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Energy Efficiency
in Production

Future Action Fields


Content

Preface 1

Resource efficiency and production technology 2

Operational fields 5

Energy and materials efficiency 6


by increasing process stability

Energy and materials efficiency in mechanical, 8


thermal and chemical manufacturing processes
and systems

Closed cycle approach to resources / integration 11


of resources in process chains and systems

Loss-free operation of infrastructure 13


by production facilities and factories

Development of methods for sustainable 15


energy and materials management

Peripheral operational fields 16

Contact 17
Preface

Efficiency signifies the relationship between the re-


sult achieved and the resources employed.
(ISO 9000:2000)

The 21st century is taking humanity to its natural have in the producing industries to reduce not
limits. Whilst the earth’s population is growing, only costs but also the use of resources and emis-
the availability of raw materials such as oil, natu- sions, by exploiting more efficient technologies.
ral gas, mineral ores and water are declining, not
only for the industrialised societies but also for As part of a study sponsored by the Federal Ger-
third world and developing countries. The con- man Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)
sumption-oriented behaviour in fast-developing in its outline programme “Research for the pro-
countries such as China or India, imitating that in duction of tomorrow” (Funding Reference No.:
the affluent nations, requires a massive increase 02PU1000), the Fraunhofer Institutes and other
in gross national product throughout the world. research institutions analysed the potential for
At the same time, it is important to make a sig- the saving of resources, especially energy, in the
nificant reduction in CO2 emissions to counter- producing industries, and have derived from that
act further climate change. the need for action in production research.

The global demand for raw materials has risen The institutes participating in the study are grate-
greatly in recent times, and raw materials are be- ful to all sponsors and supporters, especially the
coming increasingly scarce and more expensive, BMBF, the Karlsruhe Research Centre in its ca-
- by more than 70 % overall between 2001 and pacity as the project management body and the
2008. Raw material costs as a proportion of total Fraunhofer Gesellschaft.
manufacturing costs, at between 30 and 80 %,
are often much higher than labour as a cost fac-
tor.
The need for even more efficient utilisation of
resources is coming more and more sharply into
focus in business, in research and in politics. A
crucial question is what options do companies Prof. Reimund Neugebauer

coal

crude oil

natural gas

uranium

iron ore

copper
End of natural resour-
zinc ces; Source: Bundes-
anstalt für
Geowissenschaften
years 50 100 150 200 und Rohstoffe 2000

1
Resource Efficiency and Production Technology

The overall economic standing of a site is de-


termined primarily by the added value achieved
there. In Europe, a turnover of 1,500 billion Eu-
ros is achieved annually in manufacturing. This
symbolically interprets 34 million employees are
contributing in these sectors, and that, in turn,
corresponds to 30 % of all jobs. Production is,
above all, tied directly to natural resources and
is directly affected by any shortage in these re-
sources.

The consequence of this dependence – and


taking into consideration the growing compe-
tition from developing countries – is the need
to reduce the quantity of resources used whilst
increasing production output, and therefore to
improve the productivity of resources. This means
manufacturing as much as possible from the use
of a given quantity of raw materials and energy.
A paradigm change is needed to achieve this:

Instead of “maximum profit from the mini-


mum of capital” we need to achieve
“maximum profit from the minimum of
resources”.

Whatever waste or heat there is in a process


must be exploited rationally in a different manu-
facturing process. The challenge lies, as ever, in
decoupling the consumption of resources from
economic growth.

The specific final energy consumption in manufac-


turing industries in Germany was reduced by
64 % between 1960 and 2000.

Prerequisites for these increases in resource


efficiency were and still are technological in-
novations and long-term investment.

Companies that are acquiring a cost advantage


today through efficiency technologies will further
consolidate this advantage disproportionately in
the future. Equally, a clear and internationally
harmonised political framework is necessary, be-
cause the required dramatic increase in resource
efficiency is achievable only by uniting politi-
cal and statutory requirements, incentives and
stimuli.

2
A poll of approx. 450 decision-makers and ex-
perts from companies, research institutions and
industrial associations, conducted in the course
of the study, shows that energy costs usually
play a significant role so far in investment deci-
sions. Payback periods of one to three years
are expected for investments in efficiency. But
resource-intensive process steps can only be opti-
mised in such short lengths of time; they cannot
be replaced or, indeed, eliminated.

Only one third of the companies questioned


during the study have outline plans for the
systematic evaluation of resource efficiency
and for the optimisation of production pro-
cesses.

The dynamics of price trends for raw materials


and energy in recent years will tend to continue.
Global problems such as the general competition
for resources, limits on emissions imposed by
law and demographic effects will determine the
basic parameters as far as company business is
concerned even more markedly in future. What
possibilities can be deduced from this for the
processing industries in Germany?

In industrial production as a whole, energy sav-


ings of 25 to 30 % are possible in the medium
term. An energy saving potential of approx. 210
petajoules per annum was identified simply for
the product classes considered in the study, and
this is equivalent to about half the electricity con-
sumption by private households in Germany, or
four power stations each with an output of 1.4
gigawatts.

Production engineering is one of the most impor-


tant branches of industry in Germany. However,
an increase in productivity, which occupies a key
position in the struggle for competitiveness, can
only be achieved if intelligent and efficient use is
made of available resources, such as energy, ma-
terials and personnel. The gap that will arise be-
tween the necessary increase in productivity and
a growing shortage of resources must be closed
by increasing efficiency.

3
The study of energy efficiency in production re- Industry accounts for about 40 % of total energy
veals areas in which future research can play a consumption in Germany. This is equivalent to an
part. output of 5,640 petajoules per annum (2005).
Of this, about 680 PJ/a corresponds to the study
Starting with an analysis of products, including period resulting from the selection of the product
the establishment of product categories, through categories named, of which about 30 % could
process chain analysis including examination be saved.
of materials processed, to the identification of
prime energy drivers, the action required by pro- To exploit fully these potential savings, there is an
duction manufacturing technology was identi- urgent need for research and action, centred on
fied, from which the future need for research can the following key areas:
be deduced. - energy and materials efficiency by increasing
process stability
Our examination of “production site Germany” - energy and materials efficiency in mechanical,
focussed on important industrial goods, which thermal and chemical manufacturing processes
were subdivided into the product categories and systems
“premium investment goods”, “premium con- - closed cycle approach to resources / integration
sumer goods” and “mass consumer goods”. The of resources in process chains and systems
emphasis in this was on an examination of the - loss-free operation of infrastructure by produc
efficiency with which the resource ‘energy’ is tion facilities and factories
used from the viewpoint of process chains. - development of methods for sustainable
energy and materials management

These key areas will be described in more detail


below.

financial and
business services public and
traffic and private services
telecommunication
trade and Industry
hospitality ind.
11.9% chemical industry
food

2.6% glass, ceramics etc.


agriculture
7.6% metal production and
40.1% metal working

33.5% 18.0% rest of producing industry

Germany‘s primary en-


private
ergy consumption 2005
according to commer- households
cial activities;
Source: Statistisches
Bundesamt; Umwelt-
ökonomische Gesamt-
rechnungen 2007

4
Operational fields

Energy and materials efficiency


by increasing process stability

Energy and materials efficiency


in mechanical, thermal and chemical
manufacturing processes and
systems

Closed resource cycles / integration


of resources in process chains and
systems

Loss-free operation of infrastructure


by production facilities and factories

Development of methods
for sustainable energy and materials
management

5
Energy and materials efficiency
by increasing process stability

Undoubtedly the most important factor with Costly reworking and rejects with a high value
regard to the conservation of resources is added element already incorporated give rise to
the saving of materials. Firstly, the use of a tremendous loss of all resources.
materials is always associated with losses of
material. Secondly, the cumulative energy Machine status and the corresponding optimal
expenditure introduced due to the material operating range can be captured by developing
used, i.e. the energy expended to produce and providing suitable methods of measurement.
and manufacture the material, is an equally For example, monitoring the operating tempera-
If there are re-
important aspect. ture combined with a warming up strategy short-
jects at the end
If one can succeed in avoiding the manufac- ens the time machines take to get up to speed,
of a machining
ture of faulty parts through “zero-rejects optimises the process and minimises non value-
process chain,
production”, a significant contribution can adding activities.
one kilogram of
be made to resource conservation. A par-
component mass
ticularly high proportion of rejects arises
corresponds to an
in all areas of machine and plant start-up. Process control to avoid resource losses
energy loss of
Research work and developments aimed In the context of machine tools and forming
60 to 80 MJ.
at bringing manufacturing processes up to technology, integrated feedback systems which
speed quickly and safely, and methods to can influence the control of the process can be
increase process stability, contribute signifi- seldom found.
If there are rejects cantly to the conservation of the resources Consequently, systems must be developed so
at the end of a of time, materials and energy. that impending machine faults, the occurrence of
massive forming process fluctuations and the resulting deviations
process chain, are not only measured, but can also be compen-
one kilogram of Control of start-up processes sated for or eliminated by control systems. The
component mass Fluctuations in the process sequence due to use of systems of control can not only shorten
corresponds to an disruptive factors such as inconsistent material the unproductive time in getting machine and
energy loss of characteristics or changing environmental influ- plant up to speed, but can also significantly im-
45 MJ. ences frequently cause production faults, leading prove operating and process safety.
to reworking or rejection. This applies equally to
start-up and restart-up processes of machines The timely identification of process deviations
and plant in which the optimal operating param- and a correspondingly early reaction to them en-
eters such as operating temperatures or working able distinct savings to be made in all resource
pressures, or even technological parameters such areas. The additional expenditure due to invest-
as workforce or feed speeds, have not yet been ment can be recovered within a very short time.
reached or set.
Another aspect not to be ignored is the option of
one hundred percent quality control. One hun-
dred percent monitoring also helps to minimise
faults, even in processes that take place a con-
siderable time later, and thus to save work and
costs, and therefore resources.
To implement monitoring arrangements of this
sort successfully it is important to thoroughly un-
derstand both the requirements of the machinery
and also those of the technology in depth, and
to understand the interactions that exist between
them.

Temperature monitoring of a machine tool spindle

6
Functional properties of high-performance ma-
60 % of metal
terials (e.g. ceramics) open up additional savings
sheets (the start-
potential in the utilisation of energy over their
ing material) in
entire life cycle. The use of long-lived, wear-re-
the automobile
sistant key components shortens or avoids idle
industry go to
times resulting from servicing and maintenance,
waste.
and thus makes a significant contribution to the
energy-efficient design of manufacturing pro-
cesses.
To structure the manufacturing of high-per-
Every kilogram
formance components themselves in a more
of steel saved in
energy-efficient way, high-performance ceramic
production cor-
materials offer additional savings potential: to
responds to 6 to
In this context, the effects of preceding processes achieve the optimised design of a system, it is
21 MJ of energy
must be taken into consideration just as much as necessary to position certain materials properties
saved.
the possible repercussions of proposed measures precisely where they are actually needed. The
on subsequent process steps. development of interconnecting technologies
There is an urgent need for research above all specifically suited to the individual materials and
with regard to a thorough understanding of pro- stresses imposed plays a key role in this, because
cess parameters, their modelling and simulation ever more complex processes and functions
and to derive from this significant characteristics have to be realised in systems that are becoming
both with regard to multisensor data capture sys- smaller and smaller.
tems and multi-criteria control algorithms.

Potential savings vary markedly depending on


the complexity of the machine and on the nature
of the process. However, on account of the sav-
ings made in all resource areas they are extremely
high in total.

Energy-efficient structuring of manufactur-


ing processes by optimising servicing and
maintenance cycles
A third approach to increasing process stability
is Plant Asset Management, i.e. the extent to
which it is possible to plan of measures to man-
age the plant and the process, as well as main-
tenance to preserve value, while at the same
time minimising the work associated with this.
The fields of Device Management, Condition
Monitoring and Performance Monitoring must
be more closely integrated in future, on both
the technical and organisational level. This calls
for the development of corresponding methods
to ensure sufficient interoperability of different
areas and progress from the use of a single ma-
chine to operating complex plant systems.

Application of high performance ceramics cutting material

7
Energy and materials efficiency in mechanical, thermal and
chemical manufacturing processes and systems

Energy losses in manufacturing processes


are often accepted today as a necessary evil
of high-quality production. In particular,
processes which involve changes in material
states, heat treatments or which are associ-
ated with high losses of material must be
reconsidered in energy terms. As far as ma-
chinery and plant is concerned, major savings
can be achieved by reducing primary loads
and avoiding peak power e.g. using motors
regulated by control systems, partial system
switch-off and similar. As far as processes are
concerned, the replacement of machining
processes with forming processes can save
material and at the same time shorten pro-
cess chains with improved product quality. In
the short term, processes can be optimised.
In the long term, it is the task of research to
replace energy- and material-intensive pro-
cesses or even to eliminate them.

Integrative production and


process chain shortening
The increasing individualisation of products is manufacturing flexibility and resource efficiency
leading to increasing complexity of components are increased by shortening the process chain.
and is reflected in a large number of different In this way, for example, combining mechanical,
manufacturing steps. In addition, the number jointing and heat-treatment processing can make
Heating one kilo-
of elements involved in adding value is rising, as major savings possible.
gram of steel to
companies concentrate on their core competenc-
a temperature of
es. The consequence is energy-intensive logistic By shortening process chains and integrating pro-
1,000°C corre-
processes between the individual value adding cesses, an increase in resource efficiency of up to
sponds to 0.5 MJ
stages. The individual manufacturing steps are 30 % can be attained, depending on the scope
of energy.
usually considered and optimised separately, of the applications and their interoperability.
without taking into consideration preceding and
subsequent processes. This means that energy-
intensive process technologies are not examined Reducing energy losses by control systems
for their synergetically optimal utilisation of re- Production plant is normally optimised in terms
sources. There is inadequate consideration of the of installation costs and technological param-
entire process chain. The potential to increase eters; energy aspects are generally ignored. The
resource efficiency, e.g. by combining processes, efficient utilisation of energy has played hardly
often remain unexploited as a result. any role to date as far as control systems are con-
To achieve improvements in this area, one must cerned. Thus, most control applications provide
examine which technologies and processes can no energy-saving modes, although they could be
be combined efficiently, without allowing the operated only seldom anyway due to the con-
newly created complexity to outweigh the advan- tinuing lack of information.
tages. Once rational process interfaces have been It would make sense in energy terms, for ex-
identified, tailored systems and processes can be ample, to run accessory drive systems only when
developed to integrate functions. The objective they are genuinely needed. However, this presup-
must be to provide modular, easily configurable poses a knowledge of the machine status and,
technology platforms to achieve the flexible com- optimally, a knowledge of the entire production
bination of processes. The result would be that process.

8
Action and research are needed in several direc- Energy-efficient forming
tions: one area is the capture and processing of and Net-Shape techniques
energy-relevant information for the recording In many areas of manufacturing technology,
and evaluation of energy-relevant parameters. machining processes are first choice on account
To achieve this, the technical design of hardware of their flexibility. On the other hand, forming
and software is needed for sensors and IT struc- processes offer high materials efficiency, and
tures with decentralised machine-machine com- therefore one should endeavour to make their
30 % of energy
munication solutions. The cost pressure in this use more widespread. This is possible by means
consumption by
segment must be considered as well: for systems of more flexible processes and tooling, even for
machine tools
to be accepted, for example, the costs of sensors quite small runs. Of course, many materials have
comes from
must be reduced by a factor of 10 to 100 com- to be heated to enable them to be formed, and a
stand-by opera-
pared with conventional industrial solutions. very large amount of energy is needed for this. It
tion to maintain
There is an urgent need for action in respect of is therefore worth endeavouring to replace hot-
process stability.
integrating energy-relevant information at plant forming processes with cold-forming processes.
and factory level. The early identification of the The use of new materials and the development
start and end of idle times enables machines to of new technologies for cold or semi-hot forming
be switched off and also on again at the right will reduce energy input with the same or better
time. component properties.
Optimisation is possible by means of intelligent The objective of Net-Shape technologies lies in
system monitoring, system diagnosis and self- manufacturing the final contours of a product in
correcting mechanisms. the earliest possible stages of the value adding
Another starting point for a resource-saving process and thus reducing secondary operations.
machine is to design drives and structures ap- Although these technologies cannot be qualified
propriate to requirements and thus avoid over-di- for all product specifications, they offer excellent
mensioning. Hybrid drive concepts appropriate to potential for improvement from the energy view-
requirements need to be developed so that the point.
parameters of the drive system can be adapted Research should concentrate on qualifying existing
flexibly to suit the technological working points Net-Shape technologies for additional applications
and the environmental parameters of the ma- and developing new generative Net-Shape pro-
chine. cesses which can be combined with conventional
manufacturing processes.
Studies of machine tools have revealed that the
basic loads amount to up to three quarters of the
total power consumption and only one quarter
is consumed by the process itself. In addition, it
can be assumed that machine tools are actually
working for only 15 % of the operating time on
small runs, and, in some circumstances, for up to
only 40 % of the operating time on large runs.
The remaining time is spent by the machine in a
waiting state or on set-up time, during which it
nevertheless runs at full basic load. Potential sav-
ings of 10 to 25 % are possible.

Manufacturing of gears by profile rolling

9
If a machining process is replaced by cold form- In the sheet metal processing industry, powder
ing when using steel, for example, there is a coating takes place after machining (3-dimen-
savings potential of 6 megajoules per kilogram; sional components), and this demands costly
with aluminium, depending on the proportion plant engineering.
recycled, it is up to 100 megajoules. Other po- In the areas of pretreatment chemistry and pow-
tential savings arise if hot forming is carried out der mould coatings for low-temperature applica-
at lower temperatures. A resource efficiency tions, studies are needed to enable the powder
increase of up to 25 % can be achieved by gen- mould coating of sheet metals to be carried
erative (Net-Shape) processes. Further significant out before machining (e.g. forming). Action is
savings potential lies in the optimisation of fre- needed in the optimisation of bending tools and
quently outdated equipment. in adapting them to suit powder mould coating,
and in relation to improving the expansion prop-
erties of powder mould coatings irrespective of
Optimisation of painting and the layer thickness achievable in each particular
In plating (hard
coating processes case.
chrome plat-
Painting processes are carried out in many differ- Painting installations for metal plates or coils (2-
ing), 3.3 kWh or
ent application areas and sectors. The estimate dimensional workpieces) are considerably smaller
around 12 MJ
is that there are about 100,000 paint processing and have significantly lower energy consump-
of energy per
plants in Germany. Major potential savings are to tion, with their high throughputs in relation to
square metre are
be expected with many painting processes. Thus, unit area, than large installations for 3-dimen-
needed for a plat-
for example, the change from solvent-based liq- sional components. There is therefore a major
ing thickness of
uid coatings to the more advantageous powder interest in the further development of fast and
1 µm.
coating technology requires a degreasing process compact coating processes on 2-dimensional
of substrate surfaces in addition in many cases, blanks or coils.
in order to attain the same paint adhesion quality When coating products made from solid material
as with a solvent-based paint. This involves heat- (e.g. gearbox housings) the surface/component
ing the workpiece twice (for degreasing approx. mass ratios are unfavourable. There is a require-
65°C, for drying residual water approx. 120°C). ment here for research into new coating and
drying methods and paint systems, in order to
reduce the heating of the entire component.

Taking into account the rational use of the ex-


isting most resource-efficient technologies and
production methods, potential savings of approx.
25 % can be assumed, according to conventional
estimates, depending on the further develop-
ment of pretreatment, painting and powder
mould coating systems or plant engineering.

Coating of
washing machine
bodies

10
Closed resource cycles / integration of resources
in process chains and systems

The utilisation of energy and materials in make greater %ages of diffuse losses in the pro-
resource cycles in a closed loop is another cess as a whole economically exploitable. One
important topic. In addition to the improve- example that could be mentioned is the nano-
ments achieved to date in the sphere of recy- coating of heat exchange surfaces. To match the
cling and media provision, it is increasingly a waste heat generated to the demand for process
matter of integrating resource cycles within heat at the right time and in the right quality, in-
process chains and within production com- novative heat reservoirs and circular processes fit
In the sphere
munities generally. The latter is growing in for industrial application are required to convert
of hot forming,
importance particularly because the speciali- low-temperature heat into higher value process
practically the en-
sation of companies is leading to less specific energy.
tire energy used
involvement in the manufacture of the fin- Interesting fields of development are sorption-
for heating is lost
ished product and therefore to a subdivision driven heat pumps, refrigerating machines and
energy. This is
into possible cycles. In future, research topics heat transformers, as well as electricity genera-
equivalent to
in energy provision, transfer, conversion and tion from waste heat, for example Organic Ran-
166 KWh or
recovery, as well as energy storage, must be kine Cycle installations for industrial applications.
600 MJ per
linked more closely to machines and pro- In the case of mechanical losses due to braked
tonne.
cesses in the field of production, in addition masses, the mechanical energy should be recov-
to the areas of media provision dealt with ered directly within the drive system via storage
hitherto. Examination and integration above systems.
and beyond process chains is tremendously
important in this. The current potential for economically worth-
while research areas in the considered industry is
estimated at approx. 20 PJ of primary energy sav-
Energy recovery, conversion, transport ing. It is worth pointing out the synergy between
and storage the technologies mentioned in the previous para-
Energy losses in manufacturing processes remain graph and research in the area of regenerative
unavoidable even if all potential savings are ex- energy technology.
ploited. In the segment of industry examined,
energy is mainly lost due to being diffused into
the environment as heat. If waste heat can be
transferred efficiently into a fluid using technol-
ogy available on the market, the “captured”
waste heat can be utilised mainly only seasonally
for space heating, as there
are no possibilities of using
it in appropriate quantity, at performance input
appropriate temperatures
and at appropriate times in
the manufacturing process. recovered energy
Energy recovery by short
and direct routes requires
performance
the energy integration of loss of the
machines and plant within main drive performance loss
a combined manufacturing of energy recovery
step. Greater efficiency, suit-
ability for difficult areas of
application and low invest-
ment costs are development performance
loss of the
objectives in the field of cushion
heat transfer and transport
technologies, in order to

11
Recycling There is an urgent need for action and research
The use of recycling materials from production with regard to the development of intelligent
waste makes a significant contribution to im- recycling concepts for production waste either
proving energy efficiency. This contribution re- within the processing unit itself, through col-
sults predominantly from the distinctly lower use laborative arrangements across the company,
of energy required for the production of second- or by setting up systems to capture and recycle
ary material. unmixed materials, such as industrial glassware
The re-use of sec-
In the ideal situation, recyclable material from and aluminium, for example. The objective is to
ondary aluminium
production can be utilised further without fur- reduce the levels of primary material use.
needs only 1/5 of
ther energy-intensive melting processes or simi-
the energy neces-
lar, thus further improving energy efficiency. Sheet metal and stamping waste is currently fed
sary to produce
There is a large potential in metal processing, into steel recycling via scrap metal dealers. The
primary alumin-
especially in the area of sheet metal and stamp- direct re-use of this waste has happened only
ium.
ing waste. For example, up to 60 % of metal marginally to date in individual companies. De-
sheets used in automobile production end up tailed figures on this are not yet available. There
as production waste. The same applies to other is also a great potential in industrial glassware,
areas. One example that can be mentioned is the because there is currently no recycling of the ap-
Only about 1/3
production of industrial glassware. At present, propriate types of glass.
of the annual
no secondary material is used due to a lack of
consumption of
suitable recovery and recycling logistics systems,
steel, copper and
because high-quality, unmixed recycled material
aluminium in
is needed for this purpose.
Germany is cov-
ered by secondary
material.

12
Loss-free operation of infrastructure
by production facilities and factories

concepts for media, energy and other manufac-


turing supplies do not exist.
The production
Over all, the supply chains are structured exclusi-
environment in-
vely according to classic logistics target variables.
cluding the trans-
Taking the interdependences of these target va-
port of goods
riables into account, companies or company net-
accounts for a
works endeavour to achieve the greatest possible
predominant part
economy in their logistics processes.
of the energy
The repercussions of energy-efficient paramete-
consumption in
risation of a production network on classic logis-
the area under
tics target variables are not yet known. Conven-
consideration in
tional site evaluations, for example, concentrate
the study, at over
on costs, labour forces, statutory obligations,
40 %.
topography etc., among other things, whereas
energy aspects such as the utilisation of energy-
efficient traffic routes or possible access to alter-
1 kilowatt of
native energy sources are hardly considered.
electricity saving
means 1.5 kilo-
The energy consumption and the energy-ef- The identification of potential energy savings
watts of primary
ficient production of goods in a supply chain in supply chains has not been possible so far,
energy saving.
have played only a very subordinate role to although it is predicted that considerable energy-
date; the repercussions of energy-related pa- saving potential exists in this area. The develop-
rameterisation of a production network on ment of appropriate methods should therefore
the conventional logistical target variables be a task for future research projects.
have hardly been studied at all so far.
Important tasks in this area are therefore the
creation and verification of “energy supply
chain” models and the analysis of their re-
percussions on the production networks. At
the same time, supply chain management
and conventional logistics or intralogistics
will have to come closer together and also
include aspects of supply and peripheral pro-
cesses.

Supply chain-management
To arrive at an integrated evaluation and opti-
misation of energy efficiency in production, it is
essential to include in one’s considerations the
production environment, in addition to manuf-
acturing technologies and machines. At present,
energy aspects are only inadequately taken into
consideration in the distribution, structuring and
evaluation of added value in production net-
works. Energy consumption and the energy-effi-
cient production of goods in a supply chain play
only a subordinate role. Admittedly, the optimal
structuring of information and material flows
within a production network is central to supply
chain management; however, integrated supply

13
Energy-efficient supply systems Increasing energy efficiency through local opti-
and structures in the factory misation of individual systems and structures is
The transformation process to yield percenta- already showing notable savings potential. Inte-
ges of added value is inconceivable without the grated analysis, planning and design are the next
supply and disposal systems of the factory’s in- logical step.
Up to 40 % of
frastructure. The supply or infrastructure systems
the energy can
provide mainly industrial media such as water, The results achievable are dependent very largely
be saved in the
electricity, natural gas, heat/cold, compressed air, on the preconditions that exist. However, in ge-
generation of
cutting oils, industrial gases etc. for production neral, savings similar to those with local optimi-
compressed air by
techniques and processes. The requirements are sation can be expected, which average 20-30 %
converting and
mainly specified by the production systems. In at present.
modernising the
addition, the production environment and the
plant.
product itself set additional requirements, e.g.
for lighting, cleanliness and air conditioning. The Intralogistics
optimisation in these matters is pursued locally in In spite of the proven high potential for savings
the sphere of supply systems at individual points and rationalisation in intralogistics, energy effi-
or on individual systems. An integrated approach ciency is left in the background in the planning
between the supply systems and the production of intralogistics systems. In the designing of
systems hardly exists. All the supply systems and material flow systems, energy costs have been
structures today are the subject of projects that estimated on a flat-rate basis to date (in gene-
are for the most part independent of other supp- ral, as a percentage of investment costs, often
ly or production systems. approx. 3 % p.a. for energy costs). No schedule
To achieve further increases in energy efficiency is prepared of the energy costs depending on
in this area, a systemic approach to the integra- the conveyor systems and storage facilities used
ted planning and optimisation of supply systems and their arrangement or their interaction in the
and structures must be developed. The aim system, because the key values necessary for this
must be to attain an overall optimum via the are not available. At the same time, focussing
exploitation of synergies, in order to set up ener- on the investment costs inhibits the spread of
gy-efficient supply and production structures in systems optimised for consumption. In addition
factories. to the availability of precision values for technical
system alternatives, the creation of new drive
and operating concepts which will enable alter-
native drive concepts to be developed is a sig-
nificant building block as far as the diffusion of
energy-related design principles in intralogistics is
concerned.

In the area of electrical drive systems alone, an


annual electricity saving of 27,500 million ki-
lowatt hours is possible, according to the ZVEI
(German Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers‘
Association), through the use of energy-saving
technologies. Due to the large number of elec-
trical motors used in conveyor systems, which
crucially determines the processes within intralo-
gistics systems, the potential saving is up to 30
% of the total electricity saving predicted by the
ZVEI.

14
Development of methods
for sustainable energy and materials management

For resource-efficient production, all sources Energy-efficient installation components or tech-


and sinks must be recorded as a whole. Much nologies can be used quite deliberately at the
wasteful use of resources cannot be coun- planning stage, on the basis of qualified and
tered at the present time, simply because it evaluated key values that will be available in the
cannot be located or measured. Investment future. The uncertainty that obtains in companies
plans are made mainly on the basis of invest- at present in this regard will be eliminated.
ment cost. It is therefore necessary to add
tools and methods, which will capture as Key values relevant to resources or energy are
completely as possible the relevant variables recorded only in rare cases, and when they are,
with regard to energy and materials, and they relate to selected areas of production and
which will make it possible to evaluate, plan, to energy or media supply. Action is needed to At present no
optimise and reduce consumption in both work out an overall systematology/methodology robust figures
the investment and operating phases, to the of evaluation for the identification of energy-ef- can be quoted
existing key value systems of factory and fa- ficient technologies and for the assessment and for Total Energy
cility planning. economic optimisation of the energy efficiency Management
Total Energy Management is understood to of process chains in production engineering, (TEM), because
mean the integration and extension of the both company-specific and applicable to several this is not yet
various methods to the planning and control companies. being practised.
of factory and production systems and their The methods for production-related planning, When the experts
processes with a view to reducing energy existing evaluation systematologies and methods were questioned,
consumption. of input/output analysis planning of energy con- however, TEM
sumption must be combined together in the na- was judged an
ture of a modular system of methods. important pos-
Value Added Management of Energy sible solution to
There are as yet hardly any robust consumption The evaluation systematology worked out should increasing energy
values which can be assigned to individual tech- be used to assist in identifying potential synergies efficiency.
nologies or consumers. They are captured by me- with regard to energy and materials consumpti-
ters only in the case of systems which have high on, i.e. the targeted provision of process techno-
energy consumption per se. In addition, there is logy, supply technology and materials on request
a lack of methods/criteria which allow a compari- should be made possible and optimised.
son to be made between the systems in different
companies.
To develop characteristic value systems for en-
ergy consumption, criteria and guidelines for the
measurement of resources and energy consump-
tion must be developed that are appropriately
coordinated with the characteristic data of the
operational process.
The absolute quantity of resources / energy can-
not provide a starting point for benchmarks in
this context without reference to another value.
This is why a methodology or a guideline must
first be developed for production and infrastruc-
ture technologies (logistics and supply systems),
which will permit a comparison to be made on
the basis of measurement, even in different com-
panies.

15
Peripheral operational fields

In the course of the study, product develop-


ment and human resources turned out to be
closely linked and also important aspects for
the efficient handling of resources.

Prospective product development


80 % of product costs are tied up in the product
origination process. Using concepts such as “De-
sign to Logistics” and “Design to Recycling”, the
attempt is made to take account of aspects of lo-
gistics and recycling at the product development
stage. The problems of energy and resource ef-
ficiency have so far been given little attention in
this context.
The early identification of resource-efficient pro-
duct, production and materials technologies is
essential to enable resource efficiency in the ma- Human resources
nufacture of products to be taken into considera- The increase in energy efficiency in production
tion in the course of product development. can only be pushed forward and implemented
In particular, questions that need to be answered by the players within the company themselves.
are how ecological trends can be taken into ac- Three factors of influence are decisive as far
count in technological considerations and how as this process is concerned: the will, the com-
young, resource-efficient, but not yet qualified petence and conducive organisational circum-
technologies can be evaluated, planned and imp- stances.
lemented. In addition, procedures must be deve- The following actions can be identified as being
loped to generate and to safeguard knowledge required:
about resource-efficient technologies. Organisation: embedding the subject of energy
Accordingly, methods and outline plans must be efficiency into existing processes, structures and
developed which ensure that attention is paid to responsibilities or creating new functions, incen-
resource efficiency aspects in product develop- tives and working practices.
ment. Qualification: providing specialist knowledge
which must be drawn up for different target
If resource-efficient technologies are taken into groups, and carrying through corresponding
account early at the product development stage, further education measures.
savings of between 10 and 40 % are possible, Culture: changing action-determining attitudes
depending on the sector and product. and perceptions of company players to increase
the probability of implementation.

Further education and organisation can syste-


matise and accelerate the selection, introduction
and implementation process. One can expect
that acceptance and the masterability of new so-
lutions will grow and, at the same time, that the
company’s energy and therefore cost savings will
increase significantly.

16
Contact Kontakt

Fraunhofer Institute for Fraunhofer Institute for


Machine Tools and Forming Technology Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS
IWU Winterbergstrasse 28
Reichenhainer Strasse 88 01277 Dresden, Germany
09126 Chemnitz, Germany Phone: +49 (0)3 51 / 25 53-7 00
Phone: +49 (0)3 71 / 53 97-0 www.ikts.fraunhofer.de
www.iwu.fraunhofer.de Director:
Director: Prof. Alexander Michaelis
Prof. Reimund Neugebauer

Fraunhofer Institute for


Fraunhofer Institute for Material Flow and Logistics IML
Manufacturing Engineering and Automation Joseph-von-Fraunhofer-Strasse 2-4
IPA 44227 Dortmund, Germany
Nobelstrasse 12 Phone: +49 (0)2 31 / 97 43-0
70569 Stuttgart, Germany www.iml.fraunhofer.de
Phone: +49 (0)7 11 / 9 70-00 Director:
www.ipa.fraunhofer.de Prof. Michael ten Hompel
Director:
Prof. Engelbert Westkämper
Fraunhofer Institute for
Environmental, Safety and Energy
Fraunhofer Institute for Technology UMSICHT
Production Technology IPT Osterfelder Strasse 3
Steinbachstrasse 17 46047 Oberhausen, Germany
52074 Aachen, Germany Phone +49 (0)2 08 / 85 98-0
Phone: +49 (0)2 41 / 89 04-0 www.umsicht.fraunhofer.de
www.ipt.fraunhofer.de Director:
Director: Prof. Eckhard Weidner
Prof. Fritz Klocke

Other Partners:
Fraunhofer Institute for - Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems
Industrial Engineering IAO and Design Technology IPK, Berlin
Nobelstrasse 12 - Chemnitz University of Technology, Professor
70569 Stuttgart, Germany ship of Human Factors and Ergonomics
Phone: +49 (0)7 11 / 9 70-01 - RWTH Aachen University, Institute of Plastics
www.iao.fraunhofer.de Processing
Director: - TU Dortmund, Institute of Forming Technology
Prof. Dieter Spath and Lightweight Construction IUL
- TU Darmstadt, Institute of Production
Management, Technology and Machine Tools
Fraunhofer Institute for - InnoMat GmbH, Chemnitz
Factory Operation and Automation IFF
Sandtorstrasse 22 This study was performed from June 2007 to
39106 Magdeburg, Germany February 2008 under the auspices of the Project
Phone: +49 (0)3 91 / 40 90-0 Management Agency Forschungszentrum Karls-
www.iff.fraunhofer.de ruhe Dresden branch and the Federal Ministry of
Director: Education and Research, Germany.
Prof. Michael Schenk (for more information:
www.produktionsforschung.de).

17
FUNDED BY SUPPORTED BY