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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

MATERIAL HANDLING AND PREPARATION

1. General

A. The information in this topic is about the general procedures for the
preparation of the repair areas and the repair materials. General data
for the procedures are included. The applicable material data is also
provided.

B. When you make permanent repairs the material must, as a general rule,
match the original material as follows:
− only carbon fiber material to repair carbon fiber structures,
− only glassfiber material to repair glassfiber and aramid fiber struc
tures.
C. The contents of this chapter are divided into the following Paragraphs:
− 1. General
− 2. Safety Precautions
− 3. Material Handling
− 4. Material Preparation
− 5. Material Application
− 6. Material Data
− 7. Manufacturing Procedures for Mould Tools

2. Safety Precautions

There are risks to you and other persons when you work with composite re
pair materials. To prevent any risks, read and obey the warnings given be
low.

WARNING: BE CAREFUL WHEN YOU USE CONSUMABLE MATERIALS. OBEY THE MATERIAL
MANUFACTURER’S INSTRUCTIONS AND YOUR LOCAL REGULATIONS.

WARNING: OBEY THE MANUFACTURER’S INSTRUCTIONS WHEN YOU USE CLEANING AGENTS,
ADHESIVES, SEALANTS AND PAINTS. THESE MATERIALS ARE DANGEROUS.
WARNING: WEAR THE CORRECT PROTECTIVE GLOVES AND FILTER MASK WHEN YOU CUT,
ABRADE OR DRILL COMPOSITE MATERIALS. THE DUST FROM COMPOSITE MA
TERIALS CAN GET INTO YOUR LUNGS OR ON TO YOUR SKIN AND CAN BE
THE CAUSE OF INJURY AND SKIN IRRITATION.
WARNING: CARBON DUST IS ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE AND CAN CAUSE AN EXPLOSION.
WHEN YOU WORK WITH CFRP COMPOSITE MATERIALS IMMEDIATELY REMOVE
DUST WITH A VACUUM CLEANER.

WARNING: USE AN ISOLATION TRANSFORMER WHEN YOU USE MAINS ELECTRIC POWER ON
THE AIRCRAFT. YOU MUST ONLY USE POWER TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT THAT ARE
EXPLOSION PROOF.

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3. Material Handling

The contents of this Paragraph are as follows:


− A. Materials and Tools
− B. Repair and Auxiliary Materials
− C. Tools and Equipment
− D. Machining Parameters
− E. Environmental Conditions

A. Materials and ToolsThis section contains general information about repair


materials, auxiliary materials, tools and equipment which are necessary
to make repairs on composite components. For relevant information about
repair and consumable materials refer also to the Paragraph/Chapter be
low:

Paragraph 6. Material Data and/or (CML) CONSUMABLE MATERIALS LIST.


B. Repair and Auxiliary Materials

(1) Repair Materials

NOMENCLATURE MATERIALS USE REFERENCE


Pre−cured sheet Cured carbon Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(10)
Filler or
material or tape or fabric and Chapter 55−11−00 and
doubler
profiles prepreg Chapter 55−31−00.
Temporary Bonding and adhesive com
Self adhesive
High speed tape protection pound (Material No. 08−052),
aluminum tape
cover refer to CML.
Glass or car Filler or re
Dry fabric Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(8).
bon pair plies
Epoxy low vis Impregnation Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(2)
Laminating resin
cosity system of dry fabric Table 2.
Bonding or
filling low
Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(1)
Adhesive paste Epoxy system temperature
Table 1.
curing <90 °C
(194 °F)
Bonding dou
blers, pre Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(6)
Adhesive film Film
preg bonding, Table 6.
core bonding
Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(5)
Foaming adhesive Film paste Core splicing
Table 5.
Pre−impregnated
Filler or re Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(9)
Prepreg glass or car
pair plies Table 8 thru 11.
bon fabric

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

NOMENCLATURE MATERIALS USE REFERENCE


Low density Core filling Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(4)
Potting
compound or bonding Table 4.
Resin and
Potting thickening Smoother Refer to CML.
agents
Reduce the Material No. 05−057 or
Filler Microballoons
density 05−067, refer to CML.
Increase the
viscosity of Material No. 05−089, refer
Thickening agent AEROSIL CABOSIL
liquid resin to CML.
system
Antistatic Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(7)
Paint resto
Finish coating paint, Top Table 7 and Chapter
ration
coat Primer 51−75−00.
Glass phenolic,
Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(11)
Honeycomb core Aramid phenol Sandwich core
Table 16.
ic, Metallic

(2) Auxiliary Materials

NOMENCLATURE MATERIALS USE SUPPLIER / CODE


Methyl−Ethyl−
Ketone,
1.1.1 Trichlo Cleaning and Material No. 11−003, 11−004,
Cleaning agents roethane, surface prep 11−006, 11−010, refer to
Methyl Alcohol, aration CML.
Isopropyl Al
cohol
Water break
De−mineralized
test, surface Local purchase
water
preparation
Polyamide fiber AEROVAC: B100
cloth or Separator 60 AIRTECH: Release Ply B
Peel ply cloth Polyester cloth g/m2 (0.2 (Polyamide) or Release Ply C
with no re oz./ft2) (Polyester)
lease agent TYGAVAC: 60B

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

NOMENCLATURE MATERIALS USE SUPPLIER / CODE


Resin flow
control with
hole diame
Polyvinyl
ters from 1
fluoride (PVF),
Perforated part mm (0.039in.) AEROVAC: HALAR−P1
Polytetra
ing film to 1.2 mm AIRTECH: A4000P
fluoro ethylene
(0.047 in.)
(PTFE)
and open area
of 1,25 to
2,25 %.
Polyvinyl
fluoride (PVF),
Non−perforated
Polytetra Resin barrier AEROVAC: HALAR−NP
parting film
fluoro ethylene
(PTFE)
Plastic sheet Acrylic For templates Local purchase
Resin flow
contol /
Glass fabric resin MIL C 9084 TYPE III or AMS
style 120 absorbant ply C 9084 type III
70 g/m2 (0.24
oz/ft2)
Bleeder cloth Style 181
glass fabric
must only be Resin
used if spe absorption is MIL C 9084 or AMS C 9084
cifically 140 g/m2 (0.5 type VIIIA or VIIIB
called out by oz/ft2)
repair
instruction
Style 181 or 1581 or 7781:
Glass fiber
For vacuum Mil−C−9084 type VIIIA or
fabric: Style
drain or in VIIIB or
181 or 1581 or
sulation AMS−C−9084 type VIIIA or
7781
VIIIB
Breather cloth AEROVAC: AIRBLEED 10
AIRTECH: AIRWEAVE N10
Polyester felt For vacuum
TYGAVAC: advanced materials
330 g/m2 (11.64 drain or in
NW339 or NW339HA
oz/ft2) minimum sulation
RICHMOND AIRCRAFT PRODUCTS:
RC−3000−10
Material No. 05−068, (Refer
to CML).
Bagging film Polyamide film Vacuum bag
AEROVAC: CAPRAN 980
AIRTECH: DP 1000

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

NOMENCLATURE MATERIALS USE SUPPLIER / CODE


Vacuum bag Vacuum bag Material No. 09−033 (Refer
sealant (tacky sealant to CML)
tape) (tacky tape) AIRTECH GS213
General:
masking,
Polyester or attaching
Pressure Material No. 05−138 (Refer
PTFE with bleeder,
sensitive tape to CML)
non−silicone holding
(flash tape) AIRTECH: Flash breaker 1R
adhesive bleeder/films/
thermocouples
in position

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

C. Tools and Equipment

NOTE: A list of Equipment / Supplier is given below for Information. All


commercially available equipment which meets the requirements can be
used.

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NOMENCLATURE TYPE/SUPPLIER USE REQUIREMENTS


a) Reference:
HCS9200B Supplier:
HEATCON Composite
Systems 600 AND
OVER PARK EAST
SEATTLE WA 98188
UNITED STATES
wwww.heatcon.com
or AERO CONSUL
TANTS Hochbord
Str. 9, CH−8600
Dubendorf 1,
Switzerland Temperature range up
b) Reference: An to 200 °C (392 °F),
ita series (NT or Control to all ac
OT or EZ) Suppli tive couples, Accura
er: GMI aero 9 cy: ±2 °C (3.5 °F),
rue Buffault Thermocouples: 6
F−75009 PARIS minimum but more
www.gmi−aero.com thermocouples may be
c) Reference: In situ and shop required for large
Hot bonding and
8024 series Sup hot bonding re repairs
vacuum control
plier: ATACS P.O. pairs and drying (Refer to Paragraph
unit
BOX 88237, of components 5.D.) Vacuum range
Seattle, WA up to 0.95 bar (13.8
98138−2237 USA psi), Accuracy: ±0.07
www.atacs.com bar (1.0 psi)
d) Reference: AHB Display: process
380 series data, Printer: pro
(380DV2, 380D64) cess data, Protec
Supplier: AEROFORM tion: over tempera
France ZA des Ai ture protection.
gais 31 Ancienne
Route d’Irigny
69530 BRIGNAIS
FRANCE www.aero
form−france.fr
e) Reference:
ACR3 Supplier:
BRISKWEAT 1055
Gibbard Ave Co
lumbus, OH 43201
USA www.brisk
heat.com
Supplier: AERO Drying of compo 5 watts/in. (0.8
Heating blanket
CONSULTANTS G.M.I. nents and curing watts/cm2)

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NOMENCLATURE TYPE/SUPPLIER USE REQUIREMENTS


Use only welded (No
Thermocouple Type Supplier: Local Temperature Con Filler Wire) Thermo
J or K purchase trol couples of the type
required
Infrared,
Drying of compo
Heat radiant Supplier: Local
nents and curing
purchase
Supplier: Local For drying and
Hot air gun
purchase curing
Temperature range up
to 200 °C (392 °F)
Temperature distribu
For hot bonding
tion ±5 °C (9 °F) at
Supplier: Local repairs and dry
Oven cure temperature
purchase ing of compo
nents Controlled heat up
rate from 0.5 °C (1
°F) to 5 °C (9 °F)
/min.
Supplier: Local For drying and Accuracy: ±0.07 bar
Vacuum manometer
purchase curing (1.0 psi)
Air driven,
Router with tem For removal of
Supplier: Local
plate damaged material
purchase
3 mm (0.118 in.)
dia. (carbide
tipped), 4 mm
For removal of
Router bits (0.157 in.) car
damaged material
bide tipped),
Supplier: Local
purchase
Valve stem cutter
20 mm (0.787 in.)
For use with
Spot facer dia.
router or drill
Supplier: Local
purchase
Air driven,
Drilling machine Supplier: Local
purchase
Carbide tipped, For drilling Refer to Chapter
Drills Supplier: Local composite mate 51−44−21 for hole
purchase rials diameters

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NOMENCLATURE TYPE/SUPPLIER USE REQUIREMENTS


Carbide tipped, For countersink
Rose countersinks Supplier: Local ing composite
purchase materials
Carbide tipped,
For cutting of
Saw Supplier: Local
fiber composites
purchase
Supplier: Local For setting
Drill stop
purchase drill depth
For cutting fab Cutting blades
Supplier: Local
Scissors ric, adhesive 150 mm (5.9 in.) to
purchase
film etc. 200 mm (7.9 in.)
Supplier: Local For cutting met
Shears
purchase al doublers
Assorted, flat
For shaping com
and round,
Files posite doublers
Supplier: Local
etc.
purchase
WIDAX 21592030,
Scraper Supplier: Local For general use
purchase
For removal of
Supplier: Local
Skinning knife damaged metal
purchase
skin
For repair of
Carbide,
damaged metal
Reamer set Supplier: Local
skins and fas
purchase
tener holes
Supplier: Local For use with
Block sanding
purchase abrasive paper

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

NOMENCLATURE TYPE/SUPPLIER USE REQUIREMENTS


100 grade,
280 grade,
400 grad,
Supplier: Local
purchase
FEPA graded pa
per. For FEPA
(European) grading
system and CAMI
(US grading sys
Abrasive cloth General abrading Water resistant
tem) alternative
rules refer be
low:
FEPA CAMI
P80 80
P120 120
P150 150
P220 220
P240 240 or 220
P400 320
1.3 mm (0.051
in.) dia., 5 mm
Hypodermic syringe For adhesive in
(0.2 in.) long,
and needle jection
Supplier: Local
purchase
Supplier: Local Trimming honey
Inspection mirror
purchase comb
Supplier: Local Trimming honey
Knife
purchase comb
Supplier: Local For spreading
Putty knife
purchase adhesives etc.
For mixing and
Supplier: Local
Spatulas spreading adhe
purchase
sives
Non−waxed,
Containers Supplier: Local Mixing adhesives
purchase
Non−waxed, For measuring
Measuring contain
Supplier: Local resin and hard
ers
purchase ener quantities

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NOMENCLATURE TYPE/SUPPLIER USE REQUIREMENTS


Range up to 0.5 kg
For the deter (1.1 lb), Accuracy
Supplier: Local
Weighing scales mination of mix 0−25 mm (1.0 in.)
purchase
ing quantities y: +0.1 g (0.004
oz.)
For use during
Supplier: Local
Squeegee laminating and
purchase
smoothing
For use during
Supplier: Local
Roller laminating and
purchase
smoothing
Preparation:
Rubber, Leather, Non−absorbant, powder
adhesives, mixing
Cotton, free gloves, white
Gloves solvents, han
Supplier: Local lint free cotton
dling hot parts,
purchase gloves
Repair: Lay up
For respiratory
Supplier: Local protection: Paper filter dust
Mask
purchase against dust, mask, Organic mask
against vapors
Face shield or Supplier: Local For eye protec
goggles purchase tion
Supplier: Local Carbon dust protec
Vacuum cleaner Dust extraction
purchase tion
Screw clamp pli Supplier: Local Pressure ap To clamp 0−25 mm
ers purchase plication (1.0 in.)
CLECO,
Pressure ap
Clamp pliers Supplier: Local
plication
purchase
CLECO 2.5 mm (0.1
in.), Pressure ap
Clamp spring
Supplier: Local plication
purchase
Rubber, For pressure
Hardness range 30−50
Sheet Supplier: Local distribution over
Shore A
purchase repair area

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NOMENCLATURE TYPE/SUPPLIER USE REQUIREMENTS


Annealed copper or
aluminum sheets, 0.5
For pressure mm (0.02 in.) to 2
distribution over mm (0.08 in.) thick,
Locally manufac
hot repairs, for formed to the local
tured from metal contour.
pressure dis
sheet or plywood
Caul plate tribution over Rubber pads. If in
sheet,
RT repairs. direct contact with
Supplier: Local
Pressure pad, uncured materials or
purchase
caul plate for bonding areas cover
core bonding the rubber pad with
non−perforated part
ing film.
For pressure
Sand or shot
distribution over
bags,2−4 kg
hot repairs, for
Weights (4.4−8.8 lb),
pressure dis
Supplier: Local
tribution over
purchase
RT repairs.
For attaching
Refer to Chapter
Installation tool Supplier: Local temporary and
51−42−21 for rivet
− blind rivets purchase permanent dou
types.
blers.

CAUTION: CORRECT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL ARE ESSENTIAL TO


BOND INTEGRITY. CHECK REGULARLY PROPER CONDITION AND OPERATION
OF HEATING BLANKETS AND THERMOCOUPLES AS DESCRIBED IN THE FOL
LOWING TEXT.
(1) Verification of Heating Blankets and Thermocouples

NOTE: Three methods are proposed. Method 3 is dedicated for routine


check.

(a) Method 1 − Verification of Heating Blankets with Infra Read (IR)


Sensor
WARNING: ENSURE THERE ARE NO LEAKS WHILST PULLING VACUUM WHICH
COULD CAUSE COLD AIR TO BE DRAWN ACROSS THE BLANKET
HENCE GIVING RISE TO ERRONEOUS TEMPERATURE READINGS. ANY
LEAKS MUST BE CORRECTED BEFORE COMMENCING THE TEST.

1 Position the blanket on a flat surface of uniform absorption


with low heat diffusion properties, for example a glass/epoxy
moulded sheet and vacuum bag into position.

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CAUTION: HIGH HEAT DIFFUSION MATERIAL SUCH AS ALUMINUM OR STEEL


MUST NOT BE USED. THIS WILL MASK THE EFFECT OF UNEVEN
TEMPERATURE SPOTS ON THE BLANKET.

2 Connect the blanket to the appropriate power source controller.

3 Select a particular heat setting to achieve 120 °C (250 °F) or


180 °C (350 °F) and wait for temperature equilibrium.

NOTE: If equilibrium is not achieved in a reasonable time then


the blanket may be damaged. To be removed investigate
further for confirmation.

4 Make temperature measurements at a pitch of 50 mm (1.97 in.)


both in length and width of the blanket using IR−sensor.
NOTE: The following measurements can be performed using thermo
couples. This is only practicable on very small blankets,
because of the number of thermocouples that would be re
quired.

NOTE: Verification with an IR−sensor can also be done on the


repair part. The record of hot and cold points will be
useful for the installation of thermocouples for the cur
ing process.

5 Record all temperature readings. A tolerance of +/− 5 °C (+/− 9


°F) for an average value of 120 °C (250 °F) or 180 °C (350 °F)
is accepted. Reject heat blankets which exceed this temperature
requirement.

NOTE: Thermal uniformity requirements do not apply to the 50 mm


(2.00 in.) wide heat blanket edge band. If some points
are out of tolerance, the area must be identified. Using
a heat blanket with cold or hot spots, has to be made
with extreme caution because of risk of over/under cure.
Reject blanket if in doubt. Repeat verification will be
depended on the blanket resistance checks, refer to Para
graph 3.C.(1)(c). Should the heat blanket resistance fall
outside the stated requirements the blanket should be re−
tested.

(b) Method 2 − Verification of Heating Blankets by Thermal Imaging

1 Position the blanket on a flat surface of uniform absorption


with the low heat diffusion properties, for example a glass/
epoxy (moulded) sheet and vacuum bag into position (Refer to
Figure 1).

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WARNING: ENSURE THERE ARE NO LEAKS WHILST PULLING VACUUM WHICH


COULD CAUSE COLD AIR TO BE DRAWN ACROSS THE BLANKET
HENCE GIVING RISE TO ERRONEOUS TEMPERATURE READINGS. ANY
LEAKS MUST BE CORRECTED BEFORE COMMENCING THE TEST.

CAUTION: HIGH HEAT DIFFUSION MATERIALS SUCH AS ALUMINUM OR STEEL


MUST NOT BE USED BECAUSE THIS WILL BE MASK THE EFFECT
OF UNEVEN TEMPERATURE SPOTS ON THE BLANKET.
2 Connect the blanket to the appropriate power source controller.

3 Select a particular heat setting to achieve 120 °C (250 °F) or


180 °C (350 °F) and wait for temperature equilibrium.

NOTE: If equilibrium is not achieved in a reasonable time then


the blanket may be damaged. To be removed investigate
further for confirmation.

4 Make temperature measurements at a pitch of 50 mm (1.97 in.)


both in length and width of the blanket using IR−sensor.

NOTE: Verification with a thermal imaging camera can also be


done on the repair part. The record of and cold points
will be useful for the installation of thermocouples for
the curing process.

5 Record all temperature readings. A tolerance of +/− 5 °C (+/− 9


°F) for an average value of 120 °C (250 °F) or 180 °C (350 °F)
is accepted. Reject heat blankets which exceed this temperature
requirement.

NOTE: Thermal uniformity requirements do not apply to the 50 mm


(2.00 in.) wide heat blanket edge band. If some points
are out of tolerance, the area must be identified. Using
a heat blanket with cold or hot spots, has to be made
with extreme caution because of risk of over/under cure.
Reject blanket if in doubt. Repeat verification will be
depended on the blanket resistance checks, refer to Para
graph 3.C.(1)(c). Should the heat blanket resistance fall
outside the stated requirements the blanket should be re−
tested.

(c) Method 3 − Verification of Heating Blankets with resistance mea


surement

1 A faster method of checking a blanket for major problems is by


measuring its resistance with an ohm meter. While the blanket
is still new or known good condition, confirmed by the proce
dure set out in Paragraph 3.C.(1)(a) or Paragraph 3.C.(1)(b)
measure and record its resistance and record its resistance
(not required if this has been provided by the supplier) by
applying the ohm meter to the power leads. It is recommended
that the operator compares the blankets resistance every time
before using against the established baseline resistance. If it
is within 3−4 % the blanket circuits are in good condition. If

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

this value is exceeded then the blanket must be investigated


using the procedure set out in Paragraph 3.C.(1)(a) or Para
graph 3.C.(1)(b), before further use. If the blanket passes the
thermal uniformity test, a new electrical resistance certifica
tion shall be issued.

2 The data from tests carried out (Refer to Paragraph 3.C.(1)(a)


or Paragraph 3.C.(1)(b) or 3.C.(1)(c) shall be maintained on a
file for the live of the blanket. This will enable trends to
be established and give warnings of possible under performance.

CAUTION: DURING USE THERMOCOUPLES ARE EXPOSED TO RESINS AND PHYSICAL


ABUSE. THERMOCOUPLES THAT HAVE THE JUNCTION AREA COVERED IN
RESIN MAY NOT WORK PROPERLY UNDER REPAIR CONDITIONS. CLEAN OFF
THE RESIN IF POSSIBLE AND CLOSELY INSPECT THE WELDED JUNCTION
TO MAKE SURE IT IS INTACT. IF THERE IS ANY DOUBT, THE THERMO
COUPLE SHOULD NOT BE USED UNTIL IT HAS A NEW WELDED JUNCTION.

CAUTION: KINKS WILL SOMETIMES OCCUR IN THE THERMOCOUPLE WIRE RESULTING


IN A JUNCTION PRIOR TO THE END OF THERMOCOUPLE. THIS COULD
YIELD INACCURATE READING. IF IN DOUBT CONFIRMATION OF THE THER
MOCOUPLE PERFORMANCE CAN BE CHECKED USING THE FOLLOWING SIMPLE
TEST.

(2) Verification of Thermocouples


− Thermocouples are essential for controlling the repair temperature.
For accurate application each thermocouple should be checked
against known reference standards. This can be accomplished by
placing the working thermocouple immediately alongside a calibrated
standard temperature sensor and positioning these, for example, in
a specially designed heated oil filled vessel, with automatic im
pellor agitation to reduce temperature gradients. The vessel can
then be set to a range of temperatures and the corresponding out
puts compared.
− In the absence of such standards a simple and effective check is
to immerse the thermocouple in a slush of melting ice and confirm
that 0 °C (32 °F) is being read from the recording devise. A fur
ther check would be to immerse the thermocouple in boiling water
to confirm 100 °C (212 °F) is being recorded.
− Maintenance and condition of thermocouples is often overlooked.
Thermocouples can appear to work at room temperature and then fail
to work properly under repair conditions, for example, high temper
ature and pressure.
− Each thermocouple should be visually inspected prior to being used
and then plugged into recording device for verification. All ther
mocouples have to read similar temperatures at room temperature. A
further check is to hold each junction between thump and finger
and observe temperature change.

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Set−up for Temperature Verification Test of Heat Blanket.


Figure 1

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D. Machining ParametersThis section gives some data and information about


the tools used, and which are necessary to work on fiber reinforced
plastics.

(1) Drills

(a) For the production of holes in fiber composite materials, obey


the following information which is applicable for the general use
of drills:
− in the case of a repair, use when possible, controlled feed
drilling machines. When using hand feed drilling machines limit
the diameter of the holes to 8 mm (0.31 in.) maximum,
− make sure that the hole is correctly aligned to the material
surface. Control the drilling machine by use of a suitable
drilling jig or bushed template
− prevent delamination and fibre damage on the exit face when
drilling. Use a back−up or break−out support material where
possible
− prevent delamination and fiber damage caused by overheating of
the drill during the drilling time
− lubrication with water is recommended to prevent overheating
(on monolithic panels only)
− for exact hole dimensions and for a longer cutting life, drills
shall be machined ground

For more information about hole and drill data and drilling re
quirements, refer also to Chapter 51−44−21, FASTENER HOLE AND
DRILL DATA − COMPOSITE STRUCTURE.

(b) Refer to Figure 2 for basic drill data for carbon and glass fi
ber composites (CFRP/GFRP).

(c) Refer to Figure 3 for basic drill data for aramid fiber compos
ites (AFRP).

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

Basic Drill Data for CFRP/GFRP


Figure 2

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Basic Drill Data for AFRP


Figure 3

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(2) Recommended tools and basic data for AFRP

TOOL/TYPE CUTTER MATERIAL FEED RANGE


Carbide or carbide Speed feed: 0,3 (mm/r)
Countersink
tipped Drill speed: 1000−2000 (rpm)
Router bit (op Feed range: 0,8−3 (m/min)
Carbide tipped
posed helical) Drill speed: 10000−30000 (rpm)
Speed range: 1300−2000 (m/min)
Band saw (14−22
Carbide tipped Feed range: dependent on material
teeth/in.)
thickness
Lifting speed: 2500−3000 (liftings/
min)
Sabre saw Carbide tipped
Feed range: dependent on material
thickness
Lifting speed: 2800 (liftings/min)
Nibbler Carbide
Feed range: 1,6 (m/min)

(3) Recommended tools and basic data for Thermoset Resin Matrix

TOOL/TYPE CUTTER MATERIAL FEED RANGE


Speed feed: 0,05 − 0,2 (m/min)
Carbide
Drill speed: 800 − 1200 (rpm)
Countersink
Speed feed: 0,1 − 0,3 (m/min)
Diamond tipped
Drill speed: 1200 − 2400 (rpm)
Speed range: 150 − 500 (m/min)
Carbide or diamond
Router bit Feed range: dependent on cutting
tipped
depth
Speed range: 150 − 400 (m/min)
Band saw Diamond tipped Feed range: dependent on material
thickness
Lifting speed: 1000 − 2000 (lift
ings/min)
Sabre saw Diamond tipped
Feed range: dependent on material
thickness

NOTE: Use only well sharpened tools.

(4) Recommended tools and basic data for Thermoplastic Resin Matrix

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TOOL/TYPE CUTTER MATERIAL FEED RANGE


Carbide or carbide Speed feed: 0,05 − 0,2 (m/min)
Countersink
tipped Drill speed: 800 − 1200 (rpm)
Speed range: 250 − 500 (m/min)
Router bit Carbide tipped Feed range: dependent on cutting
depth
Carbide tipped − 60 Speed: 1500 (rpm)
Circular saw teeth and 200 mm Feed range: dependent on material
(7.874 in.) diameter thickness
Diamond blade slotted
with coolant
250 mm (9.843 in.)
diameter Speed: 1600 (rpm)
Circular saw not recommended for Feed range: dependent on material
materials as de thickness
scribed in Chapter
51−27−00 Paragraph
5.A.
Speed range: 600 − 1000 (m/min)
Carbide tipped
Band saw Feed range: dependent on material
(8−10 teeth/inch)
thickness

NOTE: Use only well sharpened tools.

E. Environmental Conditions

(1) Normal workshop conditions are generally considered to be satisfacto


ry for doing temporary repairs to composite parts.
(2) Before commencing a permanent repair ensure that:
− the temperature within the room or surrounding area will remain
between 18 °C and 30 °C (64 °F and 86 °F) throughout the time re
quired for the repair
− the preparation area will be dust free, clean and dry. The humid
ity must not be greater than 75 %
− condensation on the repair area is to be avoided
− tools and equipment will be kept dust free and clean
− good protection procedures will be followed for repairs performed
outdoors.

(3) When a bonded repair is performed, the following precautions in the


preparation and repair area must be followed. It is forbidden:
− to use, handle or apply uncured release agents, waxes or uncured
silicones.
− to drink, eat and smoke.

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− to clean and maintain tools.


− to use engines or equipment releasing oils, greases or lubricants,
fumes or any other contaminants.

(4) Record all environmental data for permanent repairs.

4. Material Preparation

The following is an index of the contents of Paragraph 4..


− A. Adhesives Laminating Resins, Low Density Compounds
− B. Film and Foam Adhesives, and Anti−Corrosion Primers
− C. Prepregs, Dry Fabrics
− D. Removal of Surface Protection
− E. Cleaning Skins, Honeycomb and Masking
− F. Water Break Test
− G. Drying Composite Structures
− H. Preparation of Wet Lay−Up Repair Plies
− I. Preparation of Honeycomb Core Plug
− J. Fabrication of Built−Up Honeycomb Core Plug
− K. Preparation of Doublers
− L. Surface Preparation for Temporary Repair
− M. Surface Preparation for Permanent Repair
A. Adhesives Laminating Resins, Low Density Compounds

(1) General

(a) Two part systems are made up of resin and a hardener, and re
quire mixing before use. The base material (modified or unmodi
fied resin) and the hardener can be in paste, putty or liquid
form, and are always supplied in separate air tight containers.
To aid mixing, some resins and hardeners have different colors.

(b) One part adhesive pastes and one part low density compounds con
tain a latent curing agent, and therefore do not require mixing
prior to use.
(2) Storage and Removal

CAUTION: IN THE UNCURED STATE SOME CONSTITUENTS OF ADHESIVES ARE


SENSITIVE TO MOISTURE. THIS CAN INFLUENCE THE FINAL PROPER
TIES OF THE BOND. RECOMMENDED STORAGE AND REMOVAL PROCEDURES
MUST ALWAYS BE STRICTLY ADHERED TO. REFER TO PARAGRAPH E.

(a) Store the resin and hardener in a cool dry environment. Do not
exceed the manufacture’s specified shelf life. Refer to Paragraph
6.B.(12) for material storage requirements.
(b) The storage temperature for a paste adhesive depends on the spe
cific type. Some can be stored at room temperature, whilst others
require refrigeration at 0 °C (32 °F).

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(c) For those items that are stored cold, all moisture must be al
lowed to evaporate from the container before it is opened for
use.

(3) Mixing (Two part systems)

WARNING: RESINS AND ADHESIVES ARE DANGEROUS (REFER TO PARAGRAPH 2.).

(a) Preparation work must be completed before mixing resins/adhesives


and potting compounds.
(b) Calculate the quantity that is necessary to complete the repair.
Ensure that the quantity mixed can be used before 80 % of the
specified pot life has elapsed.

(c) Confirm that the material has reached ambient temperature (Refer
to Paragraph 3.E.) before opening the container. Ensure that con
tainer lids are refitted immediately after removing the required
amount of resin/adhesive and hardener.

(d) Weigh the resin/adhesive and hardener within an accuracy of ± 2%.


Use clean, wax and oil free containers for mixing.
(e) To ensure optimum properties, mix the resin/adhesive and hardener
together for a minimum of 5 minutes to get a uniform homogenous
mixture. Ensure that the material against the side of the con
tainer is included in the mixture. Avoid entrapment of air
bubbles during mixing. Use vacuum techniques to de−gas if neces
sary.

NOTE: If required, include 2 to 5 % by weight of thickening


agent (Material No. 05−089, refer to Chapter 51−35−00) to
the mixed adhesive while mixing, to give a paste that does
not flow. Not applicable to low density compounds.
(f) For maximum pot life, pour the mixed material (resins or adhe
sives) into a shallow tray to a maximum depth of 6 mm (0.24
in.). This action decreases the possibility of exothermic reac
tion.

(g) Different spatulas must be used for the mixing and application
steps.

(h) Clean all tools and equipment with cleaning agent (Materi
al No. 11−003 or 11−004) before the resins/adhesives have cured.

(4) Resin/Adhesive Quantity Determination


NOTE: The data sheets for each adhesive, resin or low density com
pound states the maximum quantity that can be safely mixed at
one time without causing an exotherm. Always refer to the ap
propriate data sheet before mixing the chosen material.

(a) For laminating

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1 The Table below shows examples of mixed material by weight re


quired for a given area of dry fabric (Carbon and glass), to
give a fabric to mixed material ratio of 1:3 by weight for
carbon fabric and 1:1 for structural glass fabric, taking into
account that the required amount of mixed material is increased
by 30 % for contingency purposes. The goal is to obtain a rein
content by weight of 50% ± 5% with CFRP and 42% ± 5% with
structural GFRP.

CAUTION: AFTER MIXING THE RESIN, THE POT LIFE (WORKING LIFE) IS
TIME LIMITED (REFER TO PARAGRAPH 6.B.(2)). THE TEMPERA
TURE OF THE MIXTURE INFLUENCES THE VISCOSITY AND THE
POT LIFE.
2 Mixing small quantities of resin/adhesive and hardener carries
the risk of errors unless accurate weighing devices are used.
The risk is minimized if at least 50g (2.0 oz.), but prefer
ably 100g (4.0 oz.) of resin/adhesive and the corresponding
amount of hardener is mixed. On very small repairs this may
lead to some wastage.

RESIN/ADHESIVE HARDENER
DRY FABRIC REINFORCEMENT <1>
WEIGHT/AREA <2>
WEIGHT
TYPE STYLE g/m2 oz/ft.2
g/m2(oz/ft.2)
120 105 (0.34) 126 0.41
Glass fabric
181−1581−7781 295 (0.97) 295 0.97
Plain weave 135 (O.44) 175 0.57
Carbon fabric Plain weave 193 (0.63) 251 0.82
5H satin 285 (0.93) 370 1.21
Carbon fabric 5H or 8H
370 (1.21) 481 1.58
satin
Dry fabric
reinforcement
5 H satin 254 (0.83) 330 1.08
ceramic fab
ric (XC568)
<1> Refer to Paragraph 4.H. for the process to be followed for
dry fabric impregnation.

<2> 30 % added for contingency purposes.


(b) For Bonding (skin to skin or doubler to skin)The following as
sumptions are made:
− Bond line thickness − 0.25 mm (0.01 in.)
− Density of cured resin/adhesive − 1.25
− Resin/adhesive required per m2 of bond area − 375 g
− Resin/adhesive required per ft2 of bond area − 1.2 oz.

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− 20 % added for contigency purposes


(c) Core Closing, Potting, SplicingMeasure surface area and depth and
then calculate volume. The following Table indicates the weight
of mixed low density compound and paste adhesive for various
volume requirements.

VOLUME WEIGHT OF MIXED MATERIAL <1>


LOW DENSITY COMPOUND PASTE ADHESIVE <2>
cm3 in3
g oz g oz
15 0.91 9 0.32 24 0.84
30 1.83 18 0.63 48 1.69
50 3.05 30 1.06 80 2.82
100 6.10 60 2.12 160 5.64
150 9.15 90 3.18 240 8.46
200 12.20 120 4.24 320 11.28
<1> 20 % added for contingency purposes

<2> Assumed Density 1.33 g/cm3 (0.77 oz/in3)

(5) Curing
CAUTION: AFTER MIXING THE RESIN, THE POT LIFE (WORKING LIFE) IS TIME
LIMITED. REFER TO PARAGRAPH 6. FOR POT LIFE DATA.

(a) Once the laminating resin is mixed, the dry fabric must be im
pregnated and laid up, the vacuum bag installed and the vacuum
applied before 80 % of the pot life has elapsed. This ensure a
satisfactory time margin for laminate consolidation.

(b) Curing of two part resin/adhesives and two part low density com
pound may be performed at room temperature (RT) for some systems.
When desired, curing may be accelerated by heating. Refer to
Paragraph 6. for the curing parameters (time and temperature). If
an accelerated cure cycle is chosen, the gelation period for the
resin/adhesive shall take place at room temperature prior to the
application of heat. Failure to let the resin/adhesive gel may
result in an undesired flow when heat is applied.

(c) Some resins/adhesives will not cure satisfactorily at room tem


perature. For this group of resins/adhesives elevated temperature
curing up to 95 °C (203 °F) is required to ensure that optimum
properties are achieved.

(d) One part paste adhesives and one part low density compound must
be cured at 120 °C (250 °F).
B. Film and Foam Adhesives, and Anti−Corrosion Primers

(1) General

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(a) Film adhesives are available in weights ranging from 150 g/m2
(0.50 oz/ft2) to 600 g/m2 (2.0 oz/ft2) in both supported and un
supported forms. For repairs only two film weights 150 g/m2 and
300 g/m2 are generally used. Only supported film shall be used
for repairs.

(b) Supported film adhesives are generally easier to handle, and give
improved bond line thickness control compared with unsupported
films and paste adhesives. They are used for composite to com
posite bonds and composite skin to honeycomb bonds, core face to
core face bonding and metal to metal bonding. The films are sup
plied sandwiched between release papers and usually in roll form,
they are sealed in a moisture proof bag.
(c) Foam adhesives contain a foaming agent so that they expand during
the cure cycle. Foaming adhesives are used in repairs for edge
splicing honeycomb to honeycomb, or honeycomb to edge members.
Foaming adhesives can be obtained in either paste or film form.
Foaming adhesives have an expansion ratio ranging from 1.3 to
5.0. Film thickness range from 0.6 mm (0.02 in.) to 1.5 mm (0.06
in.).

(d) Foam adhesive in film form is supplied sandwiched between release


papers and in sealed containers. Foam adhesive in paste form is
supplied in sealed containers.
(e) Film and foam adhesives are used in repairs that require to be
cured at 120 °C (250 °F) unless otherwise stated in the specific
chapter, for example, 180 °C (350 °F) repairs.

(f) Primers are commonly used in the bonding of aluminum details. The
main value of a primer is to increase bond durability especially
under hot/wet conditions. An excessive amount of primer is not
beneficial to bond durability. The correct thickness of primer to
be applied is specified by the supplier and this must strictly
adhered to. Primers may also be used as a protective coating
outside the bonded area. Primers are most commonly applied by
spraying, particularly on large areas. They can also be applied
by brush or roller if only a small area requires priming.

CAUTION: IN THE UNCURED STATE SOME CONSTITUENTS OF ADHESIVES AND PRIMERS


ARE SENSITIVE TO MOISTURE. THIS CAN INFLUENCE THE FINAL PROPER
TIES OF THE BOND. RECOMMENDED STORAGE AND REMOVAL PROCEDURES
MUST ALWAYS BE STRICTLY ADHERED TO. REFER TO PARAGRAPH 3.E.

(2) Storage and Removal

Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(12) for material storage requirements.

The material specification for film and foam adhesives and primers
states that the recommended low temperature storage condition is −18
°C (−0.4 °F) thru −25 °C (−13 °F). When the material is removed from
refrigerated storage it must be allowed to reach room temperature
before the moisture impermeable seals are broken. This prevents mois
ture condensation forming on the material. Unused material must be

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re−sealed and returned to storage under refrigerated conditions. The


time in and out of refrigerated storage conditions must be recorded.
For ’out time’ limits refer to the related specifications.

For film and foam adhesives the time to reach room temperature de
pends on the role thickness. Below are recommended times for thawing
the material after set out.

Assuming there are no space limitations cutting from the roll can
take place in the freezer room, the ambient temperature must be < 4
°C (39.2 °F). It must be also ensured that any cut layers are sealed
before removing them from refrigerated storage.

Allow the cut material to thaw at room temperature for at least 2


hours. It is important that the material is rolled up, but still
sealed, to present its maximum surface area. Thus accelerating the
thawing process.

If cutting takes place outside the freezer room (or cabinet) the
roll must be thawed in accordance with the following guide lines:
− Roll Diameter <150 mm (5.9 in.)
12 hours
− Roll Diameter 150 mm (5.9 in.) − 300 mm (11.8 in.)
24 hours
− Roll Diameter >300 mm (11.8 in.)
36 hours

Where cutting is not possible in the freezer room because of space


limitations, forward planning will be necessary. To make sure the
material is in fully thawed condition and ready for immediate use.
Particularly, if there are any time constraints in which a repair
has to be made.

To avoid repeated warming cycles or to facilitate shipping, it is


recommended to prepare precut kits. Prepreg rolls shall be placed on
pay out reels so they do not rest on the cutting table.
Cut keeping the release films in place after thawing.

An approved release film shall be placed on prepreg faces in contact


with the kit bag.

Prepreg pieces must be resealed and returned to storage under re


frigerated condition.

Kits must be stored flat with nothing placed on top.

Time in and out of refrigerated storage conditions must be recorded.

(3) Cutting Adhesive Films

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Use clean sharp scissors or a knife to cut the adhesive film. Keep
the prepared sheets flat and both release papers intact, until the
film is required for use.

NOTE: Shape or profile film to match repair requirements.

(4) Laying up

(a) Adhesive film

Remove the release paper from the lower surface of the film be
fore the film is placed on the prepared surface of the repair.
Lay up the film carefully and avoid lapping and wrinkling. Press
the film onto the surface by hand or use a hand roller, start
at the center and work out to the edges. Take care not to trap
air bubbles. Remove the uppermost release paper.
NOTE: Clean white, lint free gloves should be worn.

(b) Foaming film

Remove release paper from one side. Apply the film to the core
edges. Remove release paper from the remaining face of the film.
Additional adhesive may be used to fill up gaps if needed. As
semble mating parts.

(c) Foaming paste

Coat the faying surfaces of the core. Place core plug in cavity.
Wipe off excess paste.
(5) Curing

Film and foam adhesives may be co−cured at 120 °C (250 °F) together
with the repair prepregs. Film adhesives are also used for secondary
bonding, for example, the bonding of a pre−cured doubler, refer to
Paragraph 5.C.
(6) Primer Application and Cure

Before primer application ensure that surfaces have been correctly


prepared. A clean dry grease free surface is required for optimum
performance. Surface preparation falls into one of the following two
main categories:
− Degreasing and mechanical abrasion (Refer to Paragraph 4.D. and
Paragraph 4.E.).
− Chemical treatment (this provides the optimum pre−treatment, refer
to Chapter 51−21−11

After surface preparation proceed as follows:

(a) Allow material to warm to room temperature prior to opening the


container. Make sure that lids are replaced once the required

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amount has been removed. Containers should then be returned to


refrigerated storage immediately.
(b) Thoroughly mix the primer for at least 15 minutes before use and
agitate during application.

(c) Spray or brush coat to a dry primer thickness of 2 to 8 Microm


eters (78 to 315 Microinches).

(d) Air dry for a minimum of 30 minutes prior to curing.


(e) Cure for 60 minutes at 120 °C ±5 °C (250 °F ±9 °F).

NOTE: Curing to take place within 24 hours of air drying.

(f) Metallic parts primed and cured have a one year shelf life when
correctly stored, unless otherwise stated on the primer data
sheet. To achieve this, primed parts should be wrapped in clean
polythene sheets as protection from dirt and dust and stored at
a maximum temperature of 30 °C (86.0 °F) and 65 % Relative Hu
midity (RH).

(g) Primed surfaces should not be handled between priming and bond
ing, because they are bonding surfaces. If accidentally touched,
a light wipe with cleaning agent should be used immediately be
fore bonding.

(7) Incoming Inspection

Airbus material specification generally called out incoming inspection


tests. Incoming inspection tests by the user are optional, if the
following requirements are met:
− Refrigerated shipping in accordance with the manufacturer’s instruc
tions
− Shipping temperature was continuously recorded and was below −18 °C
(0 °F)
− Shipping containers are in good condition
− Certificate of conformity delivered showing the compliance to the
purchasing specification
− Material traceability requirements are met (batch number, manufac
turer, roll number, shelf live, shop life and remaining shop life
for kits).
C. Prepregs, Dry Fabrics

(1) Prepregs

(a) General
1 A prepreg is a ready to mould material in sheet form and may
be unidirectional tape or fabric, impregnated with resin.

2 Prepregs are supplied sandwiched between release papers and in


roll form sealed in a moisture proof bag.

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3 Prepregs that are to be cured at 120 °C (250 °F) must be se


lected for hot bond repairs unless otherwise stated in a spe
cific chapter.

4 Pre−cured doublers can be locally manufactured from 120 °C (250


°F) or 180 °C (350 °F) curing prepregs.

CAUTION: IN THE UNCURED STATE SOME CONSTITUENTS OF ADHESIVES AND


PRIMERS ARE SENSITIVE TO MOISTURE. THIS CAN INFLUENCE THE
FINAL PROPERTIES OF THE BOND. RECOMMENDED STORAGE AND REMOV
AL PROCEDURES MUST ALWAYS BE STRICTLY ADHERED TO. REFER TO
PARAGRAPH 3.E.

(b) Storage and Removal from Storage

Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(12) for material storage requirements.


The material specification for film and foam adhesives and prim
ers states that the recommended low temperature storage condition
is − 18 °C (− 0.4 °F) thru − 25 °C (− 13 °F). When the material
is removed from refrigerated storage it must be allowed to reach
room temperature before the moisture impermeable seals are bro
ken. This prevents moisture condensation forming on the material.
Unused material must be resealed and returned to storage under
refrigerated conditions. The time in and out of refrigerated
storage conditions must be recorded. For ’out time’ limits refer
to the related specifications.
The time to reach room temperature depends on the roll thickness.
Below are recommended times for thawing the material after set
out.

Assuming there are no space limitations cutting from the roll can
take place in the freezer room, the ambient temperature must be
< 4 °C (39.2 °F). It must be also ensured that any cut layers
are sealed before removing them from refrigerated storage.

Allow the cut material to thaw at room temperature for at least


2 hours. It is important that the material is rolled up, but
still sealed, to present its maximum surface area. Thus acceler
ating the thawing process.

If cutting takes place outside the freezer room (or cabinet) the
roll must be thawed in accordance with the following guide lines:
− Roll Diameter <150 mm (5.9 in.)
12 hours
− Roll Diameter 150 mm (5.9 in.) − 300 mm (11.8 in.)
24 hours
− Roll Diameter >300 mm (11.8 in.)
36 hours

Where cutting is not possible in the freezer room because of


space limitations, forward planning will be necessary. To make
sure the material is in fully thawed condition and ready for im

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mediate use. Particularly, if there are any time constraints in


which a repair has to be made.
To avoid repeated warming cycles or to facilitate shipping, it is
recommended to prepare precut kits. Prepreg rolls shall be placed
on pay out reels so they do not rest on the cutting table.

Cut keeping the release films in place after thawing.

An approved release film shall be placed on prepreg faces in


contact with the kit bag.

Prepreg pieces must be resealed and returned to storage under


refrigerated condition.

Kits must be stored flat with nothing placed on top.

Time in and out of refrigerated storage conditions must be re


corded.

(c) Cutting

1 Carefully peel back the top release paper sufficiently to de


termine the fiber direction, 0 is parallel to the roll length.
Replace the release paper before using a cutting template, this
will prevent the template sticking to the tacky prepreg.

2 Use sharp scissors or a knife to cut the material so that the


required fiber orientation is achieved.

NOTE: For non−circular repairs make sure that corners have a


radius of 12 mm (0.5 in.). Square corners are not al
lowed. Small damages/repairs may used reduced radii, or
be treated as circular damages.

3 Do the cutting on a cutting bench, not on the component to be


repaired.
4 Keep the prepared sheets flat and the release papers intact
until the material is required for laying up.

(d) Laying up

1 The laying up of the prepreg layers must be done carefully to


ensure minimum disruption of the fibers. Ensure that the fiber
orientation is that required by the component drawing or repair
procedure.

2 Wear clean lint free gloves to avoid contaminating the materi


al. Remove the release paper from the lower surface of the
first ply of the prepreg, place the ply in position on the
prepared repair area.

3 Working from the center to the outside edge of the ply, gently
roll or smooth with a gloved hand to consolidate and remove

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any trapped air bubbles. Peel off top release paper. Repeat
this step for the remaining plies.
NOTE: A de−bulk operation after every three plies is recom
mended. This means using a vacuum system to remove air
from the layers and to consolidate the layers.

4 Manufacturing of pre−cured doublers from tape prepregs:

only butt splices (splice line parallel to the fibre) are per
mitted with a maximum gap of 1 mm (0.039 in.) and a minimum
stagger of 17 mm (0.669 in.). If there are at least four plies
between two splices, it is not necessary to apply the stagger
required. Orientation of the prepreg tape in the fibre direc
tion must be ± 3°.
5 Manufacturing of pre−cured doublers from fabric prepregs:

only overlap splices are permitted with an overlap of 12 mm


(0.472 in.) to 25 mm (0.984 in.) and minimum stagger of 25 mm
(0.984 in.). If there are at least four plies between two
splices, it is not necessary to apply the stagger required.
Orientation of the prepreg fabric in the warp direction must be
± 5°.

(e) Curing

For curing of prepreg refer to Paragraph 5.E.(2).


(f) Incoming Inspection

Airbus material specification generally called out incoming in


spection tests. Incoming inspection tests by the user are option
al, if the following requirements are met:
− Refrigerated shipping in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions
− Shipping temperature was continuously recorded and was below
− 18 °C (0 °F)
− Shipping containers are in good condition
− Certificate of conformity delivered showing the compliance to
the purchasing specification
− Material traceability requirements are met (batch number,
manufacturer, roll number, shelf life, shop life and remaining
shop live for kits).

(2) Dry Fabrics

(a) General
1 A dry fabric is defined as a fabric that has not been impreg
nated with resin although it may have been coated with a size
or finish.

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2 Fabrics are made by weaving fibers or filaments into a cloth.


A variety of weave patterns and weights are available but for
repair purposes are limited to selected glass and carbon
styles, refer to Paragraph 6.B.(8). The material is supplied as
a dry cloth and used in conjunction with a laminating resin in
a wet lay−up resin process.

(b) Storage
All fabrics should be carefully identified in storage because so
many types exist.

Store dry carbon fibre and glass fibre fabrics at 20 °C (68.0 °F)
and at a Relative Humidity (RH) not exceeding 65 %.

For prolonged storage it is preferable to store fabrics horizon


tally and suitably supported and protected from dust, dirt and
other potential contaminants. Storage conditions for glass fabrics
is particularly important, because the finish and not the glass
may start to deteriorate with prolonged time.

(c) Cutting
Lay out dry fabric on clean craft paper or clean polythene sheet
and cover it with the same material. Cut the material to the de
sired shape, either with clean sharp scissors or with a knife.
Care should be taken not to bend or fold fabrics significantly
before use or during cutting. This may damage or fracture the
fibres.

NOTE: Cutting radii into dry fabric can be omitted at this stage.
This operation can be carried out at Paragraph 4.H. follow
ing ply impregnation.

D. Removal of Surface Protection


CAUTION: TO ENSURE MAXIMUM BOND STRENGTH AND DURABILITY OF A REPAIR, IT
IS IMPORTANT THAT THE SURFACE AREAS AROUND A REPAIR A CORRECTLY
PREPARED. A SATISFACTORY WATER BREAK TEST (REFER TO PARAGRAPH
4.F.) WILL SHOW WHEN THE REPAIR AREA SURFACE HAS BEEN CORRECTLY
PREPARED.
(1) Mask the damaged area, refer to Paragraph 4.E.(3)(a), and clean the
surrounding area, refer to Paragraph 4.E.(1)(a), (b), (c) or (d). If
you cannot clean the surrounding areas or in case of heavy contami
nation mask off the surrounding area, refer to Paragraph 4.E.(3)(b).

NOTE: The structure should be well cleaned all around the repair area
to prevent contamination and allow the installation of the vac
uum bag when required.

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CAUTION: DO NOT USE CHEMICAL STRIPPING AGENTS ON COMPOSITE STRUCTURES.


DO NOT USE GRIT BLASTING MACHINES. DO NOT ERODE COMPOSITE SUR
FACES OR EDGES.

(2)

(a) Remove the masking tape and film on repair area and clean the
repair area, refer to Paragraph 4.E.(1).

(b) Use water resistant abrasive cloth to remove the surface protec
tion around the repair area. Start with 100 grade or finer to
remove the top coat and finish with 220 grade or finer. The area
should include the intended faying surface area plus at least 50
mm (2.0 in.). Take care not to cause damage to underlying struc
ture in the area.
(c) Prepare the repair area surface by abrading lightly with abrasive
cloth. Start with 280 grade and finish with 400 grade.

(d) Remove the dust in repair area with de−mineralized water and dry
the area with lint free cloth, refer to Paragraph 4.G..
NOTE: Do not pour water directly onto the laminated surface, use
clean lint free dampened cloths

E. Cleaning Skins, Honeycomb and MaskingThe contents of this Paragraph are


as follows:
− (1) Skin Cleaning Procedures
− (2) Cleaning Honeycomb Cores
− (3) Masking
WARNING: WHEN CARRYING OUT CLEANING PROCEDURES, USE SUITABLE EQUIPMENT TO
PROTECT THE PERSON DOING THE REPAIR. WEAR RUBBER GLOVES TO PRO
TECT PERSONS AND USE LINT FREE COTTON TO PROTECT THE REPAIR
AREA FROM CONTAMINATION. USE A FACE SHIELD, GOGGLES OR FACE
MASK AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND PROTECTIVE SHOES. USE AN EX
TRACTION VENTILATION SYSTEM, APPLICABLE TO THE SELECTED CLEANING
METHOD BELOW.

(1) Skin Cleaning Procedures

(a) Method 1 − Two Cloth Method


1 Put selected cleaning agent (Material No. 11−003, 11−026D) or
11−004) on the first clean cloth to make this cloth moist. Do
not saturate the cloth. Do not dip the cloth into the cleaning
agent.

2 Move the first cloth across the part that is to be cleaned.


3 Use a second dry clean cloth to wipe the part before the
cleaning agent on the part dries.

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4 Continue this procedure until a clean part of the dry cloth


stays clean.
5 Do the last wipe with a clean dry cloth before the cleaning
agent on the part dries.

6 Let the part that has been cleaned dry for a minimum of 15
minutes.

(b) Method 2 − Hot or Cold Water Hand Wash Cleaning


CAUTION: REFER TO AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE MANUAL AMM Chapter
12−21−11, FOR REQUIREMENTS RELATED TO WATER QUALITY.

CAUTION: CLEANERS USED IN THIS METHOD ARE ONLY SUITABLE FOR INI
TIAL PART CLEANING. THE METHOD SHOULD BE COMBINED WITH
THE TWO CLOTH METHOD (PARAGRAPH 4.E.(1)(a)) BEFORE BOND
ING.

CAUTION: DO NOT USE ABRASIVE TOOLS SUCH AS METAL BRISTLE


BRUSHES, METAL SCRAPER DURING CLEANING OPERATION.

CAUTION: DO NOT WASH PARTS THAT COULD BE DAMAGED BY UNWANTED WA


TER INTRUSION AND WHICH CANNOT THEN BE SATISFACTORILY
DRIED.

1 Prepare the cleaning solution with cleaning agent


(Material No. 11−001) in a clean polypropylene container in ac
cordance with the manufacturers instruction. Prepare a container
of clean water at the same temperature. Water temperature must
not exceed 50 C° (122.0 F°)

2 Make the cloth moist with the cleaning solution. Use the cloth
to apply the solution to the surface, to remove the dirt and
oil until the part is clean. A brush may be used in conjunc
tion with the cloth, but the brush bristles must be natural or
made from nylon or polypropylene. Brushes with any kind of
metal bristles (wire brushes) should not be used.

3 Moisten a clean cloth with clean water and wipe over the sur
face to rinse the part to neutralize surfaces. Take care espe
cially with thin skinned honeycomb sandwich structures or where
porosity is suspected, not to apply more water than is neces
sary to remove the cleaning solution.

4 Dry the part with cloths to remove all the moisture visible.

(c) Method 3 − Steam Cleaning

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CAUTION: REFER TO AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE MANUAL AMM Chapter


12−21−11, FOR GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS AND CAUTIONS BEFORE
START OF STEAM CLEANING.

CAUTION: EASILY DAMAGED PARTS OR PRESSURE SENSITIVE MATERIALS


SHALL NOT BE STEAM CLEANED. CLEAN BY METHOD 1 (REFER TO
PARAGRAPH 4.E.(1)(a)) AND/OR METHOD 2 (REFER TO PARA
GRAPH 4.E.(1)(b))
CAUTION: IT IS IMPORTANT FOR OPERATORS TO BE AWARE THAT SANDWICH
STRUCTURES ARE MORE SENSITIVE TO MOISTURE PENETRATION
THAN MONOLITHIC STRUCTURES. WATER CAN ENTER THROUGH THE
DAMAGED AREA OR THROUGH POROSITY IN THE SKINS AND ACCU
MULATE INTO THE HONEYCOMB CORE, WHERE IT IS ALMOST IM
POSSIBLE TO REMOVE. THIS CAN CAUSE SERIOUS DAMAGE, LEAD
ING TO POSSIBLE SKIN TO CORE DISBONDS. STEAM CLEANING
METHODS ARE THEREFORE NOT RECOMMENDED FOR SANDWICH
PANELS.

CAUTION: THIS METHOD IS ONLY SUITABLE FOR INITIAL PART CLEANING


AND SHOULD BE COMBINED WITH THE TWO CLOTH METHOD (PARA
GRAPH 4.E.(1)(a)) BEFORE BONDING.

CAUTION: PARTICULAR CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN WITH ALKALINE DETERGENT


CLEANERS ON PARTS MADE WITH ALUMINUM CORE OR FITTINGS,
BECAUSE ALKALINE CLEANER WILL CAUSE CORROSION OF ALUMI
NUM. RINSE THOROUGHLY WITH CLEAN WATER ALL FITTINGS THAT
ARE MADE OF ALUMINUM.

CAUTION: TO PREVENT DIRT AND MOISTURE ENTERING THE PART DURING


WORKING OR CLEANING, MASKING OF THE PART CAN BE NECES
SARY (REFER TO PARAGRAPH 4.E.(3))

1 Prepare the cleaning solution with cleaning agent


(Material No. 11−001) in the solution tank in accordance with
the manufacturers instruction.

WARNING: IT IS IMPORTANT TO RESPECT THE STEAM PRESSURE, THE DIS


TANCE AND THE ANGLE OF THE SPRAY HEAD RELATIVE TO THE
PART BEING CLEANED. IF NOT, DAMAGE CAN RESULT.
2 Adjust water, steam, cleaning solution and temperature controls
to the required settings, to get a wet spray and a temperature
as stated in the cleaning products instructions. Set the steam
pressure to less than 30 psig (207 Kpa). Steam pressures shall
not damage or distort materials. Set the temperature such that
the part does not exceed 50 C° (122.0 F°).

3 Hold the spray gun approximately 250 mm (9.8 in.) to 300 mm


(11.8 in.) from the surface and inclined at about 45° to the
surface, never at 90°. Move the spray head over the surface
until the part is clean. Do not stay at one spot for more
than 5 seconds. The temperature of the part must not exceed
50 C° (122.0 F°). If in any doubt about the temperature then a
test must be done before the part is cleaned.

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4 Rinse the part with clean water. Avoid flooding the part.

5 Dry the part with cloths to remove all the moisture visible.
WARNING: IF COMPRESSED AIR IS USED FOR CLEANING, COOLING OR DRY
ING DO NOT EXCEED 30 PSIG (207 KPA).

6 Use clean, dry compressed air that does not contain oil to re
move any moisture that remains in areas that are difficult to
access.
7 Make sure that the part is clean. Look for any remaining dirt,
caught in areas that are difficult to get access to. If the
part is not really clean, repeat step 2 to 6.

8 Confirm if further drying is required.


9 Remove all masking materials, covers, tapes and other used aux
iliary materials.

(d) Method 4 − Hot or Cold Water Wash Pressure Spray Cleaning

CAUTION: ALL CAUTION AND WARNINGS APPLICABLE TO THE PROCEDURE OF


STEAM CLEANING (METHOD 3) ARE ALSO APPLICABLE HERE.

1 Prepare the cleaning solution in the solution tank in accor


dance with the manufacturers instruction.

2 Adjust water, cleaning solution and temperature controls to the


required settings, to get a constant water and solution mixed
spray, at a temperature and mix ratio as stated in the clean
ing products instructions. Make sure that the water pressure is
less than 207 kPa (30 psi). Water pressure shall not damage or
distort materials.

3 Hold the spray gun approximately 250 mm (9.8 in.) to 300 mm


(11.8 in.) from the surface and inclined at about 45° to the
surface, never at 90°. Move the spray head over the surface
until the part is clean. Do not stay at one spot for more
than 5 seconds. The temperature of the part must not exceed
50 C° (122.0 F°).
4 Rinse the part with clean water using the spray gun with the
cleaning solution supply shut off. Avoid flooding the part.

5 Repeat Paragraph 4.E.(1)(c)5 to 4.E.(1)(c)9 of the Method 3 −


Steam Cleaning.
(2) Cleaning Honeycomb Cores

(a) Method 1 − Vapor Degreasing

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WARNING: THIS CLEANING METHOD SHOULD ONLY BE USED FOR ALUMINUM


HONEYCOMB CORE. BECAUSE OF THE BAN ON TRICHLORETHYLENE
IN MANY COUNTRIES THIS SHOULD BE REGARDED AS AN INTERIM
MEASURE. THIS CLEANING METHOD CAN BE USED ON ARAMID PA
PER BASED HONEYCOMB (NOMEX), BUT ONLY WHEN TESTS HAVE
BEEN PERFORMED TO CONFIRM AN IMMERSION TIME THAT WILL
CLEAN WITHOUT CAUSING DEGRADATION.

1 Put the core in a rack that can support the honeycomb. Ensure
that the core cannot bend and that the cell walls are vertical
or at a maximum of 30° from the vertical.

2 Lower the honeycomb into the Trichlorethylene vapor slowly.

3 Keep the honeycomb in the vapor until small drops of liquid no


longer form on the honeycomb.

4 Remove the honeycomb from the vapor. Wait until all liquid has
drained from the honeycomb.

5 Let the honeycomb cool.


6 If the honeycomb is not really clean, repeat step 2 to 5.

7 Wearing clean cotton gloves to place honeycomb in clean poly


thene bags. Ensure that the honeycomb is correctly identified.

(b) Method 2 − Solvent Edge Dip


WARNING: THIS METHOD IS SUITABLE FOR ALUMINUM HONEYCOMB AND WORKS
WELL ON SMALL PIECES OF CORE, LESS THAN 300 mm (11.8
in.) SQUARE. IT IS NOT A RECOMMENDED PROCEDURE FOR ARA
MID (NOMEX) HONEYCOMB. CLEAN SOLVENT MUST ALWAYS BE
USED, AS THE CLEANING ACTION RELIES ON OIL/GREASES BEING
DISSOLVED INTO THE SOLVENT. SOME SOLVENTS EVAPORATE MORE
QUICKLY THAN OTHERS AND EXTRA DRYING TIME OR FORCED AIR
DRYING SHOULD BE CONSIDERED.

1 Get cleaning agent.

2 Get a tray that is 25 mm (1.0 in.) deep minimum.


3 Put the cleaning agent in the tray to a deep of 12 mm (0.5
in.).

4 Place the honeycomb in the tray with cell walls vertical. The
honeycomb must fit in the tray without being bent.
5 Move the honeycomb carefully from side to side.

6 Carefully lift the honeycomb from the tray and put on a wire
rack.

7 Let the honeycomb drain for 30 minutes minimum.

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8 Remove the cleaning agent from the tray and discard safely.

9 If the honeycomb is not really clean, repeat step 3 to 8.


10 Turn the honeycomb over and repeat step 3 to 9.

11 Wearing clean cotton gloves to place honeycomb in clean poly


thene bags. Ensure that the honeycomb is correctly identified.

(c) Method 3 − Solvent Wipe


WARNING: THIS METHOD CAN BE SUCCESSFULLY APPLIED TO ARAMID HONEY
COMBS. BUT IT IS NOT SO GOOD AS CLEANING METHOD FOR
ALUMINUM HONEYCOMB. IT ALSO WORKS ON HONEYCOMB THAT HAS
HAD THE SKIN REMOVED AND HAS THE FILM ADHESIVE STILL
FILLETED ON THE CELL WALLS. SOME SOLVENTS EVAPORATE MORE
QUICKLY THAN OTHERS AND EXTRA DRYING TIME OR FORCED AIR
DRYING SHOULD BE CONSIDERED.

1 Get cleaning agent.

2 Put cleaning agent on the cloth to make the cloth moist. Do


not saturate the cloth.
3 Put the moistened cloth on the edge of the honeycomb cells.

4 Wipe a dry cloth on the part to dry the area previously wiped
with cleaning agent.

5 Continue this procedure until a clean part of the cloth remains


clean.

6 Finally wipe the surface of the honeycomb with a clean dry


cloth.

7 Let the honeycomb dry for 30 minutes minimum.


8 Protect the honeycomb from contamination damage.

(d) Method 4 − Solvent Spray

WARNING: THIS METHOD IS GOOD FOR CLEANING HONEYCOMB CORE PLUGS


OR HONEYCOMB EXPOSED DURING THE REPAIR. IT CAN ONLY BE
USED WHERE IT IS POSSIBLE TO TURN THE PART SO THAT THE
OPEN END OF THE CELLS FACE DOWN.

1 Get a spray bottle suitable for the selected cleaning agent.

2 Put the cleaning agent in the spray bottle.

3 Turn the honeycomb so that the face of the cells is at the


bottom and at an angle that permits spraying of the cell
walls.

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4 Spray the cleaning agent up into the honeycomb and let it


drain.
5 Turn the honeycomb and repeat the spraying until all cell walls
have been cleaned.

6 Let the honeycomb dry for 30 minutes minimum with the open
face of cells on the bottom. Ensure a flow of air up the cell
walls.
7 Protect the honeycomb from contamination damage.

(3) Masking

(a) Method 1 − To Prevent Dirt and Moisture Entering the Part During
Washing and Cleaning
1 Remove all visible dirt and water from the repair area.

2 Cover the damage area with new clean film. Films designed as
bagging or release film (non−perforated) are very suitable for
this application.
3 Cut a piece of film which is approximately 150 mm (5.9 in.)
larger all round than the damage area.

4 Put film over the damaged area and smooth down.

5 Tape the film down around all edges, using non−silicone adhe
sive tapes. Make sure that the film is securely held down so
that water can not enter.

(b) Method 2 − Masking Around Damage on an Uncleaned Part to Prevent


Cross Contamination from Uncleaned Areas

1 Use a dry cloth. Remove all the water and as much dirt as
possible from around the repair area.

2 Use the Method 1 − Two Cloth Method (Refer to Paragraph


4.E.(1)(a)) or Method 2 − Hot or Cold Water Hand Wash Cleaning
(Refer to Paragraph 4.E.(1)(b)) of the Skin Cleaning Proce
dures, to clean where the film and tape will be placed.
3 Measure the size of the damaged area and the largest repair
ply or patch required for the repair.

4 Cut pieces of film to fit around and outside the repair area.
The film should extend at least 600 mm (23.6 in.) beyond each
side of the repair area. The inside edge of the film should
clear the outside edge of the estimated repair area by at
least 150 mm (5.9 in.).

NOTE: If heater and vacuum bags are planned to be used the


distance between repair area to covered area should be
large enough to allow the completion of the repair.

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5 Smooth the film down over the area around the damage.

6 Tape down all edges.


(c) Method 3 − Masking of the Prepared Repaired Area when it is Not
Being Worked On

1 Cut a piece of film that is approximately 150 mm (5.9 in.)


bigger all round than the exposed repair area.
2 Put the film over the repair area and hold it in place with
pieces of tape.

3 If the repair is in an open area where rain or dust can fall


on it, then put tape around all edges. Make sure that the film
is securely held down.
F. Water Break Test

The water break test is a simple way of determining if a surface is


grease free. It should be used with caution on bonding surfaces adja
cent, because water entering the honeycomb can be difficult to remove.

The test works well on normal abraded surfaces, but if the surface is
polished to a very smooth finish it can be difficult to satisfy the
test even with a clean surface.

Conversely, if the surface is very rough the surface tension of the wa
ter film may be interrupted, making assessment of the water break test
more difficult.
(1) Make sure that the surface area is dry (Refer to Paragraph 4.G.(2)).

(2) Impregnate a dry lint free cloth with de−mineralized water, move the
cloth across the repair area surface to apply a thin layer of water
to the surface.
NOTE: Alternatively, when there is no risk of getting water trapped
in open honeycomb or the structure, a thin layer of de−min
eralized water may be sprayed on the prepared surface.

(3) Check the wetted surface. When the water forms a complete thin layer
over the whole of the surface, and surface tension of the water does
not cause the water to form into drops or beads, then the surface
is clean.

(4) Leave the water on the surface for 30 seconds. The water must remain
as a complete film over the surface for this period.

(5) If the water separates or forms drops or beads within 30 seconds,


repeat the cleaning procedure (Refer to Paragraph 4.E.). Abrade the
surface lightly with 320−400 grade abrasive cloth. Clean the repair

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area with de−mineralized water, dry with a lint free cloth and re
peat the water break test once again.
NOTE: Do not pour water directly onto the laminated surface, use
clean lint free dampened cloth.

(6) When the test is completed, dry the surface with a clean dry cloth.

NOTE: Wear white cotton lint free gloves when handling the component
following a satisfactory water break test.
G. Drying Composite Structures

(1) General

Composites can absorb water and other fluids during service, particu
larly in sandwich structures.

Absorbed water and other fluids must be reduced to a minimum before


a repair is started. Even for low temperature 100 °C (212 °F) curing
it is essential to dry before bonding repairs are performed. Steam
pressure generated due to the increase in temperature can result in
debonding in sandwich panels, and the delamination of laminated
structure both inside and immediately outside the repair area.
The following are drying methods to remove visible water in sandwich
structures, absorbed moisture and other fluids.

(2) Visible Fluids

(a) Detection
Water and other fluids can be detected visually on or inside the
structure, and in open damage. NDT inspection methods for exam
ple, thermography or X−rays, can confirm the presence of trapped
fluids.

NOTE: If difficulties are encountered in removing trapped fluids,


consideration should be given to replacing the skin/honey
comb core. This will prevent time wastage.

(b) Removal Methods

Remove as much water and other fluids as possible using one or a


combination of the methods given below.
WARNING: IF THE LIQUID IS FLAMMABLE PUT DISCARDED CLEANING MATE
RIALS IN AN APPROVED FLAMMABLE WASTE CONTAINER

1 Method 1 − Mopping up

Any clean absorbent material is suitable.

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WARNING: IF THE LIQUID TO BE REMOVED IS FLAMMABLE DO NOT ALLOW


THE LIQUID OR ITS GASEOUS BY−PRODUCTS TO ENTER THE VAC
UUM PUMP. USE A FILTER TO PREVENT THIS.

2 Method 2 − Vacuuming

Lines and nozzles can be fitted to the vacuum source to reach


affected areas.

3 Method 3 − Dry compressed air (water affected parts only)


Care should be taken not to force the water further into the
structure, or to damage the structure with excessive pressure.
A pressure of less than 2 bars (30 psi) is recommended.

NOTE: Liquids that do not dry completely and leave a residue


(SKYDROL, jet fuel for example), must be cleaned by some
other method (Refer to Paragraph 4.E.) before a repair is
attempted. If the area cannot be cleaned the contaminated
part must be replaced.

NOTE: A water break test (Refer to Paragraph 4.F.) will confirm


the cleanliness of the structure.
(3) Absorbed Moisture

(a) Detection

By nature of their structure, composites have a tendency to ab


sorb moisture when they are in contact with humid air. There is
no practical method for quantifying the moisture content of a
composite structure. For this reason the structure should always
be considered as saturated. Even when composite structure is
visually dry it is necessary to perform a final drying before
repairing. Honeycomb repair pieces should also be dried if doubt
exists about their storage conditions.
(b) Removal Methods

1 Method 1 − Using a vacuum bag with heating blanket

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

a Install the required bagging items (Refer to Figure 4)

NOTE: The perforated metal screen (OPTION ’A’) is recommended


for use on small holes only. It is used to support the
vacuum bag in the area where the honeycomb has been re
moved. This will prevent damage to the edge of the cut
out and to the bagging equipment.

NOTE: The metal screen can be replaced with a piece of honey


comb (OPTION ’B’) inserted into the repair area. Use
this option for large repair areas.

NOTE: When access is available to both skins on honeycomb


panels, heat should be applied to both skins.

NOTE: The intake vent should be set up opposite the vacuum


line relative to the area to be dried. The intake vent
will assist in reducing the drying period.

b Apply the vacuum pressure and adjust the flow rate at the
intake vent line to maintain a vacuum of 0.4 bar or 300 mmHg
(5.8 psi or 11.8 inHg).
c Apply the required heat.

NOTE: Drying times will be dependant on the required curing


temperature of the repair to be performed. For repairs
requiring 95 °C (203 °F) maximum, dry for a period be
tween one to two hours. For hot bond repairs up to
120°C (250 °F) dry for 24 hours. The drying temperature
must be controlled and maintained at 80 °C ± 5 °C (176
°F ± 9 °F). The heat up rate must be controlled at 3 °C
(6 °F) per minute.

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Absorbed Moisture Removal − Vacuum Bag and Heating Blanket


Figure 4

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2 Method 2 − Using Radiant Heat (Refer to Figure 5)

NOTE: This method can be used in conjunction with a vacuum bag


to improve the removal of moisture.

NOTE: One or several heaters can be used together.

a Equipment required

250 Watt heat lamps are generally used, but a radiator with
50 to 1000 Watt coil elements with a reflector can be used.
CAUTION: TO AVOID CAUSING DAMAGE TO THE STRUCTURE BY HEAT, THE
SET UP MUST BE CALIBRATED.

b Calibration − (Refer to Figure 5 (sheet 1))

OPTION ‘A’. Construct GRAPH 1 to show the temperature at the


center of the heated area as a function of the distance be
tween the heater and the surface.

Construct GRAPH 2 to show the temperature as a function of


the distance from the center of the heated area when the
height has been set.

OPTION ’B’. When several heaters are used, construct GRAPHS 1


and 2 for the combined heating effect.

c Drying installation (Refer to Figure 5 (sheet 2)

Install the required number of heaters, allow the area to be


dried to reach the required temperature. Use the information
from the calibration graphs to set the height ’H’ (Refer to
Figure 5 (sheet 1)).

Install thermocouples at the center of the heated area for


temperature monitoring and for the heater controls if being
used.
Apply the required heat.

NOTE: Drying times will be dependant on the required curing


temperature of the repair to be performed. For repairs
requiring 95 °C (203 °F) maximum, dry for a period be
tween one to two hours. For hot bond repairs up to
120°C (250 °F) dry for 24 hours. The drying temperature
must be controlled and maintained at 80 °C ± 5 °C (176
°F ± 9 °F). The heat up rate must be controlled at 3 °C
(6 °F) per minute.

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Absorbed Moisture Removal − Radiant Heater


Figure 5 (sheet 1)

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Absorbed Moisture Removal − Radiant Heater


Figure 5 (sheet 2)

3 Method 3 − Using a hot air dryer (Refer to Figure 6)

a Equipment required

Hot air dryer, preferably with a temperature control, or op


tionally a dryer control system driven by thermocouples.
NOTE: To reduce the possibility of causing heat damage to the
structure, it is preferable to use a holding fixture to
maintain a constant distance between the dryer and the
part.
CAUTION: TO AVOID CAUSING DAMAGE TO THE STRUCTURE BY HEAT, THE
SET UP MUST BE CALIBRATED.

b Calibration

Refer to Paragraph 4.G.(3)(b)2b for calibration procedure.

c Drying installation (Refer to Figure 6)


Set the height of the dryer and set the heat control if
used.

Install thermocouples to monitor the temperature at the cen


ter of the air flow and to drive the dryer control system if
being used.

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Apply the required heat.

NOTE: Drying times will be dependant on the required curing


temperature of the repair to be performed. For repairs
requiring 95 °C (203 °F) maximum, dry for a period be
tween one to two hours. For hot bond repairs up to
120°C (250 °F) dry for 24 hours. The drying temperature
must be controlled and maintained at 80 °C ± 5 °C (176
°F ± 9 °F). The heat up rate must be controlled at 3
°C (6 °F) per minute.

Absorbed Moisture Removal − Hot Air Dryer


Figure 6

4 Method 4 − Portable oven

This oven can be fabricated from sheet metal to the required


dimensions and positioned over the area to be dried. The heat
source can be supplied from a temperature controlled hot air
dryer (Refer to Paragraph 4.G.(3)(b)3).

5 Method 5 − Static oven


This method is suitable for large shop repairs and when the
part can be removed from the aircraft. Thermocouples should be
used on the part so that the drying cycle can be closely moni
tored.

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CAUTION: AFTER MIXING THE RESIN POT LIFE IS LIMITED. (REFER TO PARAGRAPH
6.B.(2). THE TEMPERATURE OF THE MIXTURE INFLUENCES THE VISCOSITY
AND THE POT LIFE.

H. Preparation of Wet Lay−Up Repair Plies

NOTE: This process shall be finished before 80 % of the pot life has
elapsed to ensure time for consolidation.

(1) Refer to the original component or repair scheme to determine the


number, style and orientation of the required repair plies.

(2) Cut a large enough piece of dry fabric to meet the requirements es
tablished in step (1). Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(8) for the fabric
selection.

(3) Cut two pieces of parting film (Refer to Paragraph 3.B.) approxi
mately 150 mm (6. in.) larger in dimension than the cut fabric.

(4) Tape one piece of the parting film on a smooth flat surface.

NOTE: Make sure that the parting film is free from wrinkles.

(5) Prepare sufficient laminating resin, refer to Paragraphs 4.A.(4) and


6.B..
(6) Pour the resin mix on the parting film and distribute it uniformly
using a squeegee.

(a) Apply 80 % ±5 % of mixed resin and keep a small amount of resin


to apply a thin layer of resin to the repair area prior to lay−
up and to wet out any dry areas of the fabric.
NOTE: The required resin content of the impregnated fabric is 50%
±5 % by weight.

(7) Place the cut dry fabric on the resin and make sure that the fabric
is free from wrinkles.
(8) Use a clean spatula, hard roller or brush to gently impregnate the
fabric and to remove trapped air.

NOTE: Take care not to distort or damage the fabric.

NOTE: If any dry areas of fabric remain add additional resin locally.

(9) Leave for 5 minutes to allow the entrapped air to escape.


(10) Put the second piece of parting film referred also as drawing film
over the fabric.

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(11) Gently squeeze out the entrapped air using a squeegee or hard roll
er.
NOTE: Do not work out excess resin at this time.

NOTE: Make sure that the resin is worked out to the fabric edges and
that fabric is fully wetted out.

(12) If any dry areas can be seen in the fabric, add more resin and re
start from step (11).
(13) Whilst still sandwiched between the parting films, cut the impreg
nated fabric to the required dimensions for each repair ply. Identify
the warp (0°) direction, refer to Figure 7.

NOTE: For none−circular repairs make sure that corners have a radius
of 12 mm (0.5 in.). Square corners are not allowed. Small dam
ages/repairs may used reduced radii, or be treated as circular
damages.

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Identification of Warp Direction


Figure 7

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I. Preparation of Honeycomb Core Plug

NOTE: If honeycomb material of the required thickness is not available


for the wet lay−up repair, fabricate a honeycomb plug (Refer to
Paragraph J.).

(1) Measure the depth and diameter of the honeycomb repair cutout. Refer
to Paragraph 6.B.(11) Table 13 for specific honeycomb details.

(2) Prepare the core plug for:


(a) Non metallic cores (aramid or fiberglass cores)

Cut a honeycomb core plug that is to the required dimension plus


1 mm (0.04 in.) thicker than the dimension established in step
(1) above. Make sure that the honeycomb core plug ribbon direc
tion is aligned with the original honeycomb.
− When core is spliced with paste adhesive the core diameter must
exactly fit the cutout or be one cell larger than the cut out.
− When core is spliced with foam adhesive the plug must be in
close contact with the adjacent core material (a maximum gap of
0.6 mm (0.024 in.) is permitted.

NOTE: The honeycomb core plug must fit flush with the original
core or with the skin surface after curing (refer to the
related repair instructions). The 1 mm (0.04 in.) is added
to the required thickness for shrinkage during curing. Rib
bon direction of the core plug must be aligned with the
original ribbon direction.
(b) Metallic cores

Cut a core plug that is to the required dimension specified in


step (1) above. Use the same original core material. If not
available, use the next available density with the same cell
size. Ribbon direction of the core plug must be aligned with the
original ribbon direction. It is acceptable to use aluminum core
made from 5056 as an alternative to 5052 alloy.

Prefit core plug before final cleaning. If no subsequent machin


ing is planned, the core plug must fit flush with the original
core or with the skin surface −0.1 mm (0.004 in.) / +0.25 mm
(0.010 in.) (refer to the related repair instructions).

NOTE: The core plug must be in close contact with the adjacent
core material. When spliced with foam adhesive a maximum
gap of 0.6 mm (0.024 in.) is permitted.

(3) Any dust from machining operations should be removed with a vacuum
cleaner. Light contamination of the prepared plug surfaces can be
removed by cleaning with a clean lint free cloth, impregnated with

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

cleaning agent (Material No. 11−003 or 11−004). Let the cleaning


agent evaporate from the plug surfaces (Refer to Paragraph 4.E.(2)).
NOTE: Discard the honeycomb plug if it is heavily contaminated.

(4) Dry the honeycomb plug (Refer to Paragraph 4.G.) (Applicable to non
metallic cores).

(5) Store the prepared honeycomb in clean polythene bags on a flat sur
face and in a warm dry atmosphere until required for use.
J. Fabrication of Built−Up Honeycomb Core Plug (Refer to Figure 8)

If the required thickness of honeycomb material is not available, use


the wet lay−up procedure that follow to fabricate a built−up honeycomb
plug.

NOTE: Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(11) Table 13 for specific details of honey


comb.

This procedure should only be used if all the following conditions are
applicable:
− Only one joint bond line is permitted for each fabricated plug
− To ensure a subsequent skin/core integrity, this procedure is limited
to flat or nearly flat surfaces
− Built−up honeycomb must only be used when the core plug is bonded by
adhesive past to the original structure. Heat application for bonding
core to the original structure shall be done after gelling of the
adhesive paste.

(1) Cut and prepare two plugs of clean honeycomb to the required thick
ness and size for the repair. Obey the conditions below:
− The bonding size of the plugs should be at least 25 mm (0.98 in.)
bigger all round than the finished size required.
− To make sure the bond integrity, the core plug faces must have an
out of flatness tolerance not exceeding ± 0.15 mm (0.006 in.).
− The honeycomb core plug must fit flush with the original core or
with the skin surface after curing. At least 1 mm (0.04 in.) must
therefore be added to the required final thickness to allow for
shrinkage during curing.
− The plug must be in close contact with the adjacent core material.
− Make sure that the honeycomb core plug ribbon direction is aligned
with the original honeycomb.
NOTE: Refer to Paragraph 4.E.(2) for core cleaning.

(2) Dry the plugs before curing (Refer to Paragraph 4.G.)

(3) Cut one ply of dry glass fabric (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(8)) to the
size of plugs.
(4) Cut three pieces of parting film (Refer to Paragraph 3.B.) approxi
mately 75 mm (2.95 in.) larger all round than the honeycomb plugs.

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

(5) Tape one piece of the parting film on a smooth flat surface.

(6) Select one laminating resin of Type 1 or Type 2 (Refer to Paragraph


4.A. and 6.B.(2)).

(7) Pour a layer of mixed resin approximately 1 mm (0.04 in.) thick on


the parting film.

(8) Place the cut dry fabric on the mixed resin.

(9) Put the second piece of parting film on the dry fabric.
(10) Using a squeegee or roller press the fabric into the resin to im
pregnate the fabric and to remove trapped air and excess resin/adhe
sive. Ensure that the resin is worked out to the fabric edges.

(11) Remove the upper parting film and discard it. Add more resin to the
fabric surface to get a resin rich surface (approximately 1 mm
(0.04 in.) thick).

(12) Carefully press one of the prepared honeycomb plugs on the impreg
nated glass fabric.

(13) Tape the third piece of parting film on a smooth flat surface.

(14) Position the prepared glass fabric and honeycomb plug assembly on the
parting film. The impregnated surface of the glass fabric and the
parting film must be on the top.

(15) Remove the parting film from the impregnated glass fabric and apply
further resin to the fabric surface to create a 1 mm (0.04 in.)
thick layer.
(16) Position at least three thermocouples on top of the impregnated fab
ric, 20 mm (0.79 in.) inside from the honeycomb edge. The thermocou
ples must be evenly spaced.

(17) Carefully position the second prepared honeycomb plug on the impreg
nated fabric. Do not try to align the honeycomb cells.
(18) Cure under applied pressure in an environment to make sure that the
cure temperature is achieved. The cure time/temperature schedule has
to be in accordance with the selected Type 1 or Type 2 laminating
resin (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(2), Table 2).

(a) If an oven or similar closed curing environment is used, dead


weights in conjunction with a load spreader plate must be used
to apply the pressure. The dead weights must be sufficient to
make sure that a minimum pressure of 0.007 − 0.14 bar (1−2 psi)
is achieved at the bond line.

(b) If heater blankets are used than these must be positioned on


both opposite faces of the plug. As with oven curing the dead
weight / load spreader principle must be followed to apply pres
sure. Position insulation between the spreader plate and dead

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

weight. This is to avoid that the dead weight has the effect as
a heat sink.
(19) After curing procedure trim off the excess honeycomb edge band to
get the final size. If thermocouples was installed, they will also
be cut away. Make sure that the trimmed plug have close contact with
the adjacent honeycomb material.

(20) After cutting and trimming, visually check the plug and confirm the
bond line integrity.

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

Fabrication of Thick Honeycomb Core Plug


Figure 8

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

K. Preparation of Doublers

(1) Doubler Material Clad AA 2024


CAUTION: ALUMINUM ALLOY (AA) DOUBLERS ARE GENERALLY USED FOR THE
TEMPORARY REPAIR OF COMPOSITE PARTS. WHEN AA DOUBLERS ARE
USED THEY MUST BE GIVEN ADEQUATE PROTECTION (REFER TO CHAP
TER 51−21−11) AGAINST GALVANIC CORROSION (REFER TO CHAPTER
51−22−00) IN PARTICULAR ON CARBON FIBER PARTS.
(a) Cut and prepare the doubler to the required dimensions

NOTE: For non−circular repairs make sure that corners have a ra
dius of 12 mm (0.5 in.). Square corners are not allowed.
Small damages/repairs may used reduced radii, or be treated
as circular damages.
(b) Chamfer or radius the edges (Refer to Figure 9)

(c) If necessary, shape the doubler to the component profile. The


maximum clearance between the component profile and the doubler
must not be more than 0.3 mm (0.01 in.) (Refer to Figure 9).
(d) Check the dry fit of the doubler.

(e) Clean the faying surfaces and the edges of the doubler with
cleaning agent (Material No. 11−003 or 11−004).

(2) Pre−cured Composite Doublers and Profiles (GFRP or CFRP)


(a) Cut and prepare the doubler to the required dimensions.

NOTE: For non−circular repairs make sure that corners have a ra
dius of 12 mm (0.5 in.). Square corners are not allowed.
Small damages/repairs may used reduced radii, or be treated
as circular damages.
(b) Chamfer or radius the edges if thickness ’t’ is greater than 1
mm (0.04 in.) (Refer to Figure 9).

(c) Remove the peel ply from the doubler.

(d) The steps that follow are only applicable in the case where the
doubler is to be bonded to the repair surface.
1 This step applies to doublers that were protected with peel
ply.

a After removing the peel ply lightly abrade the surface of the
doubler, then clean the surfaces with cleaning agent cleaning
agent (Material No. 11−003 or 11−004).

b Do a water break test (Refer to Paragraph 4.F.).

c Dry the doubler for a maximum of 1 hour at 80 °C (176 °F).

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

2 This step applies to doublers that were not protected with peel
ply.
a Prepare the surface by abrading with 100 grade water resis
tant abrasive cloth.

b Finish off with 280 grade, followed by 400 grade water re
sistant abrasive cloth.

c Clean the doubler with cleaning agent (Material No. 11−003 or


11−004).

d Do a water break test (Refer to Paragraph 4.F.).

e Dry the doubler for a maximum of 1 hour at 80 °C (176 °F).

NOTE: If the repair cannot be started within 1 hour, the pre


pared surfaces must be protected.
NOTE: If contamination of the surface is suspected, repeat
cleaning steps before start of the repair.

(3) Doubler Material Titanium (Ti6Al4V) and Stainless Steel

(a) Cut and prepare the doubler to the required dimensions.


NOTE: For non−circular repairs make sure that the corners have a
radius of 12 mm (0.5 in.). Square corners are not allowed.
Small damage/repairs may used reduced radii or be treated
as circular damage.

(b) Chamfer or radius the edges, refer to Figure 9.


(c) If necessary, shape the doubler to the component profile. The
maximum clearance between the component profile and the doubler
must not be more than 0.3 mm (0.01 in.), refer to Figure 9.

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

Doubler Profile requirements


Figure 9

L. Surface Preparation for a Temporary Repair.

CAUTION: FASTENERS INSTALLED IN CFRP COMPOSITE STRUCTURE MUST BE SELECTED


WITH CARE. THIS IS NECESSARY TO PREVENT GALVANIC CORROSION OC
CURRING. FOR GUIDANCE REFER TO THE TABLE THAT FOLLOWS BELOW AND
CHAPTER 51−42−21.

(1) Bolted Type Repair

(a) Estimate the damage size in accordance with the procedures given
in Chapter 51−77−10, Paragraphs 2. and 3..
(b) Trim the damaged area and remove any frayed fibers. Make rough
edges smooth with 100 grade water resistant cloth.

(c) To complete the preparation procedure, lightly abrade the repair


area with 280 grade followed by 400 grade water resistant cloth.

(d) Clean the repair area with cleaning agent (Material No. 11−003 or
11−004)

(e) Protect the area adjacent to the repair with TEFLON tape before
securing the repair patch with fasteners. See Table below for
details.

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

PARENT STRUCTURE REPAIR MATERIAL FASTENER CHOICE


CFRP or
CRS (Corrosion Resis Titanium or CRS passi
tant Steel) or vated or Monel
CFRP Titanium
Titanium IVD coated or
Aluminum alloy CRS with cadmium coat or
Monel with cadmium coat

(2) Repair using High Speed Tape


(a) Use High Speed Tape (self adhesive aluminum tape, Materi
al No. 08−052, refer to Chapter 51−35−00).

(b) Remove only sufficient material to give a good profile for the
satisfactory adhesion of the High Speed Tape.

(c) Clean the repair area with cleaning agent (Material No. 11−003 or
No. 11−004).

M. Surface Preparation for Permanent Repair

(1) Bolted Type Repair

(a) Remove the temporary repair if previously installed. Remove all


adhesive and sealant remnants from the repair area. Take care not
to increase the damage size.

(b) Remove the surface protection in the repair area (Refer to Para
graph 4.D.).
(c) Estimate the damage size in accordance with the procedures given
in Chapter 51−77−10, Paragraphs 2. and 3.

(d) Cut out the damaged area to the correct shape, dimensions and to
a smooth radiused profile. Refer to Chapter 51−27−21, Paragraph
3..
(e) Remove all waste material from the repair area by hand initially.
Make sure that all remaining dust and debris is removed with a
vacuum cleaner.

(f) Make sure that all swarf and drill debris created during the
doubler pre−installation phase is removed with a vacuum cleaner.
(g) Abrade the repair area with water resistant abrasive cloth. Start
with 280 grade and finish with 400 grade.

(h) Clean the repair area with cleaning agent (Material No. 11−003 or
11−004 and refer to Paragraph 4.E.(1)(a)).

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

CAUTION: WEAR PROTECTIVE GLOVES WHEN CUTTING AWAY AND REMOVING DAMAGED
AREAS OF COMPOSITE.
(2) Bonded Repair

NOTE: If the part is dirty it is recommended to mask the damaged


area (Refer to Paragraph 4.E.(3)) and to clean (Refer to Para
graph 4.E.(1)).

(a) Damage to skin only or one skin and honeycomb core


1 Remove the temporary repair if previously installed. Remove all
adhesive and sealant remnants from the repair area. Take care
not to increase the damage size.

2 Remove the surface protection in the repair area (Refer to


Paragraph 4.D.).
NOTE: Except for surface repairs, drying can be omitted at this
step.

3 Estimate the damage size in accordance with the procedures giv


en in Chapter 51−77−10, Paragraphs 2. and 3..
4 Outline the damaged area

a Skin (surface only)Outline the damaged area to be removed.

NOTE: For non−circular repairs make sure that corners have a


radius of 12 mm (0.5 in.). Square corners are not al
lowed. Small damages/repairs may used reduced radii, or
be treated as circular damages.

b Skin and Honeycomb

Outline in 12 mm (0.5 in.) steps corresponding to each ply


of material to be removed. Figure 10 shows a circular repair
but the general principles are applicable to any repair
shape.

NOTE: For non−circular repairs make sure that corners have a


radius of 12 mm (0.5 in.). Square corners are not al
lowed. Small damages/repairs may used reduced radii, or
be treated as circular damages.
NOTE: This step is not applicable to surface repairs.

5 The use of a high speed router is recommended for the follow


ing step. This tool is versatile and can be used for cutting
both skin and core material. Refer to Paragraph 3.C. for tools
and equipment.
6 Set the depth of the router cutter to that required to remove
the damaged skin and core.

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

7 Once the previous operation is completed, machine the required


joint (scarf or step) as shown in Figure 10, refer to Chapter
51−27−00, Paragraph 5.N..

NOTE: Applicable to stepped and scarf repairs, and scarf re


pairs only.

8 In the case of partial damage to the honeycomb, the honeycomb


should be cut back to a flat face in order to match the face
of the repair plug. Use a trepanning tool or pin cutter to
achieve this.

NOTE: If fluid is found in the structure during this step, re


move the core as shown in Paragraph 4.M.(2)(a)9 and refer
to the drying procedure in Paragraph 4.G.. This can be
combined with Paragraph 4.M.(2)(a)15.

9 In the case where the whole core down to the opposite face is
to be removed and assuming that the opposite face is not dam
aged, then the cutting operation should stop when approximately
0.5 mm (0.02 in.) − 1.0 mm (0.04 in.) of the core is remain
ing. This will prevent the opposite skin from being damaged.
The remaining core should be carefully removed by hand sanding
down to the adhesive layer. The adhesive layer can be left
providing it is in good condition and undamaged. Lightly abrade
the remaining adhesive layer to remove adhesive fillets and ob
tain a flat surface.

10 Remove all waste material with a vacuum cleaner.

11 Abrade the repair area with water resistant silicone carbide


abrasive cloth. Start with 280 grade and finish with 400 grade.
12 Clean the repair area with cleaning agent (Material No. 11−003
or 11−004) (Refer to Paragraph 4.E.(1)(a)).

CAUTION: MAKE SURE THAT ANY UNPROTECTED EXPOSED HONEYCOMB DOES


NOT GET WET DURING THE STEP THAT FOLLOWS.
13 Rinse, but do not flood the area with clean water. Dry the
area with clean lint free cloth.

14 Protect the area adjacent to the repair with pressure sensitive


tape (flash tape), refer to Paragraph 3.B.(2).

15 Dry the structure (Refer to Paragraph 4.G.).


16 Do a water break test (Refer to Paragraph 4.F.).A Water break
test should generally be confined to the outer skin surface and
only applied to the skin surface at the bottom of the cavity
where it is practical and feasible. In cases where confined
space or the small size of the core cavity limits access, the

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

water break test can be omitted, but the final solvent cleaning
procedure must be done with care.
17 Protect the surface in the repair area to prevent contamination
(Refer to Paragraph 4.E.(3)).

NOTE: If the repair can not be started within 12 hours, step


12 to step 16 must be repeated.

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

Scarf and Step Preparation for Bonded Repair− Skin Damage on One Face
Figure 10

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

(b) Damage to Both Skins of Sandwich Structures with Access to One


Side Only
1 Do step 1 to step 3 of Paragraph 4.M.(2)(a).

2 Cut through outer skin and core. Removing at this step only
that amount that will expose the inner skin damage. Remove all
inner skin damage. Refer to Chapter 51−27−00, Paragraph 5..

NOTE: For non−circular repairs make sure that corners have a


radius of 12 mm (0.5 in.). Square corners are not al
lowed. Small damages/repairs may used reduced radii, or
be treated as circular damages.

3 Increase cut−out in outer skin and core by a further 15 mm


(0.6 in.) to facilitate insertion of the inner skin support
plate. At this step do not remove the full depth of honeycomb,
but retain between a quarter to half the depth of honeycomb
attached to the bottom skin (Refer to Figure 11, sheet 1).

NOTE: The inner skin support plate is necessary to counteract


edge curling (local distortion) of the inner skin. Reten
tion of part of the honeycomb will assist stiffening of
the bottom skin, until the inner skin support plate is
bonded in position.

4 Make a 1.2 mm (0.047 in.) (minimum thickness) inner skin sup


port plate from, either glass pre−preg (Refer to Paragraph
6.B.(9)) or glass wet lay−up (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(2) and
6.B.(8)). Use either 120 or 7781 style glass fabric, ply
orientation +/− 45°. Cure support plate in accordance with
Paragraph 6.B.(2) − wet lay−up, or Paragraph 6.B.(9) − pre−
preg.The configuration and size of the inner skin support plate
will depend on the damage shape and size.

NOTE: For non−circular repairs make sure that corners have a


radius of 12 mm (0.5 in.). Square corners are not al
lowed. Small damages/repairs may used reduced radii, or
be treated as circular damages.
NOTE: Inner skin support plates can be configured as either
single or multi−pieced plates. Multi−pieced support plates
are butted together once positioned (Refer to Figure 11,
sheet 2).

5 Drill two holes in each inner skin support plate that will en
able thin retaining wire(s) to be passed through. Put wire(s)
through the holes in the support plate(s). The wire should be
of sufficient length to enable temporary retention via a bridge
bar at the outer face of the outer skin.

6 Abrade and degrease (Refer to Paragraph 4.E.(1)(a)) outside


face of inner skin to a distance of at least 25 mm (1.0 in.)
beyond edge of cut−out. Abrade and degrease faying surfaces of
inner skin support plate(s).

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

7 Bond inner skin support plate(s) in place. This can be achieved


by one of the two steps following below:
NOTE: For room temperature repairs any of the adhesives in
Paragraph 6.B.(1) are permissibleFor hot bond repairs use
either Material No. 08−010D or 08−051 or 08−078, refer to
Paragraph 6.B.(1).

a Coating inside edge of selected support plate(s) with adhe


sive paste and put plate(s) through cut−out in inner skin.

b Alternatively put support plate(s) through the cut−out. Then


coat outside face of inner skin with adhesive.

8 Set support plate(s) in the right position and attach with the
retaining wire(s) and bridge bar, shown in Figure 11, sheet
1Positioning of support plates can be done in the following
ways:
− introduce support plate through cut−out and rotate into posi
tion.
− by curling the support plate edges to ease entry into the
cut−out.
When positioned and bonded, the support plate should extend
15 mm (0.6 in.) beyond the periphery of the inner skin cut−
out. Where this is not feasible, for example on very small
cut−out, aim for at least 6 mm (0.2 in.).

9 Let the adhesive cure. For accelerated cure temperature to be


used with cure time increased by 50 %, refer to Paragraph
6.B.(1).

10 After curing time, remove retaining wire(s) and the bridge bar.

11 Bond one ply of either 120 or 7781 style glass (Refer to


6.B.(8)) to seal holes and gaps in multi−pieced plates. Use
either laminating resin (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(2)) or adhe
sives (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(1)). Let adhesive cure.

12 Remove remaining core down to the inside skin and outer skin
to achieve ’D’ + 40 mm (1.6 in.), unless otherwise stated in
specific Chapter (see Figure 11, sheet 3). To avoid damage to
inner skin during core removal, refer to the procedure in step
4.M.(2)(a)9. Confirm that all outer skin damage is removed fol
lowing this operation. If not, remove the remaining damage.
Avoid damaging the core.

13 Do steps 4 to 7 and steps 10 to 17 of Paragraph 4.M.(2)(a) on


the outer skin (Refer to Figure 11, sheet 3).

NOTE: Reference to removal of damage in step 4 and 6 of Para


graph 4.M.(2)(a) to be ignored. This has been covered in
step 2, 3 and 11 above.

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Scarf and Step Preparation for Bonded Repair


Skin Damage both Faces − Access one Side
Figure 11 (sheet 1)

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

Examples of Inner Skin Support Plates


Figure 11 (sheet 2)

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

Scarf and Step Preparation for Bonded Repair


Skin Damage both Faces − Access one Side
Figure 11 (sheet 3)

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

(c) Damage to both skins with access to both skins.

1 Do steps 1 to 17 of Paragraph 4.M.(2)(a) on both skins.


(d) Partial and Through Thickness Damage to Monolithic Skins with Ac
cess from one Side Only

1 Do step 1 to step 4 of Paragraph 4.M.(2)(a).

2 Do step 4 to step 11 of Paragraph 4.M.(2)(b).


NOTE: Only applicable for through hole damage (Refer to Figure
12, Diagram 1)

3 Do step 5 to step 7 of Paragraph 4.M.(2)(a) (Refer to Figure


12, Diagram 2).
4 Do step 10 to step 15 of Paragraph 4.M.(2)(a).

5 Do a water break test (Refer to Paragraph 4.F.).

6 Do step 17 of Paragraph 4.M.(2)(a).

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Scarf and Step Preparation for Damage to Monolithic Skins − Access one Side
Figure 12

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(e) Through Thickness Damage to Monolithic Skins with Access to Both


Sides
1 Do step 1 to step 7 of Paragraph 4.M.(2)(a).

2 Do step 10 to step 15 of Paragraph 4.M.(2)(a).

3 Do a water break test (Refer to Paragraph 4.F.).

4 Do step 17 of Paragraph 4.M.(2)(a).


5 Position a support plate on the face opposite the scarfed area.
The support plate should extend at least 50 mm (2.0 in.) in
all directions beyond the through hole cut out in the skin
(Refer to Figure 13).

6 Vacuum bag the support plate to the face of the panel. The
plate must be subsequently removed to do the final step of the
repair. Make sure that it can be suitably removed or place a
release film between the plate and the face of the panel.

NOTE: The support plate should conform to the profile of the


structure.

Scarf / Step Preparation for Damage to Monolithic Skins − Access both Sides
Figure 13

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

5. Material Application

The following is an index of the contents of Paragraph 5.


NOTE: The procedures that follow are general, the specific materials to be
used will be detailed in the specific repair procedure.
− A. Wet Lay−Up of Repair Plies
− B. Lay Up of Prepreg Repair Plies and Adhesive Film
− C. Bonding of Pre−cured Doublers with Adhesive Paste
− D. Installation of Vacuum Bag and Heating Equipment
− E. Curing − RT and Hot Bonding Repair
− F. RT Installation of Core Plug
− G. Hot Bonding Installation of Core Plug
− H. Core Closing
− I. Restoration of Surface Metallic Mesh
− J. Restoration of Surface Aluminum Foil
− K. Restoration of PVF Film

A. Wet Lay−Up of Repair Plies

NOTE: The orientation of the repair plies shall be as shown in the spe
cific repair chapter.
(1) Use a brush or spatula to apply a thin coat of laminating resin to
the laminate bond or filled core repair area. Use a minimum amount
of resin to wet the surface.

(2) If repairing an area with open cell honeycomb core exposed, add
thickening agent (Material No. 05−089) to laminating resin (approxi
mately 5 % by mass) to give a non−slumping consistency. Calculate
the quantity of thickened resin to have 0.02 to 0.1 g/cm2 of open
honeycomb core cells. Mix with a spatula until the mixture is uni
form (Refer to Paragraph 4.).

(3) Remove the parting film from one surface of the first ply. Peel at
45° to the fiber direction. Apply uniformly the thickened resin with
a brush or spatula over the exposed surface of the first ply which
will be in contact with the open honeycomb core. Apply 0.02 to 0.1
g/cm2 of thickened resin.

NOTE: This thickened resin is used to form fillets for the core to
skin joint.
(4) Put the exposed surface of the first ply on the repair area.

NOTE: Align the warp direction of the repair ply with the direction
required by the repair scheme.

(5) Use a squeegee or hard roller to remove wrinkles and entrapped air
by carefully squeezing the laminate. Work from the center of the ply
to the edges. Avoid removal of the resin.

(6) Remove the parting film from the upper surface of the repair ply.
Peel at 45° to the fiber direction.

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(7) Remove the parting film from the lower surface of the next repair
ply. Peel at 45° to the fiber direction.
(8) Position the exposed surface of the repair ply onto the repair area.

NOTE: Align the warp direction of the repair ply with the direction
required by the repair scheme.

(9) Use a squeegee or hard roller to remove wrinkles and entrapped air
by gently squeezing the laminate, work from the center of the ply to
the edges. Avoid removal of the resin.

(10) Remove the parting film from the upper surface of the installed
repair ply .Peel at 45° to the fiber direction

(11) Repeat steps (7) thru (10) above until all the repair plies are laid
up.
NOTE: Two plies of 120 style glass fabric or one ply of 181 style
glass fabric (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(8)) can be used as the
cover ply.

B. Lay Up of Prepreg Plies and Adhesive Film

NOTE: The orientation of the repair plies shall be as shown in the spe
cific repair chapter.

WARNING: ADHESIVES ARE DANGEROUS.

CAUTION: MAKE SURE THAT THE MATERIALS HAVE REACHED AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
BEFORE YOU REMOVE THEIR PROTECTIVE COVERINGS. DO NOT THIN ADHE
SIVE FILM BY STRETCHING OR FOLDING. WEAR CLEAN GLOVES WHEN HAN
DLING ADHESIVE FILM OR PREPREG FABRIC TO PREVENT CONTAMINATION.
COMPLETE THE REPAIR BEFORE THE SHOP LIFE OF THE MATERIALS HAS
EXPIRED (REFER TO PARAGRAPHS 6.B.(6) AND 6.B.(9)).

(1) Cut the required number of prepreg and adhesive film plies to the
correct dimensions (Refer to Paragraph 4.B.(3) and 4.C.(1)(c)).
(2) Remove the protective layer from one side of the adhesive film,
place the exposed surface of the adhesive film onto the repair area
(Refer to Paragraph 4.B.(4)).

(3) Remove wrinkles and any air bubbles by smoothing or rolling, work
from the center of the adhesive film to the edges. On completion re
move the remaining protective layer.

(4) Remove the protective layer from the first prepreg repair ply, posi
tion the prepreg ply on the adhesive film. Ensure that prepreg ply
is correctly orientated (Refer to Paragraph 4.C.(1)(d)).

(5) Remove wrinkles and any air bubbles by smoothing or rolling, work
from the center of the prepreg ply to the edges. On completion re
move the remaining protective layer.

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(6) Lay up the remainder of the individual plies. Repeat steps (4) and
(5) above for each layer. A debulking step is necessary after the
installation of every three layers (adhesive film or prepreg plies).
Debulking is performed as follows:

(a) Cover the repair area with the following vacuum equipment:
− perforated parting film
− glass fabric cloth
− vacuum bag
(b) Achieve a vacuum of 0.75 bar (10.9 psi) or 560 mm Hg (22 inch
Hg) and maintain this vacuum for a period of 5 minutes. This
will cause the lay up to compact.

(c) Release the vacuum to atmospheric pressure.

(d) Remove sufficient vacuum equipment in order to permit the instal


lation of the next sequence of plies.

(7) When an adhesive film ply is required on top of the last prepreg
ply, cut a further adhesive film ply to the correct dimensions for
the repair area.

(8) Repeat steps (2) and (3) above for the final adhesive film ply.
C. Bonding of pre−cured Doubler with Adhesive Paste

(1) Apply an even layer of adhesive paste (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(1))


to the doubler and repair area surface.

NOTE: Ensure sufficient paste is applied so, that any gaps between
the doubler and the repair surface will be filled.

(2) Place the doubler on the repair area

(3) Apply pressure by hand to the doubler to ensure that excess paste is
pushed out. Remove excess paste. Use adhesive tape to keep the dou
bler in position.
(4) Install a vacuum bag and when required, heating equipment (Refer to
Paragraph 5.D.). If it is not possible to install the vacuum bag/
heating equipment secure the doubler by one of the following alter
native methods − grip pins, clamps, weights or any other suitable
device. If one of the alternative methods is used, the doubler must
be protected as follows:

(a) Put a piece of parting film on the doubler.

(b) Prepare a piece of heavy rubber foam sheet to the dimensions of


the doubler. Place the foam sheet on the doubler.
(c) Prepare a piece of preformed plywood to the dimensions of the
doubler. Place the plywood on the foam sheet and secure to the
repair area with adhesive tape.

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(5) Maintain a continuous pressure on the doubler while the paste cures.

NOTE: Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(1) for the curing cycle.


D. Installation of Vacuum Bag and Heating Equipment

(1) For curing of repair plies (Refer to Figures 15 and 16)

NOTE: Refer to Paragraph 3.B. for information concerning the auxilia


ry materials required.

(a) Place a layer of peel ply over the repair plies. The peel ply
must extend 12 mm (0.47 in.) beyond the edge of the repair.

(b) Apply vacuum bag sealant tape around the periphery of the repair
area, preferably 150 mm (5.91 in.) beyond the largest repair ply.

(c) Position thermocouples evenly spaced around the edge of the


repair area. The recommended spacing for satisfactory temperature
monitoring of a repair is 150 mm (6. in.) and the maximum
spacing must not exceed 300 mm (12. in.) (Refer to Figure
14).The thermocouples are placed 3 mm (0.12 in.) from the edge
of the repair. Use a minimum of three thermocouples. Do not
allow thermocouples to cross and locate them perpendicular to the
edge of repair shape.

NOTE: In known areas of structural heat sink it is essential that


additional thermocouples are placed in position. That will
confirm that the cure temperature has been achieved.
NOTE: If thermocouples are in contact with a metallic caul plate,
the ends must be electrically insulated with high tempera
ture flash breaker tape. The caul plate can prevent thermo
couples imprinting into the repair, if they are placed be
tween the heat blanket and the caul plate. Some trials will
be necessary to determine the correlation between the high
est temperature recorded on the blanket side of the caul
plate, compared to the lower temperature on the repair
side.

NOTE: The highest temperature recorded from the thermocouples is


used to control the heating process to avoid temperature
overshoot. The lowest temperature is used to determine the
cure time.

(d) Place a layer of perforated parting film over the peel ply. The
perforated film must extend 50 mm (1.97 in.) beyond the edge of
the peel ply. Smooth the film to remove any wrinkles.

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(e) Position a bleeder ply over the perforated parting film and ex
tending 50 mm (1.97 in.) beyond the film edge.
NOTE: When the heat source is an electric heating blanket, the
bleeder ply must extend 50 mm (1.97 in.) beyond the edge
of the blanket.

NOTE: All joints in the bleeder plies must be butt joints, with
out overlaps or gaps, when the part is covered.
(f) Position a layer of non−perforated parting film over the bleeder
ply. Cut the non−perforated film so that its edges are even with
the edges of the perforated parting film.

CAUTION: PRESSURE ON THE REPAIR WILL BE LESS THAN UNIFORM IF THE


OPTIONAL CAUL PLATE DOES NOT CONFORM TO THE CONTOURS OF THE
REPAIR. THIS MAY CAUSE VOIDS OR HIGH RESIN CONTENT AREAS IN
THE REPAIR PLIES.

(g) When a caul plate (optional) is to be used to cover the repair,


first place a piece of glass fiber fabric over the non−perforated
parting film to act as a breather. Cut the breather plies so
that they extend to the edges of the the bleeder plies. Position
the metal caul plate.

(h) When the optional caul plate is not going to be used, position a
piece of glass fiber fabric (breather material) over the non−per
forated parting film. Cut the breather material so that the edges
extend to the bleeder plies. Ensure that the breather material is
in contact with the bleeder plies at the edges.

NOTE: The breather material will maximize heat transfer.

(i) Using an heating blanket as a heat source, refer to Figure 15.


CAUTION: REFER TO PARAGRAPH 3.C. FOR CALIBRATION AND CHECK OF
HEATING BLANKETS.

1 Position the heating blanket over the top layer of breather


material. Ensure that the blanket extends for a minimum of 50
mm (1.97 in.) beyond the material to be cured.
2 Add a further four or five layers of breather material over
the blanket. This is to insulate and prevent damage to the
bagging film.

NOTE: An optional thermocouple can be positioned at the center


of the blanket. This will allow the temperature of the
blanket to be monitored and prevent the blanket from be
ing overheated.

3 Install two probes through openings cut in the vacuum bag, the
probes should be on opposite sides. The probes are placed on a
pad of breather material situated near the edge of the upper
breather layer. Do not place the probes on the repair area.

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4 Position the vacuum bag over the stacked materials, smooth out
any wrinkles. Press the edge of the vacuum bag on to the seal
ant tape in order to secure an air tight seal. Place tucks in
the vacuum bag to allow for gap material stretching and abrupt
transitional or contour changes.

CAUTION: CHECK THE VACUUM BAG FOR LEAKS.

5 Apply a vacuum source to the vacuum bag and evacuate the space
in the vacuum bag. Smooth the bag by hand pressure as the air
is removed.

Apply full vacuum to get a minimum of 0.75 bar (10.9 psi) or


560 mm Hg (22 inch Hg) and wait for several minutes after the
readings have stabilized.
Disconnect the vacuum source and re−seal if required. The maxi
mum vacuum pressure drop is to be less than 0.16 bar (2.3 psi)
or 130 mm Hg (5 inch Hg) over 5 minutes.

Re−apply full vacuum. A minimum vacuum of 0.75 bar (10.9 psi)


or 560 mm Hg (22 inch Hg) is required for the curing process.
NOTE: Insulating material can be placed over the vacuum bag
during the heating up and hold phase to reduce heat loss.

(j) Using an infrared lamp or other radiant heat equipment, refer to


Figure 16.

CAUTION: REFER TO PARAGRAPH 4.G.(3) FOR CALIBRATION OF RADIANT


HEAT EQUIPMENT.

1 The vacuum bagging procedure to be used when using an infrared


lamp or other radiant heat equipment, is the same as that giv
en in Paragraph (i) above. Except that the following items are
not used:
− heating blanket
− the additional breather layers over the heating blanket
− the insulation material over the vacuum bag

2 Install an additional thermocouple below the uppermost breather


ply.
3 Install a piece of dry carbon fabric over the uppermost
breather ply.

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Installation of thermocouples for skin repair


Figure 14

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

Lay Up for Cure with Heating Blanket


Figure 15

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

Lay Up for Repair Cure with Radiant Heat


Figure 16

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(2) For core replacement − heating from one side (Refer to Figure 17)

NOTE: Refer to Paragraph 3.B. for information concerning the auxilia


ry materials required.

(a) Apply vacuum bag sealant tape around the periphery of the core
replacement area, preferably 150 mm (5.91 in.) beyond the largest
repair ply.

(b) Position thermocouples as follows:


1 In the repair area where the core plug is to be installed. The
number of thermocouples to be used will be governed by the
area. For areas greater than 2000 mm (3.100 in.) divide the
repair into equal areas and position thermocouples in the cen
ter of each of these areas in accordance with the following
table:

REPAIR AREAS NUMBER OF THERMOCOUPLES


up to 2000 mm (3.100 in.) one
2000 mm (3.100 in.) to
two
30000 mm (46.500 in.)
30000 mm (46.500 in.) to
three
45000 mm (69.750 in.)
45000 mm (69.750 in.) to
four
60000 mm (93.000 in.)

The thermocouple shall be have a turnover of at least 20 mm


(0.787 in.), the whole of which shall make intimate contact
with the adhesive layer at the bottom of the plug.

NOTE: After the curing process is completed, it will be neces


sary to cut these thermocouples as close to the surface
of the honeycomb as possible without damaging the honey
comb.

2 A minimum of two thermocouples shall be positioned on the skin


around the core plug not more than 3 mm (0.118 in.) from the
edge of the core plug.
NOTE: In known areas of structural heat sink it is essential that
additional thermocouples are placed in position to confirm
that the cure temperature has been achieved.

(c) Position a strip of high temperature resistant tape over the area
of the core plug splice.

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(d) Position a layer of perforated parting film over the core re
placement area. The film must extend 75 mm (2.95 in.) beyond the
edge of the replacement area. Smooth out any wrinkles.

NOTE: Use a perforated parting film with a minimum use tempera


ture of 230 °C (446 °F), refer to Paragraph 3.B.(1).

(e) Position several layers of breather material around the edge of


the core replacement area. This is to insulate the original
structure in the repair area.

NOTE: Use either (preferred) 20 plies of fiberglass cloth style


181 or 7781 or 1581, refer to Paragraph 3.B.(1).

or

5 plies minimum of polyester felt with a fiberglass cloth


on top, refer to Paragraph 3.B.(1). Use new breather for
each cure cycle.

(f) Position a piece of glass fiber fabric over the perforated part
ing film to act as a breather material. Ensure that the breather
layer makes contact with the edge breather.
(g) Using a heating blanket as a heat source.

CAUTION: REFER TO PARAGRAPH 3.C. FOR CALIBRATION AND CHECK OF


HEATING BLANKETS.

1 Position the heating blanket over the top layer of breather


material. Ensure that the blanket extends for a minimum of 100
mm (4.0 in.) beyond the material to be cured.

2 Add a further four or five layers of breather material over


the blanket. This is to insulate and prevent damage to the
bagging film.
NOTE: An optional thermocouple can be positioned at the center
of the blanket. This will allow the temperature of the
blanket to be monitored and prevent the blanket from be
ing overheated.

3 Install two probes through opening cuts in the vacuum bag. The
probes should be on opposite sides placed on a pad of breather
material, situated near the edge of the upper breather layer.
Do not put the probes on the repair area.

NOTE: One probe is connected to the vacuum source, the other


probe is connected to a vacuum gage.
4 Position the vacuum bag over the stacked materials, smooth out
any wrinkles. Press the edge of the vacuum bag on to the seal
ant tape in order to secure an air tight seal. Place tucks in
the vacuum bag to allow for gap material stretching and abrupt
transitional or contour changes.

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CAUTION: CHECK THE VACUUM BAG FOR LEAKS.

5 Apply a vacuum source to the vacuum bag and evacuate the space
in the vacuum bag, smooth the bag by hand pressure as the air
is removed.

Apply full vacuum to get a minimum of 0.75 bar (10.9 psi) or


560 mm Hg (22 inch Hg) and wait for several minutes after the
readings have stabilized.
Disconnect the vacuum source and re−seal if required. The maxi
mum vacuum pressure drop is to be less than 0.16 bar (2.3 psi)
or 130 mm Hg (5 inch Hg) over 5 minutes.

Re−apply full vacuum, a minimum vacuum of 0.75 bar (10.9 psi)


or 560 mm Hg (22 inch Hg) is required for the curing process.
NOTE: Insulating material can be placed over the vacuum bag
during the heating up and hold phase to reduce heat loss.

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Lay Up for Core Replacement with Heating Blanket − Heating from one Side
Figure 17

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

(3) For core replacement − heating from both sides (Refer to Figure 18)

NOTE: Refer to Paragraph 3.B. for information concerning the auxilia


ry materials required.

(a) Apply vacuum bag sealant tape around the periphery of the core
replacement area, preferably 150 mm (5.91 in.) beyond the largest
repair ply.

(b) Put the thermocouples as follows in position:


1 In the repair area where the core plug is to be installed. The
number of thermocouples to be used will be governed by the
area. For areas greater than 2000 mm (3.100 in.) divide the
repair into equal areas and put thermocouples in the center of
each of these areas in position in accordance with the follow
ing table:

REPAIR AREAS NUMBER OF THERMOCOUPLES


up to 2000 mm (3.100 in.) one
2000 mm (3.100 in.) to
two
30000 mm (46.500 in.)
30000 mm (46.500 in.) to
three
45000 mm (69.750 in.)
45000 mm (69.750 in.) to
four
60000 mm (93.000 in.)

The thermocouple shall be have a turnover of at least 20 mm


(0.787 in.), the whole of which shall make intimate contact
with the adhesive layer at the bottom of the plug.

NOTE: After the curing process is completed, it will be neces


sary to cut these thermocouples as close to the surface
of the honeycomb as possible without damaging the honey
comb.

2 A minimum of two thermocouples shall be positioned on the ex


ternal skin around the core plug not more than 3 mm (0.12 in.)
from the edge of the core plug. A minimum of 2 thermocouples
shall be positioned on the opposite skin, one thermocouple lo
cated at the center of the repaired area. To prevent excessive
mark off do not cross the thermocouples.

NOTE: In known areas of structural heat sink it is essential


that additional thermocouples are placed in position to
confirm that the cure temperature has been achieved.

(c) Put a strip of high temperature resistant tape in position over


the area of the core plug splice.

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(d) Put a layer of perforated parting film over the core replacement
area in position. The film must extend 75 mm (3.0 in.) beyond
the edge of the replacement core. Smooth out any wrinkles.

(e) Put a layer of glass fiber fabric as breather material in posi


tion over the perforated parting film. If an edge breather is
used, make sure that the layer of breather material makes contact
with the edge breather.
NOTE: Optional: Put a thin caul plate on top of the parting film
in correct position, with same dimensions as the heating
blanket.

(f) Use a heating blanket as a heat source.

CAUTION: REFER TO PARAGRAPH 3.C. FOR CALIBRATION AND CHECK OF


HEATING BLANKET.

1 Put the heating blanket over the top layer of breather material
in position. Make sure that the blanket extends for a minimum
of 100 mm (4.0 in.) beyond the material to be cured.
2 Put one piece of breather material over the heating blanket.
Make sure that the layer of breather material makes contact
with the edge breather.

NOTE: An optional thermocouple can be positioned at the center


of the heating blanket. This, to monitor the temperature
of the blanket and prevent the blanket from being over
heated.

3 Install two probes through opening cuts in the vacuum bag. The
probes should be on opposite sides and placed on a pad of
breather material, situated near the edge of the upper breather
layer. Do not put the probes on the repair area.

NOTE: One probe is connected to the vacuum source, the other


probe is connected to a vacuum gage.

4 Put the vacuum bag over the stacked materials in position and
smooth out any wrinkles. Press the edge of the vacuum bag on
to the sealant tape in order to secure an air tight seal.
Place tucks in the vacuum bag to allow for gap material
stretching and abrupt transitional or contour changes.

5 Put the heating blanket over the opposite (bottom) skin in


position. Make sure that the blanket extends for a minimum of
50 mm (2 in.) beyond the material to be cured.

6 To avoid the distortion of thin skins support the bottom skin.

7 Put a piece of breather material over the heating blanket in


position. Make sure that the layer of breather material makes
contact with the edge breather.

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8 Install two probes through opening cuts in the vacuum bag. The
probes should be on opposite sides and placed on a pad of
breather material, situated near the edge of the upper breather
layer. Do not put the probes on the repair area.

NOTE: One probe is connected to the vacuum source, the other


probe is connected to a vacuum gage.

9 Put the vacuum bag over the stacked materials in position and
smooth out any wrinkles. Press the edge of the vacuum bag on
to the sealant tape in order to secure an air tight seal.
Place tucks in the vacuum bag to allow for gap material
stretching and abrupt transitional or contour changes.

10 Apply a vacuum source to the vacuum bag installed over the re
paired area and evacuate the space in the bag. Smooth the bag
by hand pressure as the air is removed. Apply 0.5 bar (7.3
psi) to 0.6 bar (8.7 psi) with vacuum 400−500 mm Hg (15.75 −
19.7 inch Hg) during the curing cycle.

NOTE: Insulating material can be placed over the vacuum bag


during the heating up and hold phase to reduce heat loss.

11 Apply a vacuum source to the opposite (bottom) vacuum bag and


evacuate the space in the bag. Smooth the bag by hand pressure
as the air is removed. Pull full vacuum.

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Lay Up for Core Replacement with Heating Blanket − Heating from both Sides
Figure 18

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

E. Curing

CAUTION: DURING THIS STEP THE TEMPERATURE MUST BE STRICTLY CONTROLLED.


(1) Room Temperature (RT) Repair − Accelerated Cure by Heating

NOTE: For this procedure radiant heaters, ovens or heating blankets


can be used. Which ever source of heat is used, the source
must be controlled.

When a heating blanket is to be used refer to Paragraph 3.C.


for details of the equipment, calibration and check.

When a radiant heater is to be used refer to Paragraph 4.G.(3)


for details of the equipment, calibration and installation.

When vacuum bags are to be used refer to Paragraph 5.D.. When


a vacuum bag is not applicable use grip pins, clamps, weights
or other suitable devices but only to attach pre−cured or me
tallic doublers.

NOTE: When using a vacuum bag maintain a minimum vacuum pressure of


0.75 bar (10.9 psi) or 560 mm Hg (22 inch Hg) in the vacuum
bag. The vacuum pressure must be recorded.
(a) Let the adhesive / resin gel at room temperature (Refer to Para
graph 4.A.(5) and 6.B.).

NOTE: The gel time of the adhesive / resin must be strictly con
trolled before applying. Failure to let the adhesive gel
can result in an unwanted adhesive flow when the heat is
applied. This will lead to a defective repair, regarding
bonding thickness or porosity.

CAUTION: DURING THIS STEP THE TEMPERATURE MUST BE STRICTLY CON


TROLLED.
(b) Increase the temperature to that specified in the repair proce
dure (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.). The rate of increase of the tem
perature must be between 1° C to 3° C (2° F to 6° F).

(c) Let the repair cure at the temperature and time specified in the
repair procedure (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.).
1 For core replacement

The curing temperature shall be carefully monitored by means of


the thermocouples installed at the bottom of the honeycomb core
in contact with the adhesive film (Refer to Paragraph 5.D.(2)).

When heat can only be applied from one side of the repair, it
can be necessary to increase the output from the heating blan
ket in order to achieve the curing temperature at the bottom
of the honeycomb core. The thermocouples installed on the sink
around the core plug (Refer to Paragraph 5.D.) are used to

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avoid temperature overshoot. That means, the skin temperature


shall not exceed 95 °C (203 °F) for 120 °C (250 °F) manufac
tured structures and 150 °C (302 °F) for 180 °C (350 °F)
manufactured structures. Sufficient layers of breather material
shall be positioned around the edge of the core replacement
area to fulfil these requirements (Refer to Paragraph 5.D.(2)).

If there is access to both sides of the repair, heating equip


ment shall be installed on both sides.
2 For curing of repair plies and doubler installation with adhe
sive paste or resin instead of filmTemperature shall be care
fully controlled by means of the thermocouples suitable posi
tioned around the repair (Refer to Paragraph 5.D.(1)). The
lowest temperature recorded shall meet the curing temperature,
as specified by the repair procedure. The highest temperature
recorded is used to control the heating process to avoid tem
perature overshoot.

(d) In the event of a complete loss of heat input or vacuum pres


sure, due either to bag / sealing failures or equipment failure
during the repair, the procedure given in Figure 19 must be fol
lowed.

(e) Check the heat application and vacuum record data before the next
step of repair procedure (Refer to Chapter 51−77−10, Paragraph
5.).

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Accelerated Cure by Heating and Hot Bonding Cure − Actions Following Loss of
Vacuum or Heating Failure during Cure Cycle
Figure 19

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

(2) Hot Bonding Repair

NOTE: Refer to Figure 20 for an example of a typical hot bonding


cure cycle.

NOTE: For this procedure either use heating blanket and vacuum bag,
or oven and vacuum bag. For the installation of the vacuum bag
refer to Paragraph 5.D..

NOTE: When heating blanket is to be used, refer to Paragraph 3.C.


for details of the equipment calibration and check. Refer to
Paragraph 3.C.(2) for calibration of thermocouples.

(a) Note the limits of the repair thickness given in the related re
pair scheme.

(b) Maintain a minimum vacuum pressure of 0.75 bar (10.9 psi) or 560
mm Hg (22 inch Hg) inside the vacuum bag. The vacuum pressure
must be recorded.

(c) Increase the temperature to that specified in the repair proce


dure (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.). The rate of increase of the tem
perature must be between 1° C to 3° C (2° F to 6° F).
(d) Let the repair cure at the temperature and time specified in the
repair procedure (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.).

1 For core replacement

The curing temperature shall be carefully monitored by means of


the thermocouples installed at the bottom of the honeycomb core
in contact with the adhesive film (Refer to Paragraph 5.D.(2)).

When heat can only be applied from one side of the repair, it
can be necessary to increase the output from the heating blan
ket in order to achieve the curing temperature at the bottom
of the honeycomb core. The thermocouples installed on the sink
around the core plug (Refer to Paragraph 5.D.) are used to
avoid temperature overshoot. That means, the skin temperature
shall not exceed 95 °C (203 °F) for 120 °C (250 °F) manufac
tured structures and 150 °C (302 °F) for 180 °C (350 °F)
manufactured structures. Sufficient layers of breather material
shall be positioned around the edge of the core replacement
area to fulfil these requirements (Refer to Paragraph 5.D.(2)).

If there is access to both sides of the repair, heating equip


ment shall be installed on both sides. When heating from both
sides, with a core thicker than 45 mm (1.77 in.), then use
nominal cure time plus 15 minutes (−0, + 15 minutes).

2 For curing of repair plies and doubler installation with adhe


sive film

Temperature shall be carefully controlled by means of the ther


mocouples suitable positioned around the repair (Refer to Para

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graph 5.D.(1)). The lowest temperature recorded shall meet the


curing temperature, as specified by the repair procedure. The
highest temperature recorded is used to control the heating
process to avoid temperature overshoot.

(e) In the event of a complete loss of heat input or vacuum pres


sure, due either to bag / sealing failures or equipment failure
during the repair, the procedure given in Figure 19 must be fol
lowed.

(f) Check the heat application and vacuum record data before the next
step of repair procedure (Refer to Chapter 51−77−10, Paragraph
5.).

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Example of 120 °C (250 °F) Cure Cycle


Figure 20

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F. Installation of a Core Plug for RT curing

(1) Prepare the adhesive paste (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(1)).


(2) Apply a thick layer of this adhesive paste to the sides of the hole
and to the sides of the core plug. Additional apply a layer of 2 mm
(0.079 in.) to 4 mm (0.157 in.) thickness to the bottom of the hole
or on the bottom of the core plug, depending on access.

(3) Put the core plug in such position that the ribbon of the core plug
and the ribbon in the repair area are in same alignment. After that,
push the plug carefully to make sure that it is in full contact
with the skin. To fill all gaps, add prepared material as necessary.

NOTE: If the curing process is to be accelerated by the application


of heat, install thermocouples in the repair area where the
core plug is to be installed and on the skin (Refer to Para
graph 5.D.(2)) or 5.D.(3)).

(4) Apply a constant pressure on the core plug. Use one of the method
that follow:

(a) Install a vacuum bag (Refer to Paragraph 5.D.(2)) or 5.D.(3))


or

(b) As alternative method install a parting film and a dead weight.


The pressure applied by the dead weight must not exceed 0.07 bar
(1.0 psi) to 0.14 bar (2.0 psi) (or 0.007 to 0.014 Mpa) to pre
vent the distortion of the bottom skin.
NOTE: With this method it is not recommended to accelerate the
curing process with a heating blanket.

(5) Let the adhesive cure at RT. Alternatively, the curing process can
be accelerated by the application of heat, refer to the repair pro
cedure.

NOTE: Unless otherwise noted in the specific Chapter, for accelerated


cure install the required heating equipment (Refer to Paragraph
5.D.(2) or 5.D.(3)). Let the adhesive gel before applying heat
to prevent undesired adhesive flow (Refer to Paragraph 6.B. for
data). Let the adhesive cure at the required time and tempera
ture (Refer to Paragraph 5.E.) as specified in the repair pro
cedure.

G. Installation of a Core Plug for Hot Bond Curing

(1) Prepare sufficient foaming adhesive film (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(5)


and 4.B.).

(2) Prepare sufficient adhesive film (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(6) and


4.B.).

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(3) Let the adhesive film and the adhesive foam reach ambient tempera
ture, cut the films to the required size and remove the wrappers.
(4) Put one layer of adhesive film on the bottom of the cutout (Refer
to Paragraph 4.B.).

(5) Wrap one layer of the foaming adhesive film around the core plug.

(6) Install thermocouples in the repair area where the core plug is to
be installed and on the skin (Refer to Paragraph 5.D.(2) or 5.D.(3))
as specified in the repair procedure.

(7) Put the core plug in the cutout in such position that the ribbon of
the core plug and the ribbon in the repair area are in same align
ment.

(8) Install the required heating equipment and vacuum bag (Refer to
Paragraph 5.D.(2) or 5.D.(3)) as specified in the repair procedure.

(9) Let the core plug cure at the temperature, time and vacuum (Refer to
Paragraphs 5.E. and 6.B.(5) and 6.B.(6)) as specified in the repair
procedure.

H. Core Closing
(1) Prepare low density compound (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(4)), or adhe
sive paste (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(1)), or laminating resin (Refer
to Paragraph 6.B.(2)). Add thickening agent (Refer to Paragraph
6.B.(1)) when specified.

(2) Cut a piece of peel ply 100 mm (3.94 in.) larger than the area of
honeycomb to be filled.

(3) Draw the contours of the repair area on the peel ply.

(4) Place the peel ply on a flat surface, secure with adhesive tape.

(5) Apply one of the materials prepared in step (1) above to the peel
ply with a spatula within the marked area. Apply sufficient material
to achieve a maximum uniform thickness of 5 mm (0.20 in.). Use an
edge fence to get the required thickness.

(6) Position the peel ply over the area to be closed, with prepared com
pound surface towards the honeycomb cells. Push the compound into the
cells by lightly pushing on the peel ply.
(7) Slowly ease the peel ply away from the cells, take care not to re
move the compound from the cells. Use a knife if necessary, to help
remove the compound from the peel ply.

(8) Use a spatula to smooth the compound level with the upper surface of
the honeycomb cells.
NOTE: Use a spatula to add more compound to any cells that are not
fully closed.

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(9) With a clean cloth remove any compound from the skin around the re
pair area.
(10) Let the compound cure at RT. Alternatively, the curing process can
be accelerated by the application of heat, refer to the repair pro
cedure, but without vacuum pressure (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(1) or
6.B.(2) or 6.B.(4)).

NOTE: When the alternative method is used, the compound must be al
lowed to gel before heat is applied to prevent undesired com
pound flow.

(11) When the compound has cured, abrade the compound until it is flush
with the honeycomb or skin surface as detailed in the specific re
pair procedure.
NOTE: If some cells appear to be not fully closed, apply more com
pound and repeat steps (10) and (11) above.

I. Restoration of Surface Metallic Mesh

NOTE: This process is applicable to sandwich structures and solid lami


nates. Two repair designs are proposed (Refer to specific Chapter
for selection).

NOTE: Skin damage underneath the damaged mesh can be repaired at the
same time if it is a wet lay up repair or repaired first.

(1) Prepare the repair area (Refer to Paragraph 4.M.(2)):


− Option A: Lightly abrade the surface to expose 25 mm (0.984 in.)
of mesh around the repair.
NOTE: No overlap allowed between the last repair ply and the wire
mesh.
− Option B: The distance between the edge of the last repair ply and
the edge of the wire mesh cut out must be 12 mm (0.472 in.) mini
mum.

(2) Prepare the repair mesh to the required size:


− Option A: Overlap by 15 mm (0.591 in.) all around damage limits
(Refer to Figure 21 (sheet 1))
− Option B: Maintain a gap not more than 1 mm (0.039 in.) between
the original mesh and the repair mesh. Overlap is not permitted
(Refer to Figure 21 (sheet 2)).

Unless otherwise noted in specific Chapter, find in Figure 21 the


repair wire mesh in function of the original wire mesh.

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WARNING: LAMINATING RESINS ARE DANGEROUS. OBEY THE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS


WHEN YOU WORK WITH LAMINATING RESINS.
(3) Prepare the laminating resin (Refer to Paragraph 4.A. and to Para
graph 6.B.(2)).

(4) Prepare the impregnated repair mesh (Refer to the Material Tables on
Figures 21, sheet 1 and 2 and to Paragraph 4.H.).

(5) Put the repair ply on the repair area and smooth out from the cen
ter to remove air pockets. Press the edges of the repair ply cloth
down tightly (Refer to Paragraph 5.A.).

NOTE: Do not apply a cover ply.

(6) Install the vacuum bag and, if the repair cure is to be accelerated
by the application of heat, the heating equipment (Refer to Paragraph
5.D.).

NOTE: If the repair of the underneath skin structure will not be


done at the same time, use a non perforated parting film with
no bleeder.

(7) Let the adhesive cure under vacuum pressure (Refer to Paragraph
5.E.).

NOTE: If the repair cure is to be accelerated by the application of


heat, let the repair cure at the required temperature and time
(Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(2) and 5.E.)

(8) Remove the vacuum bag and heating equipment.


(9) Inspect the repair area (Refer to Chapter 51−77−10, Paragraph 5.).

WARNING: LAMINATING RESINS ARE DANGEROUS. OBEY THE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS


WHEN YOU WORK WITH LAMINATING RESINS.

(10) If necessary, fill any porosities or starved areas with laminating


resin (Refer to Paragraph 4.A. and to Paragraph 6.B.(2)) and cure in
accordance with Paragraph 5.E..

(11) Remove any resin remnants from the border area of the repair, use
abrasive cloth. Start with 280 grade and finish with 400 grade.

(12) Clean the repair area with cleaning agent (Material No. 11−003 or
11−004 and refer to Paragraph 4.E.).
(13) Restore the surface protection (Refer to Chapter 51−75−12).

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Wire Mesh Restoration − Option A


Figure 21 (sheet 1)

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

Wire Mesh Restoration − Option B


Figure 21 (sheet 2)

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

J. Restoration of Surface Aluminum Foil

NOTE: This repair procedure must only be used when invoked by a specific
repair instruction from AIRBUS.

These repairs use a self−adhesive aluminum foil tape


(Material No. 08−052). It is an acceptable alternative to use a non
self−adhesive foil (90−95 % pure annealed aluminum 1200−0 with a thick
ness of 0.038 mm (0.0015 in.), bonded with a thin layer of laminating
resin (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(2) and to Paragraph 4.). Remove air
bubbles and cure under vacuum in accordance with Paragraph 5.D. and
5.E..

(1) Repair Procedure where Damage 50 mm (2. in.) from Panel Edge

NOTE: Refer to the specific Chapter for details of foil joint direc
tions and the number of joints.

NOTE: Where the damage is  50 mm (1.969 in.) from panel edge, the
foil between damage and the panel edge must be removed. The
strip must be a minimum width of 50 mm (2. in.) and include a
minimum of 2 fasteners.
NOTE: It can be a requirement of specific repairs (and depending on
the amount of foil damage) to replace a complete strip of foil
extending to the opposite edge. The strip must be a minimum
width of 50 mm (2. in.) and include a minimum of 1 fastener
at each panel edge as shown in Figure 22, sheet 1. The limit
for Dimension "A" must be stated in the specific repair
instruction that invokes this repair procedure.

NOTE: It can be a requirement of specific repairs (and depending on


the amount of foil damage) to replace a complete strip down
the edge of panel as shown in Figure 22, sheet 2. The limit
for Dimension "B" must be stated in the specific repair
instruction that invokes this repair procedure.

NOTE: The area of repair foil must include a minimum of 2


panel−attachment fasteners.

NOTE: Joints to be a minimum of 2D from fastener positions.


(a) Use a marker pen to mark a boundary for the repair. Internal
corner must have a minimum radius of 15 mm (0.591 in.).

(b) Remove damaged foil by peeling and/or with a non−metallic scrap


er. Take great care not to damage the underlying composite mate
rial.
(c) Do a damage evaluation in accordance with Chapter 51−77−10, Para
graphs 3.. Make sure that the composite surface is not damaged
before continue with step (d).

(d) Lightly abrade area where foil has been removed. Use 400 grade
abrasive cloth.

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(e) Degrease the area in accordance with Paragraph 4.E..

(f) Apply self adhesive aluminum tape (Material No. 08−052) to the
repair area. To prevent or remove air pockets, work from the
center to the edges of foil tape.

NOTE: Repair foil to butt against existing foil with a gap of


t1 mm (0.039 in.).

NOTE: It is preferred to have a single piece of foil. If this is


not possible, use only a minimum number of pieces. Joints
must be butt joints with a gap of 1 mm (0.039 in.).

(g) Re−cut fastener holes in the foil.

(h) Apply chemical conversion coating (Material No. 13−002) to bare


foil in accordance with Chapter 51−21−11.

(i) Apply primer (Material No. 16−006 or 16−001) in accordance with


Chapter 51−75−12.

NOTE: The primer must be applied within 16 hours of application


of chemical conversion coating.
(j) Restore the final protective treatment in accordance with Chapter
51−75−12.

(2) Repair Procedure where Damage  50 mm (1.969 in.) from Panel Edge

NOTE: Refer to the specific Chapter for details of foil joint direc
tions and the number of joints.

NOTE: It is permitted to extend the repair area to a panel edge. Re


pair in accordance with Paragraph 5.J.(1).

(a) Use a marker pen to mark a boundary for the repair. Internal
corner must have a minimum radius of 15 mm (0.591 in.).
(b) Remove damaged foil by peeling and/or with a non−metallic scrap
er. Take great care not to damage the underlying composite mate
rial.

(c) Do a damage evaluation in accordance with Chapter 51−77−10, Para


graphs 3.. Make sure that the composite surface is not damaged
before continue with step (d).

(d) Lightly abrade area where foil has been removed and a 55 mm
(2.165 in.) wide area around its perimeter. Use 400 grade abra
sive cloth.
NOTE: Make sure that the abraded area will extend beyond foil and
glasscloth bonding areas as described below.

(e) Degrease the area in accordance with Paragraph 4.E..

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

(f) Apply self adhesive aluminum tape (Material No. 08−052) to the
repair area with a 25 mm (0.984 in.) overlap all around. To pre
vent or remove air pockets, work from the center to the edges of
foil tape.

NOTE: It is preferred to have a single piece of foil. If this is


not possible, use only a minimum number of pieces. The
joints must be with overlaps of 25 mm (0.984 in.).
(g) Degrease the area in accordance with Paragraph 4.E..

(h) Lay up 1 ply of 7781 or 181 style glasscloth (Refer to Paragraph


6.B.(8), impregnated with laminating resin (Refer to Paragraph
6.B.(2), over the repair area in accordance with Chapter
51−77−10, Paragraphs 3.D.(1). The glasscloth must overlap foil
joints with a minimum of 25 mm (0.984 in.) in all directions.
The ply orientation is not important.

(i) Re−drill holes in accordance with Chapter 51−44−21 and, if re


quired, re−cut countersinks in accordance with Chapter 51−46−21.

(j) Apply chemical conversion coating (Material No. 13−002) to bare


foil in accordance with Chapter 51−21−11.

(k) Apply primer (Material No. 16−006 or 16−001) in accordance with


Chapter 51−75−12.

NOTE: The primer must be applied within 16 hours of application


of chemical conversion coating.

(l) Restore the final protective treatment in accordance with Chapter


51−75−12.

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Replacement of Aluminum Foil − Extending to Opposite Side


Figure 22 (sheet 1)

Replacement of Aluminum Foil − down the Edge of Panel


Figure 22 (sheet 2)

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K. Restoration of PVF Film

(1) Prepare the repair area, refer to Paragraph 4.M.(2)(a).


NOTE: In case of debonded PVF film (tedlar) remove it by peeling and
shearing. The edge of the intact PVF film shall be lightly
abraded with abrasive paper (280 grade) or SCOTCH BRITE type A
down to the primer above the PVF film, when applicable, or PVF
film to provide 20 mm (0.79 in.) overlap.
(2) Prepare a piece of glass fabric (Material No. 05−033) and a piece of
PVF film (Material No. 19−016) to the size and shape of the repair
area plus 20 mm (0.79 in.).

(3) Prepare sufficient laminating resin, refer to Paragraph 6.B.(2), for


the glass fabric, refer to Paragraph 4.A..
(4) Impregnate glass fabric (Material No. 05−033) with laminating resin,
refer to Paragraph 6.B.(2) and Paragraph 4.H..

(5) Install the impregnated glass fabric over the skin in the repair
area, refer to Paragraph 5.A..

(6) Put the PVF film (Material No. 19−016) over the glass fabric. Press
firmly with a roller or squeegee to remove trapped air and excess
resin. Work from the center towards the edges.

(7) Cover the repair area with vacuum bag and heating equipment, refer
to Paragraph 5.D..

NOTE: The vacuum pressure shall be applied before the end of resin
begins to gel.

(8) Let the repair cure under vacuum pressure, refer to Paragraph 5.E..
If the repair cure is to be accelerated by application of heat, let
the repair cure at the required temperature and time, refer to Para
graph 6.B.(2) and Paragraph 5.E..
(9) Remove the vacuum bag and heating equipment.

(10) Inspect the repair, refer to Chapter 51−77−10, Paragraph 5.

6. Material Data

A. General
Those repair materials which have been allocated with an AIRBUS. Material
No. in accordance with the Consumable Material List (CML).

This section contains technical information about the materials which


shall be used for repairs.

The subsequent data are extracts from specifications or manufacturer’s


data sheets.

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B. Repair Materials

The repair materials are divided for the purpose of this chapter into
different groups. Each group contains its own equivalent rule depending
on mechanical or curing temperature requirements.

NOTE: The relevant AIRBUS Material No. (CML No.) is given in the second
column of the Tables.

All materials necessary for repairs, are given in the following sub−
Paragraphs:

6.B.(1) Paste adhesives − Refer to Table 1.

6.B.(2) Laminating resins − Refer to Table 2.

6.B.(3) Low viscosity adhesives − Refer to Table 3.

6.B.(4) Low density compounds − Refer to Table 4.


6.B.(5) Foaming adhesives − Refer to Table 5.

6.B.(6) Adhesive films − Refer to Table 6.

6.B.(7) Anti corrosion Primers − Refer to Table 7.

6.B.(8) Dry Fabric.


6.B.(9) Prepregs − Refer to Table 8 thru 11.

6.B.(10) Pre−cured doublers and sections − Refer to Table 12.

6.B.(11) Honeycomb core − Refer to Table 16 thru 18.

6.B.(12) Material Storage Requirements − Refer to Table 19.


WARNING: ADHESIVES ARE DANGEROUS. OBEY THE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS WHEN YOU
WORK WITH ADHESIVES. REFER TO PARAGRAPH 2.

(1) Paste Adhesives − Refer to Table 1

Adhesives are two component, room temperature (RT) curing adhesives.


Cure time can be reduced by accelerated heating, details of which
are included in the table. They are used for a range of applica
tions:
− Metal bonding
− Pre−cured doublers bonding
− Honeycomb core restoration:− partial or total bonding
− honeycomb core skin bonding
− honeycomb core splicing

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

But it should be noted that the range of applications stated will


not be covered by every adhesive called up. Selection will be neces
sary and will be governed by the particular application.

NOTE: Refer to Paragraph 4.A. for preparation.

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MIXING RATIO GEL TIME AT FLOW ON


MATERIAL NO. POT LIFE AT 25 °C
MANUFACTURER/CODE (PARTS BY WEIGHT CONSISTENCY 25 °C (77 °F) CURING CYCLE <7> VERTICAL SHRINKAGE
(CML NO.) (77 °F)
RESIN : HARDENER) (HOURS) SURFACES
24 hours at 25 °C (77 °F) or
VANTICO / ARALDITE AW106 + 100 min. for approx. <1>
08−001 100:80 Paste 3 hours at 40 °C (100 °F) yes <4> high
HARDENER HV953U <3> <5> 100 g (3.5 oz) amount
5 1 hour at 70 °C (160 °F) <2>
7 days at 25 °C (77 °F) or
Approx. 1 hour for
3M / EC1838 B/A 08−001A 100:100 Paste 6 2 hours at 65 °C (150 °F) <2> or no moderate
100 g (3.50 z) amount
30 minutes at 90 °C (200 °F) <2>
48 hours at 25 °C (77 °F) or
VANTICO / ARALDITE AV138 + 35 min. for approx.
08−010 100:40 Paste 3 16 hours at 40 °C (100 °F) or no moderate
HARDENER HV998 100 g (3.5 oz) amount
1 hour at 70 °C (160 °F) <2>
VANTICO / ARALDITE AW134 + 60 to 70 min. for 100 1 hour at 60 °C (140 °F) <2> or
08−010A 100:40 Paste 3 yes <4> moderate
HARDENER HY994 <3> g (3.5 oz) amount 20 minutes at 80 °C (180 °F) <2>
8 hours at 25 °C (77 °F) or
VANTICO / ARALDITE AW134 + 50 to 70 min. for 100
08−010A 100:60 Paste 3 30 minutes at 60 °C (140 °F) <2> or yes <4> moderate
HARDENER HV997 <3> g (3.5 oz) amount
15 minutes at 80 °C (180°F) <2>
40 min. for approx. 7 days at 25 °C (77 °F) or
HYSOL / EA9321 <3> 08−010D 100:50 Thixothropic <1> yes <4> moderate
450 g (16 oz) amount 1 hour at 80 °C (176 °F) <2>
35 min. for approx. 3 to 5 days at 25 °C (77 °F) or
HYSOL / EA9309.3NA <3> 08−017 100:22 Paste 5 yes <4> moderate
450 g (16 oz) amount 1 hour at 80 °C (180 °F) <2>
90 min. for 100 g 7 days at 25 °C (77 °F) or
3M / EC2216 B/A <3> 08−017A 100:140 Paste 5 yes <4> moderate
(3.5 oz) 2 hours at 65 °C (150 °F) <2>
5 to 7 days at 25 °C (77 °F) or
40 min. for approx.
HYSOL / EA934 NA 08−051 100:33 Thixothropic 2 8 hours at 50 °C (120 °F) or no moderate
450 g (16 oz) amount
1 hour at 90 °C (200 °F) <2>
Paste Adhesives
Table 1

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MIXING RATIO GEL TIME AT FLOW ON


MATERIAL NO. POT LIFE AT 25 °C
MANUFACTURER/CODE (PARTS BY WEIGHT CONSISTENCY 25 °C (77 °F) CURING CYCLE <7> VERTICAL SHRINKAGE
(CML NO.) (77 °F)
RESIN : HARDENER) (HOURS) SURFACES
100 min. for 450 g 5 days at 25 °C (77 °F) or
HYSOL / EA9394 A/B 08−078 100:17 Thixothropic <6> no moderate
(16 oz) amount 70 minutes at 70 °C (160 °F) <2>
7 days at 25 °C (77 °F) or
VANTICO / ARALDITE 420 A/B 1 hour for approx.
08−089 100:40 Paste 6 4 hours at 50 °C (120 °F) or yes <4> moderate
<3> 100 g (3.5 oz) amount
1 hour at 120 °C (250 °F) <2>
Paste Adhesives
Table 1
<1> Gellation at RT (Room Temperature) not required. Cure cycle can be applied directly.

<2> Tolerances: ± 5 °C (9 °F) on curing temperature and 0/+ 15 minutes on curing time.

<3> Not recommended for core closing.

<4> If required add thickening agent (Material No. 05−089), refer to Paragraph 4.A.(3)(e).

<5> Unless otherwise stated in specific Chapter. Do not use this paste for potting and core splicing.
<6> Wait for 1 hour minimum at RT prior to curing.

For core closing and potting wait for 6 hours minimum at RT prior to curing.
Alternatively: For core closing and potting wait for 10 hours minimum at RT then perform the nex repair steps, refer to Paragraph 5.H..

<7> Heat up rate 1° C to 3° C (2° F to 6° F) per minute.


Cool down rate maximum 3° C (6° F) per minute.

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WARNING: LAMINATING RESINS ARE DANGEROUS. OBEY THE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS


WHEN YOU WORK WITH LAMINATING RESINS. REFER TO PARAGRAPH 2.
(2) Laminating Resins − Refer to Table 2

Laminating resins are two component, low viscosity, epoxy resins.


They are used to impregnate dry fabric and to inject dent or dela
mination repair. Laminating resins are classified in three different
types according to their application.
For repair of repairable damages Type 1 resins in combination with
Type 1 dry fabrics (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(8)) shall be used. It is
permissible to use Type 2 resins in conjunction with Type 1 or Type
2 fabrics, when specified in the relevant Chapter.

For repair of repairable damages Type 2 resin shall be preferrably


used, although Type 1 and Type 3 can be also used. All can be com
bined with any Type of dry fabric (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(8)).

NOTE: Refer to Paragraph 4.A. for preparation.

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MIXING RATIO GEL TIME AT


RESIN MATERIAL NO.
MANUFACTURER/CODE (PARTS BY WEIGHT POT LIFE AT 25 °C (77 °F) 25 °C (77 °F) CURING CYCLE <5>
TYPE (CML NO.)
RESIN : HARDENER) (HOURS)
1 VANTICO / EPOCAST 52 A/B 08−098 100:41 60 min. for 100 g (3.5 oz) <1> 2 hours at 93 °C (200 °F) <3>
08−070
75 to 90 min. for 450 g
2 HYSOL / EA9396, PART A AND B or 100:30 <1> 2 hours at 80 °C (180 °F) <4>
(16 oz)
20−022
VANTICO / ARALDITE LY5052 + Hardener HY5052 220 to 260 min. for 100 g
2 08−090 100:38 <1> 2 hours at 80 °C (180 °F) <4>
or ARALDITE LY5052 + Hardener ARADUR5052 (3.5 oz)
VANTICO / ARALDITE LY560 + HARDENER HY560
or
Approx. 30 to 40 min. for 7 days at 25 °C (77 °F) or
3 RENLAM LY560 + HARDENER REN HY560 08−001C 100:25 −
500 g (17.6 oz) amount 14 hours at 65 °C (150 °F) <4>
or
RENLAM LY560 + HARDENER ARADUR560
7 days at 20 °C (68 °F) or
or
3 − 100:27 20 min. for 250 g (8.8 oz) 3 15 hours at 50 °C (120 °F) or
VANTICO / ARALDITE LY564−1 + Hardener HY560
4 hours at 80 °C (180 °F) <4>
08−030
SHELL / EPICOTE 816 + Hardener RTU or − − − −
08−030B
Use materials:
3 SHELL / EPICOTE 816 + ARALDITE HY943
08−070 − − − −
(VANTICO)
08−090
HYSOL / EA9390, PART A AND B 08−071 100:56 2 hours for 250 g (8.8 oz) <1> 4 hours at 93 °C (200 °F) <3>
7 days at 25 °C (77 °F) or
3 VANTICO / ARALDITE 501 20−018 100:15 80 min. for 100 g (3.5 oz) <2> 16 hours at 45 °C (115 °F) or
2 hours at 70 °C (160 °F) <4>
Laminating Resins
Table 2
<1> Gellation at RT (Room Temperature) not required. Cure cycle can be applied directly.

<2> Curing cycle can be applied after 60 minutes with full vacuum pressure and before 180 minutes.

<3> 93 °C (199 °F) is the minimum cure temperature, Tolerances: 0/+ 10 °C (18 °F) on curing temperature and 0/+15 minutes on curing time.

<4> Tolerances: ±5 °C (9 °F) on curing temperature and 0/+ 15 minutes on curing time.
<5> Heat up rate 1° C to 3° C (2° F to 6° F) per minute.
Cool down rate maximum 3° C (6° F) per minute.

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WARNING: ADHESIVES ARE DANGEROUS. OBEY THE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS WHEN YOU
WORK WITH ADHESIVES. REFER TO PARAGRAPH 2.
(3) Low Viscosity Adhesives − Refer to Table 3

Low viscosity adhesives are two component RT adhesives. The low vis
cosity of these materials allows them to be used for:
− injection (dent or delamination repair)
− impregnation of dry fabric

NOTE: Refer to Paragraph 4.A. for preparation.

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

MIXING RATIO
MANUFACTURER/CODE MATERIAL NO. CONSISTENCY POT LIFE AT 25 °C (77 °F) CURING CYCLE <1>
(PARTS BY WEIGHT)
VANTICO ARALDITE AW134 + Hardener HY994 or Data corresponding to these two products which are paste adhesives in accordance with their consistency, have been
VANTICO ARALDITE AW134 + Hardener HY997 transferred to Table 1,
, Paste Adhesives. For applications
pp where low viscosity
y adhesives are needed,
, any
y of the materials
3M EC2216 B/A in Table 2, Laminating Resins shall be used.
Low Viscosity Adhesives
Table 3
<1> Heat up rate 1° C to 3° C (2° F to 6° F) per minute.
Cool down rate maximum 3° C (6° F) per minute.

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WARNING: LOW DENSITY COMPOUNDS ARE DANGEROUS. OBEY THE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
WHEN YOU WORK WITH LOW DENSITY COMPOUNDS. REFER TO PARAGRAPH 2.
(4) Low Density Compounds − Refer to Table 4

Low density compounds are either one or two component epoxy resin
with thixotropic properties. Low density compounds can be used to
fill the honeycomb core and seal the edges of sandwich panels.

NOTE: Refer to Paragraph 4.A. for preparation.

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MIXING RATIO
MATERIAL NO.
MANUFACTURER/CODE (PARTS BY WEIGHT CONSISTENCY POT LIFE AT 25 °C (77 °F) CURING CYCLE <2>
(CML NO.)
RESIN : HARDENER)
2 hours for 200 g (7.0 oz)
3M / EC3524 B/A 08−022 100:94 Thixotropic paste 16 hours at 24 °C (75 °F)
amount
1.5 hours for 100 g (3.5 oz) 16 hours at 22 °C (72 °F) or 2
VANTICO / ARALDITE 252 08−022C 100:40 Non sag paste
2 hours for 50 g (1.8 oz) hours at 70 °C (160 °F) <1>
3 hours at 18 °C (64 °F) to
08−046A or
3M / EC3500 B/A 100:150 Thixotropic paste 25 °C (77 °F) for 200 g (7.0 1.5 hours at 120 °C (250 °F) <1>
20−045
oz) amount
One component 4 days at 18 °C (64 °F) to
3M / EC3439 HT 08−046B Thixotropic paste 1 hour at 120 °C (250 °F) <1>
material 25 °C (77 °F)
VANTICO / EPOCAST 1616 (no longer 20 minutes at 25 °C (77 °F) plus
30 minutes for 100 g (3.5 oz)
available see EPOCAST 1619 or ARALDITE 05−090 100:7 Soft paste 2 hours at 50 °C (120 °F) <1>
amount
252 or EC 352 B/A or 24 hours at 25 °C (77 °F)
40 minutes at 25 °C (77 °F) plus
20 −50 minutes for 50g
−HUNSTMANN/EPO CAST 1619A/B 20−042 100:25 Soft paste 2 hours at 50 °C (122 °F) or 24
(1.8oz)
hours at 25 °C (77 °F). <1>
3 − 4 hours at 25 °C (77 °F)
20 − 35 minutes for 200g plus 2 hours at 60 °C (140 °F)
HUNSTMANN/ARALDITE 1644A/B 20−040 100:20 Paste
(7.1oz) − 80 °C (176 °F) or 24 − 36
hours at 25 °C (77 °F). <1>
3M/EC 3500−2 or SCOTCHWELD 3500−2B/A 20−045A 100:100 Thixotropic paste 48 hours for 100g (3.5oz) 1 hour at 120 °C (250 °F) <1>
Low Density Compounds
Table 4
<1> Tolerances: ±5 °C (9 °F) on curing temperature and 0/+15 minutes on curing time.
<2> Heat up rate 1° C to 3° C (2° F to 6° F) per minute.
Cool down rate maximum 3° C (6° F) per minute.

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WARNING: ADHESIVES ARE DANGEROUS. OBEY THE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS WHEN YOU
WORK WITH ADHESIVES. REFER TO PARAGRAPH 2.
(5) Foaming Adhesives − Refer to Table 5

Foaming adhesives are paste or sheet, epoxy based adhesives, that


expand during the curing time. Foaming adhesives are used for edge
splicing honeycomb core to honeycomb core or honeycomb core to edge
members.
NOTE: Refer to Paragraph 4.A. for preparation.

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MATERIAL NO. SHOP LIFE AT 25 °C (77 °F)


MANUFACTURER/CODE TYPE OF MATERIAL FILM THICKNESS CURING CYCLE <1> <3> <6>
(CML NO.) 75 % RELATIVE HUMIDITY
2.5 mm (0.1 in.),
Refer to
HEXCEL / REDUX 204 One component Material (paste) applied with a 3 months 60 min at 120 °C (250 °F) <4>
TN 10053
spatula
08−047A
CYANAMID / FM 41 replaced by
FM410.1.050
90 minutes at 120 °C (250 °F) <4> or
CYTEC / FIBERITE FM 410.1.050 <2> 08−047C Sheet (film) 1.3 mm (0.05 in.) 10 days
4 hours at 90 °C (200 °F) <2> <5>
3M / AF3024 08−047B Sheet (film) 1.3 mm (0.05 in.) 10 days 90 minutes at 120 °C (250 °F) <4>
Foaming Adhesive 120 °C (250 °F) Curing
Table 5
<1> Unless otherwise indicated in a specific chapter.

<2> Only this foaming adhesive must be used to splice honeycomb core to honeycomb core in sandwich repairs when heat can be only applied from one side. The al
ternative cure cycle (4 hours at 90 °C (200 °F)) must be used.

<3> Cure time tolerance 0/+ 15 minutes.

<4> Cure temperature tolerance ± 5 °C (9 °F).


<5> Cure temperature tolerance 0/+ 10 °C (18 °F).

<6> Heat up rate 1° C to 3° C (2° F to 6° F) per minute.


Cool down rate maximum 3° C (6° F) per minute.

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WARNING: ADHESIVES ARE DANGEROUS. OBEY THE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS WHEN YOU
WORK WITH ADHESIVES. REFER TO PARAGRAPH 2.
(6) Adhesive Film 120 C (250 F) Curing − Refer to Table 6

Adhesive films are epoxy based materials, used for co−bonding of


prepregs, or for bonding composite or metallic materials.

NOTE: Refer to Paragraph 4.A. for preparation.

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MATERIAL NO. SHOP LIFE AT 25 °C (77 °F)


MANUFACTURER/CODE ASSOCIATED PRIMER <1> WEIGHT g/m2 (oz/ft2) CURING CYCLE <2> <4> <7>
(CML NO.) 75 % RELATIVE HUMIDITY
90 minutes at 120 °C (250 °F) <5> or
CYTEC / FIBERITE FM−73M.06 <3> 08−042A BR127 300 (1) 10 days
4 hours at 90 °C (200 °F) <3> <6>
90 minutes at 120 °C (250 °F) <5> or
CYTEC / FIBERITE FM−73M.03 <3> 08−088 ARBR127 150 (0.5) 10 days
4 hours at 90 °C (200 °F) <3> <6>
3M / AF−163−2K.06 08−042 BR127 300 (1) 10 days 90 minutes at 120 °C (250 °F) <5>
3M / AF−163−2.OST.03 BR127 150 (0.5) 10 days 90 minutes at 120 °C (250 °F) <5>
HEXCEL / REDUX 312/5 REDUX 113/2 or BR127 300 (1) 1 month 90 minutes at 120 °C (250 °F) <5>
HYSOL / EA9628 NW.06 08−042B Not required 300 (1) 20 days 90 minutes at 120 °C (250 °F) <5>
Adhesive Film 120 °C (250 °F) Curing
Table 6
<1> Refer to paragraph 6.B.(7).

<2> Unless otherwise indicated in a specific chapter.

<3> Only these adhesive films must be used to bond the honeycomb core to the inner skin in sandwich repairs when heat can be only applied from one side. The
alternative cure cycle (4 hours at 90 °C (200 °F)) must be used.

<4> Cure time tolerance 0/+ 15 minutes.


<5> Cure temperature tolerance ± 5 °C (9 °F).

<6> Cure temperature tolerance 0/+ 10 °C (18 °F).

<7> Heat up rate 1° C to 3° C (2° F to 6° F) per minute.


Cool down rate maximum 3° C (6° F) per minute.

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(7) Anti Corrosion Primers − Refer to Table 7

Anti corrosion primers are commonly used in conjunction with paste


adhesives or film adhesives in the bonding of aluminum details. They
are also used as a pre−treatment for metallic parts outside the
bonded area before painting.

NOTE: Refer to Paragraph 4.B.(6) for preparation.

When used for bonding the primer can be cured separately or cured
with the adhesive film.

Parts protected with bonding primer can be stored, subject to satis


factory packaging, providing that they are protected from any contam
ination. The time in storage shall be as specified by the adhesive
bonding primer supplier.

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MIXING RATIO
MATERIAL NO. DRYING TIME + CURING TIME
MANUFACTURER/CODE (PARTS BY WEIGHT DENSITY g/cm3 (lb/ft3) SHOP LIFE NECESSARY THICKNESS
(CML NO.) <3>
RESIN : HARDENER)
Refer to
HEXCEL / REDUX 113/2 1 day at 25 °C (77 °F)
TN 10109 30 minutes at 25 °C (77 °F) 2 to 8 micrometer
100:40 0.9 (56) 5 days at 20 °C (68 °F) + 1 hour at 120 °C (250 °F) (78 to 315 microin
CYTEC / FIBERITE BR127 08−055 to 30 °C (86 °F) at 75 % <1> <2> ches)
relative humidity
Anti Corrosion Primers
Table 7
<1> Cure temperature tolerance ± 5 °C (9 °F).

<2> Cure time tolerance 0/+ 15 minutes.

<3> Heat up rate 1° C to 3° C (2° F to 6° F) per minute.


Cool down rate maximum 3° C (6° F) per minute.

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(8) Dry Fabric

(a) Glass fabric


Dry glass fabrics are used for repair of glass and aramid compo
nents.

Dry glass fabrics are classified in two types according to their


application (Refer to the Table below).

For repair of repairable damages Type 1 fabrics in combination


with Type 1 laminating resins (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(2)) shall
be used. It is permissible to use Type 2 fabric in conjunction
with Type 1 or Type 2 resin, when specified in the relevant
Chapter.

For repair of allowable damages both Type 1 and Type 2 fabrics


can be used if the fabric weight, style and orientation of the
original plies are respected.

For aramid structure, unless otherwise indicated in a specific


chapter, each aramid ply can be replaced with one glass ply with
respect to the orientation and style as follows:

ARAMID STYLE GLASS REPAIR STYLE


120 120
285 181

Raw material is sensitive to moisture. It requires to be stored


wrapped in polyethylene foil.

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MATERIAL NO. MANUFACTURER/


TYPE STYLE SPECIFICATION
(CML NO.) CODE
7781 HEXCEL FABRICS
1 293 g/m2 in course (EUROPE)
MIL−C−9084C
(0.96 oz/ft2) 7781 / Z6040
TYPE VIII A or B
181
Class 2
293 g/m2 05−007
(0.96 oz/ft2)
2 <1> <2>
120 MIL−C−9084C
105 g/m2 05−033 TYPE III
(0.34 oz/ft2) Class 2

<1> Glass fabrics from any Manufacturer fulfilling MIL−C−9084C


(TYPE III Class 2 or TYPE VIII Class 2) requirements can be
used.

<2> For improved resin adhesion, leading to strong bonds and re
sistance to environmental conditions, glass fiber must be
surface treated. SILANE finishes meet these requirements. SI
LANE finishes types and denomination vary with the different
suppliers:

Z6040: HEXCEL, INTERGLASS, CLARKE SCHWEVEL

287: COURTAULDS
558: BGF BURLINGTON

(b) Carbon fabric

Dry carbon fabrics are classified in two types according to their


application (Refer to the Table below).

For repair of repairable damages Type 1 fabrics in combination


with Type 1 laminating resins (Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(2)) shall
be used. It is permissible to use Type 2 fabric in conjunction
with Type 1 or Type 2 resin, when specified in the relevant
Chapter.

For repair of allowable damages both Type 1 and Type 2 fabrics


can be used if the fabric weight, style and orientation of the
original plies are respected.

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MATERIAL NO.
TYPE STYLE MANUFACTURER / CODE
(CML NO.)
Plain weave 05−117
1 193 g/m2 or HEXCEL FABRICS (EUROPE) / G0904
(0.62 oz/ft2) 20−023
HEXCEL (USA) / F3T−433
5H satin HEXCEL FABRICS (EUROPE) / G0803
285 g/m2
(0.93 oz/ft2) HEXCEL FABRICS (EUROPE) / G0833
HEXCEL FABRICS (EUROPE) / G0933
CYTEC FIBERITE / HMF−133
(no longer available)
HEXCEL (USA) / F3T−584
8H or 5H
satin HEXCEL FABRICS (EUROPE) / G0815
370 g/m2 INTERGLASS / 98166
(1.2 /ft2)
(1 2 oz/ft HEXCEL FABRICS (EUROPE) / G0926
2 HEXCEL FABRICS (EUROPE) / G1070
CCC, C. CRAMER GmbH & Co. KG / 439
HEXCEL (USA) / F3T−282
05−088 HEXCEL FABRICS (EUROPE) / G0814
Plain weave CYTEC FIBERITE / W−5−322
193 g/m2
(0.62 oz/ft2) INTERGLASS / 98138
HEXCEL FABRICS (EUROPE) / G0904
HEXCEL FABRICS (EUROPE) / 43193
Plain weave
135 g/m2 20−021 HEXCEL FABRICS (EUROPE) / G0806
(0.44 oz/ft2)

WARNING: PREPREGS ARE DANGEROUS. OBEY THE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS WHEN YOU
WORK WITH PREPREGS. REFER TO PARAGRAPH 2.

(9) Prepregs − Refer to Tables 8 thru 11

The following types of prepregs can be used:


− 120 °C (250 °F) curing prepregs can be used to manufacture precured
doublers, or used for repair under vacuum conditions,
− 180 °C (350 °F) curing prepregs can be used to produce precured
doublers. They can be called up for extended repairs in specific
repair chapters. In this case, an autoclave or platen press is re
quired to meet production requirements.

Table 8 thru 11 give the required information related to material


identification, description and curing as follows:
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− Table 8 − Glass 120 °C (250 °F) curing prepregs,


− Table 9 − Carbon 120 °C (250 °F) curing prepregs,
− Table 10 − Glass 180 °C (350 °F) curing prepregs,
− Table 11 − Carbon 180 °C (350 °F) curing prepregs.

NOTE: For aramid structure, unless otherwise indicated in a specific


chapter, each aramid ply can be replaced with one glass ply
with respect to the orientation and style (Refer to Paragraph
6.B.(8)).

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MATERIAL NO. FIBER AREAL WEIGHT STYLE RESIN CONTENT RELATED ADHESIVE FILM CURING CYCLE
MANUFACTURER/CODE WEAVE
(CML NO.) g/m2 (oz/ft2) DESIGNATION (% BY WEIGHT) <1> <2> <4> <5> <6>
AIK / EHG−250−68−50 7781 50 FM−73M.06
90 minutes at 125 °C (260 °F)
FM 73M 03 <8>
FM−73M.03 <3>
AIK / EHG−250−68−37 8H satin 293 (0.96) 1581 37
AF−163−2K.06
AF 163 2K.06
HEXCEL / VICOTEX 1454/50/7581 7581 50 AF−163−2.OST.03 <8> 90 minutes at 120 °C (250 °F)
FM−73M.06
HEXCEL / VICOTEX 1454/50/120 20−009A
FM−73M.03 <8> 90 minutes at 120 °C (250 °F)
4H satin 105 (0
(0.34)
34) 120 50
AF−163−2K.06 <7>
CYTEC / MXB 7701/120 (50%) 20−009
AF−163−2.OST.03 <8>

HEXCEL / F155−120 (50%) 50 FM−73M.06 90 minutes at 120 °C (250 °F)


FM−73M.03 <8>
4H satin 105 (0.34) 120
AF−163−2K.06 90 minutes at 125 °C (260 °F)
AIK / EHG−250−44−55 55
AF−163−2.OST.03 <8> <3>

05−107B or FM−73M.06
HEXCEL / VICOTEX 1454/38/120
20−012B FM−73M.03 <8> 90 minutes at 120 °C (250 °F)
4H satin 105 (0
(0.34)
34) 120 38
05−107A or AF−163−2K.06 <7>
CYTEC / MXB 7701/120 (38%)
20−012A AF−163−2.OST.03 <8>
FM−73M.06
05−107 or FM−73M.03 <8>
HEXCEL / F155−120 (38%) 4H satin 105 (0.34) 120 38 90 minutes at 120 °C (250 °F)
20−012 AF−163−2K.06
AF−163−2.OST.03 <8>
Glass 120 °C (250 °F) Curing Prepreg
Table 8
<1> Refer to paragraph 6.B.(6).

<2> Unless otherwise indicated in a specific chapter.

<3> For co−cure repairs with adhesive film this cure cycle must be used.

<4> Cure temperature tolerance ± 5 °C (9 °F).

<5> Cure time tolerance 0/+ 15 minutes.


<6> Heat up rate 1° C to 3° C (2° F to 6° F) per minute.
Cool down rate maximum 3° C (6° F) per minute.

<7> Unless noted in specific Chapter

<8> FM73 M.03 and AF163−2−OST.03 are to be used as surfacing film or cover ply only.

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MATERIAL NO. FIBER AREAL WEIGHT


MANUFACTURER/CODE WEAVE RELATED ADHESIVE FILM <1> CURING CYCLE <2> <5>
(CML NO.) g/m2 (oz/ft2)
REDUX 312/5 90 minutes at 120 °C (250 °F)
HEXCEL / 913C−815−40
20−016 8H satin 370 (1.2) FM−73 <3> <4>
HEXCEL / 913C−926−40
AF163
HEXCEL / 6268C−833−45 REDUX 312/5
90 minutes at 120 °C (250 °F)
HEXCEL / 6268C−933−45 5H satin 285 (0.9) FM−73
<3> <4>
HEXCEL / 6268C−943−45 AF163
HEXCEL / VICOTEX 913 / 46% G814NT 05−091 Plain weave FM−73M.06
FM−73M.03 <6> 90 minutes at 120 °C (250 °F)
193 (0.6)
Plain weave AF−163−2K.06 <3> <4>
CYTEC FIBERITE / CYCOM 919−39−3KHS−P−193 05−092
satin AF−163−2.OST.03 <6>
REDUX 312/5
90 minutes at 120 °C (250 °F)
913−TS−10−40 20−017 Tape 262 (0.8) FM−73
<3> <4>
AF163
Carbon 120 °C (250 °F) Curing Prepreg
Table 9
<1> Refer to paragraph 6.B.(6).

<2> Unless otherwise indicated in a specific chapter.

<3> Cure temperature tolerance ± 5 °C (9 °F).

<4> Cure time tolerance 0/+ 15 minutes.

<5> Heat up rate 1° C to 3° C (2° F to 6° F) per minute.


Cool down rate maximum 3° C (6° F) per minute.

<6> FM73 M.03 and AF163−2−OST.03 are to be used as surfacing film or cover ply only.

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MATERIAL NO. FIBER AREAL WEIGHT RESIN CONTENT RELATED


MANUFACTURER/CODE WEAVE STYLE DESIGNATION CURING CYCLE <1> <4>
(CML NO.) g/m2 (oz/ft2) (% BY WEIGHT) ADHESIVE
AIK / EHG 275−44−55 4H satin 105 (0.34) 120 55 Not 60 minutes at 180 °C (350 °F)
AIK / EHG 275−68−50 8H satin 293 (0.96) 7781 50 applicable <2> <3>
Glass Prepreg 180 °C (350 °F) Curing System
Table 10
<1> Unless otherwise indicated in a specific chapter.

<2> Cure temperature tolerance ± 5 °C (9 °F).

<3> Cure time tolerance 0/+ 15 minutes.

<4> Heat up rate 1° C to 3° C (2° F to 6° F) per minute.


Cool down rate maximum 3° C (6° F) per minute.

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MATERIAL NO. FIBER AREAL WEIGHT RESIN CONTENT RELATED ADHESIVE


MANUFACTURER/CODE WEAVE CURING CYCLE <1> <4>
(CML NO.) g/m2 (oz/ft2) (% BY WEIGHT) FILM
Not required for
120 minutes at 180 °C (350 °F)
HEXCEL / W3T−282−42−F593−14 20−013 Plain weave 193 (0.6) 42 doubler manufactur
<2> <3>
ing
Not required for
120 minutes at 180 °C (350 °F)
HEXCEL / AG−193−PW/8552−RC40 20−002 Plain weave 193 (0.6) 40 doubler manufactur
<2> <3>
ing
Not required for
120 minutes at 180 °C (350 °F)
HEXCEL / AS4/8552 RC34 AW196 20−014 UD tape 196 (0.6) 34 doubler manufactur
<2> <3>
ing
Carbon 180 °C (350 °F) Curing Prepreg
Table 11
<1> Unless otherwise indicated in a specific chapter.

<2> Cure temperature tolerance ± 5 °C (9 °F).

<3> Cure time tolerance 0/+ 15 minutes.

<4> Heat up rate 1° C to 3° C (2° F to 6° F) per minute.


Cool down rate maximum 3° C (6° F) per minute.

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(10) Pre−cured Doublers and Sections

(a) General
Composite repair doublers are usually cut from pre−cured sheet
materials or profiles and are normally covered with a protective
peel ply (Refer to Paragraph 3.B.(2), Auxiliary Materials).

Except otherwise indicated, the thickness of the pre−cured dou


bler must be equal to, or can be thicker by up to 10%, compared
to the skin being repaired.

Except otherwise indicated, the doubler material must be the same


as the structure being repaired, that means:
− CFRP doublers to repair CFRP structures.
− GFRP doublers to repair GFRP or AFRP structures.

(b) Doubler list


− Standard flat doublers are listed in Table 12,
− Specific doublers and sections are referenced in Chapter
55−11−00 and Chapter 55−31−00.
All these doublers can be purchased from AIRSPARES (Material Sup
port Centre) with a standard size of 1000 x 800 mm (39,4 x 31,5
in.). Larger sizes are available on request.

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ITEM DOUBLER
MATERIAL LAY−UP PART NUMBER
NUMBER THICKNESS
0.72 mm
1 0/90, ± 45, 0/90 35 R551 SRM 101−000
(0.03 in.)
0.96 mm
2 0/90, ± 45, ± 45, 0/90 35 R551 SRM 101−002
(0.04 in.)
1.92 mm
3 (0/90, ± 45, ± 45, 0/90) 2S 35 R551 SRM 106−008
(0.08 in.)
2.16 mm
4 HEXCEL / W3T−282−42−F593−14 <1> 0/90, ± 45, 0/90, ± 45, 0/90, ± 45, 0.90, ± 45, 0/90 35 R551 SRM 101−008
(0.09 in.)
2.88 mm
5 (0/90, ± 45, + 45, 0/90, 0/90, ± 45) 2S 35 R551 SRM 101−016
(0.11 in.)
3.84 mm
6 (0/90, ± 45, 0/90, ± 45) 4S 35 R551 SRM 110−020
(0.15 in.)
4.8 mm
7 [(0/90, ± 45, ± 45, 0/90) 2S, 0/90, ± 45] 2S 35 R551 SRM 100−012
(0.19 in.)
0.72 mm
8 (± 45, ± 45) R5537012300000
(0.03 in.)
1.44 mm
9 (± 45, ± 45, ± 45, ± 45) R5537012300200
(0.06 in.)
1.8 mm
10 HEXCEL / 913−C815−40 <2> ± 45, ± 45, ± 45, ± 45, ± 45 R5537012300400
(0.07 in.)
2.16 mm
11 ± 45, ± 45, ± 45, ± 45, ± 45, ± 45 R5537012300600
(0.09 in.)
1.8 mm
12 ± 45, 0/90, ± 45, 0/90, ± 45 R5537012300800
(0.07 in.)
Standard Flat Doublers
Table 12
<1> Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(9) Table 11.

<2> Refer to Paragraph 6.B.(9) Table 9.

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(c) Local doubler manufacturing (Refer to Figure 23)

NOTE: Materials to be used are those listed in Tables 8 thru 11.


120 °C (250 °F) or 180 °C (350 °F) prepregs must be cured
in an autoclave process or platen press.

NOTE: Ply orientation. For structural repairs refer to the origi


nal lay up. For shim manufacture, 0/90 ± 45 sequence of
lay up with respect to mirror symmetry.
NOTE: Refer to Paragraph 3.B.(2) for the auxiliary materials.

NOTE: Refer to Paragraph 4.C.(1)(d) for lay−up requirements.

For each doubler panel a test panel 80 mm (3.150 in.) by 65 mm


(2.559 in.) (five speciments in a row, see Figure 25) or 65 mm
(2.559 in.) by 95 mm (3.740 in.) (three speciments in a row and
two speciments in a second row) must be laid up. For it use the
same batch of prepreg material and cure with the doubler being
manufactured. Numbers of plies and their orientation for test
panel manufacturing are given for each doubler material in the
Table 13 below. The warp orientation 0 must be parallel to the
specimen length within ± 0.5.

MINIMUM NR.
TYPE OF RE CML NUMBER
REFERENCE ORIENTATION OF TEST
INFORCEMENT CODE OF PLIES
SPECIMENS
Carbon plain
W3T−282−42−F593−14 20−013 12 0 5
wave 193 g/m2
Carbon 8
913−G815 or
harness satin 20−016 8 0 5
913−C926
370 g/m2
Carbon plain AG−193−PW 8552−
20−002 10 0 5
wave 193 g/m2 RC40
Carbon tape AS4/8552 RC34
20−014 11 0 5
196 g/m2 AW196
Interlaminar Shear Specimen
Table 13
1 Prepare a flat score and abrasion free metal plate 10 mm (0.39
in.) thick. Make sure that the plate is big enough for the
vacuum bag installation, greater than 150 mm (5.91 in.) around
the doubler and the test panel (Refer to Paragraph
6.B.(10)(c)).

2 Apply a non perforated film on the metal plate, extending 15


mm (0.59 in.) beyond the edge of the prepreg laminate.

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3 Apply a layer of peel ply 25 mm (0.98 in.) beyond the edge of


the prepreg laminate.
NOTE: For laminate preparation (cutting and laying up), refer
to Paragraph 4.C..

4 Apply the prepreg plies, debulking every 3 plies, refer to


Paragraph 4.C. for lay up.

5 Place a layer of peel ply extending 25 mm (0.98 in.) beyond


the edge of the prepreg laminate.

6 Apply vacuum bag sealant tape to the periphery of the repair


area, preferably 150 mm (5.91 in.) beyond the prepreg laminate.

7 Place thermocouples spaced evenly around the edge of the pre


preg laminate area. Place the thermocouples up to 3 mm (0.12
in.) from the edge of the prepreg laminate. A minimum of three
thermocouples shall be used, suitably positioned around the
prepreg laminate.

NOTE: The highest temperature recorded is to be used to control


the heating process, to avoid temperature overshoot.

NOTE: The lowest temperature indicated is to be used to deter


mine the cure time.

8 Place a layer of non perforated parting film over the peel


ply, extending 12 mm (0.47 in.) beyond the edge of the prepreg
laminate. Smooth to avoid wrinkles.

9 Position a caul plate so that the edges are flush with the
edge of the prepreg laminate.

10 Place a breather line (two ropes) extending 100 mm (3.94 in.)


beyond the prepreg laminate.
11 Install a breather cloth so that it covers the breather line.

12 Install a minimum of two vacuum probes through openings cut in


the vacuum bag.

NOTE: One will be used for the vacuum gage, the other will be
connected to the vacuum source.

Place a vacuum monitor line connector (or vacuum gage connec


tor) on the opposite side of the bag to the vacuum bag. Do
not place probes on or near the laminate. Place a probe on a
pad of breather material and place this on the edge of the
breather material.

13 Cover with vacuum bag film and smooth to minimize wrinkles.


Press the vacuum bag film firmly onto the vacuum bag sealant
tape to get an airtight seal. Place tucks in the vacuum bag

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

film where necessary, to allow for gap material stretching and


abrupt transitional or contour changes.
14 Connect vacuum source to the vacuum bag and working from the
center. Smooth the vacuum bag by hand pressure as the air is
removed.

Evacuate the space under the vacuum bag. Check for leaks and
re−seal if necessary. Maximum vacuum pressure drop (leak rate)
is to be less than 0.2 bar (2.9 psi) in 5 minutes.

A minimum vacuum of 0.75 bar (10.9 psi) or 560 mm Hg (22 inch


Hg) is required, unless specified otherwise by the repair docu
ment.

15 Cure the laminate in an autoclave.


NOTE: For curing parameters refer to the relevant material
Tables 8 thru 11.

NOTE: Refer to Figure 24 for curing profile.

NOTE: Record curing data for doubler used in a structural re


pair.

16 Post curing inspection:


− peel plies must be retained to protect the doubler faces
− refer to Chapter 51−77−10, Paragraph 5 for general checks
− for doubler used in a structural repair, an ultrasonic in
spection must be done
− refer to the Non Destructive Test Manual NTM Chapter
51−10−06, for delamination detection. For doubler panel use
’pulse echo sonic’ NTM technique. Delaminated or highly po
rous area(s) (with an attenuation more than 18db) more than
10 mm (0.394 in.) in diameter must be rejected.
− apply a stripe of paint or unleaded white pen to indicate
the 0 direction on the doubler.
− to extract test specimens from the test panel and do inter
laminar shear tests, refer to the procedure in step 17 below.
The values of test specimens must pass the requirements of
Table 14.
17 Interlaminar Shear Test

a Test Procedure:
− Cut minimum 5 specimens (lenght 25.4 mm, ± 1mm (1 in.,
±0.04 in.) and width 6.35 mm, ± 0.5 mm (0.25 in., ± 0.002
in.)) as shown in Figure 25.
− Test with a calibrated machine according to EN 2563 or
ASTM D 2344 in a jig, as shown in Figure 26.
− Thickness and width of each specimen and test jig support
are measured with a micrometer to the nearest 0.01 mm
(0.00039 in.).

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− Install specimen in three point bending in a jig havin a


support span. Make sure that the specimen is located sym
metrically on the support rollers.
− Load the specimen at crosshead speed of 1 mm/min (0.05 in./
min) until failure. Specimens have to be tested at 20 °C
(68 °F) ± 3 °C (5.4 °F).
− Interlaminar Shear Strenght ’ILSS’ is calculated from the
formula: ILSS = 0.75 P / WxT (in Megapascal)
P − load at failure

W − measured widt of specimen

T − measured thickness of specimen

CML MINIMUM AVERAGE MINIMUM INDIVIDUAL NUMBER OF


PREPREG
CODE VALUE (MPa) VALUE (MPa) SPECIMENS
W3T−282−42−F593−14 20−013 65 60 5
913−G815 20−016 60 55 5
AG−193−PW/8552−RC40 20−002 75 65 5
AS4/8552 RC34 AW196 20−014 115 110 5
ILSS Property Requirements
Table 14

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Vacuum Bag Installation for Manufacture of Flat Doubler −


Autoclave Process
Figure 23
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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

Curing Cycle Profile for Manufacture of Flat Doubler−


Autoclave Process
Figure 24
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Interlaminar Shear Specimens Taken from Test Panel


Figure 25

ILSS Test Jig and Span Requirements


Figure 26

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

(11) Honeycomb Core − Refer to Table 15, 16, 17 and 18

Honeycomb core material is designated by its material family, cell


shape and size and by its density. In the case of metal honeycomb
core, the wall thickness and anti corrosion treatment are also given.

Three types of cell shapes are used:


− Hexagonal cells
These are dedicated to relatively flat surfaces.

− Over expanded cells


These are dedicated to single curved surfaces. The expansion in a
transverse direction facilitates curving or forming in a ribbon
direction.

− Flexible cells
These are dedicated to double curved surfaces. The configuration of
the cells provides exceptional formability with reduced anticlastic
curvature and without buckling. These materials are only called up
for radome repairs.

Substitute core is acceptable with respect to the following consider


ations:
− Stress
The substitute core must meet higher properties in compression than
the original core. The density must be equal or higher.

− Material
Two types of aramid paper for honeycomb core are used. Meta − ara
mid paper (NOMEX) and para − aramid paper (N636). Para − aramid
(N636) core can be replaced by meta − aramid core as shown in
Table 15, but meta − aramid (NOMEX) phenolic core can not be re
placed by para − aramid (N636) core.
Glass phenolic core can only be replaced by glass phenolic core.
Metal core can only be replaced by metal core with respect to
original anti corrosion treatment.

− Cell shape
Must be respected.

NOTE: For meta − aramid phenolic core, substitute cores are allowed
as shown in Table 17 and 18. For para − aramid (N636) core,
substitute cores are allowed as shown in Table 15.

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CURRENT CORE SUBSTITUTE REPAIR CORE NOTE


(TYPE, CELL SIZE (mm) − (TYPE, CELL SIZE (mm) −
DENSITY (kg/m3)) DENSITY (kg/m3))
Para − Aramid Phenolic Meta − Aramid Phenolic One way
Core (N636) 3.2−48 Core (NOMEX) 3.2−64 interchangeability
ABS5341A5
Para − Aramid Phenolic Meta − Aramid Phenolic One way
Core (N636) 4.8−32 Core (NOMEX) 4.8−48 interchangeability
ABS5341A1
Para − Aramid Phenolic Meta − Aramid Phenolic One way
Core (N636) 3.2−40 Core (NOMEX) 3.2−64 interchangeability
ABS5341A3
Substitutes for N636 Hexagonal Core
Table 15

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

MATERIAL NO.
MANUFACTURER/CODE MATERIAL CELL GEOMETRY CELL SIZE mm (in.) DENSITY kg/m3 (lb/ft3)
(CML NO.)
HEXCEL BELGIUM / HRH 10−1/4−1.5
HEXCEL COMPOSITES UK / AEROWEB A1−24−6 Meta − Aramid
Hexagonal 6.4 mm (1/4) 24 (1.5)
HEXCEL ANAHEIM USA / HMX−1/4−1.5 Phenolic (NOMEX)
EUROCOMPOSITES / ECA−6.4−24
HEXCEL BELGIUM / HRH 10−1/4−2.0
HEXCEL COMPOSITES UK / AEROWEB A1−32−6 Meta − Aramid
Hexagonal 6.4 mm (1/4) 32 (2.0)
HEXCEL ANAHEIM USA / HMX−1/4−2.0 Phenolic (NOMEX)
EUROCOMPOSITES / ECA−6.4−32
HEXCEL BELGIUM / HRH 10−1/4−3.1
HEXCEL COMPOSITES UK / AEROWEB A1−50−6 05−105
Meta − Aramid
or Hexagonal 6.4 mm (1/4) 50 (3.1)
HEXCEL ANAHEIM USA / HMX−1/4−3.1 Phenolic (NOMEX)
20−010
EUROCOMPOSITES / ECA−6.4−50
HEXCEL BELGIUM / HRH 10−3/16−2.0
HEXCEL COMPOSITES UK / AEROWEB A1−32−5 Meta − Aramid
Hexagonal 4.8 mm (3/16) 32 (2.0)
CIBA USA / HMX−3/16−2.0 Phenolic (NOMEX)
EUROCOMPOSITES / ECA−4.8−32
HEXCEL BELGIUM / HRH 10−3/16−3.0
HEXCEL COMPOSITES UK / AEROWEB A1−48−5 Meta − Aramid
20−011 Hexagonal 4.8 mm (3/16) 48 (3.0)
HEXCEL ANAHEIM USA / HMX−3/16−3.0 Phenolic (NOMEX)
EUROCOMPOSITES / ECA−4.8−48
HEXCEL BELGIUM / HRH 10−3/16−4.0
HEXCEL COMPOSITES UK / AEROWEB A1−64−5 Meta − Aramid
Hexagonal 4.8 mm (3/16) 64 (4.0)
HEXCEL ANAHEIM USA / HMX−3/16−4.0 Phenolic (NOMEX)
EUROCOMPOSITES / ECA−4.8−64
HEXCEL BELGIUM / HRH 10−3/16−6.0
HEXCEL COMPOSITES UK / AEROWEB A1−96−5 Meta − Aramid
Hexagonal 4.8 mm (3/16) 96 (6.0)
HEXCEL ANAHEIM USA / HMX−3/16−6.0 Phenolic (NOMEX)
EUROCOMPOSITES / ECA−4.8−96
HEXCEL BELGIUM / HRH 10−1/8−3.0
Meta − Aramid
HEXCEL ANAHEIM USA / HMX−1/8−3.0 20−003 Hexagonal 3.2 mm (1/8) 48 (3.0)
Phenolic (NOMEX)
EUROCOMPOSITES / ECA−3.2−48
Honeycomb Core
Table 16

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MATERIAL NO.
MANUFACTURER/CODE MATERIAL CELL GEOMETRY CELL SIZE mm (in.) DENSITY kg/m3 (lb/ft3)
(CML NO.)
HEXCEL BELGIUM / HRH 10−1/8−4.0 05−101
Meta − Aramid
HEXCEL ANAHEIM USA / HMX−1/8−4.0 or Hexagonal 3.2 mm (1/8) 64 (4.0)
Phenolic (NOMEX)
EUROCOMPOSITES / ECA−3.2−64 20−108
HEXCEL BELGIUM / HRH 10−1/8−6.0
Meta − Aramid
HEXCEL ANAHEIM USA / HMX−1/8−6.0 20−004 Hexagonal 3.2 mm (1/8) 96 (6.0)
Phenolic (NOMEX)
EUROCOMPOSITES / ECA−3.2−96
HEXCEL BELGIUM / HRH 10−1/8−7.7
Meta − Aramid
HEXCEL ANAHEIM USA / HMX−1/8−7.7 Hexagonal 3.2 mm (1/8) 123 (7.7)
Phenolic (NOMEX)
EUROCOMPOSITES / ECA−3.2−123
HEXCEL BELGIUM / HRH 10−1/8−9.0
Meta − Aramid
HEXCEL ANAHEIM USA / HMX−1/8−9.0 20−005 Hexagonal 3.2 mm (1/8) 144 (9.0)
Phenolic (NOMEX)
EUROCOMPOSITES / ECA−3.2−144
HEXCEL BELGIUM / HRH 3/16−4.0
05−087 Glass Phenolic Hexagonal 4.8 mm (3/16) 64 (4.0)
HEXCEL ANAHEIM / HTP−3/16−4.0
HEXCEL BELGIUM / HRH 10/OX−1/4−3.0
Meta − Aramid
HEXCEL ANAHEIM USA / HMX−1/4−OX−3.0 05−106 Over expanded 6.4 mm (1/4) 48 (3.0)
Phenolic (NOMEX)
EUROCOMPOSITES / ECA−R−6.4−48
HEXCEL BELGIUM / HRH 10/OX−1/4−3.5
Meta − Aramid
HEXCEL ANAHEIM USA / HMX−1/4−OX−3.5 Over expanded 6.4 mm (1/4) 56 (3.5)
Phenolic (NOMEX)
EUROCOMPOSITES / ECA−R−6.4−56
HEXCEL BELGIUM / HRH 10/OX−3/16−1.8
Meta − Aramid
HEXCEL ANAHEIM USA / HMX−3/16−OX−1.8 05−108 Over expanded 4.8 mm (3/16) 29 (1.8)
Phenolic (NOMEX)
EUROCOMPOSITES / ECA−R−4.8−29
HEXCEL BELGIUM / HRH 10/0X−3/16−3.0
Meta − Aramid
HEXCEL ANAHEIM USA / HMX−3/16−0X−3.0 20−006 Over expanded 4.8 mm (3/16) 48 (3.0)
Phenolic (NOMEX)
EUROCOMPOSITES / ECA−R−4.8−48
HEXCEL 3/16−5052−0.001 Metallic 5052 Hexagonal 4.8 mm (3/16) 50 (3.1)
Honeycomb Core
Table 16

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Current Repair
SUBSTITUTE REPAIR CORE
Core
CELL SIZE DENSITY
mm − kg/m3
mm − in. −
in
kg/m3 lb/ft3 6.4 6.4 6.4 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2
−24 −32 −50 −32 −48 −64 −96 −48 −64 −96 −123 −144
6.4−24 1/4−1.5 R X X X X X X O X X X X
6.4−32 1/4−2.0 R X X X X X O X X X X
6.4−50 1/4−3.1 R X X X X O X X X X
4.8−32 3/16−2.0 R X X X O X X X X
4.8−48 3/16−3.0 R X X O X X X X
4.8−64 3/16−4.0 R X X O X X
4.8−96 3/16−6.0 R O X X
3.2−48 1/8−3.0 R/O X X X X
3.2−64 1/8−4.0 R O X X
3.2−96 1/8−6.0 R/O X X
3.2−123 1/8−7.7 R O
3.2−144 1/8−9.0 R/O
Hexagonal Core
Table 17

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STRUCTURAL REPAIR MANUAL

Current Repair
SUBSTITUTE REPAIR CORE
Core
CELL SIZE DENSITY
mm − in. − mm − kg/m3
kg/m3 lb/ft3 6.4 − 48 6.4 − 56 4.8 − 29 4.8 − 48
6.4−48 1/4−3.0 R / O X X
6.4−56 1/4−3.5 R O
4.8−29 3/16−1.8 R O
4.8−48 3/16−3.0 R / O
Overexpanded Core
Table 18
NOTE: R − Required Repair Core according to repair instructions. If
this core is not available, the cores that follow can be used.
O − Recommended Repair Core.
X − Acceptable Repair Core.

NOTE: Table 16 gives the required information related to honeycomb


core identification and description.

(12) Material Storage Requirements − Refer to Table 19


Store Materials in accordance with the requirements in Table 19 and
the recommendations of Paragraph 4.A., 4.B. and 4.C..

STORAGE
MANUFACTURER / CODE TYPE SHELF LIFE
TEMPERATURE
12 months for
3M / 5−25 °C
Paste adhesive parts A and B
EC1838 B/A (40−77 °F)
<1> <3>
6 months for
3M / 5−25 °C
Paste adhesive parts A and B
EC2216 B/A (40−77 °F)
<1> <3>
12 months for
HYSOL / DEXTER below 5°C
Paste adhesive parts A and B
EA9321 (40°F)
<1> <3>
12 months for
HYSOL / DEXTER 5−25 °C
Paste adhesive parts A and B
EA9309 (40−77 °F)
<1> <3>
Material Storage Requirements
Table 19

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STORAGE
MANUFACTURER / CODE TYPE SHELF LIFE
TEMPERATURE
12 months for
below −18°C
parts A and B
(0°F)
<1> <3>
6 months for
HYSOL / DEXTER below 5°C
Paste adhesive parts A and B
EA934NA (40°F)
<1> <3>
3 months for
below 25 °C
parts A and B
(77 °F)
<1> <3>
12 months for
HYSOL / DEXTER 5−25 °C
Paste adhesive parts A and B
EA9394 A/B (40−77 °F)
<1> <3>
VANTICO / 3 years for base
15−25 °C
ARALDITE AW106 + Hardener Paste adhesive and hardener
(59−77 °F)
HV953U <3> <4>
VANTICO / 12 months for
15−25 °C
ARALDITE AV138 + Hardener Paste adhesive parts A and B
(59−77 °F)
H998 <1> <3>
VANTICO / 12 months for
15−25 °C
ARALDITE AV134 + Hardener Paste adhesive parts A and B
(59−77 °F)
HV997 <1> <3>
3 years for base
VANTICO / below 25 °C
Paste adhesive and hardener
ARALDITE 420 A/B (77 °F)
<3> <4>
12 months for
HYSOL / DEXTER Laminating 5−25 °C
parts A and B
EA9396 A/B resin (40−77 °F)
<1> <3>
12 months for
HYSOL / DEXTER Laminating below 5 °C
parts A and B
EA9390 A/B resin (40 °F)
<1> <3>
12 months for
VANTICO / Laminating below 25 °C
parts A and B
ARALDITE 501 resin (77 °F)
<1> <3>
12 months for
VANTICO / Laminating 5−25 °C
parts A and B
ARALDITE LY5052−HY5052 resin (40−77 °F)
<1> <3>
12 months for
VANTICO / Laminating 5−25 °C
base and hardener
ARALDITE LY564−1/HY560 resin (40−77 °F)
<1> <3>
Material Storage Requirements
Table 19

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STORAGE
MANUFACTURER / CODE TYPE SHELF LIFE
TEMPERATURE
VANTICO / 12 months for
Laminating 5−25 °C
LY560 + ARADUR 560 or base and hardener
resin (40−77 °F)
HY560 <1> <3>
12 months for
VANTICO / Laminating below 25 °C
parts A and B
EPOCAST 52 A/B resin (77 °F)
<1> <3>
6 months for
Low density 15−25 °C
3M / EC3524 B/A parts A and B
compound (59−77 °F)
<1> <3>
for part A
15−25 °C
4 months for (59−77 °F)
Low densityy
3M / EC3500 B/A parts A and B
compound for part B
<1> <3>
below 4 °C
(40°F)
6 months for
Low density 15−25 °C
3M / EC3439 HT parts A and B
compound (59−77 °F)
<1> <3>
12 months for
−18 °C (0 °F)
parts A and B
or below
VANTICO / Low densityy <1> <3>
ARALDITE 252 compound 2 months for
15−25 °C
parts A and B
(59−77 °F)
<1> <3>
6 months for
VANTICO / Low density 5−25 °C
parts A and B
EPOCAST 1616 A/B compound (40−77 °F)
<1> <3>
Foaming −18 °C (0 °F)
3M / AF3024 6 months <1>
adhesive or below
CYTEC / Foaming −18 °C (0 °F)
6 months <1>
FIBERITE FM410.1.050 adhesive or below
HEXCEL / Foaming 0 °C (32 °F)
12 months <1>
BSL 212 adhesive or below
Foaming 0 °C (32 °F)
HEXCEL / REDUX 204 6 months <1>
adhesive or below
−18 °C (0 °F)
3M / AF163−2OST.03 Adhesive film 6 months <1>
or below
Material Storage Requirements
Table 19

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STORAGE
MANUFACTURER / CODE TYPE SHELF LIFE
TEMPERATURE
−18 °C (0 °F)
3M / AF163−2K.06 Adhesive film 6 months <1>
or below
CYTEC / −18 °C (0 °F)
Adhesive film 6 months <1>
FIBERITE FM73 M.06 or below
CYTEC / −18 °C (0 °F)
Adhesive film 6 months <1>
FIBERITE FM73 M.03 or below
−18 °C (0 °F)
HEXCEL / REDUX 312/5 Adhesive film 12 months <1>
or below
HYSOL / DEXTER −18 °C (0 °F)
Adhesive film 6 months <1>
EA9628 NW.06 or below
Anti corrosion 6 months −18 °C (0 °F)
CYTEC / FIBERITE BR127
primer <1> <3> minimum
Anti corrosion 0 °C (32 °F)
HEXCEL / REDUX 113/2 12 months <1>
primer or below
−18 °C (0 °F)
AIK / EHG 275−68−50 GFRP prepreg 6 months <1>
or below
−18 °C (0 °F)
AIK / EHG 275−44−55 GFRP prepreg 6 months <1>
or below
−18 °C (0 °F)
AIK / EHG 250−68−50 GFRP prepreg 6 months <1>
or below
−18 °C (0 °F)
AIK / EHG 250−68−37 GFRP prepreg 6 months <1>
or below
−18 °C (0 °F)
AIK / EHG 250−44−55 GFRP prepreg 6 months <1>
or below
CYTEC / −18 °C (0 °F)
CFRP prepreg 12 months <1>
FIBERITE 919−39−3KHS−P−193 or below
CYTEC / −18 °C (0 °F)
GFRP prepreg 6 months <1>
MXB 7701/120 50% or below
HEXCEL / −18 °C (0 °F)
CFRP prepreg 12 months <1>
AG−193−PW/8552−RC40 minimum
HEXCEL / −18 °C (0 °F)
CFRP prepreg 12 months <1>
AS4/8552 RC34 AW196 or below
HEXCEL / −18 °C (0 °F)
CFRP prepreg 12 months <1>
W3T−282−42−F593−14 or below
HEXCEL / −18 °C (0 °F)
GFRP prepreg 6 months <1>
F155−120 50% or below
Material Storage Requirements
Table 19

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STORAGE
MANUFACTURER / CODE TYPE SHELF LIFE
TEMPERATURE
HEXCEL / −18 °C (0 °F)
GFRP prepreg 6 months <1>
F155−120 38% or below
HEXCEL /
6268−933−45 −18 °C (0 °F)
CFRP prepreg 12 months <1>
6268−943−45 or below
6268−833−45
HEXCEL / −18 °C (0 °F)
GFRP prepreg 12 months <1>
1454−50−7581 or below
HEXCEL / −18 °C (0 °F)
GFRP prepreg 12 months <1>
1454−50−120 or below
HEXCEL / −18 °C (0 °F)
GFRP prepreg 12 months <1>
1454−38−120 or below
HEXCEL /
−18 °C (0 °F)
913C−815−40 or CFRP prepreg 12 months <1>
or below
913C−926−40
HEXCEL / −18 °C (0 °F)
CFRP prepreg 12 months <1>
913 46% G814 NT or below
HEXCEL / −18 °C (0 °F)
CFRP prepreg 12 months <1>
913−TS−10−40 or below
Material Storage Requirements
Table 19
<1> From date of shipment from manufacturer’s site. <5>

<2> From date of receipt from manufacturer’s site. <5>

<3> Stored in their unopened, sealed container.


<4> From date of manufacturing.

<5> If not available, use <4>.


7. Manufacturing Procedures for Mould Tools

The following is an index of the contents of Paragraph 7.


− A. General
− B. Consumable Materials
− C. Use of Simple Mould Tools
− D. General Preparation of Damaged Component
− E. Manufacture of Plaster Mould Tools
− F. Manufacture of Wet Lay−up Mould Tools
− G. Manufacture of Pre−preg Mould Tools
− H. Leak Checking of Mould Tools
− I. Use of Mould Tools

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− J. Manufacture of Doublers
A. General

Mould tools may be required in the following situations:


− when repairing a structure where the original profile has been lost,
for example in the case of a complete puncture through a component
− to prevent deformation of a component whilst carrying out a large re
pair
− to manufacture a doubler, to be subsequently bonded onto a damaged
area.

The type of mold tool used will depend of the repair type, the cure
temperature of the repair, the accuracy required and material availabil
ity. The Table 20 below give some guidance as to mold tool suitability.
It is not definitive due to the specific capabilities of different mate
rials. Selection of mould tool type must be done in conjunction with the
mold tool material manufacturers and in consideration of the part being
repaired. (Refer to Figure 27 for the recommended dimensions)

TYPE OF TOOL TYPE OF REPAIR REPAIR TEMPERATURE ACCURACY


Simple Small, flat or Depend of material used Moderate
slightly curved
Plaster Large, flat or Up to 120 °C (250 °F) High
moderately curved
Wet−Lay−Up Large, flat or Up to 180 °C (355 °F) High
curved
Pre−preg Large, flat or Up to 180 °C (355 °F) High
curved
Mould Tool
Table 20

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Recommended Dimensions for Mould Manufacturing


Figure 27

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B. Consumable Materials

The following consumable materials are suitable for use in the manufac
ture of mould tools.

WARNING: MANY OF THE MATERIALS USED, AND DUST PRODUCED, IN THIS CHAPTER
ARE DANGEROUS. REFER TO PARAGRAPH 2.

(1) Release Agents:


− non−perforated release film
− perforated release film
− PTFE self−adhesive film
NOTE: Liquid release agents are not allowed on components to be re
paired (such materials could not be removed afterwards).

(2) Other materials:


− material, such as peel plies, breather blankets, bagging materials
etc., are listed in Paragraph 3.B..
− modelling clays can be used to from edge dams, for example for
plaster mould tools.

C. Use of Simple Mould Tools

For small repairs, it is often possible to use common engineering mate


rials to act as a simple tool or to support the back skin of a sandwich
structure. Suitable materials include: thin aluminum sheet, rubber sheet,
layers of breather blanket or felt (Refer to Figure 28).

The material selected can be attached underneath the repair area, using
various techniques such as: mechanical clamping, adhesive tape or vacuum
pressure.
It is vital that the material selected will withstand the cure tempera
ture to be used and can be released from the repair without causing
damage or contamination.

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Example of use of a Simple Mould Tool


Figure 28

D. General Preparation of Damaged Component

NOTE: This section below is a general method to prepare a damaged compo


nent prior to tool manufacture.
(1) Procedure

(a) Determine the extend of the damage in accordance with Chapter


51−77−10.

(b) Remove damaged skin and core.

CAUTION: IF COMPONENT HAS BEEN REMOVED FROM THE AIRCRAFT ENSURE THAT
THE CORRECT PROFILE IS MAINTAINED.

(c) Fill the damaged area to temporarily restore the original exter
nal profile.

NOTE: This can be achieved using various materials including


wooden plugs, slow temperature fillers or high temperature
foams.

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CAUTION: THE EXISTING CORE MUST BE PROTECTED FROM CONTAMINATION BY


THE MATERIAL BEING USED AS A FILLER, OR OTHERWISE ANY CON
TAMINATION MUST SUBSEQUENTLY BE REMOVED.

(d) During the repair procedure it will be necessary to relocate the


mould tool (or item subsequently made from it) back on the com
ponent. Provision should be made for this during the initial tool
manufacturing stage. This can be achieved by applying adhesive
tape on the component in the form of crosshairs. The crosshairs
will be transferred to the mould tool in the form of slight de
pressions.

NOTE: As an alternative to this, an area with a similar contour


could be considered, and the tool moulded off this.
(e) Cover the area with a release material approximately 100 mm
(3.937 in.) larger than the proposed tool.

E. Manufacture of Plaster Mould Tools

Plaster tools are not suitable for repairs to parts with complex curva
tures. Due to the method of manufacture, plaster tools are only suitable
for moulding off horizontal upper surfaces. If this is not possible, the
component will need to be removed from the aircraft. The maximum temper
ature plaster mould tools can be used at is typically 120 °C (250 °F).
Some tooling material manufacturers supply plastic coatings to improve
the surface finish of plaster tools.
NOTE: While plaster is probable the commonest material used to produce
tools in this way, other materials, such as epoxy and/or polyester
resins and filler can be used.

(1) Procedure (Refer to Figure 29)

(a) Prepare the component in accordance with Paragraph 7.D..


(b) Dam an area approximately 200 mm (7.874 in.) larger than the re
pair area to give a tool thickness of approximately 20 − 25 mm
(0.787 − 0.984 in.).

(c) Pour the plaster mixture into the dammed area. Material such as
hemp should be incorporated to provide reinforcement. The thick
ness of the mould tool should be kept to 20 − 25 mm (0.787 −
0.984 in.) to minimize drying time.

(d) When the plaster has hardened, remove the tool and dry it an air
circulation oven. For temperature and time required, refer to
manufacturer’s instructions. Typical values are 55 C° (131 F°)
for 15 hours per 25 mm (0.984 in.) of thickness.

(e) Locally repair any defects in the tool face with a suitable
filler which is matched to the temperature requirements.

(f) Check fit of mould to component.

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(g) Remove any contamination from the component caused by the tooling
materials.

Manufacture of a Plaster Tool


Figure 29

F. Manufacture of Wet Lay−up Mould Tools

Wet lay−up mould tools are suitable for large repairs on parts with com
plex curvatures but without undercuts. The usable temperature could be up
to 180 °C (355 °F) depending on the resin used and its state of cure.
There are many fibre and resin types available, including specific tool
ing materials. Standard repair material called up in Paragraph 6.. They
are suitable for low temperature tools (up to 90 °C (194 °F)). If the
tool is to be used at elevated temperature, then thermal characteristics
may need to be considered. Refer to Paragraph 7.G..
(1) Procedure

(a) Prepare the component in accordance with Paragraph 7.D..

(b) Impregnate the dry fabric with the resin and lay up on the com
ponent in accordance with Paragraph 4.H. and 5.A..

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(c) Lay up a minimum of 20 plies such that the final laminate is


balance and symmetrical. A suggested lay−up is 10 x (0/90°,
+/−45°).

NOTE: Chopped strand material may be used in the place of fabric


but the strength of the tool will be greatly reduced.
Chopped strand material can successfully be used as a fill
er material between layers of fabric to form a sandwich
structure.

(d) For bagging and curing cycles refer to Paragraph 5.D. and 5.E..

(e) Cure in accordance with the resin manufacturer’s instructions.


This will typically be a period at room temperature, followed by
a post cure.
NOTE: Do not exceed the recommended heat−up rates, otherwise an
exotherm may occur. If an exotherm does occur, then the
tool may be unusable and the component may be damaged. Ef
forts should be made, to prevent damage to the component by
removing the exotherming tool as quickly as possible.
(f) Remove the tool from the component, remove sharp edges and repair
any defects in the tool face with a suitable filler.

(g) If required, post cure the tool in accordance with the resin
manufacturer’s instructions.
(h) Check fit of tool to component.

NOTE: If a backing structure is required, it is normal to fabri


cate it as a separate item and then bond it on. This can
be done using wet lay−up clears or a silicone adhesive. The
backing structure must be in the same state of cure/post−
cure as the tool, otherwise distortion will occur when the
tool is heated. After the manufacturing of backing structure
check again fit of tool to component.

(i) Remove any contamination of the component by the tooling materi


als.
G. Manufacture of Pre−preg Mould Tools

Pre−preg mould tools are suitable for large repairs to parts with com
plex curvatures but without undercuts. They can be used at up to 180 °C
(355 °F), providing the tools has been post−cured to a correct degree.
This will typically be 20 °C (68 °F) above the repair cure temperature.
Specific tooling pre−pregs only must be used for this application. They
can be cured at low temperature, and are post cured free standing, away
from the component. The post cure must be carried out, based on the
temperature of the repair cure and the manufacturer’s data. Fibre choice
is depend primarily on the component material, in order to minimize
thermal expansion differences between the tool and the component being
repaired (Refer to Table 21).

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COMPONENT MATERIAL RECOMMENDED TOOLING MATERIAL


Glass fibre Glass fibre
Aramid fibre Glass fibre
Carbon fibre Carbon fibre
Component and Tooling Material
Table 21
Some tooling pre−preg manufacturers recommend the use of a gel coat /
surface coat. This creates a hard, smooth surface to a tool. It has the
advantage that it provides an extra thickness of resin, which can be
abraded to remove local imperfections.

Advantages of tooling pre−pregs are the case of manufacture and the


quality of the finished tool (low void content, controllable fibre−resin
ratio).
Disadvantages of tooling pre−pregs are their short lives at room temper
ature (for example refrigerated storage is required) and their cost.

(1) Procedure

(a) Prepare the component in accordance with Paragraph 7.D..

(b) Lay up the pre−preg in accordance with the manufacturer’s recom


mendations. The number of plies will depend on the material se
lected.
(c) Bag up the tool in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommenda
tions. Include a thermocouple at the component/tool interface to
insure that the component does not exceed its service tempera
ture.

(d) Cure in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. This


will be a 60 °C (140 °F) cure, followed by a long high tempera
ture post cure for the mould only.

NOTE: Do not exceed the recommended heat−up rate, otherwise an


exotherm may occur. If an exotherm does occur, then the
tool may be unusable and the component may be damaged. Ef
forts should be made, to prevent damage to the component by
removing the exotherming tool as quickly as possible.

(e) Remove the tool from the component, remove sharp edges and repair
any defects in the tool face with a suitable filler.

(f) Post cure tool in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommenda


tions.

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(g) Check fit of tool to component.

NOTE: If a backing structure is required, it is normal to fabri


cate it as a separate item and then bond it on. This can
be done using wet lay−up clears or a silicone adhesive. The
backing structure must be in the same state of cure/post−
cure as the tool, otherwise distortion will occur when the
tool is heated. After the manufacturing of backing structure
check again fit of tool to component.

(h) Remove any contamination of the component by the tooling materi


als.

H. Leak Checking of Mould Tools

If the tool and component will be envelope bagged for the repair (for
example both inside one bag), then tool leaks will not be important. If
the component will be bagged onto one side of the tool only, then the
tool must be leak checked prior to use. Full vacuum (minimum 610 mmHg
(24"Hg)) shall be applied. The leak rate should not exceed 25 mmHg/min
ute (1"Hg/minute). Tools which fail to meet this requirement shall be
rectified prior to use.

I. Use of Mould Tools

Tools manufactured as described above will be female moulds of the com


ponent.

Prior to use, the mould tool will require the application of a release
agent.

(1) Apply liquid release agent to the laminating surface of the tool.

(2) Dry the liquid release agent for 30 minutes at post cure tempera
ture.
(3) Apply liquid release agent before each use of the tool.

NOTE: You may use a release film maintained with tapes instead of
release agent for flat surfaces.

When the tool is used, it must be located in the correct posi


tion on the component.
J. Manufacture of Doublers

Some repairs may call for a pre−cured doubler to be bonded to a damaged


panel. Flat or slightly curved doublers could be manufactured in the fe
male tool (Refer to Figure 30 and 31)

Curved doublers need to be moulded from a male tool which would be ob
tained by moulding from a male tool with the same procedure as above.
In this case THE DIMENSIONS OF THE FEMALE TOOL have to be enlarged by
400 mm (15.748 in.) to manufacture the male tool.

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Dimension for Doubler Manufacturing


Figure 30

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Repair Using Doubler − Typical Sequence of Operations


Figure 31

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