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10 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Energy audit for CTF1 is established to determine how energy had been used
by various systems that can be found inside CTF1. Data are collected based on three
major end uses known as lighting, air conditioning and general equipments. Based on
data completion, electricity/energy consumption in kilowatts for lighting system is
41.7kW, air-conditioning system is 83.79kW, and general equipment is 20.66kW. The
percentages of electricity/energy consumption for these three aspects are 30.31%,
59.93% and 15.02% respectively.

In order to assess the energy efficiency for CTF1, Building Energy Index
(BEI) for CTF1 is computed and later compared with targeted BEI for energy
efficient buildings in Malaysia. In short, calculated BEI for CTF1 is 370.5kWh/m2/yr
whereas the targeted BEI for energy efficient building is in range of 200-250
kWh/m2/yr, thus it can be conclude that CTF1 has not yet considered as an energy
efficient building.

Since the BEI for CTF1 is considered high, a goal has to be set to reduce
energy consumption in CTF1. Measures which required non-capital investment is
recommended to become main priority to be implemented first. This is because, there
are still many aspects can be improved in order to reduce energy consumption
especially in terms management, operational and maintenance. Later on this report
several probable measures which associated energy savings are identified and
recommended for implementation.

20 INTRODUCTION

1
This report presents results of commissioning Energy Audits for Centre of
Teaching Facilities1 (CTF1) situated at Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS).
This Energy Audit is a systematic study or survey to identify how energy is being
used in CTF1. It is also a useful procedure to find out the best options for energy
conservation and saving measure. It also provides an analysis of the amount of energy
consumed by major end uses during a given period in the form of electricity. Using
that information, it is also possible to list how the energy was used according to the
various outlets/room in a building. The next step in this energy audit then is to
identify the potential for energy savings accurately.

2.1 Types of Energy Audit Implemented

Energy audit of CTF1 is a combination of two different types of energy audit


available whereby the Detailed Audit is the continuation of Preliminary Audit. The
preliminary audit alternatively called a walk-through audit is the simplest and
quickest type of audit. It involves minimal interviews with site operating personnel, a
brief review of facility electric bills and other operating data, and a walk-through of
the facility to become familiar with the building operation and identify glaring areas
of energy waste or inefficiency. Typically, only major problem areas will be
uncovered during this type of audit.

The general/detailed audit expands on the preliminary audit described above


by collecting more detailed information about facility operation and performing a
more detailed evaluation of energy conservation measures identified. In-depth
information and data collection which include technical characteristics of energy
consuming equipment/systems, design conditions and parameters, building services
design report with system schematic diagrams and layout drawings showing system
characteristics are gathered from desk and field study. This type of audit will also be
able to identify all energy conservation measures appropriate for the facility given its
operating parameters. A detailed financial analysis is performed for each measure

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based on detailed implementation cost estimates; site-specific operating cost savings,
and the customer's investment criteria. Sufficient detail is provided to justify project
implementation.

3.0 OBJECTIVE

The major objective of conducting an energy audit for CTF1 is to find out how
efficiently energy has been used here, and to identify opportunities for improvement.
This requires measurement of the amount of energy used by various systems and
equipment which classified under 3 major end uses which are lighting, air
conditioning and general equipments. For CTF1, only aggregated energy consumption
data, i.e. from electricity bills has been obtained which cover a large group of
equipment. As a result, the energy efficiency of individual system or equipment
would have to be assessed on the basis of estimated energy consumption.

4.0 BUILDING DESCRIPTION

Centre of Teaching Facility 1 (CTF 1) is a place for teaching and learning


centre for Engineering Faculty, Computer Science and Information Technology
Faculty, and Resource Science and Technology Faculty. Completely build around
year 2002 with an area of approximately 12300m2. The building is operating 13 hours
a day from 8 in the morning until 9 in the night, and 5 days a week of operating,
excluding the usage of weekend, and occupies almost 1000 people every day. There
are six seminar room, one lecture hall, 6 toilets, a management office, VIP room and
technician room at the CTF 1. The shape of the building is an oval shape and a
rectangular. The building consists of lower ground floor, ground floor, first floor and
second floor but only ground floor and second floor is occupied for teaching and
learning purposes of which also consisted of two toilets for each level (ground and
second floor) and overall six toilets on the building. Each of the seminar room and
lecture theatre (combination of ground and first floor) are air conditioned, special
lighting (excluding toilet, AHU room (lower ground level), and control room, around

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the building) and other electrical devices such as computer, microphone, speaker and
etc.

5.0 METHODOLOGY

5.1 Work Phases Chart


Inception
Clarify scope of
study for Energy

4
Building
Selection
Conducting Energy
Audit for a Building Preliminary
Energy Audit Data
(Walk Through
Major Energy Building)
Consumption
Major end uses Identified

Air Lighting General


conditioning Equipments

Data Collection
Three main data
available as follow:

Desktop Data Field Data Cross checking


Collection Collection of load demand
data

Completing Missing Data


Uncompleted data is obtain from Field
Measurement
Complete Data Load Data
Logger

Comparison Before Recommendati Data Presentation


and After Energy on End-uses load
Savings Measure Indentified Energy apportioning using
Using BEII, LEII, ACEII Saving Measure graph/chart

Conclusion
-Cost Saving Achieved
-Payback period
strategy
[Figure] 5.1 Audit Methodology
i. Inception
The study is started with identifying the scope of study for the energy audit.
To understand the requirements for conducting an effective energy audit,
various information related to it are gathered. Most of the information for an

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energy audit is obtains from the “Guidelines for Conducting Energy Audit in
Commercial Buildings” and also from the internet.

ii. Building Selection


The building selection for the energy audit is Central Teaching Facilities 1
(CTF 1) of Universiti Malaysia Sarawak. CTF 1 is selected since energy audit
for this building has not yet been developed. For this selection, gross total area
of CTF 1 is 12300m2.

iii. Preliminary Energy Audit


Preliminary Energy Audit is conducted mainly to get know the energy
consumption of CTF 1 based on the historical billing data. Since the electricity
supply of UNIMAS is a centralised system which distributed from the Main
Intake Station (MIS), therefore only electric bills from MIS for the whole
energy consumption of buildings inside UNIMAS is available. To acquire
energy consumption by CTF 1, estimation of cost for various systems and
equipments inside CTF1 is done.

iv. Major Energy Consumption


Most of the buildings in Malaysia consume energy from three major end uses
which identified as air conditioning, lighting and general
equipments/appliances. Similarly, for the energy audit of CTF 1, the major
energy consumption is comprised of these three major end uses.

v. Data Collection
Data for the major end uses namely air conditioning, lighting and general
equipments is gathered from the desktop data collection, field data collection,
and cross checking of load demand data. Desktop data collection comprise of
the data obtain from schematic diagrams and layout drawings such as

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Electrical, Mechanical and Architectural plan. The field data collection
involved counting and measuring the end uses at CTF 1. Measuring is done
using suitable apparatus such as clamp meter. The field measurement is also
conducted to get missing data which cannot be acquired from desktop data
collection. Cross checking of load data is then prepared to check accuracy of
the data from desktop and field data collection with the load data logger.

vi. Data presentation


Data presentation is considered as the result and analysis for the energy audit
of CTF 1. The whole completed data is concluded in a simple manner in form
of pie & bar chart and graphs. From the charts and graphs, results of data
collection are analysed in order to come out with suitable recommendation.

vii. Recommendation
Recommendation is made to identify few probable energy saving measures
that can be implemented at CTF 1 based on the result and analysis.

viii.Comparison Before and After Energy Savings Measure


Comparison is done between before and after implementing energy saving
measures using computation of Building Energy Index. From here cost
savings for the energy saving measures are determined. If the energy saving
measure required extra financial resources for purchasing new technologies,
the payback period for implementing such measure will also be determined.

6.0 ENERGY AUDIT DATA & ANALYSIS


6.1 Building Structure Data
6.1.1 Roof Data

Roof Data

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– Building Material Sound proof – Special Roof

– Colour Light Green

– Skylight (YES/NO) No

– Skylight Dimension (m x m) -

– Insulation (YES/NO) Yes

– Total Area (m2) 2087.5

– Insulated Area (m2) 2087.5

[Table 6.1] Roof Data

6.1.2 Floor Data


[Table 6.2] Floor Data

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Floor Gross Area (m2) Occupied Area Air Conditioned
(m2) Area

Ground Floor

– Lecture 683.50 520.53 520.53


Theatre

– Toilet (LT) 76.22 76.22 -

– SR1 270.00 192.00 192.00

– SR2 270.00 192.00 192.00

– SR3 288.00 192.00 192.00

– Toilet (SR) 96.00 96.00 -

– Management 48.00 48.00 48.00


Office

– Outside 323.00 - -

Sub-Total 2054.72 1316.75 1144.53

1st Floor

– SR4 270.00 192.00 192.00

– SR5 270.00 192.00 192.00

– SR6 288.00 192.00 192.00

– Toilet (SR) 96.00 96.00 -

– Technician 48.00 48.00 48.00


Office

– Outside 288.00 - -

Sub-Total 1260.00 720.00 624.00

Total 3314.72 2036.75 1768.53

SR- Seminar Room


LT- Lecture Theatre

6.1.3 Wall Data

9
Wall Data
Facing HEP Facing FK Facing Lake(LT)

Orientation Orientation Orientatio


n

-Material Concret -Material Concret -Material Concret


e e e

-Colour White -Colour White -Colour White

-Area 1531.2 -Area 1178.4 -Area 778.8


m2 m2 m2

-Thicknes 115mm -Thickness 115mm -Thickne 115mm


s ss

-Commen -Comment -Comme


ts s nts

Windows Windows Windows

-Material Glass -Material Glass -Material Glass

-Shading Yes -Shading Yes -Shading Yes

-Area 120m2 -Area 65m2 -Area -

-Shading Reflecti -Shading Reflectiv -Shading Reflectiv


coefficient ve film coefficient e film coefficient e film
(2) (2) (2)

-Overhang No -Overhang No -Overhan No


(3) (3) g (3)

-Blinds (3) No -Blinds (3) No -Blinds (3) No

-Side No -Side No -Side No


reveals(3) reveals(3) reveals(3)

-Curtains No -Curtains (3) No -Curtains No


(3) (3)

-Comments -Comments -Comments


on windows on windows on windows
air air air
infiltration infiltration infiltration

Outside Outside Outside


Door Door Door
(Structure) (Structure) (Structure
)

-Open/Close Close -Open/Close Close -Open/Clos Close


(4) (4) e(4)

-Comment No -Comment No -Commen No


s on door infiltratio s on door air infiltration ts on door infiltration
air n infiltration air
infiltration infiltration

10
[Table 6.3] Wall data

6.1.4 Room Data


[Table 6.4] Room Data
Room No. of Temp
Level Wall Colour Remarks
No./Description people [oC]

G Lecture Theatre 510 24 White/Brow Wall-Absorb


n Sound

SR1 150 23 White

SR2 150 23 White

SR3 150 23 White

Management 5 21 White
Office

1st SR4 150 23 White

SR5 150 23 White

SR6 150 23 White

Technician Office 3 21 White

7.0 SYSTEM EQUIPMENTS DATA

7.1 Lighting Equipment Data

Xperlu print

11
Xperlu print

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[Figure 7.1] Lighting System and Their Power Consumption (kW)

From the graph, Open Cone Downlight has the highest power consumption
followed by Aluminium Up/Down Lighter, and then Recessed Fluorescent Fitting.
From the table, individual Open Cone Downlight also has the highest power
consumption which is 150 watts. Second and third largest for individual power
consumption are Aluminium Up/Down Lighter and Halogen Downlight with 80 watts
and 50 watts respectively. In terms of amount of lamps that being used, Recessed
Fluorescent Fitting has the highest amount being used which is148, followed by
Mounted Downlight, Aluminium Up/Down Lighter and Open Cone Downlight with
136, 114, and 111 respectively.

7.2 Air conditioning Data

In the analysis of energy consumption for air conditioning system, data


collection for the system itself has been further divided into 5 subsystems which
identified as Air Handling Unit, Split Unit, Chilled Water Supply Fan Coil Unit,

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Exhaust Fan Coil Unit and Chillers Water Pump system. Note that, chillers are not
included in this analysis since the chillers system is a centralised system which is
controlled from MEP.

7.2.1 Split Unit Data

Xperlu print

14
7.2.2 Air Handling Unit Data

Xperlu print

15
7.2.2 Air Handling Unit Data

Xperlu print

16
[Figure 7.2] AHU Suggested and Actual Temperature

From the AHU data of CTF1, actual temperature for every AHU differs from
the suggested temperature provided from the M&E drawing. From the graph above,
for suggested temperature, supply air with average temperature of 110C has
significant rise in temperature (approx. 150C) as the air returned back to AHU. On the
other hand, for the actual temperature, supply air with average temperature between
18-200C shows slight changes in temperature increase which is approximately 4-50C.

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The main idea for the huge difference between suggested and actual air
temperature handle by AHU is based on the number of occupants accommodated for
every seminar room and the lecture theatre. This is because, the suggested air
temperature is supplied in order to accommodate a seminar room with 150 people and
also assuming that at all time all rooms are occupied, but in actual situation number of
people occupying the room is less than 150 and also there are certain time the rooms
are totally empty.

Thus, in actual situation, air temperature only has slight increase when it
return back to AHU since the heat transfer from the people to the air inside the rooms
are much lesser compared with when the room meet it capacity (150 people). Similar
situation also happens in the lecture theatre. In order to deal with actual situation, staff
from MEP has increase the temperature of air into AHU so that the temperature inside
the rooms are in the ideal state and the returned air can be as closed as the suggested
return air.

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7.2.3 Chilled Water Supply Fan coil Unit

Xperlu print

19
[Figure 7.3] Chilled Water Supply Fan Coil Unit

In CTF1 there are three supply chilled water fan coil unit whereby each has a
power consumption of 72 watts. Total power consumptions for these three units of
chilled water fan coil are 216 watts. Temperature of chilled water in and out for each
room is mostly governed by the number of occupants inside it. For instance in the VIP
room temperature of in and out are nearly the same since the room has no occupants
and it is always closed.

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7.2.4 Exhaust Fan Coil Unit

Xperlu print

21
[Figure 7.4] Exhaust Fan Coil Unit

From graph above, power consumption for every fan coil unit are different
with one and another even most of them are from the same brand. This is may be
depend on the amount of the discharge air into the room and may also depend on the
size room along with number of occupants inside the room. The highest power for a
fan coil unit is 740 watts whereas the lowest is 70 watts. Most of the exhaust fan coil
units consume average power ranging between 180 watts and 340 watts. Total power
use by the exhaust fan coil unit is 5480 watts.

7.2.5 Chilled Water Pump

Xperlu print

22
[Figure 7.5] Chilled Water Pump

Three tertiary pumps are used to drive chilled water from the Mechanical and
Electrical Plant (MEP) into the air-conditioning system inside CTF1. Total power
consumptions by these pumps are 27500 watts.

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7.3 General Equipments Data

Xperlu print

24
[Figure 7.6] General Equipment

8.0 RESULT

8.1 Percentage of Energy Consumption

End Uses Total


Total Energy Percentage
Description Unit
(kW) (%)
kWH
Lighting Lighting 41.70 30.31 542.10
Air Split Unit 2.52 1.83 32.76
Conditioning AHU 39.50 28.71 513.50

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Fan Coil Unit 5.70 4.14 74.10
Chilled Water
27.50 19.98 357.50
Pump
General General
20.66 15.02 268.58
Equipments Equipments
Total 137.58 100.00 1788.54
[Table 8.1] Total of Energy Consumption

[Figure 8.1] Percentage of Power/Energy (Electricity) Consumption

Pie chart above shows the overall power/energy (electricity) consumption in


kilowatts for major end uses in CTF1. The Air Conditioning system taken up the
highest percentage with 54.67%, followed by lighting which has 30.31% and lastly
General Equipments with 15.02% of energy consumption. This result also shows that
the CTF1 has almost similar proportion of major end uses energy consumption in
most of unresidential buildings in Malaysia of which having proportion of 60% for air
conditioning, 30 for lighting and 10% for general equipment.
8.2 Cost Estimation for Energy Consumption
Cost estimation for a period of a year of CTF1 is established since the
historical billing data cannot be used. This is because historical billing data comprise
the overall electricity consumption for the whole New Campus, UNIMAS whereby
the total electric consumption of CTF1 alone cannot be identified.

Total Total
Total
Total Energy Charge Charge
Description Unit Tariff
(kW) Per Day Per Month
kWH
(RM) (RM)
Lighting 542.10 667.2 15345.6
41.70
Split Unit 2.52 32.76 40.32 927.36
C2- RM16
AHU 39.50 513.50 for each 632 14536
kilowatts
Fan Coil Unit 5.70 74.10 of 91.2 2097.6
maximum
Chilled Water demand 10120
27.50 357.50 440
Pump per
General month 7602.88
20.66 268.58 330.56
Equipments
1788.5 2201.2 50629.4
Total 137.58
4 8 4

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[Table 8.2] Tariff of Electricity
Source: SESCO

Estimated proportion of monthly charge for CTF1 from overall charge of New
Campus:

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Monthly Cost in 2009

(RM)

Month New Campus Average


814247.7
Jan 5
829370.5
Feb 0
916059.0
Mac 0
916150.7
Apr 5 869282
848372.2
May 5
794684.2
Jun 5
930477.7
July 5
920568.2
Aug 5
847268.0
Sept 0
947518.0
Oct 0
871395.1
Nov 3
795272.2
Dec 5

[Table 8.3] Monthly Charge for New Campus Based On 2009

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[Figure 8.2] Proportion of Monthly Charge for CTF1 compared to New Campus

8.3 Building Energy Index (BEI)

The degree of energy efficiency of a building is normally measured and


compared in Building Energy Index (BEI). The BEI is expressed in total energy used,
which is normally the total kWH of electricity per square metre per annum
(kWh/m2/year) of the building's net area. An energy efficient building should aim for
a lower BEI. In Malaysia, the recommended BEI of an energy efficient building is
from 200-250 kWh/m2/year.BEI for CTF1 is determined as follow:

Total Energy
Unit, Area of CTF1, consumption, Percenta
Description kWH m2 kW/m2/yr ge
Lighting 542.10 12300 112.30 30.31
Split Unit 32.76 12300 6.79 1.83
AHU 513.50 12300 106.36 28.71
Fan Coil Unit 74.10 12300 15.35 4.14
Water Pump 357.50 12300 74.06 19.98
General
268.58 15.02
Equipment 12300 55.64
1788.5
Total 4 370.50 100.00

[Table 8.4] Building Energy Index of CTF1 (BEI)

BEI = 1788.54kWh÷12300m2 ÷ 1196×13yr

= 370.50kWh/m2/yr.

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8.4 Estimated Emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from CTF1

Estimated emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from CTF1 is done as part of


assessing amount of CO2 released from energy/electricity usage from the various
systems in CTF1. Beside this estimation is done to address nowadays issue such as
global warming. Global warming, as we know has become a matter of great concern
worldwide. One of the major contributors to the problem is uncontrolled release of
global warming agent, carbon dioxide (CO2).The harmful CO2 which is also a
greenhouse gas which released into the atmosphere each time the power plant
generate electricity.

One of the ways to address this issue is by building innovative sustainable


buildings or buildings that use energy efficiently. Efficient use of energy will reduce
the rate of harmful CO2 emission and contribute towards a better environment.
Buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of the greenhouse gas emission into
the environment due to the embodied energy used during its construction and
operation. The longer its lifespan, the higher accumulated energy is used and more
CO2 is released into the atmosphere.

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CO2 emission of CTF1 is determined as follow:
Electricity Au d it C alcu lator
Column A Column B Column C Column D Column E Column F Column G Column H Column I Column J Column K Column L Column M

Num ber of
Num ber of A verage k W h left k W h left Total k g
Hours in Hours on day s on
Num ber of A verage day s in k W h us ed k W h us ed per W attage on s tand- on s tand- CO 2 per
E quipm ent us e per s tand-by s tand-by
item s W attage (w) us e per per day y ear on s tand- by per by per y ear for this
day per day during a
y ear by (w) day y ear item
y ear

M ounted Downlight 136 13 13 196 23 4505 0 0 4811


ABlum
areinium Up/Down
Channel Lighter
F luores c ent 114 80 13 196 119 23238 0 0 24818
Fitting Colour 84 Tube 62 18 13 196 15 2844 0 0 3037
Rec es s ed F luores cent F itting 148 36 13 196 69 13576 0 0 14499
PSLC
elf Lam
Contained K eluar
p S urfac S ign 32
e M ounted 13 13 196 5 1060 0 0 1132
Light F itting 68 13 13 196 11 2252 0 0 2406
S urfac e M ounted Light F itting 6 18 13 196 1 275 0 0 294
Rec ess ed M ounted Downlight 96 18 13 196 22 4403 0 0 4702
Halogen Downlight 15 50 13 196 10 1911 0 0 2041
P LC Rec es s ed Ty pe Downlight 57 18 13 196 13 2614 0 0 2792
Rec es s ed Ty pe Downlight 12 26 13 196 4 795 0 0 849
P LC Ceiling M ounted Lighting 4 13 13 196 1 132 0 0 142
O pen Cone Downlight 111 150 13 196 216 42424 0 0 45309
Halogen
B are Channel Downlight
F luores c ent 15 50 13 196 10 1911 0 0 2041
Fitting Colour 84 Tube 19 18 13 196 4 871 0 0 931
P LC Rec es s ed Ty pe Downlight 57 18 13 196 13 2614 0 0 2792
Rec es s ed Ty pe Downlight 12 26 13 196 4 795 0 0 849
S elf Contained E s s ential Light 1 13 13 196 0 33 0 0 35
A HU/CTF 1/G /1 1 4000 13 196 52 10192 0 0 10885
A HU/CTF 1/G /2 1 4000 13 196 52 10192 0 0 10885
A HU/CTF 1/G /3 1 4000 13 196 52 10192 0 0 10885
A HU/CTF 1/G /4 1 11000 13 196 143 28028 0 0 29934
A HU/C TF 1/2F/1 1 5500 13 196 72 14014 0 0 14967
A HU/C TF 1/2F/2 1 5500 13 196 72 14014 0 0 14967
A HU/C TF 1/2F/3 1 5500 13 196 72 14014 0 0 14967
XF U/CTF 1/G/1 1 1260 13 196 16 3210 0 0 3429
XCU/CTF 1/G/1 1 1260 13 196 16 3210 0 0 3429
F UC/CTF 1/G /1 1 72 13 196 1 183 0 0 196
F UC/CTF 1/G /2 1 72 13 196 1 183 0 0 196
FUC/CTF 1/2F /1 1 72 13 196 1 183 0 0 196
E F/CTF 1/G /1 1 340 13 196 4 866 0 0 925
E F/CTF 1/G /2 1 340 13 196 4 866 0 0 925
E F/CTF 1/G /3 1 340 13 196 4 866 0 0 925
E F/CTF 1/G /4 1 340 13 196 4 866 0 0 925
E F/CTF 1/G /5 1 180 13 196 2 459 0 0 490
E F/CTF 1/G /6 1 70 13 196 1 178 0 0 190
E F/CTF 1/G /7 1 360 13 196 5 917 0 0 980
E F/CTF 1/G /8 1 180 13 196 2 459 0 0 490
E F /CTF 1/1F /1 1 740 13 196 10 1886 0 0 2014
E F /CTF 1/1F /2 1 180 13 196 2 459 0 0 490
E F /CTF 1/1F /3 1 180 13 196 2 459 0 0 490
E F /CTF 1/2F /1 1 180 13 196 2 459 0 0 490
E F /CTF 1/2F /2 1 250 13 196 3 637 0 0 680
E F /CTF 1/3F /1 1 370 13 196 5 943 0 0 1007
E F /CTF 1/3F /2 1 370 13 196 5 943 0 0 1007
E F /CTF 1/3F /3 1 370 13 196 5 943 0 0 1007
E F /CTF 1/3F /4 1 180 13 196 2 459 0 0 490
E F /CTF 1/3F /5 1 180 13 196 2 459 0 0 490
E F /CTF 1/3F /6 1 180 13 196 2 459 0 0 490
E F /CTF 1/3F /7 1 180 13 196 2 459 0 0 490
TCHW P /CTF 1/1 1 11000 13 196 143 28028 0 0 29934
TCHW P /CTF 1/2 1 11000 13 196 143 28028 0 0 29934
TCHW P /CTF 1/3 1 5500 13 196 72 14014 0 0 14967
Com puter 12 102 13 196 15.912 3118.752 35 3 46 1 58 3393
P rinter 3 70 13 196 2.73 535.08 15 3 46 0 6 578
S ound S y s tem 7 115 13 196 10.465 2051.14 17 3 46 0 16 2208
Lift 1 15000 13 196 195 38220 500 11 166 6 913 41794
Projec tor 7 300 13 196 27.3 5350.8 35 3 46 1 34 5751
Vending Machine 1 420 13 196 5.46 1070.16 42 11 166 0 77 1225
Water Dispenser 1 900 13 196 11.7 2293.2 70 11 166 1 128 2586
T ota l 1789 350620 9 1232 375778

[Table 8.5] CO2 Emission of CTF1

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9.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

Energy saving measure can be performed without additional cost should be


implemented immediately. Items such as filter schedule changes and lighting control
scenarios lead the list of non-capital items that will improve building performance.

9.1 Lighting

Lighting must be providing a suitable visual environment within a particular


space, for example; sufficient and suitable lighting for the performance of a range of
tasks and provision of a desired appearance. Based on our study for CTF 1 building,
the total of electricity/energy consumption for lighting system is 41.7kW. Therefore,
our team strongly recommends using of more efficient lamp/ballast systems and
luminaires. The fluorescent ballast loss shall not exceed 6.0 W. The maximum of
lighting power must be 15W/m2, for each of seminar room (SR 1 – 6) and lecture hall.
Luminaires shall be selected for efficient distribution of light without producing
discomfort glare. Therefore, we recommend that for each seminar room, lecture hall
must use 300 – 500 illuminance (LUX), for office is 300 – 400 illuminance (LUX),
toilet and lift, 100 illuminace (LUX).

Manual switch control lighting should be provided for each room to minimize
the usage of indoor electrical power on lighting. If a room was not occupied, the room
light, computer, projector and all electrical devices must be switch off by the
technician in charge, so that, the power consumption of lighting and other electrical
devices can be reduced and can extend the bulb and other electrical devices lifetime.
Besides that, install more reflective mirrors as it can reduce the amount of bulb usage.
By combining the bulb and the reflective mirror, more lighting areas can be cover and
more efficient compare to a bulb only/change each bulb with low power.

For exterior lighting, it is suggestible to install an automatic switch. This is to


prevent any wasted power by switch on the light during days as there is no need to

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switch on the light because there is a day light at outside CTF 1. The light will be
automatically switched on when it is dark/night.

9.2 Air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV) system

Room comfort condition is dependent on various factors including air


temperature, mean radiant temperature, humidity, clothing, metabolic rate and air
movement preference of the occupant. From the AHU data of CTF1, the actual
temperature, supply air with average temperature between 18-200C shows slight
changes in temperature increase which is approximately 4-50C.

Therefore, for air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation system we


recommend to install at least one thermostat for the regulation of temperature in each
room. Each thermostat should be capable of being set by adjustment or selection of
sensors over a minimum range of between 22 °C to 27 °C, to control the temperature
in the room. Multi-stage thermostat should be provided for equipment exceeding
35/65 kWh.

Besides that, we also recommend for each system should be equipped with a
readily accessible means of shutting off or reducing the energy used during periods of
non-use or alternate uses of the building spaces or zones served by the system such as
manually adjustable automatic timing devices. Not all seminar room was occupied at
the same time, therefore it is really important to install the manually adjustable
automatic timing devices. Just on the system when the room is occupy only.

It is recommended that consideration be given to the use of recovery systems


which will conserve energy (provided the amount expended is less than the amount
recovered) when the energy transfer potential and the operating hours are considered.
Recovered energy in excess of the new source of energy expended in the recovery
process may be used for control of temperature and humidity. Examples include the

34
use of condenser water for reheat, desuperheater heat reclaim, heat recovery wheel,
heat pipe or any other energy recovery technology.

For the mechanical ventilation system, each mechanical ventilation system


(supply and/or exhaust) should be equipped with a readily accessible switch or other
means for shut-off or volume reduction when ventilation is not required. Examples of
such devices would include timer switch control, thermostat control, duty cycle
programming and CO/CO2 sensor control.

Installation of an automatic door at the main entrance and shut permanently


back door of the room will reduced the air leakage of the room as at certain time, the
door always open even though it is supposedly close. Use the back door only if got
any emergency happen.

9.3 Other

For other electrical devices such as microphone, computer, projector, speaker,


and etc, it is advisable to turn off when the device is not used. The technician must
make sure that this equipment is properly used. It is better if this entire device was
control by a switch so that the device use according to its need.

10.0 CONCLUSION

35
Based on data completion, electricity/energy consumption in kilowatts for
lighting system is 41.7kW, air-conditioning system is 83.79kW, and general
equipment is 20.66kW. The percentages of electricity/energy consumption for these
three aspects are 30.31%, 59.93% and 15.02% respectively.

To minimized the usage of the power in CTF 1, it is recommend to implement


energy saving measures in the building so that, it will create an awareness among the
user of the building on how to manage the energy usage in the building such as
lighting, aircond, and etc., efficiently.

REFERENCES

Yik, F. W. H, et al. (2001). A Detailed Energy Audit for Commercial Office Building
in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Institution of Engineers, 5(3).

California Energy Commission. (2000). How To Hire An: Energy Auditor To Identify
Energy Efficiency Projects. California.

CEC (2000). “Guide to Preparing Feasibility Studies of Energy Efficiency Projects,”


Report P400-00-002, California Energy Commission.

Milan, C. B. (2002). “A Guidebook for Preparing Walk-Through Energy Audits of


Industrial Facilities,’ Bonneville Power Administration,
http://www.bpa.gov/Energy/N/reports/audit/index.shtml.

SESCO (2010). Electricity Tariff of Commercial Bulding. Retrieved from


http://www.sesco.com.my/sesco/english/tariff/html

APPENDICES

Energy Audit Pictures:

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Auditor inside the Lift Motor AHU Room

Aluminium Up/Down Lighter Mounted Downlight

Recessed Fluorescent Fitting PLC Lamp Surface Mounted Light


Fitting

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