulch to 750 mm diameter.
Depths: Spread organic mulch to a depth of 75 mm, and gravel mulch to a depth of 50 mm.
Mulching schedule
Mulch key Location Mulch type Depth Stabilisation
method

Use the schedule only to provide information not shown on the drawings or specified in the Template.
Location: e.g. “Watering basins of individual plantings”, “Mass planting areas”, “Garden beds”.
Mulch type: Select the types with regard to local availability, proposed use, and prevailing conditions (slope, wind, etc.).
Mulch type: and Depth:
• Brush chippings and leaf litter: 75 mm.
• Pine flake: 75 mm.
• Pine bark: 75 mm.
• Chipper waste: 75 mm.
• River gravel (state size): 50 mm.
Select the types with regard to local availability, proposed use, and prevailing conditions (slope, wind, etc).

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Materials such as leaf litter, pine flake and pine bark require stabilisation (i.e. meshing) on slopes greater than 1:3. Materials
such as river pebbles and gravels are not suitable for use on slopes greater than 1:6.

3.5 SPRAYING
Notice
General: Immediately give notice of evidence of insect attack or disease amongst plant material.
Spraying
Product: Where required, spray with insecticide, fungicide or both.
Check whether local registers of pesticides or fungicides place restrictions, and if residuals will be unacceptable to the users of
finished works, e.g. schools. Edit as required.

3.6 STAKES AND TIES


Stakes
Material: Hardwood, straight, free from knots or twists, pointed at one end.
Installation: Drive stakes into the ground at least one third of their length, avoiding damage to the root
system.
Stake sizes:
- For plants ≥ 2.5 m high: Three 50 x 50 x 2400 mm stakes per plant.
- For plants 1 – 2.5 m high: Two 50 x 50 x 1800 mm stakes per plant.
- For plants < 1 m high: One 38 x 38 x 1200 mm stake per plant.
Ties
General: Provide ties fixed securely to the stakes, one tie at half the height of the main stem, others as
necessary to stabilise the plant.
Tie types:
- For plants ≥ 2.5 m high: Two strands of 2.5 mm galvanized wire neatly twisted together, passed
through reinforced rubber or plastic hose, and installed around stake and stem in a figure of eight
pattern.
- For plants < 2.5 m high: 50 mm hessian webbing stapled to the stake.
Marker stakes
Material: Timber offcuts 25 x 25 x 1200 mm. Dip the top 200 mm in white paint.
Installation: Drive firmly into the ground at least 300 mm from the plant. Do not tie to the plant.
Location of marker stakes:
- Trees in grass: Mark each tree.
- Ripline planting areas: Mark each ripline at every fifth plant along the line.
Stake and tie schedule
Species Stake size (mm) Stakes per plant Tie type Marker stakes

Use this schedule only if the template requirements are insufficient. Large trees or shrubs may require special consideration.
Edit as required.
Stake size: Show on the drawings if staking for large plants is to differ from Template.
Marker stakes: Generally used to mark small plantings in grassed areas.

3.7 EARTH ANCHORS


Used for the stabilisation of large plants and those in exposed positions. Detailed drawing recommended.

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Requirement
Support: Provide temporary support where necessary to trees, root balls or stakes using galvanized
steel cables attached to proprietary aluminium anchors or drive rods, which have been hand or power
driven at an angle into the ground.
Earth anchor schedule
Type Location Number required

3.8 TREE SURGERY


In all operations involving the removal of limbs and branches, the visual and structural effect on each tree and group of trees
should be considered.
Notice
General: Give notice before commencing tree surgery.
Qualifications
General: Employ suitably qualified persons to carry out tree surgery work in a safe and progressive
manner.
Pruning
Standard: To AS 4373.
Operations
General: Remove dead and decayed wood or limbs that have been broken. Make cuts into live wood.
If the trees show signs of deterioration after the work has been done, carry out a program of feeding or
soil amelioration such as soil aeration, irrigation or incorporation of organic material. Continue this
program until the end of the planting establishment period.
Precautions
Damage: Avoid damage to trees being treated or to nearby trees and surroundings. Do not use trees
as anchors for winching operations or bracing. Provide bracing as necessary before cutting to prevent
uncontrolled breakages and damage to surroundings.
Dressing
Treatment: Prevent incursion of rot or disease after cutting.
Root pruning
Disturbance: Do not unduly disturb the remaining root system.
Tree surgery schedule
Plant Work required

Work required: Tree surgery may include the following:


• Removal of dead, diseased or inferior growth.
• Removal of limbs causing damage to one or other limbs.
• Removal of mistletoe, or insect damaged wood.
• Removal of limbs to shape or balance the crown.
• Removal of dead trees.
• Repairs to damaged or insect infected limbs.
• Specialised feeding to promote growth.
• Root pruning.

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If possible, show the nature and extent of work on the drawings, or specify here. Root pruning of large specimens should begin
at least twelve months before transplanting, with subsequent feeding, to create a dense fibrous root ball.

3.9 PLANTING ESTABLISHMENT


Period
If planting is a separable part it may not achieve practical completion at the same time as the rest of the works, in which case
the planting establishment period commences at the date of practical completion of the planting works. The Template assumes
that the planting works are not a separable part. Modify the text if this is not the case. Separable parts must also be scheduled
in Preliminaries.
Commencement: The planting establishment period commences at the date of practical completion.
Required period: >
Specify a number of weeks, preferably equal to and concurrent with the defects liability period (but consider location, climate,
season, costs, etc.). This subparagraph applies if the landscape work is a separable part.
Practical completion of the planting works includes, but is not limited to, the germination of grassed areas, establishment of
turfed areas, and replacement of plants which have failed, been damaged or been stolen during the works.

Existing planting and grass


Maintenance: Where existing grass or planting is within the landscape contract area, maintain it as for
the corresponding classifications of new grass or planting.
Recurrent works
General: Throughout the planting establishment period, carry out maintenance work including,
watering, mowing, weeding, rubbish removal, fertilising, pest and disease control, reseeding, returfing,
staking and tying, replanting, cultivating, pruning, hedge clipping, aerating, reinstatement of mulch,
renovating, top dressing, and keeping the site neat and tidy.
Replacements
Plants: Continue to replace failed, damaged or stolen plants.
Grassed areas
Maintenance: Commence grass maintenance works at the completion of sowing, hydroseeding and
turfing. Maintain healthy weed-free growth.
Log book
Records: Keep a log book recording when and what maintenance work has been done and what
materials, including toxic materials, have been used. Make the log book available for inspection on
request.

3.10 COMPLETION
Product warranty
Certification: Submit the supplier’s written statement certifying that plants are true to the required
species and type, and are free from diseases, pests and weeds.
Maintenance manual
General: Submit recommendations for maintenance of plants.
Cleaning
Stakes and ties: Remove those no longer required at the end of the planting establishment period.
Temporary fences: Remove temporary protective fences at the end of the planting establishment
period.

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IRRIGATION SITE

IRRIGATION

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to automatically controlled fixed watering systems.
For water efficient design, refer to BDP EDG Notes DES 13 and DES 14. For information on PVC piping, refer to BDP EDG
Notes PRO 13 and PRO 14.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. See for example:
• Roofing for rainwater tanks.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
• Hydraulic general requirements.
• Cold and heated water.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection.
Worksection cross-referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• Show the layout and arrangement of the watering system on the drawings. Specify here particular requirements, if any,
which are not shown on the drawings or specified in the worksection.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: Provide automatically controlled fixed irrigation systems as follows and to the Selections.
- Achieve the documented flow rates over the area to be irrigated.
- Meet statutory requirements for backflow prevention.
Design
This worksection is intended for use when the specifier designs the system. If the contractor is to design part of the system,
specify the design responsibility here. Include any design constraints and relevant information such as the location of power for
automatic controllers, the presence of existing features like rock and intended planting. Specify minimum performance
requirements such as pipe material using this worksection and require that he contractor supply additional information needed
to specify the system and components.
Include, if appropriate, relevant information that may affect the design such as site constraints, conditions of authority approvals
etc.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.

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IRRIGATION SITE

Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
- Hydraulic general requirements.
- Cold and heated water.
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.
The Hydraulic general requirements worksection should not be deleted as it contains material on which this worksection
depends.

1.3 STANDARDS
Water supply
General: To AS/NZS 3500.1.

1.4 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made at the following stages:
- Excavated surfaces ready for installation.
- Concealed or underground services ready for backfilling.
Hold points, if required, should be inserted here.

1.5 SUBMISSIONS
Shop drawings
General: Submit drawings and schedules showing the layout and details of the system, including the
following:
- Micro-irrigation stake layout.
- Irrigation controller cabinets.

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 AUTOMATIC CONTROL VALVES


General
Type: 24 V solenoid actuated hydraulic valves with flow control and a maximum operating pressure
rating ≥ 1 MPa.
Construction: Stainless steel bonnet holding down bolts and internal metal parts of stainless steel,
able to be serviced without removal from the line.
Isolating valve: Provide a gate valve of the same size immediately upstream of each automatic control
valve.
Housing: House both valves in the same valve box.

2.2 FIXED LOCATION SYSTEMS


Heads
Performance: Provide heads that:
- Maintain a preset arc of throw.
- Are adjustable for radius during watering operations
- Are appropriately vandal-resistant.
Pop-up type heads:
- Type: Designed to rise > 50 mm out of their housings under supply pressure.
- Construction: Provide wiper seals, stainless steel return springs and removable internal filters.
- Playing fields: Provide covers designed and constructed to prevent injury to players.
Sprinkler heads:

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IRRIGATION SITE

- Type: Gear driven and spray sprinklers which have matched precipitation rates for the various areas
of throw.
- Flow rate adjustment To be adjustable down to zero.
Impact sprinkler heads: Bronze bodies in high impact plastic cases with drainage holes.
Valves
Check valves: If a rotating head is more than 300 mm below the highest head on the same automatic
valve, fit an internal or external anti-drain check valves to prevent low head drainage.
Pressure regulating valves: At off-take points provide pressure regulating valves as follows:
- Adjustable between 100 and 700 kPa.
- Complete with 800 µm filter sized to suit the flow and installed immediately upstream from the
pressure regulating valve
- Installed with gate valves upstream from the filter and downstream from the pressure regulating
valve.
- Fitted for backflow prevention.
- Mount the assembly in an accessible position in a valve box, access pit or adjacent building.
Soil moisture sensors
Type: Fixed ceramic moisture sensors.
Connection: To the irrigation controller via moisture control units.
Irrigation controllers
Construction: Provide automatic controllers that are easily programmed and include the following:
- Manual cycle and individual control valve operation.
- Manual on/off operation of irrigation without loss of program.
- ≥ 4 on/off cycles per day.
- Day omit (e.g. every second day, third day etc.).
- 240 V input and 24 V output capable of operating 2 control valves simultaneously.
- ≥ 24 hour battery program backup.
- Power surge protection.
- Cabinet: In external locations mount in a lockable cabinet minimum IP54 to AS 60529.
- Electrical connection: Provide 240 V supply and isolating switch at the controller.

2.3 MICRO-IRRIGATION SYSTEMS


Components
Polyethylene micro-irrigation pipe:
- Standard: To AS 2698.1 Class IRRIG.
- Fittings: Barbed fittings rated for the pressure class of the pipe, fastened with ratchet type clamps.
Drippers: Turbulent flow types, easily dismantled for cleaning.
Valve boxes: In each box provide:
- Automatic control valve.
- Isolating valve.
- Filter:
. Microsprays: 200 µm.
. Drippers: 100 µm.
- Pressure reducing valve with 170 kPa outlet pressure.

2.4 VALVE BOXES


General
Construction: To be UV resistant high impact plastic with high impact snap lock plastic cover.
Location: Support on bricks at each side. Install with top:
- Within playing fields: 150 mm below the surface.
- Other locations: At finished ground level.

NATSPEC 78 [Insert date]


IRRIGATION SITE

3 EXECUTION

3.1 FIXED LOCATION SYSTEMS


Control wiring
General: Connect the automatic control valves and soil moisture sensors to the controller as follows:
- Cable type: Double insulated.
- Cable runs: Underground and laid alongside piping where possible.
- Connectors: Waterproof.
- Jointing: loop cables and join only at valves, sensors and controllers.
- Movement provision: Provide expansion loops at changes of direction and at joints.
Quick coupling
General: Provide DN 20 double lugged bronze quick coupling valves with neoprene seats mounted on
DN 20 copper risers offset at least 150 mm from the supply pipe. Install in valve boxes.
Heads
Impact sprinkler heads: Provide granular fill for at least 75 mm around the base of the case.
Risers: Mount as follows:
- Above ground heads: Mount on fixed risers.
- Galvanized steel risers: Set in 300 x 300 x 200 mm deep concrete blocks.
- In-ground heads: Mount on reticulated risers.

3.2 MICRO-IRRIGATION SYSTEMS


General
Connections: Connect micro-tube laterals with proprietary push in or screw in fittings.
Drippers: Connect directly into piping or provide appropriately sized micro-tubes
Microsprays: Mount microsprays 300 mm above ground on stakes and connect to the piping with
appropriately sized micro-tubes.
Piping: Lay polyethylene pipe on finished ground surface under planting bed mulch and anchor at
1.5 m maximum intervals with U-shaped stakes.

3.3 COMPLETION
General
On completion:
- Flush system thoroughly, check heads, sprays and drippers and clean if blocked.
- Clean strainers.
- Adjust for even distribution with no dry areas.

4 SELECTIONS

Property values can be in words or numbers with units.

4.1 IRRIGATION
Fixed location systems schedule
Property Type
A B C
Performance
- Coverage (mm of water over area to be delivered
in each water period)
- Watering period
System type to AS/NZS 3500.1

NATSPEC 79 [Insert date]


IRRIGATION SITE

Property Type
A B C
Backflow prevention device
Controls
Storage
Pumps

Performance:
• Coverage: e.g. 6 mm.
• Watering period: e.g. overnight, 3 hours per day, 6 hours alternate days.
System type to AS/NZS 3500.1: e.g. A, B or C to AS/NZS 3500.1 clause 7.2.
Backflow prevention device: See AS/NZS 3500.1 clause 7.3.

Micro irrigation systems schedule


Property Type
A B C
Coverage (mm of water over area to be delivered
in each water period)
Watering period
Head type
Sprinklers
Sprays
Materials:
- Piping
- Heads
- Valves
Controls

Materials:
• Piping: e.g. UPVC, black polyethylene.
• Heads: e.g. cast bronze, stainless steel, bronze.

NATSPEC 80 [Insert date]


TREES SUPPLY SITE

TREES SUPPLY

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to trees supplied by nurseries, which have been grown under any style (or combination of styles)
of production. It provides for meaningful comparisons between stock from different suppliers describing their trees in different
ways e.g. by container size or by height and calliper.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. See for example:
• Site preparation.
• Earthwork for excavation and filling.
• Landscape – walling for walls under 750 mm in height.
• Landscape – fences and barriers for lightweight fences and barriers.
• Landscape – soils for soils.
• Landscape – soft surfaces for grassed surfaces.
• Landscape – plants for plants and planting.
• Trees supply for the supply of new trees.
• Irrigation for irrigation.
• Landscape – furniture and fixtures for installed equipment associated with landscaped works.
• Segmental pavers – sand bed for external unit paving.
• Segmental pavers – mortar bed for external stone, ceramic and cementitious paving.
• Concrete formwork, Concrete reinforcement and Concrete in situ for footings and other concrete structures.
• Brick and block construction for masonry walls.
• Tensioned membrane structures for shade structures.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection. For example:
• Work relating to existing trees.
Worksection cross-referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• Show all locations on the drawings.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: Provide trees that have been grown to a standard that allows them to establish rapidly and
grow to maturity.
Selections: Conform to the Selections.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.

NATSPEC 81 [Insert date]


TREES SUPPLY SITE

The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
>
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes, do not repeat them here.). You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

1.3 STANDARD
General
Guidance: Follow the guidance given in NATSPEC Guide: Specifying Trees – a guide to assessment
of tree quality (Clark R. 2003).
There are no relevant standards, other than Ross Clark’s book, on which this specification is based and AS 4373 (Pruning of
amenity trees).

1.4 INTERPRETATION
Definitions
General: For the purposes of this worksection the definitions given below apply.
Calliper: The stem or trunk diameter at a nominated point. Generally measured at 300 mm above
ground.
Size Index: Product of height (m) x calliper (mm).
Tubes or plant cells: Trees grown in small containers or cells in trays with a height:diameter ratio
> 3:2, typically < 0.75 L.
Small trees: Trees grown in containers < 20 L (other than tubes or plant cells), and ex-ground trees of
Size Index < 35.
Large trees: Trees grown in containers ≥ 20 L, and ex-ground trees of Size Index ≥ 35.
External inspection: Tree inspection without washing away of soil from the rootball which assesses the
following:
- The tree’s ability to be self-supporting.
- Its balance.
- Its root development.
Investigative inspection: Any method of root inspection that involves the washing away of all or
portions of the soil from the rootball to expose a section or all the roots.
Investigative inspection may be waived if an accredited quality assurance system is in place.
- Destructive inspection: The washing away of all soil from a rootball to allow inspection of rootball
development.
Where inspection is destructive, trees will be sacrificed. The trees sacrificed should be in addition to the number of trees
ordered. The cost of these plants can either be built into the supplier’s price when quoting for supply or itemised as an additional
cost.
- Partial inspection: A method of exposing a section of a root system to enable inspection of root
development by washing the soil away in a wedge-shaped section from the stem to the extremity of
the rootball. This soil can be gently replaced so the tree is not damaged.

1.5 PRECOMPLETION TESTS


Production tests
External inspection:
- Frequency: Inspect trees before shipment.
- Inspector: Supplier.

NATSPEC 82 [Insert date]


TREES SUPPLY SITE

A default is given. However the contract administrator may wish to carry out the inspections or appoint an agent (landscape
architect or arborist) or the purchaser. Edit as required.
- Sampling: To the External inspection sampling table for each batch of trees. Select sample trees
at evenly distributed intervals within each batch.
External inspection sampling table
Number of trees per batch Number of trees to sample
0 – 20 4
21 – 50 8
51 – 100 15
101 – 500 15 for the first 100 + 5% of the balance of the order
501 – 2000 35 for the first 500 + 2% of the balance of the order
2001+ 65 for the first 2000 + 1% of the balance of the
order

Investigative inspection:
- Frequency: Inspect trees before shipment.
- Inspector: Qualified person authorised by contract administrator.
- Destructive inspection: Use for trees with rootballs/containers ≤ 200 mm.
- Allowance: Allow for sample trees in addition to quantity ordered.
- Partial inspection: Use for trees with rootballs/containers > 200 mm.
- Sampling: To the Investigative inspection sampling table for each batch of trees. Select sample
trees at evenly distributed intervals throughout each batch.
Investigative inspection sampling table
Number of trees per batch Number of trees to sample
0 – 20 1
21 – 50 2
51 – 100 4
101 – 500 4 for the first 100 + 2% of balance of order
501 – 2000 12 for first 500 + 1% of balance of order
2001+ 27 for the first 2000 + 0.5% of balance of order

1.6 SUBMISSIONS
Test results
General: Complete and return the Tree inspection form for each batch inspected.
Rejection: Non-compliance may lead to rejection of the entire batch.
Corrective action: Comply with corrective action procedures for each order as instructed.
Substitution: If non-complying trees are proposed, submit a proposal in writing to the contract
administrator for approval.
Suppliers must indicate any deviations from the specification. Small variations may be acceptable.
Authentication: Supply a copy of the written approval of substitution with any non-complying trees.
Forward order contracts
Reports: Complete regular reports using the pro forma Tree inspection form. Include checks against
specification requirements.
- Photographs: Provide current colour copies with date verification.
- Submissions: To the contract administrator.

NATSPEC 83 [Insert date]


TREES SUPPLY SITE

- Inspection: Complete and return the attached pro-forma Tree inspection form before despatch of
every batch, and at the following frequencies:
. Inspections: At 3 monthly intervals.
A default is given. Inspections may be at three or six monthly intervals, carried out at the same time as the reports. Edit as
required.
. Reports: At time of inspections.

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 BALANCE
Small trees
Conformance at inspection: To Balance (small trees) assessment requirements.
Balance (small trees) assessment requirements:
- Tubes or plant cells: height above soil level must be between 1.5 and 2.5 times the height of the
tube or plant cell.
- Trees in containers < 20 L (other than tubes or plant cells) or ex-ground trees of Size Index < 35
(e.g. 1.4 m high x 25 mm calliper); height must fall within the range indicated for the container size
in the Small container-grown trees table.
- Containers/rootballs (other than tubes or plant cells) must remain flat on the ground when the stem,
held at 80% of height above ground, is deflected 30º from the vertical, side to side.
Exempt: Species that naturally produce hard inflexible wood in the early stages of their development.
e.g. Tuckeroo [Cupaniopsis anacardioides].
Small container-grown trees table
Tubes or plant cells Tree height between 1.5 and 2.5 x the height of the container
Container size or Height range (m)
minimum rootball diameter
Thin-stemmed species Thick-stemmed species
150 mm (1.8 L) 0.4 – 0.6 0.3 – 0.5
170 mm (2.6 L) 0.5 – 0.7 0.4 – 0.6
200 mm pot (4 L) 0.7 – 0.9 0.6 – 0.8
200 mm bag (5 L) 0.8 – 1.0 0.7 – 0.9
250 mm (8 L) 1.0 – 1.2 0.8 – 1.0
300 mm (15 L) 1.2 – 1.5 1.0 – 1.2

Large trees
Conformance at inspection: To Balance (large trees) assessment requirements.
Balance (large trees) assessment requirements:
- For trees grown in containers ≥ 20 L, the Size Index must lie within the range for the nominal
container size shown in the Common container volumes table.
- Ex-ground trees with a Size Index ≥ 35 (e.g. 1.4 m high x 25 mm calliper) must have rootball
diameters ≥ the minimum rootball diameters shown in the Ex-ground trees table.
Common container volumes table
Size Index Nominal container Size Index Nominal container
volume (L) volume (L)
26-33 20 371-480 450
32-41 25 412-518 500
45-58 35 453-587 550

NATSPEC 84 [Insert date]


TREES SUPPLY SITE

Size Index Nominal container Size Index Nominal container


volume (L) volume (L)
57-74 45 495-640 600
77-99 60 533-716 700
83-107 75 632-818 800
111-143 100 711-921 900
154-200 150 791-1023 1000
194-251 200 842-1089 1100
227-314 250 918-1188 1200
273-353 300 1148-1485 1500
289-373 350 1530-1980 2000
330-427 400 1913-2475 2500

Ex-ground trees table


Size Index Minimum rootball Size Index Minimum rootball
diameter (mm) diameter (mm)
36–55 350 341–383 850
56–72 400 384–429 900
73–106 450 430–530 1000
107–131 500 531–642 1100
132–156 550 643–732 1200
157–173 600 733–859 1300
174–228 650 860–1144 1500
229–249 700 1145–1507 1750
250–299 750 1508–1968 2000
300–340 800 1969–3075 2500

Balance assessment for large trees outside the range shown. Use the formula:
• Size Index = Container or rootball volume x 1.08.
The rootball volume is calculated for the actual soil volume (and not the container size). For both container-grown and ex-
2
ground trees, calculate the rootball volume (L) by multiplying the surface area (m ) by the rootball depth (mm). In the event that
the containers/rootballs offered are > 550 mm deep, only the top 550 mm is assessable for balance purposes.
Trees outside the ranges shown in the Common container volumes table and the Ex-ground trees
table.
- Height: >
- Calliper: >
- Rootball volume: >
Photographs: Provide current colour copies with date verification.

2.2 ABOVE-GROUND
Labelling
General: Clearly label individual trees and batches.
- Label type: To withstand transit without erasure or misplacement.
- Label frequency: >

NATSPEC 85 [Insert date]


TREES SUPPLY SITE

Health and vigour


Health: Supply trees with foliage size, texture and colour at time of delivery consistent with the size,
texture and colour shown in healthy specimens of the nominated species.
Vigour: Supply trees with extension growth consistent with that exhibited in vigorous specimens of the
species nominated.
Freedom from pests and disease
Pests and disease: Supply trees with foliage free from attack by pests or disease.
Native species with a history of attack by native pests: Restrict evidence of previous attack to < 15% of
the foliage and ensure absence of actively feeding insects.
Supply
Supply only trees that:
- Are free from injury.
- Are self-supporting.
- Have the calliper at any given point on the stem greater than the calliper at any higher point on the
stem.
Pruning
Specific form: >
Nominate any specific form requirement or specific clean stem height.
Clean stem height: < 40% of total tree height.
Pruning wounds
Extent: Restrict fresh (i.e. recent, non-calloused pruning wounds) to < 20% of total tree height.
Type: Ensure a clean-cut at the branch collar.
Diameter of wound: < 50% of the calliper immediately above the point of pruning.
Apical dominance
Species with an excurrent form: Supply trees with a defined central leader and the apical bud intact.
Crown symmetry
Crown distribution: Difference on opposite sides of the stem axis < 20%.
Stem structure
Species with excurrent form: Supply trees with a single stem roughly in the centre of the tree with any
deviation from vertical < 15º.
Species with decurrent form: Supply trees where the central stem is not divided at any point lower
than the clean stem height nominated, and that the stem junction at the point of division is sound.
All species: Ensure that branch diameter is less than or equal to one-half of the calliper immediately
above the branch junction.
Included bark
General: Supply trees where the branch/stem bark ridges at junctions between stems and branches
and between co-dominant stems are convex, except for species prone to include bark that are known
to remain strong.
Trunk position
General: Supply trees with the distance from the centre of the trunk to the extremity of the rootball not
varying by > 10%.
Compatibility of graft unions
General: Supply trees where the union between the scion and rootstock is sound for the entire
perimeter of the graft, and the diameter of the scion immediately above the graft is equal to the
diameter of the rootstock immediately below the graft (± 20%).
Indication of north
Trees in containers > 100 L or of Size Index > 140: Indicate the northerly aspect during growth in the
nursery to withstand transit without erasure or misplacement.

2.3 BELOW-GROUND
Root division
Trees in containers ≤ 45 L or ex-ground trees with a Size Index ≤ 70: Primary division of roots at
< 100 mm intervals.

NATSPEC 86 [Insert date]


TREES SUPPLY SITE

Trees in containers > 45 L or ex-ground trees with a Size Index > 70: Primary division of roots within
the outer 50% of the rootball at < 100 mm intervals.
Root direction
General: Ensure that roots, from the point of initiation, generally grow in an outwards (radial) or
downwards direction, and that any deviation from the established direction < 45º.
Trees with a calliper at ground level < 40 mm: Ensure that the diameter of any nonconforming roots at
the extremity of the rootball < 25% of the calliper.
Trees with a calliper at ground level ≥ 40 mm: Ensure that the diameter of any nonconforming roots at
the extremity of the rootball < 10 mm.
Rootball occupancy
Soil retention: On shaking or handling the unsupported rootball at least 90% of the soil volume to
remain intact.
Rootball depth
Rootball depth assessment for containers/rootballs ≥ 45 L or larger:
- Depth: ≤ maximum depth specified and no rootball (regardless of size) > 550 mm in depth.
- Diameter: ≥ depth.
Height of root crown
General: Ensure that root crown is at the surface of the rootball.
Non-suckering rootstock
Grafted cultivars/varieties: Supply trees grafted onto non-suckering rootstock.

3 SELECTIONS

3.1 SCHEDULES
Plant schedule
Plant species Number Rootball or Height (m) Calliper (mm)
container volume
(L)

NATSPEC 87 [Insert date]


TREES SUPPLY SITE

3.2 TREE INSPECTION FORM


General
Date Reference
Purchaser
Supplier Inspected by
(supplier/purchaser/agent)
Species Batch identification
Number of trees in batch Container/rootball size
Height range Calliper range
Special requirements

Above ground
Labelling ❑
Health and vigour ❑
Freedom from pests/disease ❑
Freedom from injury ❑
Self-supporting ❑
Stem taper ❑
Pruning ❑
Apical dominance ❑
Crown symmetry ❑
Stem structure ❑
Included bark ❑
Trunk position ❑
Compatibility of graft unions ❑
Indication of north ❑

Below ground
Inspection method used ❑ External only
❑ External plus investigative
❑ destructive ❑ partial
Number of trees in sample ❑
Root division ❑
Root direction ❑
Diameter nonconforming roots at rootball ❑
extremity
Rootball occupancy ❑
Rootball depth ❑
Height of root crown ❑
Non-suckering rootstock ❑

NATSPEC 88 [Insert date]


TREES SUPPLY SITE

Balance
Balance ❑

Conformance with specification


Conforming ❑ Yes ❑ No
Comments
Name and signature (inspector)

NATSPEC 89 [Insert date]


LANDSCAPE – FURNITURE AND FIXTURES SITE

LANDSCAPE – FURNITURE AND FIXTURES

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to the supply and installation of proprietary items associated with landscape works.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC.
Related material may be found in other worksections. See for example:
• Earthwork for excavation and filling.
• Site preparation.
• Landscape – walling for walls under 750 mm in height.
• Landscape – fences and barriers for lightweight fences and barriers.
• Landscape – soils for soils.
• Landscape – soft surfaces for grassed surfaces.
• Landscape – plants for plants and planting.
• Trees supply for the supply of new trees.
• Irrigation for irrigation.
• Segmental pavers – mortar bed for external stone, ceramic and cementitious paving.
• Segmental pavers – sand bed for external unit paving.
• Concrete formwork, Concrete reinforcement and Concrete in situ for footings and other concrete structures.
• Brick and block construction for masonry walls.
• Tensioned membrane structures for shade structures.
• Signs and display for interpretative signage.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
Material not included in NATSPEC
• Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or
use an applicable worksection.
Worksection cross-referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• Locate furniture and fixtures on drawings of in a schedule of fixtures and equipment to your office documentation policy.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
Selections: Conform to the Selections.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.

NATSPEC 90 [Insert date]


LANDSCAPE – FURNITURE AND FIXTURES SITE

Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
>
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes, do not repeat them here.). You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

1.3 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made of the following:
- Custom-built fixtures fabricated and ready to be delivered to the site.
- Furniture items delivered to site before installation.
- Site locations or substrates prepared to receive furniture or fixtures before installation.
Hold points, if required, should be inserted here.

1.4 SUBMISSIONS
Subcontractors
General: Submit names and contact details of proposed suppliers and installers.
Installation
General: Submit the manufacturer’s standard drawings and details showing methods of construction,
assembly and installation; with dimensions and tolerances.

2 EXECUTION

2.1 FIXING
Erection
Line and level: Erect posts or poles vertically. Erect furniture items level. Provide a level area around
benches and seats where installed on slopes.
Add any particular installation requirements here. The installation of all proprietary items to the manufacturer’s instructions is
noted in General requirements.

2.2 COMPLETION
Maintenance manual
General: Submit the manufacturers’ data as follows:
- Recommendations for service use, care and maintenance.
- List of manufacturers and suppliers of replacement parts.

3 SELECTIONS

3.1 FURNITURE
Barbeque
Type: >
Description: >
Supplier: >
Product No.: >
Finish: >
Fixing: >
Benches
Type: >
Description: >
Supplier: >

NATSPEC 91 [Insert date]


LANDSCAPE – FURNITURE AND FIXTURES SITE

Product No.: >


Finish: >
Fixing: >
Seats and tables
Type: >
Description: >
Supplier: >
Product No.: >
Finish: >
Fixing: >
Play equipment
Type: >
Description: >
Supplier: >
Product No.: >
Finish: >
Fixing: >
Repeat as required for each item of play equipment.

3.2 PLANTING FITTINGS


Planter boxes
Type: >
Description: >
Size: >
Supplier: >
Product No.: >
Finish: >
Fixing: >
Pots
Type: >
Description: >
Size: >
Supplier: >
Product No.: >
Finish: >
Fixing: >
Tree grates
Type: >
Description: >
Size: >
Supplier: >
Product No.: >
Material: >
Finish: >
Fixing: >

3.3 FIXTURES
Flag pole
Type: >
Description: >
NATSPEC 92 [Insert date]
LANDSCAPE – FURNITURE AND FIXTURES SITE

Size: >
Supplier: >
Product No.: >
Size: >
Finish: >
Fixing: >
Drinking fountain
Type: >
Description: >
Supplier: >
Product No.: >
Finish: >
Fixing: >
Water feature
Type: >
Description: >
Supplier: >
Product No.: >
Finish: >
Connection: >
Fixing: >
If the water feature is not a proprietary item provide detail and specification notes.
Litter bins
Type: >
Description: >
Supplier: >
Product No.: >
Finish: >
Fixing: >

NATSPEC 93 [Insert date]


PAVEMENT BASE AND SUBBASE SITE

PAVEMENT BASE AND SUBBASE

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to the supply, spreading, compaction and trimming of base and subbase courses of flexible
pavements.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• Asphaltic concrete.
• Sprayed bituminous surfacing.
• Concrete pavement.
• Segmental pavers – mortar bed.
• Segmental pavers – sand bed.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
• Site preparation.
• Earthwork.
• Stormwater – site.
• Pavement ancillaries.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection. For example:
• Base and subbase courses in public roads. Where works are to be completed within public roads the relevant government
authority specifications and requirements will apply.
• Where bound base and subbase is proposed, consult the engineer.
Worksection cross referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• Asphaltic concrete.
• Sprayed bituminous surfacing.
• Concrete pavement.
• Segmental pavers – mortar bed.
• Segmental pavers – sand bed.
• Pavement ancillaries.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• Base and subbase course thicknesses and levels should be shown on the drawings.
• Design traffic in (ESA’s) to be shown on the drawings.

4 GENERAL

4.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: Provide base and subbase courses that are as follows:
- In conformance with the level tolerances specified.
- Tested by a geotechnical testing authority.
- In conformance with the compaction requirements supplied.

NATSPEC 94 [Insert date]


PAVEMENT BASE AND SUBBASE SITE

4.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
>
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

4.3 INTERPRETATION
Definitions
General: For the purposes of this worksection the definitions given below apply.
- Standard: To AS 1348.
- Absolute level tolerance: Maximum deviation from design levels.
- Relative level tolerance: Maximum deviation from a 3 m straight edge laid on the surface.
The Definitions subclause can be edited to suit the project or deleted if not required.

4.4 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made of the following:
- Prepared subgrade.
- Proof rolling of subbase prior to spreading of base.
- Proof rolling of base prior to sealing.
Hold points, if required, should be inserted here.

4.5 TESTS
Compaction control tests
Standard: To AS 1289.5.4.1 and AS 1289.5.4.2.

4.6 SUBMISSIONS
Frequency of compaction control tests
General: Not less than the following (whichever requires the most tests):
- 1 test per layer per 25 lineal metres for 2-lane roads.
- 1 test per layer per 1000 m2 for carparks.
- 3 tests per layer.
- 3 tests per visit.
Standard: To AS 3798 Table 8.1.
Extract from AS 3798 Table 8.1. The required frequency may need adjustment on large scale projects or confined areas. Where
specific recommendations are given in the geotechnical report, for the site, these should replace the extract from AS 3798 Table
8.1 listed above.
Source of material: State the supplier name, nature of material (crushed rock, natural gravel, recycled,
etc.) and source quarry or recycling site.
Compliance of material: Provide certification and test results from a NATA registered laboratory
confirming that the material complies with the requirements of the specification.

NATSPEC 95 [Insert date]


PAVEMENT BASE AND SUBBASE SITE

Execution
This worksection lists the information which may be required for a major project. Modify the list as required. Alternatively delete
the subclause entirely if these matters are to be left to the contractor.
General: Submit proposals for the methods and equipment to be used for the roadworks, including the
following:
- Staging of the work, access and traffic control methods.
- Disposal of surface water, control of erosion, contamination and sedimentation of the site,
surrounding areas and drainage systems.
- Methods and equipment for each operation.
- Sources of materials.
- Material stockpiles.
Compaction: If it is proposed that a layer is to exceed 150 mm in thickness, submit evidence
demonstrating that the proposed compaction equipment can achieve the required density throughout
the layer.

5 PRODUCTS

5.1 BASE AND SUBBASE MATERIAL


General
Compliance: Base and subbase materials shall comply with the Base and subbase compliance
table.
Base and subbase compliance table
Course Source Compliance requirement
Base Crushed rock or natural To AUS-SPEC1 (applicable in your state) Tables C242.1,
gravel C242.2, C242.3.
Subbase Crushed rock or natural AUS-SPEC1 (applicable in your state) Tables C242.1,
gravel C242.2, C242.4.

The Base and subbase compliance table is based on the requirements of AUS-SPEC 1. State Road Authority specifications
are also commonly used for specification of base and subbase materials but differ from state to state. Modify the compliance
requirements as necessary.

6 EXECUTION

6.1 SUBGRADE PREPARATION


General
General: Subgrade preparation to be undertaken in accordance with the Earthwork worksection.

6.2 TOLERANCES
Surface level
General: Provide a finished surface which is free draining and evenly graded between level points.
Edges abutting gutters: Within ± 5 mm of the level of the actual gutter edge.
Tolerances: The tolerances in the Surface level tolerances table apply to the finished level of each
layer, unless overridden by the requirements (including tolerances) for the finished level and thickness
of the wearing course.

NATSPEC 96 [Insert date]


PAVEMENT BASE AND SUBBASE SITE

Surface level tolerances table


Item Level tolerance
Absolute Relative
Subbase surface ± 10 mm 10 mm
Base surface ± 10 mm 10 mm

6.3 SUBBASE AND BASE COMPACTION


General
General: Compact each layer of fill to the required depth and density, as a systematic construction
operation and to conform to the minimum relative compaction table.
Minimum relative compaction table
Item description Minimum dry density ratio (modified
compaction) to AS 1289.5.2.1
Subbase 95
Base 98

Based on AS 3798 Table 5.1. Modify where geotechnical engineer’s requirements differ. Modify to suit locally available
materials giving consideration to the potential for some natural materials to break down if over compacted.
Unstable areas: Any unstable areas which develop during rolling or are identified by proof rolling shall
be removed for the full depth of the layer and disposed of and replaced with fresh material. Materials
used as replacement materials shall comply with the requirements of the specification. The placing
and compaction of the replacement materials shall also comply with the requirements of the
specification.
Compaction requirements
General: Apply uniform and sufficient compactive effort over the whole area to be compacted. Use
rollers appropriate to the materials and compaction requirements.
“Sufficient compactive effort” implies that compaction will continue until the required density is achieved, or until failure is
acknowledged; for the latter case, the subclause Rectification applies.
For critical works, where the method of achieving the performance requirement (i.e. density) cannot be left to the contractor’s
discretion, detailed prescription of compaction plant characteristics may be desirable. Standard method of testing may be
unsuitable where the materials contain a high proportion of large or “oversize” particles. Consult the engineer.
Moisture content
General: During spreading and compaction, maintain materials at the optimum moisture content
(modified compaction) within the range of -2% to +1% from the optimum moisture content.
If the requirements of this worksection are not appropriate other requirements may be specified here. The tolerance of + 1%, -
2% is appropriate for base materials which have been mixed with water in a pugmill before placing on the pavement. However
if base materials are placed dry and water is subsequently added, a tolerance of ± 2% may be used. Alternatively the moisture
content limits may be specified by percentage of optimum (e.g. 60% to 90% of optimum).
Spraying: Maintain moisture content. Use water spraying equipment capable of distributing water
uniformly in controlled quantities over uniform lane widths.
Rectification
General: If a section of pavement material fails to meet the required density or moisture content after
compaction remove the non-complying material, replace with fresh material, and recompact.
Level corrections
General: Rectify incorrect levels as follows:
- High areas: Grade off.
- Low areas: Remove layers to a minimum depth of 75 mm, replace with new material and
recompact.

NATSPEC 97 [Insert date]


PAVEMENT BASE AND SUBBASE SITE

6.4 PLACING BASE AND SUBBASE


General
Weak surfaces: Do not place material on a surface which has been so weakened by moisture that it
will not support, without damage, the constructional plant required to perform the work.
Spreading: Spread material in uniform layers without segregation.
Moisture content: Maintain wet mixed materials at the required moisture content before and during
spreading. Add water to dry mixed materials through fine sprays to the entire surface of the layer after
spreading, to bring the material to the required moisture content.
Layer thickness: 150 mm maximum and 75 mm minimum (after compaction). Provide equal layers in
multilayer courses.
Joints
General: Plan spreading and delivery to minimise the number of joints. Offset joints in successive
layers by at least 300 mm.
Final trimming
General: Trim and grade the base course to produce a tight even surface without loose stones or a
slurry of fines.

NATSPEC 98 [Insert date]


ASPHALTIC CONCRETE SITE

ASPHALTIC CONCRETE

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to the supply and laying of asphaltic concrete.
For general guidance on asphalt paving refer to AS 2734.
AS 2150 Section 7 consists of two pages on plant requirements and manufacture. Given that this is the contractor’s
responsibility under most contracts in any case, little if anything needs to be said on the subject in the project specification.
Accordingly, most material on this subject in the previous edition of this worksection and commentary has been dropped.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• Sprayed bituminous surfacing.
• Concrete pavement.
• Segmental pavers – mortar bed.
• Segmental pavers – sand bed.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
• Site preparation.
• Earthwork.
• Stormwater – site.
• Pavement base and subbase.
• Pavement ancillaries.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection. For example:
• None.
Worksection cross referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• The extent of asphaltic concrete and applicable nominal mix size and layer thickness should preferably be shown on a
pavement plan.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: Provide a finished surface which is as follows:
- Free draining and evenly graded between level points.
- Even and smooth riding
Selections: Conform to the Selections.
Standards
Asphalt (hot-mixed): Follow the guidance in AS 2734.
See AS 2734 Tables 3.1 and 3.3 on mix types in general use.
Tolerances
General: Conform to the Surface level tolerances table which applies to the finished level of each
layer, unless overridden by the requirements (including tolerances) for the finished level and thickness
of the surface course.

NATSPEC 99 [Insert date]


ASPHALTIC CONCRETE SITE

Surface level tolerances table


Item Level tolerance
Absolute Relative
Longitudinal direction ± 10 mm 5 mm
Transverse direction ± 10 mm 10 mm

Compacted layer thickness:


- Any one sample: + 10 mm, - 5 mm.
- The mean thickness of the core samples in a lot: + unspecified, - 0.
Edges abutting gutters: Within ± 5 mm of the level of the actual gutter edge.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
- Pavements base and subbase.
- Pavements ancillaries.
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

1.3 INTERPRETATION
Definitions
General: For the purposes of this worksection the definitions given below apply.
- Absolute level tolerance: Maximum deviation from design levels.
- Relative level tolerance: Maximum deviation from a 3 m straightedge laid on the surface.
- Relative compaction: The ratio between the field bulk density and the bulk density of the job mix
when compacted in the laboratory.
See AS 2150 clause 3.
The Definitions subclause can be edited to suit the project or deleted if not required.

1.4 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made of the following:
- Surface prepared for priming, sealing or asphalt surfacing.
- Commencement of asphalt surfacing.
- Completion of asphalt surfacing.
Hold points, if required, should be inserted here.

1.5 TESTS
General
Tests: Perform tests of the type and frequency necessary to adequately control the materials and
processes used in the construction of the works and in conformance with the Tests table.

NATSPEC 100 [Insert date]


ASPHALTIC CONCRETE SITE

Performed by the contractor (or a testing authority appointed by and reporting to the contractor) to maintain control during the
course of the works over his materials and processes, independently of compliance assessment testing. It is usual to specify a
minimum requirement. The contractor may elect to perform additional tests for his own purposes and at his expense.
Process control tests
Records: Show the results of process control tests on control charts or graphs displayed on site in a
readily accessible location and updated daily.
Methods: Use wet preparation methods where applicable.
If subsidiary, rather than standard, test methods are required, and are not specified in the Template, they should be specified in
the schedules.
Sampling: Determine timing and location.
Compliance assessment tests
Timing: Obtain materials samples at the time of delivery to the site.
Location: Sample from selected sample sites within designated uniform test lots, consisting of an area
placed, or compacted or both in one day. Test lots must be uniform in terms of material properties and
density.
Mix properties
See the Commentary on variations to the required Marshall properties.
General: Take samples from trucks at the mixing plant and test for mix properties using one of the
following methods as applicable:
- Tar mixes: To AS 2891.4.
- Marshall stability of compacted mix:
. Compactive effort: 50 – blow.
35 blows may suffice for light traffic mix designs; 75 will be necessary for heavy or very heavy traffic, and for deep lifts.
Variations in mix properties
General: Ensure that the maximum variation between the mix property of each sample and the job mix
value conforms to the Mix property table.
The requirements in this worksection may differ from those in AS 2150 Table 1.
Mix property table
Mix property Maximum variation from job mix value
Aggregate passing 4.75 mm sieve or larger ± 4% by mass
Aggregate passing 2.36 to 0.3 mm sieves ± 3% by mass
Aggregate passing 0.15 mm sieve ± 2% by mass
Aggregate passing 0.075 mm sieve ± 1% by mass
Bitumen content ± 0.3% by mass
Added filler content ± 0.5% by mass
Mixing temperature ± 10°C

Compaction tests
Density tests: Perform a field bulk density test for each test site from either of the following:
- On a core sample taken from the asphalt surfacing layer.
- If the nominal layer thickness is ≥ 50 mm, measured in situ using a nuclear gauge.
Sample preparation: To AS 2891.2.1 and AS 2891.2.2, as applicable.
Characteristic value of relative compaction: Calculate the value of relative compaction using the
formulae in the Relative compaction table, in which X and S are the mean and the standard
deviation, respectively of the individual relative compaction test values for the lot.
See AS 2734 clause 9.4 on density. If asphalt compaction tests are required, specify here test method, test frequency and
acceptance criteria. Applicable standard methods are AS 2891 for sampling and for determination of field bulk density.
For larger jobs acceptance criteria for relative compaction should be based on a statistical analysis.

NATSPEC 101 [Insert date]


ASPHALTIC CONCRETE SITE

Relative compaction table


Number of tests per lot Characteristic value
6 X - 0.92S
10 X - 0.88S

Acceptance criteria: The relative compaction of each lot of pavement must meet the criteria of the
Asphalt compaction acceptance criteria table.
Asphalt compaction acceptance criteria table
Test criteria scale
A B
Number of test sites per lot:
- Core sample tests 6 3
- Nuclear gauge tests 10 5
Lot value for relative compaction Characteristic value Mean value
Minimum value:
- Layer thickness up to 50 mm 96% 94%
- Layer thickness 50 mm or more 96% 96%

Scale A and Scale B are alternatives. Select one.

1.6 SUBMISSIONS
Products – documentation
Certificate of compliance: As an alternative to testing a product, submit the manufacturer’s certificate
together with the results of recent tests undertaken by the manufacturer, showing conformance with
test criteria.
Products – proposals
General: Submit the following details before commencing production:
- Combined aggregate particle size distribution.
- Binder content expressed as a percentage of the total mix.
- The filler content expressed as a percentage by mass of the combined aggregates.
- The asphalt mix properties.
- The proposed mixing temperature.
See AS 2150 clause 6.1 on mix design requirements.

Products – samples
Samples: Submit samples of the following at least one month before use:
- Granular materials: One 50 kg sample of each proposed type and size of asphalt aggregate and
cover aggregate.
Identification: Attach a tag to each sample showing relevant information including description, source
and nominal size of material.
Consider specifying in the Conditions of tendering that tenderers are to nominate their proposed sources of supply of materials
required under the contract (including details such as location, geological and petrological description of the rock to be crushed,
crushing and screening processes, etc.) and to supply samples from the sources for testing. Appropriate tests and test limits for
materials supplied from each source can then be based on this testing and incorporated into the specification.
Execution – proposals
General: Submit proposals for the methods and equipment to be used, including the following:
- Staging of the work, access and traffic control methods.
- Disposal of surface water, control of erosion, contamination and sedimentation of the site,
surrounding areas and drainage systems.
- Methods and equipment for each operation.

NATSPEC 102 [Insert date]


ASPHALTIC CONCRETE SITE

- Sources of materials.
- Material stockpiles.
This worksection lists the information which may be required for a major project. Modify the list as required. Alternatively delete
the subclause entirely if these matters are to be left to the contractor.

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 PRODUCTS
Alternatively specify asphalt surfacing complying with the standard requirements of local authorities such as RTA (NSW) or
Vicroads.
Mineral filler to AS 2357, which is cited in AS 2150.
Asphalt
Standards:
- Hot mix asphalt: To AS 2150.
- Medium cut back bitumen: To AS 2157, containing no fluxing oil.
- Tack coat mix: 3:2 bitumen emulsion:water.
- Bitumen emulsion: To AS 1160.
. Designation: ARS/170-60.
Vary if a different emulsion is required, e.g. for cool damp conditions “Designation CRS/170”.
Aggregate
Description: To be clean, sound, hard, angular, of uniform quality, free from deleterious matter in
conformance with the Aggregate properties table.
Standard: To AS 2758.5.
Crushed slag: To be air-cooled blast furnace slag of uniform quality, generally free from vesicular,
glassy or other brittle pieces.
Fine aggregate: To be clean, sound, hard, durable particles of natural sand or particles derived from
crushed stone, gravel or slag, free from injurious coating or particles of clay, silt, loam or other
deleterious matter.
Aggregate properties table
Property Test method Value
Particle shape AS 1141.14 ≤ 25 for wearing course
≤ 30 for binder course and
corrective course
Wet strength AS 1141.22 ≥ 50 kN
Wet/dry strength variation - ≤ 35%

These requirements may not be appropriate in some areas. It may be necessary to specify additional or different tests or test
limits.
Particle shape: Or, specify flakiness index to AS 1141.15.
Wet strength: and Wet/dry strength variation: Or, specify Los Angeles value to AS 1141.23 and either sodium sulfate soundness
or unsound and marginal stone content.
Binder
General: To be bitumen binder, class 170.
Specify Class 320 for very heavy traffic.
Asphalt mix
General: Design the asphalt mix using the Marshall method as follows:
- Marshall stability: > 4.5 kN.
- Marshall flow:< 4.5 mm.
- Voids in total mix (maximum theoretical density based on apparent specific gravity of aggregates):

NATSPEC 103 [Insert date]


ASPHALTIC CONCRETE SITE

. Wearing courses: 3% – 5%.


. Binder courses and 7 mm mixes: 4% – 6%.
- Voids in aggregate filled with bitumen:
. Wearing courses: 75% – 85%.
. Binder courses and 7 mm mixes: 70% – 80%.

3 EXECUTION

3.1 PREPARATION
Cleaning
General: Immediately before priming or tack coating remove loose stones, dust and foreign material
from the base surface using a power broom or blower. Keep traffic off the cleaned surface.
Priming
General: Prime the base surface as soon as possible after compaction and finishing.
A primer may be applied to protect the base against weather and to assist in achieving a bond between the granular surface
and the asphalt layer. It will also provide limited protection from traffic. See AS 2734 Section 4 on surface preparation. Delete if
priming is not required.
Potholes
General: Trim to a regular shape and a uniform depth of at least 75 mm, tack coat the edges and
patch with asphaltic concrete.

3.2 SURFACING
Protection
General: Protect adjacent surfaces during spraying. Protect freshly sprayed surfaces from
contamination.
Tack coating
General: Apply tack coat 30 – 120 minutes before asphalt surfacing is placed. Cover the surface
uniformly at an application rate of 0.10 – 0.30 L/m2 of residual bitumen.
See AS 2734 Section 5 on tack coating. Vary the tack coat material grade and application rate if necessary. Alternatively the
tack coat may be omitted entirely.

Spreading
General: Place asphalt surfacing in dry weather on a dry pavement surface at a pavement
temperature of at least 10°C.
Operations: Spread the mix in layers covering the full width of the pavement, or, in the case of
carriageways and wide pavements, in lanes of minimum width 3 m. Place layers in adjoining lanes to
the same compacted thickness.
See AS 2734 Section 7 and 8 for information about placing and compaction methods and equipment. Preferably leave the
selection of plant to the contractor.
The direction of placing may affect levels. In certain cases, it is essential that direction of placing be shown on the drawings.

Abutting structures
General: Place asphalt surfacing to match the level of abutting surfaces such as kerbs, gutters, edge
strips, manholes, or adjoining pavement in the same manner as for longitudinal and transverse joints.
Fill spaces left unfilled between the spreader run and abutting edges with sufficient material to the
proper height before compaction.
Matched junctions
General: If asphalt surfacing is to match an existing pavement, bridge deck, rail or other fixture, place
the material to provide a smooth riding surface across the junction. Where necessary, remove
sufficient of the existing pavement for this purpose. Where it is necessary to taper the thickness of a
layer to provide a smooth riding junction, terminate the layer at a chase cut into the existing pavement
about 20 mm deep and 400 mm wide. Where necessary, remove coarse particles from a layer of
tapering thickness using hand raking.

NATSPEC 104 [Insert date]


ASPHALTIC CONCRETE SITE

Tack coat: Where the thickness of the layer tapers to less than twice the nominal size of the mix, tack
coat the area upon which material of such thickness is to be placed uniformly at an application rate
0.50 - 0.75 L/m2.
In some cases it may be necessary to determine in advance the manner in which particular surfaces are to be matched and
whether removal of existing pavement beyond the cutting of the specified chase is required. Include special clause as
necessary.
Compaction
General: Before commencing compaction, correct any irregularities in line or level. Trim lane edges to
a straight line. Compact asphalt surfacing uniformly as soon as it will support rollers without undue
displacement, and complete rolling while the mix temperature is above 80°C.
For some projects this subclause may need to touch on methods e.g. “Compact asphalt surfacing uniformly using vibratory steel
wheeled rollers. Commence compacting as soon as the material will support the rollers without displacement and complete
rolling while the mix temperature is above 80°C. Perform final rolling with a steel wheeled non-vibrating roller to eliminate all
roller marks.”.

3.3 JOINTS
Joints
General: Minimise the number of joints. Make joints that are well bonded and sealed and provide a
smooth riding surface across the joint.
Transverse joints: Construct a transverse joint if the operation is stopped for more than 20 minutes or
the pavement temperature falls below 90°C. Construct to a straight vertical face for the full depth of
the layer, and offset in adjoining spreader runs and layer to layer by at least 2 m.
Longitudinal joints: Offset joints from layer to layer by at least 150 mm. Position longitudinal joints in
the wearing course to coincide with the lane line.
Edges: Form exposed edges of each spreader run while hot to a straight line with a dense face
inclined between vertical and 45°.
Cold joints: Tack coat the surface of cold longitudinal and transverse joint before placing the adjoining
asphalt.

3.4 COMPLETION
Defective compaction
Minimum criteria for retention:
- Characteristic value of relative compaction of the lot: ≥ 90%.
- Mean of the individual relative compaction test values of the lot: ≥ 90%.
Defective layer thickness
Minimum criterion for retention:
- Mean thickness of the core sample in the lot: ≤ 10 mm below the required layer thickness.
Rejection
Extent: Remove areas of rejected asphalt surfacing, including defective joints and finish, to the full
depth of the layer, and replace with complying pavement.
Joints: Treat edges of remedial work as specified for cold joints.
Reinstating adjacent surfaces
General: Reinstate surfaces next to new pavements and associated elements. Where an existing
flexible road pavement has been disturbed, trim it back to a straight and undisturbed edge 250 –
300 mm from and parallel to the new concrete for the full depth of the slab. Backfill with asphalt
rammed solid, using suitable rammers.
Traffic on pavement
General: Give notice before opening the pavement to traffic before the work is completed. Provide
adequate means of protection.
If a pavement base is to be opened to traffic before the specified asphalt surfacing is completed, nominate special requirements.

Junctions with existing pavements


Trimming: Where the pavement is to be joined to an existing pavement remove a strip of the existing
pavement at least 300 mm wide for its full depth and trim the edge to an angle of approximately 45° in
steps of maximum height 150 mm before placing new pavement material.

NATSPEC 105 [Insert date]


ASPHALTIC CONCRETE SITE

Existing sealed pavement: Trim the seal to a neat edge.

4 SELECTIONS

4.1 SCHEDULES
Tests schedule
Tests Occurrence Method Acceptance Status
criteria
Process control
Compliance
assessment

May be performed by the contract administrator, or by an independent testing authority, or partly by the contract administrator
and partly by an independent authority.
Tests performed by the contract administrator have contractual implications and must be specified in the schedules.
Use these schedules to specify the items to be tested, the test method, and the frequency, where these requirements are not
specified in the Template or standards or shown on the drawings. This will include material property tests, (base, subbase,
aggregates, cement, bitumen, asphalt joint seals), density tests (subgrade, base, subbase, asphalt), and asphalt mix tests.
Special or additional concrete tests may also be specified here.
Type of test: If the test relates to properties or tests specified in the Template, use the terms from the Template to describe the
test.
Testing authority: e.g. “Contract administrator” or “Independent testing authority”.
2
Test frequency: e.g. per 1000 t, per load, per 1000 m , per day.
Resistance to polishing: See AS 2758.5 Appendix D for guidance on frictional characteristics..

Properties schedule
Properties Types
A B C D
Asphalt surfacing
- Nominal mix size
- Combined aggregate grading
- Binder content %
- Layer thickness

Preferably show details on the drawings. Use this schedule as a checklist of information to be provided. Refer to Notes on
selection of asphalt mix size in the Commentary.

Resistance to polishing (wearing course): >


Water absorption: >
Particle density: >
Fibre: >
Reclaimed asphalt pavement: >
Asphalt mix design: >
Proposed job mix: >
Application rate (L/m2): >

NATSPEC 106 [Insert date]


SPRAYED BITUMINOUS SURFACING SITE

SPRAYED BITUMINOUS SURFACING

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to bituminous sprayed surfacing including priming, primer sealing and resealing.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• Asphaltic concrete.
• Concrete pavement.
• Segmental pavers – mortar bed.
• Segmental pavers – sand bed.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
• Site preparation.
• Earthwork.
• Stormwater –site.
• Pavement base and subbase.
• Pavement ancillaries.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection. For example:
• None.
Worksection cross referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• The location of the required types of sprayed bituminous surfacings including binder types and sizes of aggregate should
be shown on the drawings.

1 GENERAL

The aim of the worksection is to provide sprayed bituminous surfaces that are as follows:
• In conformance with the level tolerances.
• Comply with material requirements.
• Have been placed in accordance with execution requirements.

1.1 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
- Pavement base and subbase.

NATSPEC 107 [Insert date]


SPRAYED BITUMINOUS SURFACING SITE

List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

1.2 INTERPRETATION
Definitions
General: For the purposes of this worksection the definitions given below apply.
Standard: To AS 1348.
Absolute level tolerance: Maximum deviation from design levels.
Relative level tolerance: Maximum deviation from a 3 m straightedge laid on the surface.
The Definitions subclause can be edited to suit the project or deleted if not required.

1.3 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made of the following:
- Surfaces prepared for priming, sealing or surfacing.
- Commencement of bituminous spraying.
Hold points, if required, should be inserted here.

1.4 TESTS
General
Standards: Testing of materials shall be in accordance with the relevant materials standards referred
to in this specification, by a NATA registered laboratory.

1.5 SAMPLES
General
Standards: Sampling of materials shall be in accordance with the relevant materials standards referred
to in this specification, by a NATA registered laboratory.

1.6 SUBMISSIONS
Tests
Compliance assessment: If compliance assessment tests are to be carried out by an independent
testing authority, have the authority submit 3 copies of each test result.
Certificate of compliance: If a certificate of compliance is acceptable as an alternative to testing a
manufactured material, submit the manufacturer’s certificate together with the results of recent tests
undertaken by the manufacturer, showing compliance with test criteria.
Execution
The Template lists the information which may be required for a major project. Modify the list as required. Alternatively delete the
subclause entirely if these matters are to be left to the contractor.
General: Submit proposals for the methods and equipment to be used for the roadworks, including the
following:
- Staging of the work, access and traffic control methods.
- Disposal of surface water, control of erosion, contamination and sedimentation of the site,
surrounding areas and drainage systems.
- Methods and equipment for each operation.
- Sources of materials.
- Material stockpiles.
Spraying equipment: Submit a current certificate and calibration chart issued by the state road
authority.
Hand spraying: If intended, submit proposals.
Spraying: Submit proposals for start, finish and width of each spray run.

NATSPEC 108 [Insert date]


SPRAYED BITUMINOUS SURFACING SITE

Bituminous surfacing records


General: Submit certified records of the work carried out as follows:
>
Specify the areas of work, if any, for which certified records of measurement are required.
Records of measurement
Records: Submit certified records of work performed.

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 MATERIALS
Bituminous surfacing may include any of the following operations:
• Priming.
• Primersealing.
• Bitumen sealing.
• Bitumen emulsion sealing.
Select the appropriate system for the project.
Material grades
Bitumen: To AS 2008 Class 170.
Bitumen emulsion: To AS 1160.
Cut back bitumen: To AS 2157.
Cover aggregate
Standard: To AS 2758.2.
- Precoating agent: Precoating agents shall be capable of satisfying plate stripping tests. The
percentage of stripping shall not exceed 10% in accordance with AS 1141.50.

2.2 MEASURING MATERIALS


Bitumen and cutter
General: Measure by volume at 15°C.
Temperatures higher than 15°C: Use the Bitumen volume conversion formula for primers and binders,
where T is the temperature of the material at which the volume has been measured. For calculation
purposes, assume that the conversion factors are the same for bitumen, bituminous mixes and cutter.
Bitumen volume conversion formula: Volume at 15°C = Volume at T°C x (1-(T-15)/1667).

3 EXECUTION

3.1 TOLERANCES
Finished levels
General: Provide a finished surface which is free draining and evenly graded between level points.
Edges abutting gutters: Within ± 5 mm of the level of the actual gutter edge.

3.2 PRECOATING
General
General: Precoat sealing aggregates immediately before the aggregate is loaded into the spreader
trucks.
7 mm cover aggregate: Precoat at least 48 hours in advance of spreading.
Where special coloured aggregates are to be used, standard precoating may not be applicable. Specify alternative treatments,
e.g. use of additives in binder or water-based or other non-staining precoating agent.
Preconditions
General: Prime and seal in dry and reasonably calm weather, on a dry pavement surface at a
temperature of at least 15°C.

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SPRAYED BITUMINOUS SURFACING SITE

Application
General: Apply precoating agent thinly and evenly using a fine pressure spray to a moving stream of
aggregate, or by other suitable means, so that particles are fully coated but without excess material.
Wet aggregate: If the aggregate is too wet to precoat, or contains enough moisture to cause uneven
distribution of the precoating agent, dry the aggregate by turning the stockpile over. Do not provide
precoated aggregate containing moisture until the moisture has evaporated and the precoating agent
has adhered efficiently.
Application rate: In the range 3 – 10 L/m3 of aggregate.

3.3 CUTTING BITUMEN


Generally
Temperature: Heat sufficient bitumen for immediate needs only. Do not keep the material at spraying
temperature for longer than 10 hours. Do not reheat.
Mixing and heating (on site)
General: Heat the bitumen at a rate not exceeding 40°C/h, and circulate cutback bitumen for 20
minutes to ensure thorough mixing.
Heating devices
General: Use devices capable of uniform heating without damaging bituminous materials.

3.4 SPRAYING EQUIPMENT


Hand spraying
Areas not accessible to the mechanical sprayer: Spray using hand spray equipment attached to the
mechanical sprayer.

3.5 PREPARATION FOR SPRAYING


Cleaning
General: Immediately before spraying remove loose and foreign material on the finished base surface,
including dust, debris and sand spread on primed surfaces, and until a mosaic of well embedded
stone shows on the surface. Keep traffic off the cleaned surface.
Method: Use suitable power blowers or power brooms (or using hand methods where inaccessible to
the power equipment).
Potholes
General: Trim to a regular shape and a uniform depth of at least 75 mm. Tack coat the sides, and
patch with a suitable bituminous premix, sanded after completion. Allow sufficient time for the premix
to cure before spraying the surface.

3.6 SPRAYING OPERATIONS


Protection
General: Protect adjacent surfaces during spraying. Place drip trays under spray bars when the
sprayer is stationary. Clean bituminous materials from adjacent surfaces or, if this is not possible,
replace and make good the surface. Protect freshly sprayed surfaces from contamination.
Spraying
General: Completely and uniformly cover the surface to be treated. Prevent the spray overlapping
previously treated areas, except that where part-width spraying is used, lap the longitudinal joint
between adjacent runs by 50 mm.
Preventing spray overlap may be achieved by starting and finishing each run on masking paper.

Priming
General: Prime the granular pavement to achieve and maintain a strong bond between granular
surface and pavement treatment seal.
Edges: At underbed edges, extend the primer 150 mm beyond the edge of the seal.
Sealing and primersealing
Process: Allow at least 3 days between priming and sealing and between first and second seals.
Incorporate the first course of aggregate thoroughly into the binder before a second course is applied.
Remove loose particles from the sealed area by sweeping lightly, without disturbing embedded
aggregate.

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Spraying temperature ranges:


- Bitumen without cutter: 160 – 190°C.
- Primerbinder Grade AMC3: 95 – 115°C.
- Bitumen emulsion binder: Ambient temperature.
Application rates
General: Comply with the Sprayed bituminous road surfacing schedule.
Sprayed bituminous road surfacing schedule
Operation Primer or binder Cover aggregate
Material Grade or Application Size (mm) Spread rate
class rate at 15°C (m2/m3)
(L/m2)
Priming Primer AMC1 1.0 - -
Primersealing Primerbinder AMC3 1.5 7 100
10 80
First sealing Residual bitumen 1.0 14 80
binder
Second Residual bitumen 0.5 7 160
sealing binder
Single sealing/ Residual bitumen 0.75 10 120
resealing binder 1.6 20 60
Bituminous Bituminous 1.1 7 160
emulsion emulsion 1.4 10 120
sealing

Primer or binder:
• Grade or class: To be completed or varied as appropriate. See AS 2157 and AS 1160.
• Application rate: The optimum rate depends on a number of factors including surface condition, aggregate type and size,
ambient and pavement temperature, traffic volume and loadings. The rate of application may have to be varied to suit the
site conditions. This can be specified in a number of ways:
. - Specify an application rate for pricing purposes and include a schedule of rates for variations to the rate of application
as directed by the contract administrator.
. - Specify a minimum rate based on local experience, but require the contractor to carry the risk.
. - Leave it to the contractor.
Cut back bitumen and bitumen emulsions are diluted with cutting oil or water. Application rates must allow for this. Alternatively
specify the application in terms of residual bitumen.
Cover aggregate: Spread rates are measured by volume in the truck.

3.7 PLACING COVER AGGREGATE


Placing cover aggregate
Spreading: Immediately after the binder or primerbinder has been sprayed, cover with a uniform layer
of dry aggregate.
Rolling: Immediately after spreading roll and drag broom the area until it is uniformly covered with
aggregate thoroughly embedded in the binder. Roll uniformly over the whole area. Complete rolling as
soon as possible but not later than 3 days after spraying.
Steel rolling
General: Roll using a maximum of two coverages of a steel-wheeled roller of maximum axle load
5 tonne. Discontinue steel rolling if aggregate shows signs of breaking down.
Delete if not required. Do not specify if aggregate is known to be susceptible to breakdown.

Pneumatic tyred rolling


Roller: After steel rolling, roll the area using a pneumatic-tyred roller of minimum mass 10 t and with
tyre pressures adjustable in the range 550 – 700 kPa.
Rolling:

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- Minimum rate: 4 roller hours per 4500 L of binder or primerbinder sprayed.


- Timing: At least one roller pass within 2 minutes of covering, over the whole of the area. After an
initial slow pass increase the speed of rolling to the maximum practicable for the area being sealed.
Complete at least 25% of the rolling within 2 hours of covering, and 50% within 24 hours of
covering. Roll during daylight hours.
Loose aggregate
General: When the aggregate has been evenly spread and embedded, remove loose particles
remaining on the pavement and apply additional aggregate as required.
Surface finish
General: Provide an even, smooth riding and free draining surface.

3.8 DEFECTIVE SURFACING


Primer
Actual rate of application < 90% of that ordered: Make up the deficiency with a second spray run.
Actual rate of application > 110% of that ordered: Cover the surface with sand.
Binder and primerbinder
Actual rate of application < 90% or > 110% of that ordered: Reseal the surface.
Minimum criteria for retention
Actual rate of application: 90 – 110% of that ordered.

3.9 JUNCTIONS WITH EXISTING PAVEMENTS


Junctions with existing pavements
Pavement base: Protect using a suitable temporary seal or primerseal.
Primed surface: Keep traffic off the primed surface for at least 3 days after spraying. Commence
sanding 4 – 24 hours after spraying.

3.10 COMPLETION
Traffic on pavement
Notice: Give notice before opening the pavement to traffic before the work is completed. Provide
adequate means of protection.
If a pavement base is to be opened to traffic before the specified bituminous surfacing is completed, special requirements
should be specified. Consult the engineer.

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CONCRETE PAVEMENT

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to the supply and placement of concrete for the purposes of internal concrete pavements such as
loading docks, carparks and internal roadways.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• Asphaltic concrete.
• Sprayed bituminous surfacing.
• Segmental pavers – mortar bed.
• Segmental pavers – sand bed.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
• Site preparation.
• Earthwork.
• Pavement base and subbase.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection. For example:
• Industrial pavements with loads exceeding highway loading.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• The thickness of concrete pavements and required reinforcement should be shown on the drawings.
• Show location, types of joints and joint details on the drawings.
• Show required concrete finish (e.g. broom finish) on the drawings.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: Provide a finished surface as follows:
- Free draining and evenly graded between level points.
- Even and smooth riding.
Standards
Materials and construction: To AS 3600.
AS 3600 is cited in the BCA, but not on this topic.
Tolerances
Edges abutting gutters: Within ± 5 mm of the level of the actual gutter edge.
Rigid pavement surface:
- Absolute tolerance: ± 10 mm.
- Relative tolerance: 5 mm.
Concrete surface course: + unspecified, - 5 mm.
Joint locations (rigid pavement): 15 mm.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.

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The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
- Pavement base and subbase.
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

1.3 INTERPRETATION
Definitions
General: For the purposes of this worksection the definitions given below apply.
- Standard: To AS 1348.
- Absolute level tolerance: Maximum deviation from design levels.
- Relative level tolerance: Maximum deviation from a 3 m straightedge laid on the surface.
The Definitions subclause can be edited to suit the project or deleted if not required.

1.4 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made of the following:
- Concrete formwork, reinforcement and dowels in position.
- Commencement of concrete placing.
- Completion of concrete placing.
Hold points, if required, should be inserted here.

1.5 SUBMISSIONS
Products – documentation
General: As an alternative to testing a product, submit the manufacturer’s certificate together with the
results of recent tests undertaken by the manufacturer, showing compliance with test criteria.
Products – proposals
Curing compounds: If it is proposed to use a liquid membrane-forming curing compound submit
certified test results for water retention to AS 3799 Appendix B.
Reinforcement: Submit the manufacturer’s certificate of compliance with AS/NZS 4671, or submit test
certificates from an independent testing authority.
Curing by the covering sheet method: Submit details of the proposed covering material.
Repair materials: Submit proposals for epoxy resin/grout and elastomeric sealant.
Execution – proposals
General: Submit proposals for the methods and equipment to be used for the pavement works,
including the following:
- Staging of the work, access and traffic control methods.
- Disposal of surface water, control of erosion, contamination and sedimentation of the site,
surrounding areas and drainage systems.
- Methods and equipment for each operation.
- Sources of materials.
- Material stockpiles.
- Methods of concrete manufacture.
- Temperature control, curing and protection methods for concrete.

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Trial mix design report: Six weeks before commencing production, submit a report for each mix design
containing the information required in AS 1012.2, the individual and combined aggregate particle size
distribution, and the records and reports for the tests.
See AS 1012.2 clause 14.
Mix design variation: If a variation is proposed, submit a further mix design report.
Joint sealants: Submit proposals for installation methods and sealant performance.
Concrete placing: Submit proposals for size of the area to be placed and the spacing of planned
construction joints before placement commences.
Crack repair: Drill 100 mm diameter core holes along unplanned cracks in the finished pavement, and
submit the cores for examination.
Formed weakened plant joints: Before concrete placing submit details of the proposed equipment.
This worksection lists the information which may be required for a major project. Modify the list as required. Alternatively delete
the subclause entirely if these matters are to be left to the contractor.

Execution – prototypes
General: Demonstrate by placing a test section that the proposed method of placement will produce a
pavement complying with requirements. Remove test sections which do not comply with requirements
and dispose of as directed.
Delete if not required.
Minimum area of test section: >
2 2
e.g. 100 m for fixed form placement, 200 m for slip form placement.

1.6 TESTS
General
General: Perform tests of the type and frequency necessary to adequately control the materials and
processes used in the construction of the works and in conformance with the Tests table.
Performed by the contractor (or a testing authority appointed by and reporting to the contractor) to maintain control during the
course of the works over his materials and processes, independently of compliance assessment testing. It is usual to specify a
minimum requirement. The contractor may elect to perform additional tests for his own purposes and at his expense.
Standard: To AS 1379, including Appendix B, and the requirements for project assessment.
AS 1379 Section 5 and 6 specify the testing and assessment requirements for slump, strength, air content, chloride and
sulphate content, drying shrinkage and uniformity of mixing.
Dissemination of production information: Submit copies of the reports
Process control tests
Records: Show the results of process control tests on control charts or graphs displayed on site in a
readily accessible location and updated daily.
Methods: Use wet preparation methods where applicable.
If subsidiary, rather than standard, test methods are required, and are not specified in the Template, they should be specified in
the schedules.
Sampling: Determine timing and location.
Compliance assessment tests
Timing: Obtain materials samples at the time of delivery to the site.
Location: Sample from selected sample sites within designated uniform test lots, consisting of an area
placed, or compacted or both in one day. Test lots must be uniform in terms of material properties and
density.
Discharge slump tests
General: Carry out slump tests at approximately one quarter and three quarter points of the load
during discharge.
Standard: To AS 1012.3.1.
Maximum slump variation: 25 mm.
Flexural strength assessment of concrete
Standard: To AS 1012.8.2 and AS 1012.11.

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AS 1379 clause 5.3.1 provides for indirect control of flexural strength by first establishing a relationship between mean
compressive strength and mean flexural strength, and then monitoring the mean compressive strength. The worksection
provides for direct assessment where this is required.
Acceptance criterion: The average strength of any set of 3 consecutive project samples must not
exceed the specified maximum value.
Drying shrinkage of concrete
General: Sample and test every 3 months for each type of concrete.
AS 1379 clause 1.6.3.1 specifies drying shrinkage strain for normal-class concrete (after 56 days drying) not exceeding 1000 x
-6
10 . Compliance assessment is specified in clause 5.6.1. The worksection provides for project testing if drying shrinkage is
specified. Alternatively drying shrinkage may be assessed from trial mixes, in which case amend this paragraph.
Standard: To AS 1012.13.
Acceptance criterion: The average strain of 3 specimens from each sample must not exceed the
required value.
Tests schedule
Tests Occurrence Method Acceptance Status
criteria
Process control
Compliance
assessment

Compliance assessment schedule:


• May be performed by the contract administrator, or by an independent testing authority, or partly by the contract
administrator and partly by an independent authority.
• Tests performed by the contract administrator have contractual implications and must be specified in the schedules.
• Use these schedules to specify the items to be tested, the test method, and the frequency, where these requirements are
not specified in the worksection or standards or shown on the drawings. This will include material property tests, (base,
subbase, aggregates, cement, bitumen, asphalt joint seals), density tests (subgrade, base, subbase, asphalt), and asphalt
mix tests. Special or additional concrete tests may also be specified here.
• Type of test: If the test relates to properties or tests specified in the Template, use the terms from the Template to describe
the test.
• Testing authority: e.g. “Contract administrator” or “Independent testing authority”.
2
• Test frequency: e.g. per 1000 t, per load, per 1000 m , per day.
Coarse aggregate durability assessment schedule: AS 2758.1 clause 9.3 provides alternative assessment methods for durability
of coarse aggregate. Consult the engineer and specify here the properties to be assessed.

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 PRODUCTS
Reinforcement
Standard: To AS/NZS 4671.
- Grade: 250D.
Identification: Supply reinforcement which is readily identifiable as to grade and origin.
Show on the drawings sizes and location of reinforcement and dowels.
Dowels
General: Provide each dowel in one piece, straight, cut accurately to length with ends square and free
from burrs.
Standard: To AS/NZS 4671.
- Grade: 250R.
End tolerances: Ensure that deformation of an end from its true circular shape does not exceed 1 mm
nor extend more than 1 mm from the end.

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Aggregate
Standard: To AS 2758.1.
Aggregate size:
- For fixed form placement: < 40 mm.
- For slip form placement: To be a size compatible with the paving machine.
Washing: Wash aggregate as necessary or as directed to achieve requirements for soluble salt
content or concrete drying shrinkage.
Concrete exposure classification (for durability assessment): Severe.
Consider specifying in the Conditions of tendering that tenderers are to nominate their proposed sources of supply, and to
supply samples from the sources for testing. Appropriate tests and limits would then be derived for the approved reference
samples. Test methods and limits such as those given in AS 2758.1 may not be applicable to material from a particular source.
Vary as necessary.
Cement
Standard: To AS 3972.
- Type: GP.
Curing products
Curing compounds: To AS 3799, Type 2, white pigmented or containing aluminium reflective
pigments.
Covering sheet materials: To be white opaque polyethylene film, or white burlap-polyethylene sheet,
or equivalent material.
- Standard: To ASTM C171.
Concrete
Accuracy of batching (% by mass):
- Cement: ± 1.
- Aggregates: ± 2.
- Water: ± 1.
- Admixture: ± 3.
Admixtures: Introduce in solution in a portion of the mixing water. Ensure a uniform distribution of the
admixture in the batch within the mixing period.
Mixing time: Measure the mixing time after solid materials are in the mixer, provided that mixing water
is introduced before a quarter of the mixing time has elapsed. Increase mixing time if necessary to
obtain the required uniformity and consistence of concrete. Do not overmix such that additions of
water are needed.
Uniformity: Differences specified in AS 1379 apply to samples taken from 3 locations in a batch. Do
not exceed 2% difference in moisture content of the 3 samples.
See AS 1379 Table A1.
Transport: Transport and discharge the concrete without segregation.
Elapsed delivery time: Discharge truck mixed concrete within a time (t hours) determined as follows,
where T is the temperature of the concrete in degrees Celsius:
- t = 2 - 0.05T.
Preformed elastomeric seals
Description: To have vertical sidewalls, marked durably on the top surface every 300 mm ± 2 mm at
the time of manufacture and in conformance with the Preformed elastomeric seal properties table.
This type may be inserted in formed joints made with inert form strips or in sawn rebated groove joints.
Standard: To ASTM D2628.
Depth: To be adequate to retain the seal in the joint, but not greater than 50 mm when the seal is
compressed laterally to 50% deflection.
Lubricant adhesive: To be a compound of the same base polymer as the seal, blended with suitable
volatile solvents of viscosity suitable to the installation equipment, with the following properties:
- Average net mass per litre: 0.784 kg ± 5%.
- Film tensile strength: 15 MPa minimum.

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- Elongation before breaking: 750% minimum.


Preformed elastomeric seal properties table
Nominal width of seal Deflection range (% of Required force (N/m) range
nominal width) before
and after heat aging Before heat aging After heat aging

< 10 mm 20 – 50 350 – 2100 175 – 2100


> 12 mm 20 – 50 350 – 2100 260 – 2100

Inert form strip


General: To be fibreboard or polystyrene foam strip for use with preformed elastomeric seals. After
forming, remove the upper section of the inert form strip and insert the preformed elastomeric seal.
Sealants
General: Do not use pourable sealants.

3 EXECUTION

3.1 PREPARATION
Fixed formwork
Description: To be as follows:
- Steel forms.
- Seasoned, dressed timber planks, free of warps, bends or kinks, with the full width of their top and
bottom edges covered with steel angle sections finishing flush with the form face.
Depth: Equal to the edge thickness of the slab and in one piece.
Tolerances on position:
- Absolute level tolerance: ± 5 mm (maximum departure of top surface from the required level).
- Relative level tolerance: 5 mm (maximum departure of top surface from a 3 m straightedge).
- Horizontal tolerance: ± 10 mm (maximum departure of face from a plane surface).
- Verticality: 3 mm departure from vertical.
Staking: Stake forms in position using at least 3 steel stakes per form, not more than 1.5 m apart. Lock
joints between form sections to prevent movement.
Release agent: Before placing reinforcement, apply a release agent compatible with the contact
surfaces, to the interior of the formwork, except where the concrete is to receive an applied finish for
which there is no compatible release agent. Clean the reinforcement to remove all traces of release
agent.
Re-use: Clean and recoat the forms each time before placing concrete.
Keyways: Form the keyways of keyed construction joints using steel form strips accurately located at
the mid-depth of the slab and securely fastened flush against the formwork face.
Dowels and tie bars
Location: Across joints at the required spacings and vertical locations correctly aligned parallel to the
finished pavement surface and perpendicular to the joint in plan. If the construction methods require
alterations to the designed spacing, space closer with additional dowels or tie bars.
Placing in fixed-form paving: Use the bonded-in-place method. Embed the unpainted half of the
dowels in the slab placed first.
Placing in longitudinal joints in slip-form paving: Place using machine or vibrate into the plastic
concrete using a suitable template.
Movement: Do not distort or displace beyond the alignment tolerances under testing or during
construction. Do not remove and replace dowels in pre-formed holes.
Removal and replacement not allowed for any reason, including to assist in form stripping.

Horizontal and vertical location: ± half the diameter of the dowel.


Alignment: Locate bars in the joint within 2 mm in 300 mm and adjacent bars which do not differ in
alignment by more than 2 mm in 300 mm.

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3.2 PLACING
See AS 3600 clauses 19.1.3 and 19.1.4.
Rate
General: Place at a rate of at least 25 linear metres of pavement per hour.
Cold weather
Subbase: Ensure that the subbase surface is free of frost.
Aggregate: Ensure that aggregate is free of ice, snow, and frozen lumps.
Temperature: Maintain the concrete at a temperature of at least 10°C for at least 24 hours after
placing. Prevent the concrete from freezing during the curing period.
Admixtures
General: Do not add calcium chloride, salts, chemicals or other material to the mix to lower the
freezing point of the concrete.
Hot weather
General: Avoid premature stiffening of the mix and reduce water absorption and evaporation losses. If
the temperature of the surrounding air is higher than 32°C:
- Mix, transport, place and compact the concrete as rapidly as possible, and cover with an impervious
membrane or hessian kept wet until moist curing begins.
- Hold the concrete to a temperature < 32°C when placed.
Placing in fixed forms
General: Place concrete uniformly over the width of the slab or lane and so that the face is generally
vertical and normal to the direction of placing. Hand spread concrete using shovels, not rakes.
Vibration: Compact concrete using internal mechanical vibration of sufficient amplitude to produce
noticeable vibrations at 300 mm radius. Insert vibrators into the concrete to the depth which will
provide the best compaction, but not deeper than 50 mm above the surface of the subbase, and for a
duration sufficient to produce satisfactory compaction, but not longer than 30 seconds in any one
location.
This clause assumes that the concrete will be spread, compacted and finished by hand. If a paving machine is to be used some
modification may be needed to the subclauses Spreading and Vibration, and the clause Finishing. Consult the engineer.
Slip form placing
Spreading: Place the plastic concrete in a uniform layer over the width of the slab being placed. Do not
damage the existing surface and edge of previously constructed concrete.
Vibration: Use suitable internal vibrators or surface type equipment with vibrating beam or beams of
adequate power to fully compact the whole depth of the concrete.
Slab edges: Use supplementary immersion type vibrators next to slab edges if necessary to ensure
that the sides of slabs present a uniform dense appearance free from honeycombing or areas deficient
in fines over at least 95% of the surface.
This clause is appropriate for small-scale projects. For major works (large pavement areas, heavy traffic, heavy loadings, etc.)
additional requirements may need to be specified. Consult the engineer.
Finishing
General: Immediately after placement and spreading and compaction of the plastic concrete, start
finishing operations to achieve finish shown on the drawings.
Curing
General: Protect fresh concrete from premature drying and from excessively hot or cold temperatures.
Maintain the concrete at a reasonably constant temperature with minimum moisture loss for the curing
period.
- Temperature: Maintain the concrete at a temperature > 5°C for at least 7 days.
Curing compound method: Spray the entire surface including edges using a mechanical sprayer, at a
uniform application rate of at least 0.35 L/m2. Respray defective areas within 30 minutes. Respray
within 3 hours after heavy rain. Apply as a continuous coating without visible breaks or pinholes.
Covering sheet method: Immediately after finishing operations cover concrete using damp hessian or
cotton mats overlapped at least 150 mm and anchored against displacement by wind or other
interference. Keep the mats continuously damp until covered by the covering sheet material. Repair
tears and the like immediately.

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- Joint sawing: Sheet materials may be removed for the minimum distance and period to permit joint
sawing, provided the concrete is kept moist by other means.
Moist curing method: Immediately after finishing operations keep the concrete surface continuously
damp by spraying constantly with water, fog, or mist, using suitable spraying equipment.
Minimum curing time: 7 days.
See AS 3600 clause 19.1.5.
If a particular curing method is required select it here.

3.3 JOINTS
Joints
General: Construct expansion, contraction and construction joints straight and plumb. Make
transverse joints normal to longitudinal joints. Extend transverse expansion and contraction joints
continuously from edge to edge of the pavement through interconnected slabs.
Transverse construction joints: To be as follows:
- Planned location: Terminate each day’s placing operation at a transverse construction joint located
to coincide with a planned contraction or expansion joint.
- Unplanned joints: If placement is interrupted for 30 minutes or longer, form a tied transverse
construction joint within the middle third of the distance between planned joints but no closer than
1.5 mm to the nearest planned joint. If necessary remove placed concrete back to the required
location.
Expansion joints: Provide formed full depth joints around structures and features which project
through, into or against the pavement, and elsewhere as required.
Formed joints
Full depth joints: Form the edge of the concrete placed first to provide a smooth, vertical face. After
stripping and cleaning fix the joint filler with a suitable waterproof adhesive to the face of the slab, and
place the adjoining concrete after the adhesive has set.
Weakened plane joints: Cut a crack-inducing groove by machine in the plastic concrete during
finishing of the concrete surface. Compact and refinish the plastic concrete around the groove after
inserting the joint filler.
Rebated groove joints: Form the rebate by securely fixing removable steel form strips to the form or
forms on the slab which is placed first, so that the top of the steel strip is flush with the top of the form.
After stripping and cleaning, fix the joint filler in the rebate before placing the adjoining concrete.
Sawn joints
Because of the critical nature of the operation, a sawn contraction jointing system should be adopted only when the project
warrants the level of supervision necessary for success.
Any requirement for stand-by sawing machines may be relaxed or omitted for smaller projects in major population centres where
replacement machines can be readily obtained.
Weakened plane joints: Saw the hardened concrete to at least 45 mm depth, and to a uniform width in
the range of 3 - 5 mm as follows:
- Timing: Commence sawing, regardless of time or weather conditions, as soon as the concrete has
hardened sufficiently to permit cutting without defects, occurring to such a degree as to cause
structural weakness or excessive cleaning difficulty. Complete sawing at least 24 hours after
concrete placement.
Defects such as uncontrolled cracking, chipping, spalling, undercutting or washing out.
- Sequence: If possible, saw every third transverse joint initially, then saw the intermediate joints.
- Cracking: If the concrete has already cracked near the location chosen for a joint, do not saw a joint
in that location. If a crack develops ahead of the saw cut, discontinue sawing. If uncontrolled
cracking occurs, suspend concrete placing.
- Stand-by machines: Provide one stand-by sawing machine for each machine planned to be used.
- Cleaning and protection: Immediately after each joint is sawn, flush the saw cut and adjacent
concrete surface using water, until the waste from sawing is removed from the joint. Temporarily
caulk the joint using plastic or rubber tubing, or a suitable “Tee” shaped extrusion. Leave the
caulking in place until grooving and sealing.

NATSPEC 120 [Insert date]


CONCRETE PAVEMENT SITE

Rebated groove joints: Saw straight, parallel sided grooves for joint seals on top of and centred on the
sawn weakened plane joints.
- Timing: Commence sawing after the curing period has ended, immediately before joint sealing. Saw
during daylight hours and when the concrete temperature is at least 10°C.
- Cracking: If cracks occur beneath initial saw cuts, increase the width of the groove by an amount
equal to the width of the crack.
Dowelled joints
General: To be formed or sawn joints reinforced with dowels and sealed.
Tied joints
General: To be formed or sawn joints reinforced with tie bars. Omit grooves and sealing unless shown
on the drawings.
Stripping time
General: To be at least 12 hours.
Preparing joints
General: Immediately before installation of the sealer ensure that the joint space is dry, clean and free
from loose material. Remove laitance, curing compound and protrusions of hardened concrete from
the sides and upper edges of the joint.
Formed full depth and rebated groove joints: After form stripping and when the concrete has cured
sufficiently, clean formed arrises using a rotary saw.
Sawn joints: Remove loosened material from the joint using compressed air or high pressure water jet.
Installing preformed elastomeric seals
General: Apply a bead of lubricant adhesive to the top edge of each side of the joint, then install the
seal by easing it into the joint, using a suitable roller, to finish 4 - 6 mm below the finished concrete
surface.

3.4 COMPLETION
Protection
General: Keep traffic, including construction plant, off the pavement entirely during curing, and
thereafter permit access only to necessary constructional plant vehicles until the pavement is at least
14 days old.
Reinstating adjacent surfaces
General: Reinstate surfaces next to new pavements and associated elements. Where an existing
flexible road pavement has been disturbed, trim it back to a straight and undisturbed edge 250 -
300 mm from and parallel to the new concrete for the full depth of the slab. Backfill with asphalt
rammed solid, using suitable rammers.
Traffic on pavement
General: Give notice before opening the pavement to traffic before the work is completed. Provide
adequate means of protection.
Junctions with existing pavements
Trimming: Where the pavement is to be joined to an existing pavement remove a strip of the existing
pavement at least 300 mm wide for its full depth and trim the edge to an angle of approximately 45° in
steps of maximum height 150 mm before placing new pavement material.
Existing sealed pavement: Trim the seal to a neat edge.

NATSPEC 121 [Insert date]


SEGMENTAL PAVERS – MORTAR BED SITE

SEGMENTAL PAVERS – MORTAR BED

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to external paving in stone, industrial cast stone, terrazzo and manufactured cementitious pavers
on a cement mortar bed or screed to concrete substrates.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• Segmental pavers – sand bed for segmented pavers laid dry.
• Stone cladding for external or internal stone cladding, mechanically fixed.
NATSPEC worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, if this worksection is used, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by this worksection. You may need to create new text, modify this text or use an
applicable worksection. Examples include:
• External wall tiling directly exposed to weather.
• Tiling fixed to substrates subject to vibration.
• Tiling fixed to previously tiled or painted substrates.
• Tiling subject to permanent immersion e.g. swimming pools.
Worksection cross-referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• Use the Concrete formwork, Concrete reinforcement, Concrete in situ and Concrete finishes worksections for concrete
substrates.
• Use the Waterproofing – external worksection for waterproofing membranes.
• Layout, set-out point, paving pattern and movement joints to your office documentation policy.
The appointment of a specialist stonework consultant is advisable for all stages of most projects involving stonework design and
construction.

4 GENERAL

4.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: Provide external paving:
- Consistent in colour and finish.
- Firmly bonded to substrates for the expected life of the installation.
- Resistant to expected impacts in use.
- Set out with joints accurately aligned in both directions.
- To direct all water flowing from supply points to drainage outlets without leakage to the substrate or
adjacent areas.
Selections: Conform to the Selections.

4.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.

NATSPEC 122 [Insert date]


SEGMENTAL PAVERS – MORTAR BED SITE

They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
>
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes, do not repeat them here.). You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work. For example:
• Concrete formwork, Concrete reinforcement, Concrete in situ and Concrete finishes worksections for concrete substrates.
• Waterproofing – external worksection for waterproofing membranes.

4.3 INTERPRETATIONS
Definitions
General: For the purposes of this worksection the definitions given below apply.
- Adhesives:
. Cementitious (C): Adhesives in which the binders are hydraulic, e.g. Portland cement, with
aggregates and organic additives.
. Dispersion ( D): Adhesives in which the binders are in the form of aqueous polymer dispersion
with mineral fillers and organic additives.
. Reaction resin ( R): Adhesives in which in the binders are synthetic resins with mineral fillers and
organic additives. The curing occurs by chemical reaction.
These definitions of adhesive types ( C), (D) and ( R) are based on AS 4992.1 Int.
- Substrates: The surfaces on which pavers are bedded.
- Bedding: Mixtures of materials which are applied to substrates in a plastic state and dry and cure to
adhere tiles to substrates.
. Adhesive bedding: Tiling adhered by adhesives.
. Mortar bedding: Tiling adhered in a cementitious mortar bed.
- Pavers: Slabs made from clays, stone, precast concrete and/or other inorganic raw materials
generally over 20 mm thick used as coverings for floors and supported over continuous substratess.
. Terrazzo – cementitious: Manufactured cementitious terrazzo tiles formed in a suitable machine
to give sufficient compaction and density to the finished surface, and moisture cured before
grinding and honed at the place of manufacture. Thickness usually 35mm.
The Definitions subclause can be edited to suit the project or deleted if not required.

4.4 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made of the following:
- Substrate immediately before tiling.
- Trial set-outs before execution.
- Control joints before sealing and grouting.
Hold points, if required, should be inserted here.

4.5 SUBMISSIONS
Samples
General: Submit labelled samples of pavers, grout and sealants, illustrating the range of variation in
colour and finish.
Rely on approved samples for general quality compliance. Samples of sand may be required for major works, where testing for
grading is necessary. Where tiles and accessories are specified as proprietary items use this clause as a means of
confirmation.
Sample panels
General: Prepare a sample panel of each type of finish as follows:

NATSPEC 123 [Insert date]


SEGMENTAL PAVERS – MORTAR BED SITE

- Size: ≥ 2 m2.
- Include samples of junction details and trim.
- Obtain approval.
- Preserve each panel until related work is complete.
The sample panel shall be the benchmark of quality of execution for the project.
Size: ≥ 2 m2.
If the project size does not justify sample panels: Delete
For large projects consider asking for a prototype room comprising the complete wall and floor tiling.

Execution
Refer to AS 3958.1 and AS 3958.2, for guidance and also to BRANZ 003 and SAA HB52.
Grouting: Submit proposals for grouting methods and materials.
Margins: If it appears that minor variations in joint widths or overall dimensions will avoid cut pavers,
submit a proposal.

4.6 TESTS
General
Type tests: Submit as follows:
- Slip resistance to AS 4586: >
See Commentary notes under Slip resistance.
- Stone tile properties: >
See Commentary notes under Stone tile selection regarding CSIRO BEST tests for stone tiles. Select the test you may
require and call for the recommended outcome. Alternately, seek the advice of a stonework consultant.
- Impact sound insulation: >
See Commentary notes under Impact sound insulation regarding the options available for BCA compliance. If the impact
insulation field test option for verification of conformance with the BCA is adopted, nominate tests as determined under ISO
717.2.
Flood tests: Submit a report of flood tests conducted on site as follows:
>
Tiling should not proceed without a successful flood test of waterproof membranes. A method is suggested in the Commentary
under Flood test and should be specified in Waterproofing
Salt efflorescence: Provide prototype testing of cementitious tiles for salt efflorescence as follows:
>
See Commentary notes under Salt efflorescence for prototype testing of cementitious pavers.

4.7 PRODUCT CONFORMITY


General
General: Submit current assessments of conformity as follows:
- Declaration of conformity by an AS ISO 9001 quality management system certified supplier:
. Slip resistance of tiles to AS/NZS 4586.
. Marking and Classification of tile adhesive to AS 4992 (Int).

4.8 TOLERANCES
Completed paving
General: Conform to the Surface level tolerances table:

NATSPEC 124 [Insert date]


SEGMENTAL PAVERS – MORTAR BED SITE

Surface level tolerances table


Item Level tolerance
Absolute Relative
Vehicular pavements ± 5 mm 5 mm
Pedestrian pavements ± 10 mm <10 mm

5 PRODUCTS

5.1 ADHESIVES
The inclusion of adhesives in this worksection is to cover adhesive fixed pavers on a cementitious screed. If pavers are laid
directly on a wet cement mortar bed, delete this clause. See also the Commentary.
General
Standard: To AS 2358 or AS 4992.1 (Int).
AS 4992.1(Int) is expected to replace AS 2358 in 2005.
Type
General: Provide adhesives to the Paving schedule and compatible with the materials and surfaces
to be adhered.
Prohibited uses: Do not provide the following combinations:
- Organic PVC-based adhesives and organic natural rubber latex adhesives in damp or wet
conditions.
- PVA (polyvinyl acetate) based adhesives in wet areas or externally.

5.2 MORTAR
Materials
Cement type to AS 3972: GP.
- White cement: Iron salts content ≤ 1%.
- Off-white cement: Iron salts content ≤ 2.5%.
Lime: To AS 1672.1.
Sand: Fine aggregate with a low clay content selected for grading, sharp and free from efflorescing
salts.
Water: To the recommendations of AS 3958.1.
The installation of stone tiles or pavers commonly follows the practices outlined in AS 3958..
Measurement of volume: Measure binders and sand by volume using buckets or boxes. Do not allow
sand to bulk by absorption of water.
Bedding mortar
Proportioning: Select proportions from the range 1 cement:3 sand – 1 cement:4 sand: to obtain
satisfactory adhesion. Provide minimum water.
Mixing: To AS 3958.1.
Gauging: Site gauged.
Site gauged mixes are preferred by experienced tradesmen as it gives them the opportunity to make adjustments for moisture
content.

5.3 GROUT
The selection of the grout type is integral to the performance of the tiling system as a whole and is best left to the warrantor as
noted for adhesives. Pigments for coloured grout: See BS EN 12878 for specifications. Grout colour can be nominated in the
Schedules.
Type
Cement based proprietary grout: Mix with water. Fine sand may be added as a filler in wider joints.

NATSPEC 125 [Insert date]


SEGMENTAL PAVERS – MORTAR BED SITE

Portland cement based grout: Mix with fine sand. Provide minimum water consistent with workability.
- For joints < 3 mm: 1 cement:2 sand.
- For joints ≥ 3 mm: 1 cement:3 sand.
Pigments
Pigments for coloured grout: Provide colourfast fillers compatible with the grout material. For cement-
based grouts, provide lime-proof natural or synthetic metallic oxides compatible with cement.
Water
General: To be clean and free from any deleterious matter.
Grout to resin terrazzo tiles: Resinous material supplied by the tile supplier.

6 EXECUTION

6.1 SUBSTRATES
Drying and shrinkage
General: Before paving, allow at least the following times to elapse (for initial drying out and
shrinkage) for these substrates:
- Concrete slabs: 42 days.
- Toppings on slabs: A further 21 days.

6.2 PREPARATION
Trial set-out
General: Prepare a trial paving set-out to each area as follows to:
- Maximise the size of equal margins of cut pavers.
- Locate movement joints.
- Note minor variations in joint widths to eliminate cut tiles at margins.
Ambient temperature
General: It the ambient temperature is < 5 or > 35°C, do not lay pavers.
Substrates
General: Ensure substrates are as follows:
- Clean and free of any deposit or finish which may impair adhesion or location of pavers.
- Excessive projections are hacked off and voids and hollows are filled with a cement:sand mix not
stronger than the substrate nor weaker than the bedding.
Absorbent substrates: If suction is excessive, control it by dampening but avoid over-wetting and do
not apply mortar bedding to substrates showing surface moisture.
Dense concrete: If not sufficiently rough to provide a mechanical key, roughen by scabbling or the like
to remove 3 mm of the surface and expose the aggregate; then apply a bonding treatment.
If there are particular requirements for substrate preparation, specify them here or schedule them later.

Fixtures
General: Before paving ensure that fixtures interrupting the surface are accurately positioned in their
designed or optimum locations relative to the paving layout.

6.3 PAVING GENERALLY


Variations
General: If necessary, distribute variations in hue, colour, or pattern uniformly, by mixing pavers or
paving batches before laying.
Paving joints
Patterns should be shown on the drawings, as should locations of movement joints.
Joint widths: Set out pavers to give uniform joint widths of 6 < 12 mm.
Margins
General: Provide whole or purpose-made pavers at margins where practicable, otherwise set out to
give equal margins of cut pavers. If margins less than half paver width are unavoidable, locate the cut
pavers where they are least conspicuous.
NATSPEC 126 [Insert date]
SEGMENTAL PAVERS – MORTAR BED SITE

Protection
Traffic: Keep pedestrian and vehicular traffic off paving until the bedding has set and attained its
working strength.
Cleaning: Keep the work clean as it proceeds and protect finished work from damage.

6.4 MORTAR BEDDING


Preparation of pavers
Suction: Soak porous pavers in water for half an hour and then drain until the surface water has
disappeared.
Bedding
General: Use bedding methods and materials which are appropriate to the paver, the substrate, the
conditions of service, and which leave the paver firmly and solidly bedded in the bedding material and
adhered to the substrate. Form falls integral with the substrate.
Mortar beds
General: Either lightly dust the screeded bed surface with dry cement and trowel level until the cement
is damp, or spread a thin slurry of neat cement, or cement-based thin bed adhesive, on to the tile
back. Do not provide mortar after initial set has occurred.
Nominal thickness: >
Nominal thickness: 30 to 60 mm.
Bed thickness to suit the roughness of the back of the paver. If using split stone setts seek the advice of the supplier.

6.5 ADHESIVE BEDDING


Delete this clause if pavers are not adhesive fixed.
Preparation of pavers
Adhesive bedding: Fix pavers dry.
Bedding
General: Use bedding methods and materials which are appropriate to the paver, the substrate, the
conditions of service, and which leave the paver firmly and solidly bedded in the bedding material and
adhered to the substrate. Form falls integral with the substrate.
Thick adhesive beds
General: Provide on substrates with deviations up to 6 mm when tested with a 2 m straight edge, and
with tiles having deep keys or frogs.
Nominal thickness: 6 mm.
Adhesive bedding application
General: Apply adhesive by notched trowel to walls and floors and direct to tiles if required, to provide
evenly distributed coverage of > 90%.after laying.
Pattern of distribution of adhesive: As illustrated in AS 3958.1. Verify by examining one paver in ten as
work proceeds.
These values are more strict than in AS 3958.1.
Allow the adhesive to cure for the period nominated by the manufacturer prior to grouting or allowing
traffic.

6.6 MOVEMENT JOINTS


Sometimes called expansion joints. Their purpose is to accommodate movement in the pavers or the substrate, or both.
Movement may be caused by paver growth, substrate shrinkage, thermal expansion and contraction, and the like.
General
General: Provide movement joints to the Movement joints schedule and as follows:
- Location:
. Over structural (isolation, contraction, expansion) joints.
. At internal corners.
. Close to external corners in large tiled areas.
. Around the perimeter at abutments.
. At junctions between different substrates.
NATSPEC 127 [Insert date]
SEGMENTAL PAVERS – MORTAR BED SITE

. To divide large paved areas into bays, maximum 5 m wide, maximum 16 m2.
. At abutments with the building structural frame and over supporting walls or beams where flexing
of the substrate is anticipated.
The location and details of all movement control joints should be shown on the drawings. Check the expected movement of
structural joints with the structural engineer and ensure the joint width is > 4 times the anticipated movement.
- Depth of joint: Right through to the substrate.
- Sealant width: 6 – 25 mm.
- Depth of elastomeric sealant: One half the joint width, or 6 mm, whichever is the greater.
Movement joint materials
Divider strip: A proprietary expansion joint consisting of a neoprene filler sandwiched between plates
with lugs or ribs for mechanical keying. Set flush with the finished surface.
Proprietary slide plate divider strip: An arrangement of interlocking metal plates grouted into pockets
formed in the concrete joint edges.
Sealant: Two-pack self-levelling non-hardening mould resistant, one-part silicone or polyurethane
sealant applied over a backing rod. Finish flush with the tile surface.
- Floors: Trafficable, shore hardness > 35.
Backing rod: Compressible closed cell polyethylene foam with a bond-breaking surface.
Movement joints schedule
Location
Divider strip:
- Joint side-plate
material
- Neoprene colour
- Width
- Fixing
Proprietary slide plate:
- Product
- Material
- Insert colour
Sealant:
- Type
- Colour
- Width (mm)

Location: State here or refer to a Finishes schedule.


Divider strip:
• Joint side-plate material: e.g. “Perforated brass angles”.
• Joint fixing: e.g. “Mortar bed”.
Proprietary slide plate:
• Material: e.g. stainless steel.
• Insert colour: Nominate colour or omit if no insert.
Sealant:
• Type: e.g. “Polysulphide (two part)”. For major movement joints a proprietary system of sliding plates may be required.
• Colour: State requirement if sealant is to be specially coloured.
Edit joint strip type as required.

NATSPEC 128 [Insert date]


SEGMENTAL PAVERS – MORTAR BED SITE

6.7 GROUTED AND CAULKED JOINTS


Grouted joints
General: Commence grouting as soon as practicable after bedding has set. Clean out joints as
necessary before grouting.
Face grouting: Fill the joints solid and tool flush. Clean off surplus grout. Wash down when the grout
has set. When grout is dry, polish the surface with a clean cloth.

6.8 COMPLETION
Spare pavers
General: Supply spare matching pavers of each type for future replacement purposes. Store the spare
materials on site.
Quantity: At least 1% of the quantity installed.
Specify a quantity here only if the requirement of the Template is not adequate.
Storage location: >
Cleaning
Completion: Leave pavements clean on completion.
Operation and maintenance manuals
General: Submit a manual describing care and maintenance of the tiling, including procedures for
maintaining the slip-resistance grading stating the expected life of the slip-resistance grade.

7 SELECTIONS

These schedules refer to the selections of the product/material by its properties, but does not locate it within the project. For this
you should prepare a separate document e.g. a Finishes schedule to locate the various finishes by reference to a designation
code or abbreviation of the finish. See also the Commentary on Stone tile and paver selection.

7.1 SCHEDULES
Paving schedule
Properties Types
FT 1 FT 2 FT 3
Pavers:
- Name
- Work size
- Material:
. Stone type
. Manufacturer’s stone product
. Cementitious product
. Terrazzo product
- Colour
- Surface finish
- Slip resistance:
. Wet pendulum
. Wet bare foot ramp
. Oil wet ramp
Beddings:
- Mortar bedding
- Adhesive bedding

NATSPEC 129 [Insert date]


SEGMENTAL PAVERS – MORTAR BED SITE

Properties Types
FT 1 FT 2 FT 3
Grout colour
Sealer product name:
- Stone
- Terrazzo

Tile type: e.g. Stone type or product identifier. Rely on approved samples for general quality compliance.
Adhesive bedding: Specify the type, either generically, using the generic terms employed in the standards, or by a proprietary
item designation. Delete if bedded in mortar.
Grout:
Type: e.g. “Cement-based proprietary grout.
Slip resistance grade: Refer to Commentary
Separation layer:
• Type: e.g. “Building paper”, “Polyethylene film”, or “Bituminous felt membrane”.
Bedding:
• Type: e.g. “Bedding mortar” or “Adhesives.” If “adhesive” it will be necessary to specify the type, either generically using
the generic terms employed in the standards or by a proprietary item designation. Select either, or both if tiles are to be
adhered over a cured mortar screed.
• Thickness: Mortar beds laid over separation layers may need to be reinforced.
• Reinforcement: Usually a light gauge galvanized steel mesh.
The impact insulation laboratory value should be the deemed to satisfy value nominated in the BCA. If the field test option is
adopted the value for the impact insulation field test should satisfy the BCA.
Stone sealer: Select a product with a demonstrated ability to maintain slip resistance.

NATSPEC 130 [Insert date]


SEGMENTAL PAVERS – SAND BED SITE

SEGMENTAL PAVERS – SAND BED

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to proprietary clay and concrete segmental paving on sand bedding for use in vehicular
pavements, footpaths and landscaped areas.
This worksection does not apply to industrial pavements, or to public roads and streets.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• Segmental pavers – mortar bed.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
• Earthwork.
• Pavement base and subbase.
• Pavement ancillaries.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection.
Worksection cross referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• Show laying pattern and extent on the drawings.
• Specify proprietary paver and traffic loading capacity on the drawings.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: Provide segmental paving surfaces for pavement, footpath and landscape works that are as
follows:
- In conformance with the level tolerances specified.
- Consistent in colour and finish.
- Firmly bonded to substrates for the expected life of the installation.
- To direct all water flowing from supply points to drainage outlets without leakage to the substrate or
adjacent areas.
It is the aim of the designer to ensure the pavers selected are resistant to expected impacts in use.
Selections: Conform to the Selections.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.

NATSPEC 131 [Insert date]


SEGMENTAL PAVERS – SAND BED SITE

Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
- Earthwork.
- Pavement base and subbase.
- Pavement ancillaries.
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

1.3 INTERPRETATION
Definitions
General: For the purposes of this worksection the definitions given below apply.
- Base: One or more layers of material usually constituting the uppermost structural element of a
pavement and on which the surfacing may be placed, which may be composed of fine crushed rock,
natural gravel, broken stone, stabilised material, asphalt or Portland cement concrete.
- Density ratio: Percentage of the maximum density at optimum moisture content as determined by
AS 1289.5.2.1.
From AS 2870 clause 2.1 and AS 3727 clause 3. Edit to suit the project or deleted if not required.

1.4 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made of the following:
- Completed base preparation.
- Completed trial set-out for segmental paving.
- Completed paving.
Hold points, if required, should be inserted here.
Testing authority
General: Independent third party Registered testing authority.

1.5 SAMPLES
Use only where large areas are specified.
General
Segmental paving pattern: Prepare a trial set-out for each area.
Ensure that the specification of the material includes texture, colour, etc., where applicable, e.g. for masonry units and
segmental pavers.

1.6 SUBMISSIONS
Execution
Segmental pattern: If it appears that minor variations to joint widths will obviate cutting, submit
proposals.

1.7 TOLERANCES
Tolerances
General: Conform to the Surface level tolerances table:
Surface level tolerances table
Item Level tolerance
Absolute Relative
Vehicular pavements ± 10 mm 10 mm
Footpaths ± 10 mm 5 mm

NATSPEC 132 [Insert date]


SEGMENTAL PAVERS – SAND BED SITE

Level discontinuity: Between adjacent pavers and other surface features for footpath areas 1.5 mm
and roadway areas 2.0 mm.

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 MATERIALS
See the Commentary on materials and maintenance.
Bedding sand
Grading: To the Bedding sand grading schedule when tested in accordance with AS 1141.11.
Moisture content: Uniform in moisture content with spread.
Deleterious material: Free of deleterious material, such as soluble salts which may cause
efflorescence.
Bedding sand grading schedule
Sieve aperture Percentage passing (by mass)
9.52 100
4.75 95 – 100
2.36 80 – 100
1.18 50 – 85
600 25 – 60
300 10 – 30
150 5 – 15
75 0 – 10

Coordinate with Bedding sand/Grading. Complete if those requirements are insufficient. More detailed grading tables for
bedding materials are available from the Clay Brick and Paver Institute (CBPI) and the Cement and Concrete Association of
Australia (CCAA).
Joint filling sand
General: Well-graded sand and free of deleterious material such as soluble salts which may cause
efflorescence.
Grading: To the Joint filling sand grading schedule when tested in accordance with AS 1141.11.
Joint filling sand grading schedule
Sieve aperture Percentage passing
2.36 mm 100
1.18 90 – 100
600 µm 60 – 90
300 30 – 60
150 15 – 30
75 5 – 10

Moisture content: The sand shall be dry when spread.

2.2 COMPONENTS
Concrete and clay segmental paving units
Standard: To AS/NZS 4455.
Dimensional category: DPA1 and DPB1.

NATSPEC 133 [Insert date]


SEGMENTAL PAVERS – SAND BED SITE

Log roundels
Softwood: Each section 75 mm thick x 200 mm minimum diameter, debarked.
Logs for edging
Size: At least 2.5 m long and 200 mm average diameter.
Sawn timber for edging
General: Select from sawn hardwood or preservative-treated softwood.
Size: 3000 x 100 x 25 mm nominal edgings; 50 mm square pegs, 400 mm long.
Sleepers
Hardwood: Sound hardwood railway sleepers to AS 3818.2.
Softwood: Sound preservative-treated softwood sleepers.
Preservative treatment
General: Hazard class 4 to AS 1604.1.
AS 1604.1 Table 1 Hazard class H4 is suitable for outside in-ground exposure, typical uses being fence posts, greenhouses,
pergolas and landscaping timbers. Hazard classes H5 and H6 are for more extreme exposures.

3 EXECUTION

3.1 SUBGRADE PREPARATION


General
Conformance: The subgrade shall be prepared in accordance with the Earthwork worksection.

3.2 SUBBASE
General
Conformance: The subbase shall be prepared in accordance with the Pavement base and subbase
worksection.

3.3 BASE
General
Conformance: The base course shall be prepared in accordance with the Pavement base and
subbase worksection.

3.4 EDGE RESTRAINT


Lateral restraint to segmental paving
State type or preferably show on the drawings. It is important to restrain the edge units from movement and keep the sand bed
in position. A concrete footing is one method. Others include units set on edge or on end, timber boards, concrete kerbs
(unnecessary if the paving surface is flush with the adjacent ground surface).
Perimeter: Provide edge restraints to bedding and units, where not provided by other structures.
Type: >
Concealed or exposed. Some specific exposed types described below.

Log edging
General: Excavate to lay logs at least half diameter into the ground. Fix the logs in position by spiking
with two 13 mm diameter galvanized mild steel rods per log, penetrating at least 500 mm into the
subgrade. Drive the rods flush with the upper surface of the log. Butt the logs together to a close neat
fit. Select adjacent logs for similar diameter.
Sawn timber edging
General: Set edgings flush with adjoining surfaces to define planting, grass areas or both. Fix to pegs
using galvanized nails, two per fixing. Drive pegs into the ground at 1200 mm centres on the planting
side of the edging and on both sides of joints between boards, with peg tops 15 mm below the top of
the edging.
Curving: Where the timber edge is to be curved, space the pegs to hold it to a uniform curve. Reduce
edging thickness to 15 mm if required to enable it to be bent.

NATSPEC 134 [Insert date]


SEGMENTAL PAVERS – SAND BED SITE

Sleeper edging
General: Fix sleepers in position by spiking with two 13 mm diameter galvanized mild steel rods per
sleeper, penetrating at least 400 mm into the subgrade. Drive the rods flush with the upper surface of
the sleeper. Arris the upper exposed sleeper edges to produce a 15 mm wide face at 45° to the edges.
Concrete edging
General: Place in a shallow trench between timber forms. Wood float finish flush with the adjacent
finished grass level. Provide movement joints, filled with resilient bituminous material, at 3 m maximum
centres.

3.5 BEDDING SAND


General
Preparation: Remove all loose material from the prepared base.
Spreading: Screed uncompacted sand over prepared base in a uniform manner to achieve a 30 mm
thick layer. Maintain sand at a uniform loose density.

3.6 LAYING PAVING


General
Pattern: Paving units are to be laid on the screeded sand bedding to the nominated pattern shown on
the drawings.
Joints: Paving units are to be laid with a 2 – 3 mm gap between adjoining units.
Cut courses: Do not use cut units with a plain dimension of less than 50 mm. On footpaths and other
linear elements, use at least two cut courses and maintain symmetry.
Control joints: Where paving units are to be placed over control joints in an underlying concrete base,
a joint is to be provided in the pavers. The joint shall be 10 mm wide and filled with bitumen
impregnated fibreboard or other approved jointing material.

3.7 COMPACTION OF BEDDING


General
General: After laying of the paving units the sand bedding shall be fully compacted using a vibrating
plate compactor. Compaction needs to continue until lipping between adjoining units is eliminated.
Joint filling: All paving units are to be compacted to design levels prior to the commencement of joint
filling.

3.8 JOINT FILLING


General
General: Spread dry sand over the paving units and fill the joints by brooming. Undertake one or more
passes with the vibrating plate compactor and refill the joints with sand. Repeat the process until the
joints are completely filled.
Timing: Fill joints on the same day that pavers are compacted.

3.9 PROTECTION OF THE WORK


General
Protection: All vehicular and pedestrian traffic shall be prevented from using the pavement until all
compaction and joint filling is completed and all edge restraints are in place.

3.10 CLEANING
Cleaning
General: Leave pavements clean on completion.
Final inspection
From AS 3727 clause 5. Assumes inspection at the end of one year.

Cracking in bound pavements: Width ≤ 1.5 mm.


Subsidence: Offset under 1.5 m length of the design profile, ≤ 15 mm.
Stepping: Between adjacent elements within the pavement area, ≤ 5 mm.
Chipping and spalling to pavement units: Maximum 10 per 100 units with chipped or spalled arrises.

NATSPEC 135 [Insert date]


SEGMENTAL PAVERS – SAND BED SITE

Ponding: Maximum 10 mm deep 15 minutes after rain ceases.


Masonry units: Refill joints as required.

4 SELECTIONS

These schedules refer to the selections of the product/material by its properties, but does not locate it within the project. For this
you should prepare a separate document e.g. a Finishes schedule to locate the various finishes by reference to a designation
code or abbreviation of the finish.

4.1 SCHEDULES
Paving schedule
Properties Types
FT 1 FT 2 FT 3
Pavers
Material
Colour
Slip resistance:
- Wet pendulum
- Wet bare foot ramp
- Oil wet ramp

Pavers: Select masonry units and segmental pavers for abrasion resistance, compressive strength, non-slip and weathering
properties. For advice on selection, see CBPI Manual 1. Tabulate if more than one type of unit is used. Consult manufacturers
for detailed specifications, or specify as proprietary items. The manufacturer’s name and product brand name is usually the best
way to specify particular (as distinct from generic) products.
Material: e.g. Clay, cementitious.

NATSPEC 136 [Insert date]


PAVEMENT ANCILLARIES SITE

PAVEMENT ANCILLARIES

There is a Product Partner for this worksection. Click the logo to be redirected to their page.
Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to the installation of channels, kerbs and linemarking.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• Asphaltic concrete.
• Sprayed bituminous surfacing.
• Concrete pavement.
• Segmental pavers – mortar bed.
• Segmental pavers – sand bed.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
• Site preparation.
• Earthwork.
• Pavement base and subbase.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• Show all kerb types and kerb details on the drawings.
• Show all linemarking types and locations on the drawings.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: Provide channels, kerbs and linemarking.
Selections: Conform to Execution.
Tolerances
Kerbs and channels conform to the following:
- Absolute level tolerance: ± 10 mm.
- Maximum deviation from design alignment: 25 mm.
- Maximum deviation from a 3 m straightedge placed on horizontal, vertical, or sloping surfaces
required to be straight: 5 mm.
Linemarking to conform to the following:
- The location of markings shall not vary from the locations shown on the drawings by more than
20 mm.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.

NATSPEC 137 [Insert date]


PAVEMENT ANCILLARIES SITE

They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
>
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

1.3 INTERPRETATION
Definitions
General: For the purposes of this worksection the definitions given below apply.
- Standard: To AS 1348.
- Absolute level tolerance: Maximum deviation from design levels.
- Relative level tolerance: Maximum deviation from a 3 m straightedge laid on the surface
- Channels and kerbs: Includes all forms of concrete gutters, dish drains, grated drains and
mountable median and barrier kerbing.
The Definitions subclause can be edited to suit the project or deleted if not required.

1.4 SUBMISSIONS
Linemarking materials
General: Submit NATA Registered Laboratory Test Reports, at least seven days before work is
scheduled to commence, on the quality of the materials, including paint.

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 MATERIALS
Concrete
Standard: To AS 1379 – Grade N20.
Pavement marking paint
Standard: To AS 4049.1 and AS 4049.3.
See Appendix A of AS 2876 for typical details of sections.

3 EXECUTION

3.1 LINEMARKING
Setting out
General: Set out the work to ensure that all markings are placed in accordance with the drawings.
Surface preparation
Clean dry surface: Pavement markings shall only be applied to clean dry surfaces. Clean the surface
to ensure a satisfactory bond between the markings and wearing surface of the pavement.
Wet weather: Pavement marking shall not be carried out during wet weather or if rain is likely to fall
during the process.
Scabbling: Where raised pavement markers are specified for pavements having a concrete wearing
surface, the full area under each raised pavement marker shall be lightly scabbled to removed fine
mortar material (laitance).
Provision for traffic: Provide for traffic while undertaking the work and protect the pavement markings
until the material has hardened sufficiently so that traffic will not cause damage.
Mixing of paint: All paint shall be thoroughly mixed in its original container before use to produce a
smooth uniform product consistent with the freshly manufactured product.

NATSPEC 138 [Insert date]


PAVEMENT ANCILLARIES SITE

Application of paint
Longitudinal lines: All longitudinal lines shall be sprayed by an approved self propelled machine. The
two sets of lines forming a one-way or two-way barrier line pattern shall be sprayed concurrently.
Hand spraying: Hand spraying with the use of templates to control the pattern and shape shall be
permitted for transverse lines, symbols, legends, arrows and chevrons.
Paint thickness: The paint shall be applied uniformly and the wet film thickness shall be neither less
than 0.35 mm nor more than 0.40 mm.
Finish; Pavement markings shall be straight or with smooth, even curves where intended. All edges
shall have a clean, sharp cut off. Any marking material applied beyond the defined edge of the
marking shall be removed leaving a neat and smooth marking on the wearing surface of the
pavement.
Tolerances
Longitudinal lines: The lengths of longitudinal lines shall not vary by more than 20 mm from the
lengths shown in AS 1742.2. The widths of longitudinal lines shall not vary by more than 10 mm from
the widths shown in AS 1742.2.
Transverse lines: The lengths and widths of transverse lines shall not vary by more than 10 mm from
the lengths and widths shown in AS 1742.2.
Dimensions: The dimensions of arrows, chevrons, painted medians, painted left turn islands and
speed markings shall not vary by more than 50 mm from the dimensions shown on the drawings or in
AS 1742.2 as appropriate. Arrows and speed markings shall be placed square with the centreline of
the traffic lane.
Removal of pavement markings
General: Remove pavement markings, no longer required, from the wearing surface of pavements
without significant damage to the surface.

3.2 CHANNELS AND KERBS


General
General: Before placing any kerb and/or gutter, the foundation material shall be shaped and
compacted to form a firm base. Other than for kerb and gutter constructed on pavement courses, the
relative compaction, shall be in accordance with the requirements of AS 2876. Where placed on
pavement courses, the foundation shall be compacted to the requirements of the Pavement base and
subbase worksection.
Standard: Kerb and/or gutters may be constructed in fixed forms, by extrusion or by slip forming in
accordance with AS 2876. The foundation, concrete quality, curing and testing details shall be in
accordance with AS 2876.
Tolerances
General: The level at any point on the surface of the gutters shall be within ± 10 mm of design levels.
When a straight edge 3 m long is laid on top of or along the face of the kerb or on the surface of
gutters, the surface shall not vary more than 5 mm from the edge of the straight edge, except at kerb
laybacks, grade changes or curves or at gully pits requiring gutter depression.
Joints
Contraction joints: Formed every 3 m of gutter length for a minimum of 50% of cross sectional area.
The joint shall be tooled 20 mm in depth to form a neat groove of 5 mm minimum width.
Expansion joints: 15 mm in width for the full depth of the kerb and gutter shall be constructed at
intervals not exceeding 15 m and where the gutter abuts against pits, retaining walls and at both sides
of kerb laybacks for vehicular or pedestrian access. Expansion joints shall consist of preformed
jointing material of bituminous fibreboard.
Concrete pavement: Where kerbs and/or gutters are cast adjacent with a concrete pavement the
same type of contraction, construction and expansion joints specified in the concrete base shall be
continued across the kerb and/or gutter.
Backfill
Timing: After the new kerb and gutter has been constructed and not earlier than three days after
placing, the spaces on both sides of the kerb and/or gutters shall be backfilled and reinstated in
accordance with the drawings.
Material: Backfill material behind the kerb shall consist of granular material, free of organic material,
clay and rock in excess of 50 mm diameter.

NATSPEC 139 [Insert date]


PAVEMENT ANCILLARIES SITE

Compaction: Backfill material behind the kerb shall be compacted in layers not greater than 150 mm
thick, to a relative compaction of 95% when tested in accordance with AS 1289.5.4.1, for standard
compactive effort.
Pavement: Pavement material adjacent to new gutter shall be backfilled in accordance with the
drawings and the Pavement base and subbase worksection.

NATSPEC 140 [Insert date]


PILING STRUCTURE

PILING

There is a Product Partner for this worksection. Click the logo to be redirected to their page.
Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to piling for the support of building structures.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• Concrete reinforcement.
• Concrete in situ.
• Structural steel.
• Structural timber.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection. For example:
• Piling for detached Class 1 buildings (houses). For residential timber piles, see AS 2870 Appendix G.
Worksection cross referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• None.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• Design loads and settlement limits should be shown on the drawings.
• Piles to be load tested should be shown on the drawings.

4 GENERAL

4.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: Provide installed piles which carry the design loads within the required settlement
limits/acceptance criteria and with pile heads ready for incorporation into the structure.
Retain only if the contractor is responsible for this.
Design
General: Design piles which, when properly installed, meet performance requirements.
See AS 2159 clause 3.1. Show on the drawings the required working loads and settlement limits.
Design responsibility >
Select design by the Principal or design by the Contractor.
Principal responsible for design: In this case the drawings or specification need to show all the determining characteristics of the
system (such as type of system, materials, sizes, depths, installation methods, driving energies, sets). The contractor is
responsible for, and may be required to warrant, only the materials and workmanship.
Contractor responsible for design: Here there are two possibilities:
• (i) Only the design loads are specified, and the contractor is required to nominate the system it proposes to use to meet the
performance requirement; or
• (ii) In addition to the design loads, certain minimum prescriptive requirements are specified, which may include system
type, materials, minimum sizes and depths, protection methods, etc. The contractor is required to design the system
subject to these limitations, and to provide whatever additional information is necessary to define it contractually.
In either of these cases (i) or (ii) add text to cover the following:

NATSPEC 141 [Insert date]


PILING STRUCTURE

The contractor should be required to provide, as part of its tender, the additional information required to define the proposed
system characteristics; and in the case of (ii) may be invited to submit alternatives to the specified system.
The contractor should be required to provide a certificate from a professional engineer in relation to design adequacy, as well as
warranting the materials and workmanship.

4.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

4.3 STANDARD
General
Design and performance: To AS 2159.
Retain only if the contractor is responsible for this, in which case check that the contract is appropriate (some forms are for
construct-only).
Materials and installation: To AS 2159.

4.4 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made of the following:
- Setting out.
- Piles and piling material after delivery to site and before installation.
- Installation of piling.
- Pile heads after preparation.
- Pile load tests.
Concrete piles: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made of the following:
- Reinforcement cages after assembly and before installation;
- Excavated shafts, including casings and sockets before placing reinforcement.
- Reinforcement in excavated shafts, before concreting.
- Concreting of piles.
Hold points, if required, should be inserted here.

4.5 LOAD TESTS


Based on the “Schedule of Load Test Requirements” in the body of AS 2159. Show on the drawings the location of piles to be
load tested.
In the case of preformed piles, one or more test piles may be specified in order to assess the driving depth and conditions prior
to manufacturing the rest of the piles. Test piles may also be required for load testing. If preliminary test piles are required and
are not shown on the drawings, state the requirements here. Consult the design engineer and do not specify preliminary test
piles or preliminary load tests unless they are necessary. Significant time and cost increases may be incurred.

Preliminary test piles


See AS 2159 clause 4.2.3, for example, on the use of test piles to determine geotechnical strength.

NATSPEC 142 [Insert date]


PILING STRUCTURE

Test piles: Install preliminary test piles and carry out preliminary load tests as follows:
- Piles to be installed before commencing other piling:
>
- Piles to be load tested before commencing other piling:
>
Test data
Data: Record the results of the pile load tests.
The intent of AS 2159 is that pile tests be carried out under the direction of a professional engineer. See notes to clauses 8.3.6,
8.4.7 and 8.5.9. This paragraph makes it the contractor’s responsibility.
Failure
General: If a test pile fails to meet the load test requirements, give notice.
Piles
Type: >
Size (mm): >
Number of piles to be load tested: >
Method of installation >
e.g. “Driven cast-in-place piles”, “Bored cast-in-place piles”, “Grout injected piles”, “Precast concrete piles”, “Steel H piles”,
“Steel tube piles”, or if a proprietary system is being adopted, give the proprietor’s name and brand name of the system. Avoid
giving the requirements for pile driving equipment such as hammer type, ram mass, driving energy. This is the contractor’s
affair.
Type of test
Select those required. See AS 2159 clause 8.2.1.
Compression: >
Tension (uplift): >
Lateral load: >
Dynamic tests: >
Integrity tests: >
Loading and measuring system
See AS 2159 clause 8.3.3.
Minimum loading capacity (kN): >
Minimum pile movement (mm):
- Use a loading and measuring system capable of accommodating the following pile movement,
measured at the pile head or cap:
>
Commencement of loading
Minimum period between installation of the test pile and commencement of the pile test (days):
>
Rate of pile movement (varying AS 2159)
Rate of movement for CRP or CRU tests (mm/min.):
>
Tension (uplift) load test program >

Lateral load test program >

Additional requirements
Maximum differential settlement between any two piles (mm):
>
Method of measuring settlement under load: >
Requirements additional to or different from those specified in AS 2159. Differential settlement, if a criterion, is not covered
there. Add this and other criteria as required.

Acceptance criteria (varying AS 2159) >

NATSPEC 143 [Insert date]


PILING STRUCTURE

Pile driving analyser


Test piles to be analysed: >
Delete if not required, or give individual pile numbers. For driven piles, load test requirements may be reduced if a pile driving
analyser is used to assess the hammer performance and pile capacity during installation of the test piles.

Preservative treated timber piles


Testing to AS 2209 Appendix E: >
e.g. “Required”. Delete if not required.

4.6 SUBMISSIONS
Subcontractors
General: Submit name and contact details for the proposed subcontractor specialising in foundation
engineering.
Use this heading where proprietary or specialist piling systems are required. Many general contractors (civil engineering) have
the necessary resources and experience to install preformed piles (steel, timber, precast), sheet piles and bored cast-in-place
piles. Such contractors would usually only subcontract piling requiring special equipment and methods e.g. driven cast-in-place,
grout injected, proprietary systems, bored cast-in-place piles where the size or depth of pile or the ground conditions require
special equipment and methods.
Design
Retain only if the contractor is responsible for this.
Performance: Submit calculations demonstrating that the proposed piling will meet the performance
requirements. Submit the sources of geotechnical information and design parameters used in the
calculations.
Safety: Submit calculations demonstrating that the piles can be safely installed to the specified levels
by the proposed methods, without damaging the piles or adjacent piles or structures.
Tests
Load tests: Submit 2 copies of load test report.
See AS 2159 clause 8.3.7.
Execution
General: Submit details of proposed piling methods, equipment and sequence.
Jetting and pre-boring: If jetting or pre-boring methods are proposed in conjunction with pile driving,
submit details of the proposed equipment and methods.
Concrete piles: If it is intended that high alumina and early strength cements are to be used, submit
proposals.
Records
General: Submit 2 copies of records of data.
See AS 2159 clause 7.6.
Preservative treated timber piles: Submit treatment records.
See AS 2209 clause 5.9.

4.7 TOLERANCES
Displacement piles
General: Conform to AS 2159 Section 7.3 and to the Tolerances table.
Tolerances table
Property Tolerance criteria: Permitted deviation (mm)

Add specific requirements not covered by AS 2159, or delete the table.

NATSPEC 144 [Insert date]


PILING STRUCTURE

5 PRODUCTS

5.1 UNTREATED HARDWOOD PILES


Standard
General: To AS 3818.3.
AS 3818.3 sets out the minimum requirements for visually graded hardwood and softwood piles complying with AS 3818.1.
AS 2209 also applies (cited in AS 2159).
Timber
Species: >
Appendix C to AS 3818.3 provides a list of timber species and their properties. Appendix B to AS 3818.1 provides information
on the natural durability of timber species.
Durability class (to AS 2209): >
1 or 2 only. Classifications differ from those in AS 1604.1 and AS 1720.2.
Strength group (to AS/NZS 2878): >

5.2 PRESERVATIVE TREATED TIMBER PILES


AS 2209 Appendix B lists the standard species brands for timber poles suitable for preservative treatment (both softwoods and
hardwoods).

Standard
General: To AS 2209.
Treatment
General: Provide full length preservative treatment and air dry after treatment.
AS 2209 applies (cited in AS 2159).
Timber
Type: >
“Hardwood” or “Softwood”. Softwood is usually limited to domestic and light industrial applications involving relatively light
loading and shallow driving depths. However softwood piles are structurally capable of carrying large loads provided they are
not damaged during installation.
Species: >
If necessary list the timber species, or alternatively give the required minimum durability class and strength group.
Durability class (to AS 2209): >
Classifications differ from those in the AS 1604 series and AS 1720.2.
Strength group (to AS/NZS 2878): >
S1 to S7 for unseasoned timber and SD1 to SD8 for seasoned timber. AS/NZS 2878, Tables 3.1 and 3.2 give the strength
groups of timbers grown in Australia and elsewhere, respectively.
Species branding: >
“Required” or “Not required”. To AS 2209 clause 1.9.

5.3 PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT


Double treatment, first with CCA (copper, chromium and arsenic salts) then with creosote, is recommended for piles in salt or
brackish water, to provide protection against marine borers.
State regulations apply in New South Wales and Queensland. Refer also to Commentary to Preservative treatment – in the
Timber finishes and treatment worksection.
Consult the manufacturer and if needed, vary the charge retention specified for individual piles in AS 2209 Table 5.4.
Refer also to AS 1604.1 Table 1. If necessary other limits may be specified either as a mass of commercial preservative per
3
cubic metre of treatable volume (kg/m ) or, in the case of water-borne preservatives (CCA), as the total active elements
expressed as a percentage of the oven dry wood mass in the analytical zone. The analytical zone is defined as follows:
• Queensland: The inner one third of the sapwood.
• For hardwoods: The outer 20 mm or the full sapwood thickness, whichever is the less.
• For softwoods: The outer 30 mm of the sapwood.

NATSPEC 145 [Insert date]


PILING STRUCTURE

Standard
General: To AS 2209.
Preservative type
See AS 2159 Supp 1 clause 4.3.1. Obtain manufacturers’ recommendations for preservatives suited to the species of timber
and exposure hazard. AS 1604.1 Tables H5 and H6.1 give retention levels applicable to piling.
Acidic ground water: Creosote.
Alkaline ground water: Waterborne multisalt (CCA).
Identification
Disc location: On the butt end.
Disc format: 3.

5.4 CONCRETE PILES


Performance requirements >
If concrete in piles is to be specified by performance, and the information is not shown on the drawings, provide a schedule of
characteristic requirements selected from Concrete tests schedule – Concrete in situ. Take account of exposure to aggressive
ground conditions.
When determining the required characteristic strength, take account of design for durability in accordance with AS 3600
Section 4. AS 3600 is cited in the BCA. AS 2159 specifies minimum characteristic strengths for precast and prestressed
concrete piles, clause 5.3.7.
Minimum cement content
Generally: 320 kg/m3.
3
For tremie-placed concrete, AS 2159 clause 7.5.5(g) nominates 400 kg/m .
High alumina and high early strength cements
General: Do not use.
Reinforcement
Clearance: Provide spacers on the reinforcement cage to maintain the correct cover. During
installation of reinforcement in uncased holes keep the reinforcement cage clear of the sides of the
hole.
Minimum cover (mm): >
AS 2159 requires 25 mm generally and 40 mm for precast piles exposed to sea water or other corrosive contact. See Tables 6.1
and 6.2. Refer also to AS 3600 clause 4.10. Consider additional cover for bored cast-in-place piles without permanent casing.

5.5 STEEL PILES


Standards
Generally: To AS 4100.
Steel tubes: To AS 1579.

6 EXECUTION

6.1 ADJOINING PROPERTY


Damage
General: If damage is caused to adjoining property, stop piling operations and give notice.

6.2 SETTING OUT


Requirement
General: Peg the position of each pile and establish a grid of recovery pegs to enable the setting out
to be checked.

6.3 INSTALLATION
Inspection
General: Provide facilities necessary for inspection of piling including safe access, lighting and
ventilation.

NATSPEC 146 [Insert date]


PILING STRUCTURE

Concrete bored piles


Loose material: Do not allow loose material to fall down pile holes before or during concreting.
Liner: Pack well into position.
See AS 2159 clause 7.4.2, and clause 7.5.3(b).
Piling system
Steel piles:
- Steel grade: >
- Coating system: >
See AS 2159 clause 6.3.5. See AS 2159 clause 6.3.6 on cathodic protection.
Grout injected piles:
- Grout strength: >
Protection
Method of protection against deterioration: >
Specify any requirements if not shown on the drawings e.g. “Wrapping”, “Encasing”, “Cathodic protection”. For sacrificial anodes
see AS 2239 and, on cathodic protection generally, AS 2832.

Pile capacity
Conform to the Pile capacity schedule.
Pile capacity schedule
Pile designation Design loads (kN) Pile size (section) Installation criteria

For piles designed by the principal, show the structural details, working load and founding levels on the drawings, or schedule
the information here. For piles designed by the contractor, give the working loads and other requirements, if any (e.g. minimum
section, minimum penetration).
Design loads: May include vertical loads, horizontal loads, bending moments.
Pile size: e.g.
• For steel piles: Section type, dimensions, mass.
• For concrete piles: Section shape, dimensions, reinforcement, casing.
• For timber piles: Nominal toe size.
Installation criteria: e.g. founding level (or penetration), or (for driven piles) driving resistance measured by set for the specified
hammer and driving energy or by pile driving analyser, or (for bored piles) socket length in rock of specified quality, or (for bored
or grout injected piles) torque measurement on the drill, or any combination of the above.
Tolerances
See AS 2159 clauses 7.2.1, 7.3.1, 7.4.1 and 7.5.1.
Maximum permissible deviations:
- Cut off level: >
e.g. “± 20 mm”.
- Pile position at cut off level: >
- Straightness: >
Pile position at cut off level and straightness: AS 2159 clause 7.2 gives these as 75 mm and 4% respectively. These may be too
generous for small diameter piles on land and may be too restrictive for large diameter piles or marine piles driven from floating
plant. If so give the required tolerances here.

6.4 PREPARING PILE HEADS


On restoring preservative treatment, see AS 2159 clauses 6.4.4 and 7.2.3.
Requirement
General: Prepare pile heads for incorporation into the structure.

NATSPEC 147 [Insert date]


PILING STRUCTURE

Defective material
General: If the pile at or below cut off level, is damaged by driving, or is otherwise unsound, give
notice.
AS 2159 clause 7.2.5.
Concrete piles
General: Roughen the surface at cut-off level. Clean and straighten any projecting reinforcement.
AS 2159 clause 7.2.3.
Steel piles
General: Clean the surfaces to be embedded in concrete. Remove temporary protective treatment
where appropriate, but maintaining it intact for at least 75 mm inside encasing concrete.

6.5 OVERDRIVEN PILES


Notice
General: If the pile is driven below the specified level, give notice.
May be due to over driving or driving resistance being lower than expected. See AS 2159 clause 7.2.4.

6.6 RECORDS OF DATA


Ground level
General: Record the level of the surrounding ground at the time when the pile is installed.
Refer to AS 2159 clause 7.6.

6.7 COMPLETION
Warranties
Some piling contractors offer standard forms of guarantee. If these are unsatisfactory it may be possible to negotiate better
terms. But bear in mind that a guarantee is only as reliable as the firm that gives it. If the piling system is specified prescriptively,
the contractor’s warranty would be merely in terms of faulty materials and workmanship.
General: Submit a warranty to correct faults and make good damage which is caused by the pile
installation or subsequent movement to that part of the superstructure supported on the piling, or to
adjacent property, or to both.
Warranty period: >
e.g. “Two years”.
Warranty sum: >

NATSPEC 148 [Insert date]


CONCRETE FORMWORK STRUCTURE

CONCRETE FORMWORK

There is a Product Partner for this worksection. Click the logo to be redirected to their page.
Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to the production of formwork for concrete work in buildings and associated structures.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections.
• There are no directly related NATSPEC worksections.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection.
• None.
Worksection cross referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• Concrete in situ.
• Precast concrete.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: Provide finishes to formed concrete surfaces which are as follows:
- Appropriate to the importance (visual or physical) of the concrete elements.
- Compatible with following trades and finishes.
Formwork: Design and construct formwork so that the concrete, when cast in the forms, will have the
required:
- Dimensions.
- Location.
- Profile.
- Shape.
- Surface finish.
Allowances: Allow for dimensional changes, deflections and cambers resulting from the following:
- Applied loads.
- Concrete shrinkage and creep.
- Temperature changes.
- The application of prestressing forces (if any).
Selections: Conform to the Selections.
Design
General: The design of the formwork is the contractor’s responsibility.
This applies to all formwork types, including conventional, proprietary or purpose-made formwork.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.

NATSPEC 149 [Insert date]


CONCRETE FORMWORK STRUCTURE

The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
- Concrete reinforcement.
- Concrete cast in situ.
- Concrete finishes.
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

1.3 STANDARDS
General
Formwork design and construction: To AS 3610.
Reinforced concrete design and construction To AS 3600.
Steel decking including sheet connectors: To AS 2327.

1.4 INTERPRETATIONS
Definitions
General: For the purposes of this worksection the definitions given below apply.
- Jump formwork: Incrementally moved formwork.
- Slip formwork: Continuously slipped or moving formwork.
- Table forms: Prefabricated and reuseable formwork systems for slabs and beams.
The Definitions subclause can be edited to suit the project or deleted if not required.

1.5 TOLERANCES
General
Plumb of elements ≥ 8 m high: 1 in 1000.
Position: Construct formwork so that finished concrete is in conformance with the Position tolerances
table.
Position tolerances table
Surface finish class to AS 3610 1 2 3 4 5
Permissible deviation from designed 10 15 20 25 40
position (mm)

1.6 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made of the following:
- Completed formwork before concrete placing.
- Evaluation of the finish.
- Used formwork, after cleaning and before reuse.
Hold points, if required, should be inserted here.

1.7 SUBMISSIONS – DOCUMENTATION


Design – documentation
Certification: Submit certification by a qualified structural engineer experienced in formwork design
verifying conformance of the design.

NATSPEC 150 [Insert date]


CONCRETE FORMWORK STRUCTURE

Execution – documentation
Calculations: Submit calculations by a qualified structural engineer experienced in formwork design to
show that allowable concrete stresses will not be exceeded if it is proposed that:
- Formwork procedures or loadings differ from the information included in the project documentation.
- Props above a floor coincide with the props below.
- Project documentation does not include formwork shoring or stripping procedures or allowable
loadings from stacked materials.
Certification: Submit certification by a qualified structural engineer experienced in formwork design
and construction for verifying conformance of the completed formwork.
Propping details: Submit details of support propping required for construction loads which exceed
design loads for concrete of that age.
Reshoring: If reshoring is intended, submit proposals.
Shop drawings: Submit formwork shop drawings including details of proposed form linings, form bolt
positions, form facings, release agents and, where applicable, reuse of formwork.
Moveable formwork: Show on formwork drawings for table forms, slip or sump forms the method of
moving the forms and the sequence method. For slip forms show the average rate of movement.
Demonstrate that the proposed procedures will permit the production of concrete of the specified
quality and surface finish.
Stripping multi-storey suspended work: If the requirements of AS 3610 cannot be met, or if shores are
not concentric floor to floor, submit formwork documentation referencing loads and concrete
properties.
Stripping single storey suspended work: If the requirements of AS 3610 cannot be met, give notice.
Surface repair method: If required, submit details of the proposed method before commencing repairs.
Products – documentation
Void formers: Submit test certificates to confirm that the formers comply with the following
requirements under laboratory conditions, when placed on damp sand and loaded with a mass of wet
concrete equal to at least the mass of the beams or slabs they are required to support:
- Deflection during placing and compaction of the concrete is less than the span of the beam or slab
divided by 1000.
- Additional deflection between initial set and 7 days does not exceed span/400.
- Collapse and loss of load carrying capacity will occur not more than 48 hours after flooding with
water, creating a void at least 60% of the original depth of the void former.

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 MATERIALS
Form linings and facings
Compatibility: To be compatible with finishes to be applied to concrete.
Lost formwork
General: Not to contain timber or chlorides and not to impair the structural performance of the
concrete members.
Release agents
Compatibility: To be compatible with finishes to be applied to the concrete.
Void formers
Material: To be cardboard or fibreboard, collapsible on absorption of moisture.

3 EXECUTION

3.1 PREPARATION
Cleaning
General: Before placing concrete, remove free water, dust, debris and stains from the forms and the
formed space.

NATSPEC 151 [Insert date]


CONCRETE FORMWORK STRUCTURE

3.2 CONSTRUCTION
General
General: Conform to the Formed surfaces schedule.
Removable bolts: Remove the bolts without causing damage to the concrete.
Bolt hole filling
Cover: Position formwork tie bolts left in the concrete so that the tie does not project to within 50 mm
of finished surface.
Durability: Provide material with durability and colour matching the concrete.
Recessed filling: Fill or plug the hole to 6 mm below the surface.
Corners
Work above ground: Chamfer at re-entrant angles, and fillet at corners.
- Face of bevel 25 mm.
Embedments
General: Fix embedments through formwork to prevent movement, or loss of slurry or concrete, during
concrete placement.
Openings
General: In vertical forms provide form openings or removable panels for inspection and cleaning, at
the base of columns, walls and deep beams.
Access: For thin walls and columns, provide access hatches for placing concrete.
Release agents
Application: Before placing reinforcement, apply a release agent to form linings and facings.
Slip formwork
Provision for inspection: Provide a hanging scaffold below the moving formwork, from which surface
treatment and inspection may be carried out.
Steel decking
Fixing: If sheeting cannot be fixed to structural steel supports with puddle welds, or with welded shear
studs in composite construction, provide details
Steel linings
Rust: Clean off any rust and apply rust inhibiting agent prior to reuse.
Visually important surfaces
General: For concrete of surface finish classes 1, 2 or 3, set out the formwork to give a regular
arrangement of panels, joints, bolt holes, and similar visible elements in the formed surface.
Void formers
Use: Cast designated suspended ground floor slabs and beams on void formers.
Protection: Keep void formers dry until use, place them on a firm level surface and place
reinforcement and concrete with minimum delay.

3.3 COMPLETION
Formwork removal
Extent: Remove formwork, other than steel reinforcement decking, including formwork in concealed
locations, but excepting lost formwork.
Timing: Do not disturb forms until concrete is hardened enough to withstand formwork movements and
removal without damage.
Stripping:
- General: To AS 3600 where it is more stringent than AS 3610.
- Multi-storey work: Provide for stripping without disturbing props supporting succeeding floors.
- Post-tensioned concrete: Remove formwork supporting post-tensioned concrete members only
when sufficient prestress has been added to support the loads.
Loading before stripping
General: Do not erect masonry walls or other brittle elements on beams and slabs while they are still
supported by formwork.

NATSPEC 152 [Insert date]


CONCRETE FORMWORK STRUCTURE

4 SELECTIONS

4.1 SCHEDULES
Surface finish class 1 formwork
Colour control: >
Critical faces of elements: >
Distance between face steps (mm): >
Form face span and direction of span: >
Repairs: Not permitted.
Surface pattern details and accuracy: >
Surface treatment pattern of part of surface: >
Tie rod pattern: >
Surface finish class 2 and class 3 formwork
Colour control: >
Critical faces of elements: >
Distance between face steps (mm): >
Form face span and direction of span
(class 2 only): >
Liner details, pattern and accuracy: >
Surface pattern details and accuracy: >
Surface treatment of whole: >
Surface treatment pattern of part of surface: >
Tie rod pattern: >
Dimensional tolerance schedule
Dimension or measurement Location or element Tolerance (mm)

A typical Dimensional tolerance schedule for low rise structural work is noted in the Commentary.

Formed surfaces schedule


Concrete element or Surface finish class to Form lining type Bolt hole filling
surface AS 3610

NATSPEC 153 [Insert date]


CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT STRUCTURE

CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT

There is a Product Partner for this worksection. Click the logo to be redirected to their page.
Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to the use of reinforcement in concrete for buildings and associated structures. Reference to fibre
reinforcement is included as it relates to Portland cement based concretes.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• Concrete post-tensioned.
There are no directly related NATSPEC worksections.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection. For example:
• Fibres used in the production of fibre cement sheeting products.
Worksection cross referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• Concrete in situ.
• Precast concrete.
• Shotcrete.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• Show on the drawings the required reinforcement including the location, type, size and spacing of bars, any special
requirement for types of supports, and the concrete cover. Show the location and minimum length for lapped splices.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: Design and provide reinforcement which is as follows:
- Enhances the concrete works.
- Performs appropriately for strength, serviceability and durability.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.
Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
- Concrete in situ.

NATSPEC 154 [Insert date]


CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT STRUCTURE

List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

1.3 STANDARDS
General
Standard: To AS 3600.
Tolerances
Fabrication and fixing: To AS 3600.

1.4 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made of the following:
- Cores and embedments fixed in place.
- Reinforcement fixed in place, with formwork completed.
Hold points, if required, should be inserted here.

1.5 SUBMISSIONS
Execution – proposals
Changes: If changes are proposed to reinforcement show on the drawings, submit detail.
Damaged galvanizing: If repair is required, submit proposals to AS/NZS 4680 Appendix E.
Mechanical splices: If mechanical bar splices are proposed or required, submit details and test
certificates for each size and type of bar to be spliced.
Provision for concrete placement: If spacing or cover of reinforcement does not comply give notice.
Splicing: If splicing not documented is proposed, submit details.
Welding: Give notice before welding reinforcement.
Products – documentation
Type-tests: Submit type-test reports to verify conformance for each reinforcement type as follows:
- Strength and ductility: To AS 3600 Table 6.2.1.

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 MATERIALS
Fibre reinforcement
Reference: CIA CPN35.
Protective coating
General: For concrete elements containing protective coated reinforcement, provide the same coating
type to all that element’s reinforcement and embedded ferrous metal items, including tie wires, stools,
spacers, stirrups, plates and ferrules, and protect other embedded metals with a suitable coating.
Epoxy coating: To be high build, high solids chemically resistant coating.
- Thickness: 200 µm minimum.
Galvanizing: To AS/NZS 4680:
- Sequence: If fabrication is to occur after galvanizing, submit proposals for galvanizing repair and
coating of cut ends.
- Zinc-coating (minimum): 600 g/m2.
Reference CIA CPN17.
Steel reinforcement
Standard: To AS/NZS 4671.
- Ductility grade: Class N.
Surface condition: Free of loose mill scale, rust, oil, grease, mud or other material which would reduce
the bond between the reinforcement and concrete.

NATSPEC 155 [Insert date]


CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT STRUCTURE

AS/NZS 4671 considers only 3 strength grades 250 MPa, 300 MPa and 500 MPa, and 3 ductility classes L (low), N (normal)
and E (seismic). The previous 400 MPa (bars) and 450 MPa (mesh) grades have been replaced.
See AS 3600 clause 19.2 for materials and construction requirements.

Tie wire
General: To be annealed steel 1.25 mm diameter (minimum).
External and corrosive applications: Galvanized.

3 EXECUTION

3.1 CONSTRUCTION
Dowels
Fixing: If a dowel has an unpainted half, embed this in the concrete placed first.
Tolerances:
- Alignment: 2 mm in 300 mm.
- Location: ± half the diameter of the dowel.
Grade: 250 N.
Amend this default if required.
Supports
General: Provide proprietary concrete, metal or plastic supports to reinforcement in the form of chairs,
spacers, stools, hangers and ties, as follows:
- To be adequate to withstand construction and traffic loads.
- With a protective coating if they are ferrous metal extending to the surface of the concrete, or are
used with galvanized or zinc-coated reinforcement.
Minimum spacing:
- Bars: ≤ 60 diameters.
- Fabric: ≤ 750 mm.
Supports over membranes: Prevent damage to waterproofing membranes or vapour barriers. Place a
metal or plastic plate under each support.
For special conditions pieces of stainless steel reinforcement welded to standard reinforcement may be used as a support
medium in place of the standard accessories
Projecting reinforcement
General: If ‘starter’ or other bars project beyond reinforcement mats or cages, through formwork or
from cast concrete, provide a plastic protective caps to each bar until it is incorporated into
subsequent work.
Tying
General: Secure the reinforcement against displacement by tying at intersections with either wire ties,
or clips. Bend the ends of wire ties away from nearby faces of forms so that the ties do not project into
the concrete cover.
Beams: Tie stirrups to bars in each corner of each stirrup. Fix other longitudinal bars to stirrups at 1 m
maximum intervals.
Bundled bars: Tie bundled bars together so that the bars are in closest possible contact. Provide tie
wire at least 2.5 mm diameter at centres ≤ 24 times the diameter of the smallest bar in the bundle.
Columns: Secure longitudinal column reinforcement to all ties at every intersection.
Mats: For bar reinforcement in the form of a mat, secure each bar at alternate intersections
Tolerances: To AS 3600 Section 19.
AS 3600 clause 13.2 specifies requirements for mechanical splices. Determine whether limits on non elastic deformation (slip)
are also needed.
Welding
General: If welding of reinforcement is proposed, provide details.

NATSPEC 156 [Insert date]


CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT STRUCTURE

3.2 COMPLETION
Unencased reinforcement
General: If ‘starter bars’ and other items project from cast concrete for future additions and are
exposed to the weather, provide details of protection.

NATSPEC 157 [Insert date]


CONCRETE POST-TENSIONED STRUCTURE

CONCRETE POST-TENSIONED

Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to prestressed concrete elements that are post-tensioned on site as part of the concrete
construction process. It anticipates the possibility of contractor design.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• Precast concrete.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
• Concrete in situ.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection.
Documenting this and related work
You may document this and related work as follows:
• It is important that the structural drawings either define performance criteria (loading, deflection, exposure) for anticipated
contractor design or detail fully the work. If the former is adopted, independent certification by a professional engineer of
the design and documentation, and of the erected framing, are appropriate.
• Show on the drawings any further special requirements.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
Provide post-tensioned concrete as follows:
- In conformance with the performance criteria nominated.
- Integrated into the building.
- Suitable for the fixing to it of flooring, linings and cladding.
- Independently designed and documented.
- Independently certified by a professional engineer for the design and the erected framing.
Delete non applicable wording from the text. Delete the first, fourth and last points if the work is fully documented in the contract
documents.
Design
General: Design and provide post-tensioning in conformance with the Structural design actions
schedule in General requirements and the following:
Exposure classification: >
Deflection: Long term incremental deflection shall not exceed span divided by:
>
Delete this entire subclause if the works have been fully documented and do not require contractor design.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.

NATSPEC 158 [Insert date]


CONCRETE POST-TENSIONED STRUCTURE

They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.

1.3 STANDARD
General
Post-tensioning: To AS 3600.
AS 3600 is cited in the BCA for structural sufficiency and fire resistance. See AS 3600 clause 19.3.

1.4 INTERPRETATION
Definition
General: For the purposes of this worksection the definitions given below apply.
- Grouted pre-packed aggregate: Concrete made by grout intrusion into pre-packed aggregate.
The Definitions subclause can be augmented to suit the project or deleted if not required.

1.5 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made of the following:
- Tendons fixed in place.
- Commencing initial or incremental stressing.
- Stressing tendons.
- Grouting tendons.
Hold points, if required, should be inserted here.

1.6 TESTS
General
General: Sample, test and assess the concrete for compliance.
Standard: To AS 1379.
Frequency of sampling: Spread site sampling evenly throughout the pour. For each prestressed
element take at least 3 samples for 3 day, 7 day and 28 day testing, at the rate of at least one sample
per 2 batches, from well distributed locations including the anchorage area. Cure 3 day and 7 day
samples by the same method as the prestressed element.
Grout for tendon ducts
Minimum requirements for grout are specified in the clause Grout. Grout mixes for post-tensioned tendon ducts are usually
determined by the contractor. Performance and testing requirements, if any, may be specified here if not shown on the
drawings.
Compressive strength (75 mm cube) (MPa): >
- Sampling frequency: >
- Number of specimens per sample: >
- Acceptance criterion: >
Bleeding:
- Test method: >
e.g. “Use a metal or glass cylinder approximately 100 mm in diameter filled with grout to a depth of approximately 100 mm and
covered to prevent evaporation”.
- Sampling frequency: >
- Acceptance criterion: >
e.g. “Bleeding must not exceed 2% of the volume 3 hours after mixing and 4% of the volume at any time. The separated water
must be reabsorbed after 24 hours.”
Shrinkage (% at 24 hours): >
- Test method: >
- Sampling frequency: >

NATSPEC 159 [Insert date]


CONCRETE POST-TENSIONED STRUCTURE

1.7 SAMPLES
Materials
Tendon materials: If manufacturer’s certification of compliance with AS 3600 is not available, submit
samples for testing.

1.8 SUBMISSIONS
Subcontractor
Details: Submit the proposed system and the name and contact details of the post-tensioner.
Design
Calculations: Submit calculations of tendon jacking forces, extensions and losses for each stressing
stage. Submit amount of draw-in expected in seating anchorages, and value of friction wobble
coefficient and friction curvature coefficient for tendons and duct-forming material.
Substantiating field data may also be required.

Shop drawings
General: Submit shop drawings of post-tensioned work showing details of the proposed system,
including the following:
14 days before delivery.
- Profiles, sizes and details of tendons, proprietary anchorages, ducts, duct formers, splicing,
sheathing, end block reinforcement and other associated components.
- Stressing requirements including sequence of stressing, jacking forces, tendon elongations, gauge
pressures, and the basis of assumed loss calculations.
- Number, size and position of grout openings, vents and drain holes in the ducts.
- Proposed fabrication, handling and fixing methods for tendons and sheathing.
Tests
Grout: Before grouting submit certified test results for compressive strength and shrinkage of the
proposed grout mix.
Anchorages: Submit performance test certificates for each type and size of anchorage and coupler.
If not available, ensure that the steel to concrete bearing surface is big enough to keep bearing stresses within those allowed in
AS 3600 clause 12.3.
High tensile steel: Submit test certificates.
Tendons: Submit test certificate.
Materials
Grout: Submit proposed grout mix including admixtures, if any.
Certificate of compliance: Submit the manufacturer's certificate of compliance with the relevant
Australian standard for each delivery of prestressing steel and each delivery of anchorage
components.
Grouted pre-packaged aggregate: Submit proposed details including aggregate grading and grout
materials and proportions.
Epoxy grout: If required, submit proposed formulation.
Execution
Equipment: Submit details of proposed gauging, stressing and grouting equipment. Submit current
calibration certificates for tensioning and tension measuring equipment.
Records
Post-tensioning: Record and submit the following data:
- Concrete mix.
- Details of placing and curing including dates.
- Details of placing of reinforcement and tendons.
- Dates of post-tensioning operations.
- Name of operator.
- Type and identification numbers of equipment used.
- Identification of tendons.

NATSPEC 160 [Insert date]


CONCRETE POST-TENSIONED STRUCTURE

- Stressing method (single or double end, monostrand or multistrand).


- Calculated tendon extension at each stressing stage.
- Initial force or pressure where tendons are marked for measurement of elongations.
- Final force or pressure and elongation on completion of tensioning.
- Typical certified stress-strain curves for each 10 coils of wire or strand, or each parcel of tendon
materials.
- Elongation remaining after release of jacks.
- Tendon breakage.
- Calibration records for gauges, dynamometers and jacks.
Grouting: For each duct grouted, record and submit a record identifying the duct and tendons, giving
the stressing and grouting dates, and showing the composition of the grout (water:cement ratio,
admixtures), grout tests, and details of grouting (including pumping or supply interruptions, topping
up).

2 PRODUCTS

2.1 GROUT
See AS 3600 clause 19.1.8.
Grout properties
Maximum shrinkage: 1% by volume after 24 hours.
Maximum water:cement ratio: 0.45 (by weight).
Minimum compressive strength (75 mm cube): 30 MPa at 28 days.
Grout materials
Fine aggregate: Do not include in the grout for ducts, unless gross inside cross-sectional area of ducts
exceeds 5x tendon cross-sectional area, in which case fine aggregate may be added.
- Grade: Passing 1.18 mm sieve.
Admixtures: Do not provide admixtures containing chlorides, nitrates, sulphides or sulphites. Include
an anti-bleed additive.
Cement type to AS 3972: SL, free from calcium chloride and less than one month old from date of
manufacture.
Fly ash: Maximum 10% of cement by weight.
Epoxy grout
Type: Commercial epoxy formulation of compressive strength exceeding 40 MPa.

2.2 DUCTS
Material
Robustness: Ducts shall have sufficient strength to retain their shape, resist damage during
construction, and prevent entrance of cement paste and water from the concrete. Material to be left in
place must not cause deterioration or electrolytic action.

3 EXECUTION

3.1 TENDONS
Tendons
General: Provide post-tensioning tendons, anchorages, ducts, supports, grout and anchorage
protection.
The technical requirements for prestressed tendons are generally covered by AS 3600 clause 19.3. Depending on the
application you may need to specify other matters such as shop drawings, calculations, tests, certificates, prestressing records
etc.
Standards: To AS 1310, AS 1311 and AS 1313.
Care: Do not weld tendons, nor expose them to sparks, ground current or excessive temperatures.

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CONCRETE POST-TENSIONED STRUCTURE

Minimum concrete cover: >


See AS 3600 clause 4.10 or AS 3735 clause 4.4 as applicable.
Other requirements: >
Tendons and anchorages: On completion of stressing and grouting, permanently protect anchorage
parts and parts of tendons anchored to them. Provide at least 40 mm of cover over the cut tendons
when the recesses are concreted. Keep free of foreign matter end anchorages which are to be
protected.
Such as loose rust, grease, oil and paint.
Grout fittings and ducts: For bonded construction, protect from collapse and other damage.
Conformance: Provide tendons in conformance with the Tendon schedule.
Tendon schedule
Structural element Tendon material Tendon size (mm)

It is preferable for the tendon material and size to be shown on the drawings. Only if it is not, it may be scheduled here (do not
duplicate). If it is delete this clause/schedule.
Tendon material: Specify the type and grade of strand, wire or bar. See AS 1310, AS 1311 and AS 1313.
Tendon size: State the number and nominal diameter of strands, wires or bars in each tendon.

3.2 POST-TENSIONING EQUIPMENT


Gauges
Standard: To AS 1349.
Maximum error in pressure indication: 1% of the maximum scale value.
Calibration of gauges and dynamometers
Period: Calibrate at intervals not exceeding 6 months.
Dynamometers are sensitive to rough handling and may require more frequent calibration.
Jacks
Calibration: Calibrate and measure friction losses at least once a year, or after re-sealing, matched
with the gauge calibration.

3.3 POST-TENSIONING
Sheathing
General: If ducts are formed with sheaths, provide sheathing material strong enough to transfer the
tendon stresses into the body of the concrete.
Stiffening: If tendons are to be installed after concreting, provide temporary stiffening within the sheath
such that the duct shape and profile are maintained during concreting. After concreting remove the
temporary stiffening and prove the duct using a suitable gauge before installing the tendon.
Splicing
Arrangement: Enclose splices in housing long enough to permit the necessary movements. Give
spliced strands the same lay to prevent rotation.
Protection
Unbonded tendons: Provide galvanized or lead coated steel sheathing for lengths of tendon required
to be unbonded, such that the tendon is permanently protected from corrosion.
Stressing
Procedure: Apart from light initial stressing to avoid early shrinkage cracking, do not commence
stressing until the concrete has demonstrably attained the required transfer strength. When more than
one wire or strand is stressed simultaneously, stress them equally. Do not leave tendons partially
stressed.
Stressing sequence: >

NATSPEC 162 [Insert date]


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Preferably show on the drawings.


Cutting tendons
Timing: Do not cut tendons until 7 days after grouting.

3.4 GROUTING DUCTS


Preparation
Pressure test the ducts at the grout pressure using water before grouting, and rectify leaks/repair
holes. Remove water from ducts immediately after slab curing has started, using oil-free compressed
air. Keep ducts dry until grouting starts.
Grouting
Timing: Grout within 48 hours of completion of acceptance of stressing.
Procedure: Prevent damage to grout vents and fittings during grouting. Do not use manually powered
grouting machines. Completely fill the duct during grouting. Inject grout until grout flows from vents
without air bubbles. Close vents as they fill, progressively in the direction of flow. If there is a blockage
or interruption, completely flush grout from the duct using water.
Temperature: Maintain concrete around grouted tendons at ≥ 5°C for at least 3 days after grouting.
External tendons: Encase external tendons in dense concrete designed to minimise shrinkage
cracking, and secured to the main concrete.
If encasing of external tendons is required, provide details of proposed procedure and materials.

Grout openings
Provision: Provide grout openings, vents and drain holes as necessary, including at each end, and at
high points except where tendon curvature is small and tendon is relatively level.
Removal: Remove protruding vents and drains after the grout has set and make good to match the
adjacent surfaces.
Maximum spacing: 15 m.
Grout pressure
Duct sealing: Seal the duct on completion of grouting at a pressure ≥ 210 kPa. Fit pressure tap
connections to each duct for this purpose.

NATSPEC 163 [Insert date]


CONCRETE IN SITU STRUCTURE

CONCRETE IN SITU

There is a Product Partner for this worksection. Click the logo to be redirected to their page.
Worksection application
This worksection is applicable to the use of in situ concrete for building and associated structures. It is the central and core
worksection for concrete construction specification, and will almost invariably be used in conjunction with a combination of the
related concrete worksections. In the event that related work is so limited as to not warrant a separate worksection parts of
related worksections that are applicable should be incorporated into this worksection. For example, surface finishes for a slab
on ground may require specification only of a class of finish for formed (edge) surfaces and a flatness class and finish type for
the unformed surface. Similarly, formwork may be limited to simple forms.
Related material located elsewhere in NATSPEC
Related material may be found in other worksections. For example:
• Concrete formwork.
• Concrete reinforcement.
• Concrete finishes.
Worksection(s) on which this worksection relies
The following worksections must be included, with this worksection, to provide a complete specification:
• General requirements.
Material not included in NATSPEC
Some projects may include items not covered by NATSPEC. For these you may need to create new text, modify this text or use
an applicable worksection.
Worksection cross referencing
Other worksections that cross reference this worksection are:
• Concrete formwork.
• Concrete reinforcement.
• Concrete post-tensioning.
• Concrete finishes.

1 GENERAL

1.1 AIMS
Responsibilities
General: Provide cast in situ concrete that:
- Can be readily placed into corners and angles of forms, and around reinforcement without
segregation
- Is not porous, cracked or honeycombed.
- Has acceptable plastic settlement cracking.
- Has acceptable levels of bleed water.
Selections: Conform to the Selections.

1.2 CROSS REFERENCES


General requirements
General: Conform to the General requirements worksection.
The General requirements worksection contains umbrella requirements for referenced documents, inspections, tests, samples,
contractor’s submissions, proprietary items, manufacturers’ recommendations, warranties, record drawings, operation and
maintenance manuals, and the like.
They need not be specified here unless you need to relocate them, for example if this is to be the specification for a package
contract. In this case make sure that the interlocking contracts leave no loopholes, such as work by non-existent ‘others’, and
have no overlaps.

NATSPEC 164 [Insert date]


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Associated worksections
Associated worksections: Conform to the following:
- Concrete formwork.
- Concrete reinforcement.
- Concrete finishes.
List worksections cross referenced by this worksection. (General requirements references the other general worksections e.g.
Metals and prefinishes do not repeat them here.) You may also wish to direct the contractor to other worksections where there
may be work that is closely associated with this work.

1.3 STANDARDS
General
Concrete structures for retaining liquids: To AS 3735.
Materials and construction: To AS 3600.

1.4 INTERPRETATIONS
Definitions
General: For the purposes of this worksection the definitions given below apply.
- Assessment:
. Production: An assessment procedure for concrete specified by strength grade, carried out by the
supplier on concrete produced by a specific supplying plant and based on the statistical
assessment of standard compressive strength tests on concrete.
. Project: An assessment procedure for concrete specified by strength grade, specified at the
customer’s option, which provides additional test data for the statistical assessment of concrete
supplied to a specific project.
- Concrete class:
. Normal: Concrete which is specified primarily by a standard compressive strength grade and
otherwise in accordance with AS 1379 clause 1.6.3.
. Special: Concrete which is specified to have certain properties or characteristics different from, or
additional to, those of normal-class concrete and otherwise in accordance with AS 1379 clause
1.6.4.
If special class concrete is nominated for the project, specify the relevant parameters in the Properties table – performance.
- Batch: A quantity of concrete containing a fixed quantity of ingredients and produced in a discrete
operation.
- Early age: A mean compressive strength at 7 days exceeding the values shown in AS 1379 Table 2.
- Joint:
. Construction: A joint provided to suit construction sequence with reinforcement continuous across
the joint.
. Contraction: An unreinforced joint with a bond-breaking coating separating the concrete joint
surfaces.
. Control: A weakened plane contraction joint created by forming a groove, extending at least one
quarter the depth of the section, either by using a grooving tool, by sawing, or by inserting a
premoulded strip.
. Expansion: An unreinforced joint with the joint surfaces separated by a compressible filler.
. Isolation: A joint without keying, dowelling, or reinforcement, which imposes no restraint on
movement.
Contraction joint: Movement in the plane of the joint may be restrained by keying or dowels. Bond breaking material may include
curing compound, bitumen emulsion or form oil.
Expansion joint: Movement in the plane of the joint may be restrained by dowels.
Isolation joint: Joints between cladding panels are of this type.
.
- Outdoor temperature: The air temperature at the time of mixing and the predicted or likely air
temperature at any time during the 48 hours following a concrete pour.

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- Sample: A portion of the material used in the works, or to take such a sample.
- Specimen: A portion of a sample which is submitted for testing.
- Weather:
. Cold: Surrounding outdoor shade temperature < 10°C.
. Hot: Surrounding outdoor shade temperature > 32°C.
The Definitions subclause can be edited to suit the project or deleted if not required.

1.5 INSPECTION
Notice
Inspection: Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made of the following:
- Base or subgrade before covering.
- Membrane or film underlay installed on the base.
- Completed formwork, and reinforcement, cores, fixings and embedded items fixed in place.
- Surfaces or elements to be concealed in the final work before covering.
- Commencement of concrete placing.

1.6 TESTS
General
Sampling and testing of specimens: Submit test certificates, and also retain results on site.
If this is important to the specification for the project, insert the following text.
Material tests: Before supplying concrete submit test certificates based on samples from the most recent production or from
stockpiles for the project, for the materials and properties listed in the Material tests schedule. Submit additional certificates at
the scheduled frequency during the course of the works.
Construction tests
Frequency: Conform to AS 1379. For each property test at least two specimens from each sample.
If it is intended to include the Tests table in Selections, add after AS 1379 “and to the Tests table”
Concrete testing methods
Sampling, identification and testing: Sample the concrete on site, at the point of discharge from the
agitator to AS 1012.
Drying shrinkage: Test 3 specimens of each type of concrete every 3 months or every 3000 m3 placed
concrete. Base assessments on the average of the 3 specimens test results. Conduct 2 sets of tests
on trial mixes.
Refer also to Instruction text Shrinkage sensitive structures below. Delete reference to drying shrinkage here if Tests table is
being included and nominated frequency details there.
Slump: Test at least one sample from each batch before placing concrete from that batch in the work.
Strength grade/Characteristic compressive strength: Spread the site sampling evenly throughout the
pour.
- Sampling frequency: To the Project assessment strength grade sampling table.
- Specimen size: Nominally 200 x 100 mm diameter but, if aggregate size exceeds 20 mm, nominally
300 x 150 mm diameter.
Control tests
General: Determine strength using site cured specimens.
Embedded pressure pipes
General: If leak tests have not been successfully completed, do not embed pipes.
Liquid retaining structures
Testing for liquid tightness (to AS 3735): XXX
Production assessment
If you wish to receive production assessment information from the supplier, insert the following text:
Concrete testing
Production information: Verify conformance in accordance with AS 1379 clause 6.4.3.

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Project assessment
Standard: To AS 1379.
If it is intended to include the Test table, add here “and in conformance with the Tests table”.
Test authority
General: Concrete supplier or NATA registered laboratory.
Test records
Records and reports: To AS 1012.
Project assessment strength grade sampling table
Number of batches for each Minimum number of samples
type and grade of concrete per
day Columns, loadbearing wall and Other elements per day
post tensioned slab/beam
elements per batch
1 1 1
2-5 1 2
6-10 1 3
11-20 1 4
each additional 10 1 1 additional

1.7 SHRINKAGE SENSITIVE STRUCTURES


Concrete performance
Drying shrinkage (maximum including tolerances): 650 µm for concrete up to and including strength
grade 32; 700 µm for higher strength grades.
Nomination of drying shrinkage of less than 1000 µm after 56 days of drying means that the concrete is technically a special
class. If no other special grade properties are nominated, include the drying shrinkage requirement here, otherwise delete here
and include in the Properties table – special class.
- Duration of air drying: 56 days

1.8 COLOURED CONCRETE


Standard
General: To AS 3610
Manufacture
General: Using the same mix and method to be used in the works, supply sample blocks of concrete
to be coloured with mineral oxides.
- Number: 4.
- Size (nominal): 300 x 300 x 50 mm.

1.9 SAMPLES AND SUBMISSIONS


Product conformity
General: Submit current assessments of conformity as follows:
- Certificate of conformity by a JAS-ANZ accredited third party:
. (e.g. Reinforcement: To AS/NZS 4671).
- Declaration of conformity by an ISO 9001 quality management system certified supplier:
. (e.g. Premixed concrete: Production assessment to AS 1379).
- Mark of conformity of a JAS-ANZ accredited third party applied to the product:
. (e.g. Milled radiata pine products: Plantation Timber Certification).
- Report by a NATA accredited laboratory describing tests and giving results which demonstrate that
the product conforms.
Design documentation
Loading: Submit details of proposed construction systems, loads and procedures, including propping
and re-shoring.

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Construction proposals
Concrete: Submit proposals for mixing, placing, finishing and curing concrete including the following:
- Addition of water at the site.
- Changes to the plastic concrete mix.
- Curing and protection methods.
- Curing period for low-pressure steam curing, if proposed.
- Cutting or displacing reinforcement, or cutting hardened concrete.
- Handling, placing, compaction and finishing methods and equipment, including pumping.
- Placing under water.
- Sequence and times for concrete pours, and construction joint locations and relocations.
- Site storage, mixing and transport methods and equipment, if applicable.
- Temperature control methods.
Cutting or coring: If cutting or coring of hardened concrete is proposed, provide details.
Loading: If proposed construction systems, loads and procedures, including propping and re-shoring,
differ from submitted design documentation, submit details.
Sequence of pours: If sequential pouring of slab segments is proposed, provide details.
Sawn joints: Submit proposed methods, timing and sequence of sawing joints.
Multi-storey work: If any of the following occurs, submit details:
- Formwork procedures or construction loadings differ from the information included in the project
documentation.
- Project documentation does not include formwork shoring or stripping procedures or allowable
loadings from stacked materials.
Props: Props above a floor do not coincide with the props below.
Delete if not applicable.
Product proposals
If it is proposed to include the Material tests table, insert the following clause here.
General: Submit details of proposed sources of materials and type-test reports to verify conformance with the Material tests
table.
Concrete mixes: Submit details, for each grade and type of concrete including proposed use of
special-purpose cement types.
General purpose cements:
• Type GP – general purpose Portland.
• Type GB – general purpose blended.
Special purpose cements.
• Type HE – high early strength.
• Type LH – low heat.
• Type SR – Sulphate resisting.
• Type SL – Shrinkage limited.
Curing compounds: If it is proposed to use a liquid membrane-forming curing compound submit the
following information:
- Certified test results for water retention to AS 3799 Appendix B.
It is likely that PVA-based products will not comply with water retention requirements.
- Evidence of compatibility with concrete, and with applied finishes including toppings and render, if
any, including methods of obtaining the required adhesion.
- For visually important surfaces, evidence that an acceptable final surface colour will be obtained.
Pre-mixed supply
Delivery docket: For each batch, submit a docket listing the information required by AS 1379, and the
following information:
- For special class performance concrete, specified performance and type of cement binder.
- For special class prescription concrete, details of mix, additives, and type of cement binder.

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- Method of placement and climate conditions during pour.


- Name of concrete delivery supervisor.
- Project assessment carried out each day.
- The amount of water, if any, added at the site.
- The concrete element or part of the works for which the concrete was ordered, and where it was
placed.
- The total amount of water added at the plant and the maximum amount permitted to be added at the
site.
Subcontactors: Submit names and contact details of proposed pre-mixed concrete suppliers, and
alternative source of supply in the event of breakdown of pre-mixed or site mixed supply.
Construction documentation
Cores, fixings and embedded items: If the locations of these items are not shown or are shown
diagrammatically, submit shop drawings showing the proposed locations, clearances and cover.
Indicate proposed repositioning of reinforcement.

2 EXECUTION

2.1 POLYMERIC FILM UNDERLAY


Standard
Vapour barriers and damp-proofing membranes: To AS 2870.
Location
General: Under slabs on ground including integral ground beams and footings, provide a vapour
barrier or, in areas prone to rising damp or salt attack, a damp-proofing membrane.
Provision of a vapour barrier for external slabs on ground prevents water loss to the subgrade and has the potential to reduce
slab curling at edges and corners.

Installation
General: Lay over the base, lap joints at least 200 mm and seal the laps and penetrations with
waterproof adhesive tape. Face the laps away from the direction of concrete pour. Take the underlay
up vertical faces past the damp proof course where applicable, and tape fix at the top. Patch or seal
punctures or tears before pouring concrete. Cut back as required after concrete has gained strength
and forms have been removed.
Base preparation
General: According to base type, as follows:
- Concrete working base: Remove projections above the plane surface, and loose material.
- Graded prepared subgrade: Blind with sufficient sand to create a smooth surface free from hard
projections. Wet the sand just before laying the underlay.

2.2 CONCRETE MATERIALS


Bagged cement
Standard: To AS 3972.
- Age: Less than 6 months old.
- Type: GP.
Chemical admixtures
Contents: Free of chlorides, fluorides and nitrates.

2.3 CONCRETE
General
General: Provide concrete in conformance with the following:
- The Properties table – performance.
- The Properties table – prescriptive.

NATSPEC 169 [Insert date]


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Elapsed delivery time


General: Ensure that the elapsed time between the wetting of the mix and the discharge of the mix at
the site is in conformance with the Elapsed delivery time table. Do not discharge below 10°C or
above 32°C.
Elapsed delivery time table
Concrete temperature at time of discharge (°C) Maximum elapsed time (hours)
10 – 24 2.00
24 – 27 1.50
27 – 30 1.00
30 – 32 0.75

NOTE: AS 1379 nominates a limit of 90 minutes which can be waived by agreement between the customer and supplier, if, after
that period, the consistency of the concrete is such that it can be properly placed without the addition of any more water to the
mixer.

Pre- mixed supply


Addition of water: If water is to be added, comply with AS 1379 Section 4.2.3.
Transport: Mode must prevent segregation, loss of material and contamination of the environment,
and must not adversely affect placing or compaction.
Site mixed supply
Emergencies: If mixing by hand is carried out, provide details.
Plant: Mix concrete in a plant located on the construction site.

2.4 CORES, FIXINGS AND EMBEDDED ITEMS


Adjoining elements
General: For adjoining elements to be fixed to or supported on the concrete, provide for the required
fixings. If required, provide for temporary support of adjoining elements during construction of the
concrete.
Protection
General: Grease threads. Protect embedded items against damage.
Compatibility: Ensure inserts, fixings and embedded items are compatible with each other, with the
reinforcement and with the concrete mix to be used.
Corrosion: If in external or exposed locations, galvanize anchor bolts and embedded fixings.
Structural integrity
General: Fix cores and embedded items to prevent movement during concrete placing. In locating
cores, fixings and embedded items, reposition but do not cut reinforcement, and maintain cover to
reinforcement.
Tolerances
General: Maximum deviation from correct positions:
- Anchor bolt groups for structural steel: To AS 4100.
- Cores and embedded items generally: 10 mm.
- Other fixing bolts: 3 mm.

2.5 CONCRETE WORKING BASE


Finish
Membrane support: Wood float finish or equivalent.
Installation
General: Lay over the base or subgrade and screed to the required level.
Surface tolerance
Deviation: 5 mm from the correct plane; 5 mm from a 2 m straight edge.

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2.6 PLACING AND COMPACTION


Compaction
Methods: Use immersion and screed vibrators accompanied by hand methods as appropriate to
remove air bubbles and to fully compact the mix.
Vibrators: Do not allow vibrators to come into contact with partially hardened concrete, reinforcement
or items including pipes and conduits embedded in concrete. Do not use vibrators to move concrete
along the forms. Avoid over-vibration that may cause segregation.
Horizontal transport
General: Use suitable conveyors, clean chutes, troughs or pipes.
Placing
General: Use placing methods which avoid segregation and loss of concrete, and which minimise
plastic settlement. Maintain a generally vertical and plastic concrete edge at faces of a pour.
Layers: Place concrete in layers ≤ 300 mm thick, such that each succeeding layer is compacted before
previous layer has taken initial set.
Placing records
General: Keep on site and make available for inspection a log book recording each placement of
concrete, including the following:
- Date.
- Specified grade and source of concrete.
- Slump measurements.
- The portion of work.
- Volume placed.
Rain
General: Do not expose concrete to rain before it has been placed and set.
Time between adjacent pours
General: Conform to the Minimum time delay schedule.
Vertical elements
General: In vertical elements, limit the free fall of concrete to 1500 mm per 100 mm element thickness,
up to a maximum free fall of 3000 mm, using enclosed vertical chutes or access hatches in forms.

2.7 PLACING IN COLD WEATHER


Cement
General: Do not use high alumina cement.
Placing
Concrete: Maintain the temperature of the freshly mixed concrete in conformance with the Cold
weather placing table.
Formwork and reinforcement: Before and during placing maintain temperature at ≥ 5°C.
Severe weather
General: If severe weather conditions are predicted, use high early strength cement.
Temperature control
General: Heat the concrete materials, other than cement, to the minimum temperature necessary to
ensure that the temperature of the placed concrete is within the limits specified.
Admixtures: Do not use calcium chloride, salts, chemicals or other material in the mix to lower the
freezing point of the concrete.
Frozen materials: Do not allow frozen materials or materials containing ice to enter the mixer, and
keep free of frost and ice any forms, materials, and equipment coming in contact with the concrete.
Maximum temperature of water: 60°C when it is placed in the mixer.
Plastic concrete: Prevent plastic concrete from freezing, without using salts or chemicals.

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Cold weather placing table


Outdoor air temperature Temperature of concrete
Minimum Maximum
≥ 5°C 10°C 32°C
< 5°C 18°C 32°C

2.8 PLACING IN HOT WEATHER


Handling
General: Prevent premature stiffening of the fresh mix and reduce water absorption and evaporation
losses. Mix, transport, place and compact the concrete in conformance with the Elapsed delivery
time schedule.
Placing
Concrete: Maintain the temperature of the freshly mixed concrete in conformance with the Hot
weather placing table.
Formwork and reinforcement: Before and during placing maintain temperature at ≤ 35°C.
Severe weather
General: If surrounding outdoor shade temperature > 38°C, do not mix concrete.
Temperature control
General: Select one or more of the following methods of maintaining the specified temperature of the
placed concrete:
- Cool the concrete using liquid nitrogen injection before placing.
- Cover the container in which the concrete is transported to the forms.
- Spray the coarse aggregate using cold water prior to mixing.
- Use chilled mixing water.
Hot weather placing table
Concrete element Temperature limit
Normal concrete in footings, beams, columns, walls and slabs 32°C
Concrete in sections ≥ 1 m in all dimensions except for concrete of 27°C
strength 40 MPa or greater, in sections exceeding 600 mm in thickness

2.9 PLACING UNDER WATER


General
Condition: If placing in the dry is practicable by pumping or other means of dewatering, do not place
under water.
Minimum cement content for the mix: Increase by 25%.
Method
General: If required, submit proposals.

2.10 CURING
General
Concrete strength: If the strength of concrete required by AS 3600 clauses 4.4 or 4.5 has not been
achieved, extend the curing period until strength is achieved.
Curing: Cure continuously from initial set until the total cumulative number of days or fractions of days,
during which the air temperature in contact with the concrete is above 10°C, is at least the following,
unless accelerated curing is adopted:
- Fully enclosed internal surfaces/Early age concrete: 3 days.
- Other surfaces concrete: 7 days.
End of curing period: Prevent rapid drying out at the end of the curing period.

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Protection: Maintain at a reasonably constant temperature with minimum moisture loss, during the
curing period.
Cold weather curing
General: Maintain concrete temperature between 10 – 20°C for curing period.
Curing compounds
Standard: To AS 3799.
Application: Provide a uniform continuous flexible coating without visible breaks or pinholes, whic