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PARAMETROS

CASO 1

 “DUE” as an adjective means: destinado para la fecha tal

Ex.

The report is due on Monday

 “DUE TO” as a transition means: debido a

Ex.

Due to the crisis I have to sell my guitar

CASO 2

“BECAUSE OF” as a transition means: debido a

Ex.

Because of the crisis I have to sell my guitar

“BECAUSE” as a transition means: porque/ya que

The reason we are working on this project on weekends is because we don´t have time during
the week

CASO 3

Neither……or MEANS Ni…………… ni

Either………or MEANS O bien……… o

Both…………and MEANS Ambos……… y

CASO 4

Not only + (forma de pregunta) + , + but also

Rarely + + , + but

Never + + , + but

Under no circumstances + + , + but

Not until +

Ex.

Not only can Maria play the guitar, but also she can play the violin
Not longer/No longer

RELATIVE CLAUSES

Relative Pronouns

That - cosas u objetos

Which – cosas u objetos

Who - personas

FIXED DEL COMPARATIVO (Oración preestablecida)

The use of The……,the…… with comparative adjectives in parallel clauses. This structure is used to
show proportionate increase or decrease

The + comparative adjective + clause + the + comparative adjective + clause

Ex.

The more I study, the more I learn

Nota: Se encontraran comparativos o superlativos sin than, porque son oraciones preestablecidas

PHRASAL VERBS TECNIQUE

Up – magnifica el verbo (maxificador)

Off – pospone o acaba algo

Out – resultado de algo

On – continua el verbo, en/de

Through – finalizado/entre/ a través

After – correlativo

For – propósito

Behind – atrás/demorado/retrasado

In – ubicación/reduce el verbo

At – ubicación
Cut off Recortar (salario)
Lay off, laid off Despedir, despedido
Draw away Despreciar/disminuir
Pick up Levantar
Show up Mostrarse
Rely on Confiar/ apoyar
Depend on Depender de
Follow up Seguimiento
Put off Posponer
Look for Buscar
Go through Finalizar/atravesar/cruzar
Go down Reducir (impuestos)
Look up Buscar en el
diccionario/ponerse en
contacto
Find out Encontrar
Run out Acabarse/terminarse
Fill in/fill out Rellenar documentos

PRONOMBRES COMPUESTOS – INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

one

Some body

thing

one

Any body 3rd

thing PERSON

SINGULAR

one

Every body

thing
GERUNDIOS

Noun (or, er, ir) AR/ER/IR (español) Ex. Flying is nice

-ING Verb Be+ gerund Ex.He is flying to New

Adjective Que____(español) Ex. The flying man is called superman

PRONOUNS

SUBJECT OBJECT POSSESIVE POSSESIVE REFLEXIVE


ADJECTIVE PRONOUN
I Me My + Noun Mine Myself
You You Your + Noun Yours Yourself
He Him His + Noun His Himself
She Her Her + Noun Hers Herself
It It Its + Noun Its Itself
We Us Our + Noun Ours Ourselves
You You Your + Noun Yours Yourselves
They Them Their + Noun Theirs Themselves

Aditional: Of + Them/ You/ Us (Possesive Form)

MODALS

MODALS SIGNIFICADO VA SEGUIDO DE


Can Poder (ability)
Should Consejo
Must Deber, strong obligation
Could podría
Would Posibilidad futura
May Puede que
Had better Mejor que VA SEGUIDO DE UN BASED
Would rather Preferiría FORM VERB (Sin “To”)
Might Puede que
Will Futuro (predictions, quick
decisions)
Need not No necesitar
Have to Tener que
Ought to Deber, obligation + TO + BASED
FORM VERB
Nota:

 Nunca va un NO luego de un Modal


 Los Verbos Modales siempre tienen la expresión negativa al final.
 Siempre se debe tener en cuenta que después de TO le debe seguir un verbo en su forma
base

Ex. Would not, can not, rather not

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

 Once a day/ week


 Twice a day/week
 Three times a day
 Daily
 Weekly
 Monthly
 Yearly/annually
 Every day
 Every week
 Every month
 Every year
 Every other day – interdiario
 On Mondays
 On weekdays
 On weekends
 Always
 Almost always
 Usually, regularly – normalmente
 Often,frequently – frecuentemente
 Sometimes
 Almost never, hardly ever
 Seldom, rarely
 Never
 Constantly – constantemente
 Continuously
 Again and again – una y otra vez
 Every now and then – de vez en cuando
 From time to time – de tanto en tanto

TRANSITION WORDS

AND ADDITION BUT CONTRAST


Additionally Although – aunque (adelante)
Again And yet – sin embargo
Along with Any how – de otro modo
Also Instead of – en lugar de
Besides Yet
At the same time Nevertheless
Further – adicional Otherwise – por otro lado
Furthermore – además Whereas – mientras
In addition to Though
In like manner In spite of – a pesar de
Likewise – igualmente Despite – a pesar de
Alike – igualmente (va al final de una oración) Unlikely – a diferencia de
Moreover – por otra parte Through – a través
Not only…but also But - menos
Including
plus
together
SO RESULT
Then Accordingly
Therefore All in all altogether – en conjunto, en totalidad
And so As a result
Hence As to, en cuanto a
Consequently Clearly
On account of this Namely
Thus – así Therefore
So that – tantos que Thereupon – luego
By meaning – por lo que
As long as – por lo que
Provided that – por lo que
BECAUSE COMPARISON LIKE
on account of As/ Like/ Such as
In consequence of At the same time
In view of Correspondingly
By reason of In the same way
As a result of In like manner
In that Just as – tal como
Owing to Likewise – asimismo
Seeing as/ seeing that With regard to – con respect a
Given that
Insomuch as – de tal manera que
Insofar as – en la medida que
Inasmuch as – en cuanto
since

VOCABULARY

Through a través
Such as tal como
sword Espada
scraps Residuos
for para
As for Con respecto a
allow Dejar a
Allowed for Permitir
Abhor Abborecer
endure Soportar
ample Abundante/suficiente
attest Dar fe
appease Apasiguar
arouse Awaken/attract/inspire/incentivar
unavoidably Inevitablemente
Regardless of Independientemente de
revamps Renueva
portrays Representa
starks Claro, escueto
unuttered despejado
Roughly, nearly Aproximadamente
Differ, vary Diferir
In progress underway
negligible Insignificante
among En medio
Tap into, draw Accede a
from
Neither do I A mi tampoco
So do I Yo también
Get bored of + Aburrirse de….
verb/noun
shape Forma
prognoses Pronóstico
junk Basura
quarreling disputas
bickering Dimes y diretes
Teasing burlas
chuckling riendose

OBLIGATIONS PHRASES

Cuando la frase se inicia con:

It is important …………

It is mandatory…………

It is requested………… LA FORMA BASE DEL VERBO

It is obligatory…………

ADJETIVO CON (-)


Si hay una expresión negativa (-), siempre será singular

GRUPO NOMINAL

Despues del “OF” sigue un noun en singular

Ex.

Two pieces of equipment

TAG QUESTIONS

Debe tener referencia, a la frase dependiente o independiente

Ex.

It is the first time that the Princess of Wales has visited to us, isn´t it?

COMPARATIVE & SUPERLATIVE

Desigual than

Parecido as…..as

USO DE USED

Be + used to + ver (ing) Estar acostumbrado a……

Noun/Pronoun + used to + infinitive verb Solía……

Get used to + infinitive verb Acostumbrarse (proceso de hacerlo)

APOSITION

Cuando hay un grupo de palabras entre comas, se debe omitir la información al momento de
identificar la respues; ya que esa información tiene la función de confundir al lector.

IMPERSONAL ENGLISH

Si empiezas con:

ONE sigues con ONE

YOU sigues con YOU

THEY sigues con THEY

HE sigues con HE
VOCABULARY

Widely read extensamente leído


Limp cojea
Tampering manipulación
Even if Incluso si
Not even Nisiquiera
Whether…or…not Incluso si/ Aún si (Tiene que haber 2
opciones)
Unless Salvo que
throughout A lo largo de/durante
Not longer Ya no
Other + plural Otro, usado para sustantivo singular
Another + singular Otro, usado para sustantivo plural

PARA INDICAR EXISTENCIA

There are/There is

From………To

Since………Until

At least Al menos

At last Por último

LISTA DE SINONIMOS

Because: since, that is why,

So: Then, in consequence, consequently, thus, therefore

And: in addition, additionally, moreover, furthermore, what is more, on the other hand, besides

But: However, although, even though, yet, nonetheless, nevertheless, though, despite, in spite of

Like: alike, same..as, parallel to, similar to, relating to


ADJETIVOS

Ex.

The book consisting at 200 pages is original.

-Ed

-Ing

-Root (raíz)

-Participio pasado (3ra columna que va estar detrás de un Have/Has)

PREPOSITIONS

Beneath

Under
DEBAJO, POR DEBAJO DE
Below

Underneath

Over

Above ENCIMA, POR ENCIMA

on
PREPOSITION SIGNIFICADO
throughout A lo largo de, durante
Through A través, mediante
Next to/beside Junto a
Such as Tal/tales como
Beyond/further Más allá de
Likewise Del mismo modo
Otherwise Sino/ De otro modo
So as Como para
(paralelismo)
Instead of En vez de
Due to Debido a
By the way A propósito
Even if Incluso si
stil Aún, Todavía

TRANSITIONS

Conecta ideas, párrafos y oraciones

As far as I´m concerned En lo que me concierne

It seems like/It appears Parece


that que/Aparantemente
Even if Incluso si

Whether….(or not) Incluso si……o no

Furthermore Adicionalmente

For example/for instance Por ejemplo

Not only……but also No solo……pero también

Rarely Rara vez

Never Nunca

Under no circumstances Bajo ninguna circunstancia

Both…..and Ambos……y

none Ninguno

Neither……or Ni………ni

Either………or Sea……o

Therefore (thus, so) Entonces

Then En consecuencia, entonces


Because of (Due to) Debido a

due Para esta– fecha

Since (desde) Porque (como


preposición)
Afterwards Después, luego

Later Después, luego, mpas


tarde
As Como, mientras

While Mientras

Whereas Mientras (connotación


negativa)
As soon as Tan pronto como

Overall En general

Although

Even though

Though GENERALMENTE AL INICIO


DE LA ORACION
Despite
Aunque/ A pesar de
In spite of

Yet

However

But/yet

Nevertheless GENERALMENTE VAN A LA


MITAD DE LA ORACION
Nonetheless Sin embargo

regardless

Nota:

+ Para las siguientes transiciones se sigue la estructura de question form:

Ex.

Not only can Jason play the piano, but also he can play the guitar

 El orden se invierte hasta antes de la coma, se coloca la oración en forma de pregunta

Lo mismo sucede con:


 Rarely
 Never
 Under no circumstances

+ Después de una preposición: on, in, at, out; va seguido un Noun

RELATIVE CLAUSES – RELATIVE PRONOUNS

Who

Which

Where

How Ex.

When The boy (who was on the bus is intelligent)


The boy is intelligent
If

Whose

why

TIPS

El adjetivo nunca es plural

Mountain climbers (CORRECT)

Mountains climbers (INCORRECT)


FIXED EXPRESSION

As many as // As many as 1000 species of finch have been identified.


Adj.
Adv.

The same___that // Juliana has the same dress that


Noun
So ___that // The continental United States is so big that there are four time zones.
Adj.
The more___, the more // According to the media, the greater the demand, the higher the price
Fixed comparativo
The cheaper___, the cheaper

Not only___ , but also


No solo sino que

Have someone do something // General Grat had General Lee meet him

Direct effect on something

By + verb (Ing) // Kerosene is usually produced by refining it from petroleum.

To be + responsible + of // A swarm of locusts is responsible of the consumption.

It´s essential

Crucial

Mandatory + Verb in
Obligatory Based Form
requested

Ex.

It is essential that the temperature is not elevated

Pregunta indirecta + noun + adj. // The consumer price index lists how much every car costs.

Not only
Rarely
Never + but also + complement
Under no circumstances
Not longer
No longer
Ex.

Tool makers not only do help to construct elaborated tools, but also test…….

From one place to another // I would like to travel from one place to another

All of them // Pepe had five sons, all of them eventually became executives.
VERB TENSES

Había

HAD Hubiera + BEEN -- sido/estado

Habría

PERFECTOS – Have (Haber)

 Presente HAS o HAVE


Has hecho

 Pasado HAD
Había hecho

 Futuro WILL HAVE


Habrá hecho

 Presente continuo HAVE BEEN // HAS BEEN


Ha estado haciendo

 Pasado continuo HAD BEEN + V-ING


Había estado haciendo

 Futuro continuo WILL HAVE BEEN + V-ING


Habría estado haciendo

PAST

Past simple

Regular verb – ed Didn´t Did………Verb basic form?


+ - ?

 Cuando 2 acciones están pasando al mismo tiempo

At + time At 12:15 // at Easter // at eight o´clock


On + day On Monday // On July 2nd
Date
IN + month In winter
Season In spring
Year In 1988
Decade In the 1990´s
century In the twenty first century
Past Simple Passive

SUBJECT + WAS/WERE + PAST PARTICIPLE

 Cuando la acción es más importante que la persona que lo realiza


 Usado en written reports y formal speaking

Past Perfect

HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE

 Mostrar que una acción sucedió antes que otra en el pasado y que la primera acción terminó
antes que la segunda acción empezada.
 Se usa “Because”, para explicar una situación pasada

Already Had already started

Just Had just left

Never … before I had never eaten mexican food before

Past Continuous

WAS + V - ING
WERE
Estaba + “ haciendo algo”

While

When PAST CONTINOUS

As

Present Simple

 Hábitos que se hace regularmente


 Cosas que son generales o siempre verdaderas

Present Continuous

AM
ARE + V - ING
IS
Estoy + “ haciendo algo”
Present Simple Passive

SUBJECT + BE + PAST PARTICIPLE

 Cuando la persona que realiza la acción no es importante o es desconocida


 Cuando se desconoce con exactitud, quien realizó la acción (muchos, pocos, todo el mundo)
 Cuando son personas en general, quienes realizan la acción
 Utilizamos el “BY” para decir quien hizo la acción

Present Perfect

HAS + PAST
HAVE PARTICIPLE

 No conocemos exactamente cuando la acción sucedió


 Cuando no nos dan el tiempo definido
 Cuando las acciones están en curso

Just She´s just had her first baby

Already It´s already sold a million copies

Yet I haven´t finished yet

never He´s never been abroad

Present Perfect Continuous

HAS + BEEN + VERB-ING


HAVE

 Acciones que empiezan en el pasado y continúan en el presente

Present continuous

SUBJECT + AM + VERB-ING
ARE
IS

 Futuros planes, cuando ya se pusieron de acuerdo

Be Going To

SUBJECT + AM + GOING TO + VERB


ARE INFINITIVE
IS
 Acerca de planes futuros o intenciones
 Verb: Going to o coming to
 Hacemos predicciones cuando tenemos la evidenciao referencias reales

SUBJECT + WILL + PROBABLY + V-INFINITIVE

SUBJECT AM + PROBABLY + GOING TO


ARE
IS

 Creación de predicciones menos ciertas

Will

SUBJECT + WILL + VERB


WON´T INFINITIVE

 Cuando no hay plan o acuerdos


 Cuando se toma una decisión mientras hablamos

Hope & Think - WILL

SUBJECT + THINK + SOMETHING + WILL + VERB


HOPE INFINITIVE

 Use “I think” or “I hope” con Will

May & Might

SUBJECT + MIGHT + VERB


MAY INFINITIVE

 Para hablar acerca de planes cuando no estamos seguros que el plan sea así
 Menos certeza

Could

SUBJECT + COULD + VERB


INFINITIVE

 Cuando se hace precisiones que son menos certeras


Be likely to

 Para hacer precisiones sobre algo que pueda ser probable

SUBJECT + IS + LIKELY TO + VERB


AM UNLIKELY TO INFINITVE
ARE

IS
NOT + AM UNLIKELY TO
ARE

CONDITIONALS

0. Zero conditional

Se utiliza en situaciones generales o en hechos que siempre son verdaderos

IF + PRESENT , + PRESENT
SIMPLE SIMPLE

Ex. If water heats at 100 degrees, It boils

1. First Conditional

Se utiliza en situaciones posibles de realizarse en el futuro

IF + PRESENT , + SUBJECT + WILL + VERB


SIMPLE COULD
MIGHT

Ex. If I find her address, I´ll send her an invitation

2. Second Conditional (Past Unreal Conditional)

Se utiliza para situaciones imaginarias que son imposibles que sucedan en el futuro

IF + PAST , + SUBJECT + WOULD + VERB


SIMPLE CLAUSE

Ex. If I knew English I would work at Icpna.

3. Third Conditional
Hablar de una situación hipotética o imaginaria en el pasado, describe una situación irreal o
imaginaria

Ex. If I had been responsible, I would have saved money for my retirement.

IF + PAST PERFECT TENSE , + SUBJECT + WOULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

Nota:

If

Conditional Whether

Had (muy formal)

VOCABULARY

WORD TYPE MEANING


invoice (v), (n) emitir, factura
issue (n), (v) preocupacion, emitir
withdraw (v) retirar dinero
income (n), (v) beneficio/ingreso, ingresar/beneficiar
unlikely (adj) improbable
assesment (n) evaluación
leisure (n) placer/ocio
growing (adj) que crece
expenditure (n) gasto
expenses (n) gastos
following (adj) siguientes/que siguen
manufacture (n) (v) manufactura, manufacturar
shipping (n) embarque
appealing (adj) aparente o que aparenta
missing (adj) faltante
regarding (trans) en vista de
address (v) dirige (comunicacional)
assist (v) ayudar/atender
attend (v) asistir (a algún lugar)
enfocar/aproximar,
approach (v), (n) enfoque/aproximación
measure,
measurement (v), (n) medir, medida
arrange (v) organizar
hire/contract (v) contratar
contract/agreement (n) contrato/acuerdo
resign/quit (v) renunciar
share (v) (n) compartir, acción de bolsa
book (v) reservar
hesitate (v) dudar
ensure (v) asegurar
implement (v) implementar
suplement/supply (v) suplementar
display (n), (v) perfil, mostrar
blame (v), (n) culpar, culpa
threaten,threat (v), (n) amenazar, amenaza
warn,warnning (v), (n) advertir, advertencia
complain, complaint (v), (n) quejarse, queja
(v),
surround, surrounding (adj) rodear, que rodea
behave, behaviour (v), (n) comportarse, comportamiento
achieve, achievement (v), (n) lograr, logro
prevail (v) prevalecer
inquire/question (v) preguntar
require, request (v) preguntar
(v),
attach, attached (adj) adjuntar, adjunto
involve (v) involucrar
LIST OF VERBS I

PAST
VERB PAST SIMPLE PAST PARTICIPLE VERB PAST SIMPLE PARTICIPLE
be was been eat ate eaten
beat beat beaten fall fell fallen
become became become feel felt felt
begin began begun feed fed fed
bend bent bent fight fought fought
bet bet bet find found found
bite bit bitten fly flew flown
bleed bled bled forbid forbade forbidden
blow blew blown forget forgot forgotten
break broke broken forgive forgave forgiven
bring brought brought freeze froze frozen
broadcast broadcast broadcast get got got
build built built give gave given
burn burned/burnt burned/burnt go went gone
burst burst burst grow grew grown
buy bought bought hang hung hung
catch caught caught gave had had
choose chose chosen hear heard heard
come came come hide hid hidden
cost cost cost hit hit hit
cut cut cut hold held held
deal dealt dealt hurt hurt hurt
dig dug dug keep kept kept
do did done know knew known
draw drew drawn lay laid laid
dreamer/dream
dream t dreamed/dreamt lead led led
drink drank drunk leap leapt leapt
drive drove driven learn learned/learn learned/learnt
t
leave left left
lean leant leant

LIST OF VERBS II

PAST PAST
VERB PAST SIMPLE PARTICIPLE VERB PAST SIMPLE PARTICIPLE
let let let sit sat sat
lie lay lain sleep slept slept
light lit lit slide slide slid
smelled/smel
lose lost lost smell t smelled/smelt
make made made speak spoke spoken
mean meant meant spell spelt spelt
meet met met spend spent spent
mistake mistook mistaken spill spilled/spilt spilled/spilt
pay paid paid split split split
put put put spread spread spread
read read read stand stood stood
ride rode ridden steal stole stolen
ring rang rung stick stuck stuck
rise rose risen sting stung stung
run ran run swim swam swum
say said said take took taken
see saw seen teach taught tought
sell sold sold tear tore torn
send sent sent tell told told
set set set think thought thought
shake shook shaken throw threw thrown
shine shone shone understand understood understood
shoot shot shot wake woke woken
show showed shown wear wore worn
shrink shrank shrunk win won won
shut shut shut write wrote written
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk