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Digestive System

Digestive System Organization

Mouth –Teeth mechanically break down food
into small pieces. Tongue mixes food with
-Epiglottis is a flap-like structure at the back of
the throat that closes over the trachea
preventing food from entering it. It is located in
the Pharynx.

Esophagus- Approximately 20 cm long.

Functions include:
1.Secrete mucus
2.Moves food from the throat to the stomach
using muscle movement called peristalsis
Function of Digestive System If acid from the stomach gets in here that’s
-Breaks nutrients into parts small enough for heartburn.
your body to absorb and use for energy,
growth and cell repair. Stomach-J-shaped muscular bag that stores
-proteins break into amino acids the food you eat, breaks it down into tiny
-fats break into fatty acids and glycerol pieces.
-carbohydrates break into simple sugar -Mixes food with Digestive Juices that contain
enzymes to break down Proteins and Lipids.
Phases of Digestion -Acid (HCl) in the stomach Kills Bacteria.
Oral – starch molecules are digested through -Food found in the stomach is called Chyme
saliva that contains digestive enzyme amylase
Small intestine-Small intestines are roughly 7
Gastric – stomach wall flex, to help mix meters long
together food particles, gastric juice and -Lining of intestine walls has finger-like
pepsin before the food moves on to your small projections called villi, to increase surface
intestine. area.
-The villi are covered in microvilli which further
Intestinal-The bulk of carbohydrate and fat increases surface area for absorption.
digestion, as well as the remainder of protein Nutrients from the food pass into the
digestion. bloodstream through the small intestine walls.
-pancreas release a buffer into your small Absorbs:
intestine to reduce the acidity of the food 80% ingested water
coming from your stomach Vitamins
-digestive enzyme produced by pancreas and Minerals
specific for starches , sugars, fats and peptides Carbohydrates
are active and continue to break this nutrients Proteins
into simple sugars, fatty acids, amino acids Lipids
ready for absorption. Secretes digestive enzymes

DIGESTION Large Intestine-About 1.5 meters long

-Accepts what small intestines don’t absorb
1. Mechanical –chewing, tear, grind, -Rectum (short term storage which holds feces
mash, mix before it is expelled).
2. Chemical-enzymatic reaction that will Functions:
improve digestion of carbohydrates, Bacterial digestion
proteins and lipids. Ferment carbohydrates
Absorbs more water
Concentrate wastes
 Gastric ulcers
 Esophageal ulcers
Accessory Organs the Glands
 Duodenal ulcers
Not part of the path of food, but play a critical
Include: Liver, gall bladder, and pancreas 4. DIARRHEA

Caused by increased secretion of fluid into the

Liver intestine, reduced absorption of fluid from the
Directly affects digestion by producing bile
intestine or rapid passage of stool through the
-Bile helps digest fat
Filters out toxins and waste including drugs and
alcohol and poisons. 5. CONSTIPATION

Gall Bladder a condition in which there is difficulty in

Stores bile from the liver, releases it into the emptying the bowels, usually associated with
small intestine. hardened feces.
Fatty diets can cause gallstones

Pancreas Urinary System

Produces digestive enzymes to digest fats,

carbohydrates and proteins

Regulates blood sugar by producing insulin





Also known as Acid Reflux Disease.

is a digestive disorder that affects the lower

esophageal sphincter (LES), the ring of muscle 6 IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS OF THE URINARY
between the esophagus and stomach. SYSTEM
2. GASTROENTERITIS 1. Regulation of plasma ionic composition.
The inflammation of the stomach and 2. Regulation of plasma osmolarity.
intestines, typically resulting from bacterial 3. Regulation of plasma volume.
toxins or viral infection and causing vomiting 4. Regulation of plasma hydrogen ion
and diarrhea. concentration (pH).
5. Removal of metabolic waste products
3. PEPTIC ULCERS and foreign substances from the
sores that develop in the lining of the stomach, plasma.
6. Secretion of Hormones
lower esophagus, or small intestine. They’re
usually formed as a result of inflammation
caused by the bacteria H. pylori, as well as
from erosion from stomach acids. Main structures of the urinary system

There are three types of peptic ulcers: Kidney

1. filter blood plasma, separate wastes,
return useful materials to the blood, and - External urethral sphincter - under voluntary
eliminate the wastes. control


- Ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine, and
 It occur when bacteria enter the urinary
-cause diarrhea, vomiting, and cardiac tract; they can affect the urethra,
arrhythmia, convulsions, coma, and death. bladder or even the kidneys.
 It is more common in women than in
2. Regulate blood volume and osmolarity. men.
3. produce hormones  It is typically treated with antibiotics.
 renin
 erythropoietin 2. INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS
4. Regulate acid-base balance of the (IC)
body fluids.  also called painful bladder syndrome.
 It is a chronic bladder condition,
5. Detoxify superoxide, free radicals, and
primarily in women, that causes bladder
pressure and pain and, sometimes,
The Nephron pelvic pain to varying degrees
 Most components of the nephron are
within the cortex 3. KIDNEY STONES
 These are clumps of calcium
 Nephrons are connected to renal oxalate that can be found
artery/vein and ureter. anywhere in the urinary tract.
 It form when chemicals in the
 The glomerulus is enclosed in a two- urine become concentrated
layered glomerular (Bowman's) capsule. enough to form a solid mass.
 They can cause pain in the back
and sides, as well as blood in the
The Ureters urine.
The ureters are muscular tubes leading from
the renal pelvis to the lower bladder. 4. KIDNEY FAILURE
 also called end-stage renal
The Urinary Bladder disease (ESRD) and chronic
kidney disease.
 is highly distensible and expands
 It can be a temporary (often
acute) condition or can become
 is a muscular sac on the floor of the
a chronic condition resulting in
pelvic cavity.
the inability of the kidneys to filter
 The openings of the two ureters and the
waste from the
urethra mark a triangular area called
the trigone on the bladder floor.
The Urethra
 The symptoms, including back or
-conveys urine from the urinary bladder to the
pelvic pain, difficulty urinating
outside of the body.
and urgent/and or frequent
urination, mimic other diseases or
In both sexes:
disorders of the urinary system
- Internal urethral sphincter- under involuntary