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 GRECO-ROMAN – term used to speak Greek Philosophers
of Greece & Rome; proof that they are so
“intertwined”  PERICLES (Father of Democracy)
 “The glory that was GREECE and the - built Parthenon & Acropolis
grandeur that was ROME”  SOCRATES
 “Thanks to Rome, Greece will never die” - “know thyself”
(Ancient Civilizations Almanac 1999) - explains the nature of life
- Socratic Method (method of questioning;
GREECE (Hellenic Republic) taught by asking questions)
 small country in in Europe
 main part is a Peninsula  PLATO
 1400 islands; 169 inhabited - “The Academy”
 Capital city: ATHENS - Writing: dialogue between student &
 surrounded by: teacher
 Aegean  ARISTOTLE
 Mediterranean (regulates weather) - student of Plato
 Ionian Sea - arts, science, law, etc.
* People speak GREEK but many know
ENGLISH Alexander The Great
- Father: King Philip II of Macedonia
- conquered Persia, Egypt, Middle East, and
New Year’s Day Northern India. (PEMI)
- died @ 33 yrs. Old (Malaria)
Gynaikratia – exchange roles (Jan. 8)
Greek Carnival – fancy dress-up (Feb-March) LITERARY PERIODS
Easter – most significant 1. Pre-Classical – Iliad & Odyssey
Hellenic Festival – summer fest; music 2. Classical – drama, theatre, historians
and performances. 3. Hellenic Period – Greek language &
literature; Hebrew Bible.
City State – a city with it’s own laws, rulers, 4. Byzatine Period – conservative literature
and money. Acts like a country. based from the New Testament

ATHENS Greek Mythology & Literature

- Greek city-state  ancient Greeks were polytheistic.
- first democracy around 580 BC. * Greeks created myths to explain natural
events and God’s actions.
* all citizens could vote, except women, those
* The Oracle of Delphi – female priest of
born outside of Athens, and slaves.
Apollo who thinks gods give her the answers.
- EDUCATION was very important
- Borrowed their alphabet from Phoenicians.  Hercules – most famous Greek hero;
First alphabet: CUNEIFORM slayed Hyra (snake with 9 heads)

SPARTA  Theseus – slayed the minotaur.

- powerful with own army  Homer
- conquers for wealth & power - greatest epic poet; blind.
- TRAINING & SPORTS are important. - wrote Iliad & Odyssey (described great
deeds performed by heroes)
 Sappho (Lyric Poetry)
Greek: Contribution:
- wrote “lyres”
Homeric Epics
- writes poem about love & relationships
Socratic Method of Teaching
Aristotelian Philosophy
FABLES – short stories that teach lessons Pericles Democracy
(written by Aesop)
Pindaric Odes
Pythagoras Theorem
Herodotus History
GREEK ROMAN ROLE Archimedes Catapult
Sapphos Lyric Poetry
Zeus Jupiter King of the Gods Hippocratic Oath
Hera Juno
Aphrodite Venus Goddess of beauty THE ILIAD & THE ODYSSEY

Poseidon Neptune God of the sea Homer – a blind poet who introduced 2 great
epics: ILIAD & ODYSSEY. Both epics affirm
Athena Minerva Goddess of wisdom the truth that “One’s fate is a result of one’s
God of music, the actions”
Apollo Apollo
sun, poetry
Messenger of the THE ILIAD (war epic)
Hermes Mercury  showcases passions found in the cruelty of war.
 a story of love & heroism
Eros Cupid God of love
Hephaestus Vulcan God of blacksmiths
Setting Greece, City of Troy (Ilium)
God of the
Hades Pluto
10-year war between the
Goddess of the Greeks & the Trojans
Persephone Proserpine Plot
Underworld controlled by the gods &
Ares Mars God of war
Demeter Ceres Goddess of nature  Glory of war
Artemis Diana Goddess of hunt  Impermanence of Human
Hestia Vesta Goddess of hearth Life and Creations
Goddess of the - about how life is not
Gaia Gaea
Earth eternal and how it’s about
Dionysus Bacchus God of wine Theme how long we live but how
much “life” we put into that
length of time given to us.
“Quality” of life over
“Quantity” of years.
Key Points:  Hector – Troy’s mightiest warrior. Killed
Time and Place Written: Patroclus, slayed by Achilles. Prince of
Mainland Greece around 750 B.C. Troy.
Setting (Time): The Iliad begins 9 years after the
 Priam – King of Troy.
start of the Trojan War, during the 10th year.  Hecuba – Queen of Troy.
 Cassandra – Priam’s other daughter held
Place: Troy (Nowthwestern Turkey)
captive by Agamemnon. (Apollo loves her)
(Greeks)  Briseis – Achilles’ war prize.
 Achilles – son of Peleus & Thetis. Greeks’  Chryseis – Agamemnon’s war prize.
mightiest warrior. Chryses’ daughter.
 Chryses – priest of Apollo. Father of
 Agamemnon – King of Mycenae. brother of
King Menelaus of Sparta.
 Astyanax – Hector’s infant son.
 Menelaus – king of Sparta. Helen’s ex-
husband.  Aeneas – son of Aphrodite. Found the city
of Rome.
 Peleus – Achilles’ mortal father.
 Thetis – sea nymph, Achilles’ mother. (Gods)
 Myrmidons – Achilles’ army from Phthia  Zeus – king of the Gods; Hera’s husband.
(his homeland) Supposedly the one to decide of the fairest.
 Patroclus – Achilles’ beloved friend, slayed  Hera – Queen of the Gods. Together w/
by Hector. Athena, versus Troy. Offered Paris power
 Odysseus – cleverest Achean commander. over nations.
Always mediates Agamemnon & Achilles’  Athena – Goddess of wisdom. Patron saint
quarrels. of the Trojans. Offered Paris victory in all
 Nestor – King of Pylos. Oldest Achean wars.
Commander.  Eris – goddess of discord & controversy.
 Calchas – identified the cause of the  Apollo – son of Zeus and twin brother of
plague. Artemis. Supports the Trojans.
 Iphigenia – sacrificed to aid the plague.  Aphrodite – goddess of love. Hephaestus’
Supposedly gonna marry Achilles. wife. The fairest of them all. Offered Paris
 Clytemnestra – Agamemnon’s wife. the most beautiful woman on Earth.
 Polyxena – sacrificed to appease the  Poseidon – god of the sea. Supports the
shade of Achilles. Acheans.
 Neoptolemus – son of Achilles. Took  Hephaestus – god of fire and metalsmith.
Andromache captive. Supported the Acheans by forging a new
armor for Achilles and saving him from a
(Trojans) river god.
 Helen – “the face that launched a thousand  Artemis – goddess of hunt. Supports the
ships”. The most beautiful woman on Earth. Trojans.
 Andromache – Queen of Troy. Hector’s  Hermes – messenger of the gods. Escorts
wife. Priam.
 Paris – prince of Troy. “The torch that set  Iris – Zeus’ messenger.
Troy on fire”. Asked to choose the fairest
goddess for he had an eye for the most
of the Phaeacians. Discovers Odysseus on
the beach at Scheria.

THE ODYSSEY (journey epic)  ALCINOUS – King of the Phaeacians

Ithaca and the surrounding  ARETE – Queen of the Phaeacians
places in Greece  HERMES – messenger of the gods. Fed
After the 10-year war Odysseus “MOLY” to resist Circe’s magic.
Odysseus and his men  Eurymachus – deceitful suitor.
Plot survive and decide to return
to ITHACA. (10 years after  Amphinomus – most decent suitor.
the Trojan War)  Eumaeus – loyal shepherd who given
 The Power of Cunning Odysseus food & shelter.
Theme over Strength  Eurycleia – loyal servant who nursed
 Pitfalls of Temptation Odysseus & Telemachus as babies.
Discovers Odysseus’ identity after
recognizing his scar on the leg.
 ODYSSEUS - King of Ithaca. Athena’s
favorite, Poseidon’s nemesis. known for the  Laertes – Odysseus’ aging father.
Trojan Horse. Wise, cunning, and  Nestor – king of Pylos.
courageous.  Zeus – mediates between disputes of the
 TELEMACHUS - Odysseus’ son. Infant gods on Mount Olympus.
when he left for Troy, about 20 years old at
the beginning of the epic. A TIMELINE OF ODYSSEY’S ADVENTURE
 PENELOPE - Odysseus’ loyal wife with
hundreds of suitors. 1. TROY
- Odysseus’ journey begins after the fall of
 ATHENA– assists Odysseus & Troy.
Telemachus. Disguised as Mentor, and old
friend of Odysseus. 2. CICONES ISLAND
 POSEIDON – Odysseus’ nemesis. - Odysseus and his men raid the island for
Odysseus blinded his son Polyphemus. supplies; Odysseus lost 72 of his mean
 ANTINOUS - most arrogant suitor. Leads
the campaign to have Telemachus killed. 3. ISLAND OF THE LOTUS EATERS
 POLYPHEMUS - one of the Cyclopes - Odysseus’ crew search for food and in the
Imprisons Odysseus and his crew in the end, he had to recover them after eating the
cave. Poseidon’s son. Lotus flower.
 AEOLUS – god of the wind. 4. ISLAND OF THE CYCLOPS
 CIRCE - witch-goddess who transforms - Odysseus and his mean blind Polyphemus
Odysseus’ crew into swine (pigs) & sneak out of his cave under his herd of
 TERESIAS – Theban prophet from the
underworld. 5. ISLAND OF AEOLUS
 CALYPSO - nymph who falls inlove with - Aeolus gives Odysseus all of the bad
Odysseus. Imprisons Odysseus for 7 years winds to help them sail safely home (but his
on her island (Ogygia) mean go against his orders)
- daughter of King Alcinous & Queen Arete
- Greeks were eaten by the Laestrygonians;
only men in Odysseus’ ship and Odysseus
himself were able to survive.


- Circe turns Odysseus’ men into pigs - Romans were “less a thinker, more a doer”
except Odysseus who is protected from her - “The conquered becoming the conquerers,
magic. Circe tells him to go to the and the conquerers becoming the
Underworld and find Tiresias. conquered”
- Odysseus consults Tiresias about how he  supposed to have invented by the Romans
can go home and also finds his mother  it’s purpose is to attack evils in the society.
- Odysseus fills his men’s ears with MAJOR WRITERS OF ROME
beeswax & made them tie him to the ship’s  VIRGIL (Greatest Writer)
mast while they pass the island with women - Homer to the Greeks, Virgil to the Romans.
singing songs to reel in sailors. - “Aenid” (About Aeneas, Trojan prince and
one of the bravest men who fought for Troy)
- Odysseus sails for Scylla, a six-header  HORACE (Greatest Lyric Poet)
serpent following the advice of Circe. - a friend and contemporary of Virgil.
- wrote Odes, Satires, and 303 of them are
the best of his works.
- Odysseus’ men eat Helios’ cattle,
outraging the God who asks Zeus to punish  MARTIAL
them, only Odysseus survives. - a court poet and satire writer known for his
sweetness of tone.
- Calypso imprisons Odysseus & develops  EPICTETUS
an affair with him for 7 years. Hermes - like Socrates taught by conversing &
eventually convinces her to let him go. discussing with students.
13. THE ISLAND OF THE PHOENICIANS - started discussions by asking questions
- Phaecians accept Odysseus and urge him (Socratic Method)
to tell of his ten-year journey before helping TALES OF LOVERS
him get back home.
1. Cupid & Psyche – shows that love
14. ITHACA cannot survive without trust, and that
- Odysseus finally returns home in Ithaca lasting can only be obtained through
and reconciles with his family after 15 dedication & struggle.
years. Odysseus & Telemachus kill all of  “love cannot live where there is no TRUST”
Penelope’s suitors and Odysseus regains  Psyche = soul + love
his place as king alongside Penelope.  4 tasks given by Venus:
 sort seeds, poppy, millet, etc. (Ants)
 fetch shinning wool from sheep with
fleeces of gold (Reed)
 Get black water from the river Styx
 Put some of Prosperine’s beauty in a
box. (Curiousity = open box = deadly
languor/ sleep)  defined using TECHNICAL DEFINITION
* Cupid woke Psyche with a price of his
arrow and asked Jupiter to make her
Technical Definition
* VOLUPTA = goddess of pleasure  a detailed description of a term, process, or

2. Pyrammus & Thisbe  PARENTHETICAL

- inspired Shakespeare to write Romeo  define a term with a short description,
& Juliet synonym, or exact phrase synonym
 Lovers from Babylon enclosed in a parenthesis.
 Thisbe is frightened by a lion and  The redundancy (repetitiveness)
hides in a tomb (Ninus’ tomb) will increase if the same topic will
 Mulberry Tree – stained from be put together.
Pyramus’ blood. White to red.  Emoticons (symbols used to
 Shakespeare adaptations: express different emotions) add
 Midsummer Nights a whole lot of drama to online
 Romeo & Juliet conversations.
 Westside Story  I just posted a tweet (a message
posted on Twitter)
3. Narcissus & Echo
- a love story of Echo (cursed to have  SENTENCE DEFINITION
speech impediment) and Narcissus who  one sentence explanation of a word
fell in love with his own reflection. phrase.
* Hera took her voice because she  follows a standard pattern:
helped Zeus cheat on his wife. Item being defined + Class +
* died of unrequited love, hunger, & Differentiation/Definition
thirst.  Similar to Formal Definition.
* her bones turned to stone * item being defined is placed in a
4. Pygmalion & Galatea class/category then distinguished
- love story between a sculptor & his from them (defined)
masterpiece.  BASIC, popularly used by
students and microcomputer
owners, is a simple computer
SOCIAL MEDIA language in which line numbers
- an online communication channel dedicated to precede each statement.
community-based input, interaction, content-  An acoustic coupler/ is a modem
sharing, and collaboration. that attaches to a telephone
TYPES OF SOCIAL MEDIA handset/to transmit computer
information over telephone lines.
1. Social Networks (connect & share)
 Bookmarking, a function often
2. Bookmarking Sites (save & organize links)
3. Social News used to remember websites, is the
4. Media Sharing (ex. Youtube) process of recording the address
5. Microblogging of a website for quick access.
6. Blogs Comments & Forums
TECHNICAL DEFINITION  composed of parts of a formal
definition + addition of important
Technical words details like examples, etc.
 words used in specific field or profession  as if making a paragraph about the
term you are defining.
 A photograph is a picture made with 3. Non-Final Intonation (2-3-2)
the use of a camera. It is an image - Begins with normal, rises to pitch level 3,
obtained through the process of and then back to normal.
photography. In art, it serves as the - May be used with rising falling (2-3-1) or
masterpiece of each photographer. rising (2-3-3)
Photographs allow people to - pitch raises on connective part.
immortalize moments, documenting  You could have easily passed your
important events which will soon English class if you had not been
serves as visual representations of lazy.
memories. Before, photographs were  She ought to have finished the
printed, now they can be posted pocketbook but she fell asleep.
directly online with the use of social  If you think you are right, say so.
media.  The sea was too rough when we
went swimming.
 Modem -a combined device for
modulation and demodulation * connective words:
 URL – Uniform Resource Locator
 Scuba – Self Contained Underwater
Breathing Apparatus
Stating/Giving Opinion
INTONATION In my opinion.. If you want my honest
Intonation – is the way of producing tones The way I see it.. According to..
which concerns the accuracy of pitch. As far as I’m concerned..
Expressing Agreement
FOUR TONES USED IN SPEAKING: I agree No doubt about it..
LOW NORMAL HIGH EXTRA HIGH That’s true.. You have a point there..
Absolutely.. On point..
* The first three tones are the most commonly Expressing Disagreement
used intonation patterns of American English. I beg to disagree.. No way..
I don’t think so.. Sorry to interrupt but..
Extra High – used to express extreme
Not necessarily.. That’s not always true..
emotions such as extreme fear, anger, etc.


1. Rising-Falling Intonation (2-3-1)
- statements, facts, commands & requests, FOR – Reason
information questions (long answer), etc. Ex. She did it for the sake of her mother.
 You are busy today. AND – Addition
 Where did you get your answers? ex. I bought you popcorn and a can of coke.
 Don’t you ever think of smoking here!
 Would you like cake or ice cream? NOR –
ex. I never liked you nor will I ever love you
2. Rising Intonation (2-3-3)
- Yes/No Questions BUT – Contrast
 Shall we go? Ex. You love her but she loves someone else.
 We will be there, okay? OR – Option/alternative
 We will make it on time, alright? Ex. You want pizza or chicken?
 It’s a beautiful day, isn’t it?
YET – Concession
Ex. He hasn’t forgiven her yet.
SO – Result
Ex. He bought a reviewer so he could study.