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Basic Concepts of
Thermodynamics Part 3

Graciano Emmanuelito E. Dela Cruz III

School of Mechanical Engineering
Mapua Institute of Technology
 States that total mass is constant. As
with all laws, this is a deduction of
experimental evidence.
 Mass balance
• Mass in = Mass Out
 Is states that whenever energy
transfer occurs, energy must be
 Energy cannot be created nor
destroyed but can change from one
form to another, this is the first law
of thermodynamics.
 Energy Balance
 Ein = Eout
Energy and mass relationship?
Zeroth Law
 States that when two bodies are in
thermal equilibrium with a third
body, they are in thermal equilibrium
with each other and hence are at the
same temperature.
First Law of Thermodynamics
 Energy balance: Energy In = Energy
 First Corollary of the First Law
• Is the application of the first law to
closed systems
 Second Corollary of the First law
• Is the application of the first law to open
Heat and work
 Work  Heat
• + Done by the • + added
system • - rejected
• - done on the
First law efficiency
 Efficiency = output / input

Wnet ,out
I 
Second Law of Thermodynamics
 It is impossible for any device that
operates on a cycle to receive heat from a
single reservoir and produce a net amount
of work.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
 It is impossible to construct a device that
operates in a cycle and produces no effort other
than the transfer of heat from a lower-
temperature body to a higher-temperature body.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
 Whenever energy is transferred, the
value of energy cannot be conserved
and some must be permanently
reduced to a lower value.
 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
states that no heat engine can have
an efficiency of 100 percent.
 Second law efficiency

exergy re cov ered exergy destroyed

 II   1
Exergy sup plied exergy sup plied
 Exergy-is the work potential of a system
in specified environment and represents
the max. amount of useful work that can
be obtained as the system is brought to
equilibrium with the environment.
 Emergy can be defined as the total
solar equivalent available energy of
one form that was used up directly
and indirectly in the work of making
a product or service.
 It is defined as the integral of the
exergy power over time.
Third Law of Thermodynamics
 The third law of thermodynamics
provides an absolute reference point
for the determination of entropy. The
law states that the entropy of a pure
crystalline substance at absolute
zero temperature is zero since there
is no uncertainty about the state of
the molecules at that instant.
Fourth Law of Thermodynamics
 In every contact of matter with
matter, some matter will become
unavailable for future use, thus some
matter is wasted.
Gibbs’ Phase Rule
 Describes the possible of degrees of
freedom in a (closed) system at
equilibrium, in terms of the number of
separate phases and the number of
chemical constituents in the system. It
was deduced from thermodynamic
principles by J.W. Gibbs in the 1870s.
F CP2
 Where F is the number of independent
intensive variables and P is the phase of
the substance while C is the number of
distinct compounds.
State Postulate
 the number of independent variables
or system properties required to fully
know the state of a system
composed of a pure substance is one
(1) plus the number of different
reversible work modes.
 Mathematical representation,
 N+1
 Where N is the number of work
• Mechanical work of expansion or
• Mechanical work of stretching,
• Electrical work,
• Magnetic work.
Remember this!!!
 “Ignorantia Legis neminem excusat”
• Ignorance of the Law excuses no one
from compliance therewith.