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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 59, NO.

7, SEPTEMBER 2010 3223

Dual-Mode Power-Split Transmission for


Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Behrooz Mashadi and Seyed A. M. Emadi

Abstract—In this paper, an innovative power-split device (PSD) can be avoided. The combination of two motors/generators
is introduced, and its application in a hybrid powertrain system allows the engine to drive the first as a generator to either charge
is studied. The new PSD is a mechanism that allows operation the battery or supply power to the motor. Among numerous
in two different power-split modes through locking/unlocking of
two clutches. In one mode, the PSD operates similar to a standard power-split transmission designs, two configurations known
planetary gear unit, and in the other mode, it works the same as as single-mode and two-mode power-split transmissions have
a compound planetary set. A well-known analogous system is the been commercially successful. The single-mode system is used
Toyota Hybrid System (THS) and is used for comparison purposes. in Toyota hybrid cars such as Prius and Camry hybrid models,
It is demonstrated that by the new system, the transmission losses and the two-mode system can be found in the 2008 GMC Yukon
are reduced by a considerable extent, and thus, the efficiency is
improved. A controller is designed based on fuzzy logic, which Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) and the 2008 Chevrolet Tahoe SUV
receives the battery state of charge (SOC), the vehicle speed, and [1], [2].
the power that is requested at the wheels to coordinate each com- The Toyota Hybrid System (THS) enables the engine to
ponent in such a way as to optimize the entire system efficiency. A operate at its efficient regions, independent of the vehicle speed,
numerical optimization algorithm is applied to sustain the SOC in and in fact, it provides an electronically controlled continuously
high regions and shift engine operating points to higher efficiency
regions. Simulation results demonstrate notable improvements in variable transmission (E-CVT). The power-split device (PSD),
fuel economy and performance characteristics. which is a planetary gear unit, divides the power from the en-
gine, and the ratio of power directly going to the wheels and to
Index Terms—Dual mode, electronically controlled continu-
ously variable transmission (E-CVT), fuzzy logic, hybrid elec- the generator is continuously variable [3]. Consequently, there
tric vehicle (HEV), optimization, power split, powertrain control, are still energy conversion losses that decrease transmission
Toyota Hybrid System (THS). efficiency, especially in particular driving conditions [4], [5].
Other types of power-split transmissions are also available, and
I. I NTRODUCTION comparative analyses can be found in [6]–[9].
Fuzzy- or rule-based control algorithms are suitable tools for
H YBRID electric vehicles (HEVs) offer flexibility to en-
hance the fuel economy and emissions of vehicles with-
out sacrificing vehicle performance factors such as safety,
power management strategies in power-split hybrids, and this
technique has been used in many research works [10]–[12].
In this paper, an innovative powertrain that utilizes a new
reliability, and other conventional vehicle features. This has
PSD is introduced. The PSD provides a mechanical connection
prompted researchers to make efforts to develop innovative
between engine, two motors/generators (MG1 and MG2), and
hybrid powertrain configurations and associated issues such
the rotational shaft that transmits the drive force to the wheels.
as component sizing and control strategies. The benefit of
The powertrain utilizes two clutches to toggle the engagement
series hybrid vehicles is independence of engine operation
of the larger motor/generator (MG2) with two rotational shafts:
on the instantaneous vehicle load and speed, and their main
one that is directly connected to wheels via differential and the
disadvantage is the relatively large energy-conversion losses.
other that is interrelated by the PSD. This way, the possibility
The benefit of parallel hybrid vehicles is lower transmission
of operation in two electromechanical power-split operating
energy-conversion losses, and their disadvantage is the direct
modes is achieved. In one mode, the PSD operates like a
connection of the engine to the wheels and associated transient
standard planetary gear unit, and in the other mode, the PSD
engine operation with respect to the vehicle speed.
works the same as a compound planetary set.
Power-split hybrid systems, which are also known as series/
parallel hybrids, are more beneficial because they have the ad-
vantages of both parallel and series types, and their drawbacks II. P OWERTRAIN D ESCRIPTION
Fig. 1 depicts the overall layout of the hybrid transmission
Manuscript received November 14, 2009; revised February 27, 2010;
accepted April 18, 2010. Date of current version September 17, 2010. The
system mainly consisting of the PSD, two motors/generators,
review of this paper was coordinated by Mr. D. Diallo. two clutches (clutch 1 and clutch 2), and reduction gears. The
B. Mashadi is with the Automotive Engineering Department, Iran University device connections and operation can be better understood
of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran (e-mail: b_mashhadi@iust.ac.ir).
S. A. M. Emadi was with the Automotive Engineering Department, Iran from Fig. 2. The two clutches that are shown in Fig. 1 enable
University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran. He is now with the R&D the system to operate in two different modes by toggling the
Center, Iran Khodro Company, Tehran, Iran (e-mail: sm.emadi@ikco.com). engagement of the larger motor/generator (MG2) with two
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. rotational shafts. When clutch 2 is engaged (and clutch 1 is
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TVT.2010.2049870 disengaged), MG2 is directly linked to the wheels via the
0018-9545/$26.00 © 2010 IEEE
3224 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 59, NO. 7, SEPTEMBER 2010

calculates MG1 (or MG2) command speed according to the


engine target speed and the output shaft speed, which is pro-
portional to the vehicle speed. The MG1 controller, in turn,
manipulates the torque to achieve the specified speed. In the
meantime, the MG2 controller receives a torque command from
the supervisory control, while its power is directly supplied
either through the generator path or the battery. In the PG mode,
MG2 cannot play the role of a speed controller (speeder) to
manipulate the engine speed because it is directly connected to
the final drive, and MG1 must play this role. In the differential
mode, however, either MG1 or MG2 can operate as the speeder
due to the dynamical characteristics of the PSD, which allow
the speed control of either motors to force the engine to operate
at a specified speed.
In the electric mode or the regenerative braking mode, the
Fig. 1. Powertrain overall configuration (MG1 and MG2 stators are fixed to system operates in the PG mode in which MG2 is directly
the vehicle body). connected to the wheels and individually supplies power or
regenerates energy of braking. In the engine-only mode, either
MG1 or MG2 acts as a generator, and the other one consumes
the power. In the battery-charging mode, MG1 acts as a gener-
ator, and part of its power charges the battery, and the rest feeds
MG2. Also, it is possible that MG2 or both MG1 and MG2 act
as a generator and charge the battery. In the electric-assist mode,
MG1 acts as a generator, and the resulting current feeds MG2,
together with the battery power. In the engine-only, battery-
charging, and electric-assist modes, the controller determines
that the mode system should operate based on the driving
conditions. It toggles the system to the mode in which there
is less transmission loss and then coordinates all components to
optimize the entire system in that mode.

III. C OMPONENT T ORQUE AND S PEED R ELATIONSHIPS


Fig. 2. New power-split system input and output.
In the differential mode, the rotational speeds of the MG1,
MG2, engine, and output shaft R are interrelated in the new
differential, and the PSD operates equivalent to a planetary two-degree-of-freedom PSD mechanism. The kinematics of the
gear system (PG mode). When clutch 1 is engaged (and clutch system can be determined by two parameters m and n, which
2 is disengaged), MG2 is interrelated by the PSD, and the are defined as follows:
differential mode is defined. In this mode, engine, MG1, and
ωMG1 − ωE
MG2 are connected to the rotational shaft R, which transmits m= − (1)
the drive force to the wheels. ωR − ωE
In both powertrain modes, two separated torques from the ωMG2 − ωE
n= (2)
engine follow different paths. One directly drives the wheels ωR − ωE
(mechanical path), and the other turns MG1 and produces
electricity (electrical path). This electric power is either stored where ωMG1 , ωMG2 , ωE , and ωR are the rotational speeds of
in the battery or sent to MG2 to produce an assist torque. MG2 MG1, MG2, engine, and shaft R, respectively. m and n are
and MG1 can exchange parts as a generator or a motor. dependent on the number of gear teeth that are existing in the
Control in the HEV is recognized as a two-level control PSD. Fig. 3 illustrates the relationship among the component
action: supervisory control and component control. The super- speeds in the differential mode.
visory controller translates driver’s intentions into power re- The torque relationships under steady-state conditions (com-
quirements and coordinates powertrain components to achieve ponent rotational inertias are not included) are as follows:
certain objectives. Common objectives include minimizing fuel
consumption and emissions while maintaining or improving TR + nTMG2 − mTMG1 = 0 (3)
performance and drivability. The component controller, on the TR + TE + TMG1 − TMG2 = 0 (4)
other hand, receives commands from the supervisory controller
and generates detailed control instructions for its actuators. where TE , TMG1 , and TR are the engine, MG1, and output
In this system, the supervisory controller determines the shaft (R) torques. At the PG mode, the rotational speeds of the
engine operating point based on driving conditions and then engine, MG1, and MG2 are interrelated by the PSD, which acts
MASHADI AND EMADI: DUAL-MODE POWER-SPLIT TRANSMISSION FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES 3225

Fig. 3. Relationship of component speeds in the differential mode.

Fig. 5. Ratio of engine power that indirectly transmits to wheels (the engine-
only mode).

and torques of MG1 and MG2 in the differential mode are


obtained as

ωMG1 = (1 + m)ωE − mωR (8)

ωMG2 = (1 − n)ωE + nωR (9)

TMG1 = − [n/(m + n)] TE + [(1 − n)/(m + n)] TR (10)

Fig. 4. Relationship of component speeds in the PG mode. TMG2 = − [m/(m + n)] TE − [(1 + m)/(m + n)] TR . (11)

equivalent to a conventional planetary gear set. MG2 is directly The ratios of MG1 and MG2 powers (PMG1 , PMG2 ) to the
linked to the wheels; therefore, it rotates at a fixed ratio to the engine power PE for the differential mode are obtained as
 
wheel speed as PMG1 mn ωR n(m + 1)
= −
nf nR V PE m + n ωE m+n
ωMG2 = ωR = (5)
RW  
Preq m(n − 1) (m + 1)(n − 1) ωE
+ − (12)
where nf , nr , RW , and V are the final drive ratio, the reduction PE m+n m+n ωR
gear ratio, the effective wheel radius, and the vehicle speed,  
respectively. Component speed relationships in the PG mode PMG2 mn ωR m(n − 1)
= − +
can be more easily understood from Fig. 4. PE m + n ωE m+n
The engine torque is divided between MG1 and shaft R. By  
neglecting component rotational inertias, the ratios of the en- Preq n(m + 1) (m + 1)(n − 1) ωE
+ − + (13)
gine torque transmitted to shaft R and to MG1 can be obtained PE m+n m+n ωR
from the following:
where PMG = TMG ωMG , and Preq = TR ωR is the requested
TMG1 1 power at wheels.
=− (6)
TE 1+m In the PG mode, MG1 and MG2 speeds are those expressed
in (8) and (5), respectively. In contrast with the differential
TR m mode, in the PG mode, the MG1 torque depends only on the
=− . (7)
TE 1+m engine torque according to (6). Also, in this mode, the MG2
torque depends on the battery-charging or battery-discharging
power that is added to the MG1 power and feeds to MG2. The
IV. E LECTRICAL P OWER F LOW ratio of the engine power that is indirectly transmitted to the
wheels in the engine-only mode is obtained as
Power flow analysis in hybrid systems is important for the as-
sessment of transmission efficiency [13]–[16]. Here, therefore, PCIR /PE = −1 + [m/(1 + m)] (ωR /ωE ) (14)
it is intended to show that the new PSD decreases the amount
of power circulating through the motors/generators, thereby where PCIR is the part of MG1 or MG2 powers that is
decreasing the losses. named the circulating power. Fig. 5 represents PMG1 /PE and
The speed of shaft R is proportional to the vehicle speed, PMG2 /PE versus ωR /ωE in the engine-only mode (Preq = PE )
and in the differential mode, its torque is proportional to the for the new system with parameters m = 1.5 and n = 1.8. Sim-
requested torque at wheels. According to (1)–(4), at a par- ilar results for the THS have also been generated for comparison
ticular engine speed and torque, i.e., ωE and TE , the speeds purposes based on the dynamic equations of the planetary
3226 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 59, NO. 7, SEPTEMBER 2010

Fig. 6. Comparison of the ratio of the engine power that indirectly transmits
to wheels between the new system and the THS (the engine-only mode).

gear system [17]. When the power of each motor/generator is


positive (TMG ωMG > 0), it acts as a motor; otherwise, it acts
as a generator.
Fig. 7. Energy path in the electric-assist mode.
Fig. 6 clearly indicates that the amount of power passing
through the two motors/generators in the new system is less
than those of the THS in all but small operating points.
In range (a), which happens when the vehicle speed is very
low, the system is set to the PG mode, and the electrical power
flow in the differential mode is avoided. In range (b), the
system switches to the differential mode where there is less
electrical power. However, at certain driving conditions, the
control strategy may switch the system to the PG mode based
on optimization algorithms because less electrical power does
not always mean less power loss because the efficiencies of two
electric machines at their operating points may be too low at
those driving conditions. Fig. 23, for instance, shows that the
efficiency values of MG1 at low speeds and high torques are too
low; thus, switching to the PG mode at such conditions changes Fig. 8. Ratio of MG1 and MG2 power to the engine power in the electric-
the operating points of the electric motor to efficient areas. assist mode.
In range (c), there is no much difference between operating
in the PG or differential mode because according to the torque
and speed equations of the PSD, the operating points of electric machines roughly as 0.9, this is 19% loss in the circulating
machines are very close to each other in either of the two power or 1474 W in the THS and 608 W in the new system.
modes. For the new system, there are additional advantages also
In range (d), which happens at low engine speeds and high- in other system-operating modes. In the electric-assist mode,
and mid-range vehicle speeds, for the THS case, the engine is MG1 mostly acts as a generator, and MG2 acts as a motor
set to high speed and low load to avoid too much electrical utilizing powers from MG1 and the battery together (see Fig. 7).
power when retaining the engine operation at the constant Fig. 8 represents PMG1 /PE and PMG2 /PE versus ωR /ωE for
output, but this will result in lower engine efficiencies [10]. For the differential mode of the new system in the electric-assist
the new system, however, there is less electrical power in range mode. At a particular engine speed and torque, when the battery
(d), and it is not necessary to set the engine at inefficient speeds. power increases, in contrast with the THS, the whole battery
To assess this advantage, cruising at 90 km/h is considered power does not flow to MG2. This can be explained by the
as an example to roughly compare the power losses of the THS moving points A to B and C to D in the figure, which means that
and the new system. Using the information in Appendix A, the the fraction of the engine power that is directly transmitted to
required power is 8 kW, and the most efficient engine speed at the wheels will increase. Thus, there is a more efficient electric-
this power is 1200 r/min. The speed of shaft R is 3270 r/min; assist mode in the new system. This characteristic also allows
therefore, the gear ratio (ωR /ωE ) is 2.73. With m = 1 and the use of smaller MG2, which simultaneously receives power
n = 2.5, for the THS, 97% (7760 W) and, for the new system, from the battery and MG1 at high requested power. This way,
40% (3200 W) of engine power are circulated (converted twice the size of MG2 could be selected just to meet performance
in MG1 and in MG2). If we take the efficiencies of both electric requirements in the electric mode or for regeneration purposes.
MASHADI AND EMADI: DUAL-MODE POWER-SPLIT TRANSMISSION FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES 3227

Fig. 11. Comparison of the maximum driving force (the engine-only mode).
Fig. 9. Engine speed restriction in the THS due to the maximum permitted
revolution of MG1.

Fig. 10. Comparison of the maximum driving force.


Fig. 12. Power distribution of the new system.
V. P ERFORMANCE
energy losses that are associated with engine operation at speed
Due to some limitations in hybrid systems with a planetary
and load combinations, where the engine is inefficient, by using
gear set, it is not possible to transmit the combined output
the energy storage device to either augment the engine or absorb
power capability of the engine and the battery to wheels.
a part of the engine output, allowing it to operate only at speeds
These restrictions mainly comprise the maximum speed of
and loads where it is most efficient. Based on this idea, a rule-
MG1, which does not permit the engine to operate above a
based control strategy is presented for the energy distribution
certain speed (see Fig. 9), and the maximum power of MG2,
between the battery and the fuel tank.
which receives power both from MG1 and the battery at high
When the power demand is low and the battery state of
requested powers and may restrict the amount of their power
charge (SOC) is sufficiently high, the system operates in the
[4], [18].
PG mode, and MG2 individually works to drive the vehicle.
Using the new PSD, the system is less affected by such limi-
As the vehicle speed increases, the power demand increases,
tations and, therefore, allows higher overall power performance
or the battery SOC becomes too low, the engine is started with
achievements, particularly at the low/medium speed ranges.
MG1 and MG2 to supply the mechanical power. As the power
The variations of the maximum driving force versus speed for
demand keeps increasing, the requested power might be out of
the THS and the new system are obtained with consideration
the engine maximum power limit. For such cases, the battery
of the said limitations. Improvements in the overall power per-
provides assistant power to cope with the requested power.
formance and in the engine-only mode can be seen in Figs. 10
Under these circumstances, based on the driving condition, the
and 11.
controller sets the system in either the PG or differential modes.
As the vehicle decelerates, the regenerative control system
VI. C ONTROL S TRATEGY
commands the MG2 (that is directly connected to wheels in the
The upper control layer of a hybrid vehicular drive train is PG mode) to act as a generator to recharge the battery.
responsible for energy-management strategy and controls the Fig. 13 represents the block diagram of the controller strategy
energy flow among all components, as well as power generation that is used to determine the optimal engine torque and speed
and its conversion in the individual components. To improve the based on the internal combustion engine (ICE) efficiency maps,
fuel economy, it is important to optimize the control strategy as the battery SOC, the vehicle speed, and the torque that is
well as the architecture and components of the hybrid vehicle. required at the wheels.
As shown in Fig. 12, the driving force can be produced by The inputs of the controller are the power that is requested,
the battery and/or the engine. A hybrid can avoid some of the which depends on the driving pattern, the vehicle speed, which
3228 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 59, NO. 7, SEPTEMBER 2010

Fig. 13. Block diagram of the controller in Simulink.

Fig. 14. Block “Need engine on?” decides when the engine should be on or off.

depends on the driving cycle, the battery SOC, which depends Fig. 14 shows the “Need engine on?” block in the model of
on the battery model, and the engine coolant temperature, the controller. This logic, which is extracted from the default
which depends on the engine model. The outputs are the engine controller of Prius in Advisor [19], decides when the engine
speed, the engine torque, and the clutch commands (0 or 1). should be on and when it should be off. If all four condi-
According to Fig. 13, at first, the block “Need Engine On?” tions “Power low enough?,” “Speed low enough?,” “SOC high
decides whether the engine should be on or off. If the engine enough?,” and “Coolant temperature high enough?” are satis-
should be on, the fuzzy logic controller determines the charging fied, the engine will be off. Otherwise, if one of the conditions
power to the battery. The engine power is the sum of the power is not met and the engine has been off for 3 s or the engine was
requested and the battery-charging power. Then, the suitable already on, the engine should be on.
powertrain mode (PG or differential) is selected. The engine From Figs. 4 and 5, it can be seen that when the engine
speed is determined by a numerical optimization algorithm stops, MG1 starts rotating in the opposite direction, and its
to maximize the entire system efficiency when retaining the speed will be proportional to the vehicle speed up to the
engine operation on the determined power. The details of the maximum permissible value, above which it cannot start the
control strategy at different working modes are explained in engine. Hence, the controller does not turn the engine off over
the following. a certain speed. In the THS, this speed was initially 45 km/h,
and in the second-generation Prius, it was raised to 65 km/h by
raising the maximum allowable speed of MG1 [18]. By using
VII. E NGINE O N –O FF C ONTROL the new PSD, due to the change in the gear ratio between MG1
When an HEV is stopped or the power that is requested is and wheels, it can be further raised to 100 km/h.
too low, rather than running the engine at inefficient regions, the
control system may either shut off the engine, with the storage
VIII. BATTERY-C HARGING C ONTROL
device providing auxiliary power (for heating or cooling the
vehicle interior, powering headlights, etc.), or run the engine at A high-level charge-sustaining strategy is implemented to
a more efficient higher power setting and use the excess power assure that the battery SOC remains within the preset upper
over auxiliary loads to recharge the storage device. and lower bounds. This strategy is the most common design
MASHADI AND EMADI: DUAL-MODE POWER-SPLIT TRANSMISSION FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES 3229

TABLE I
RULES OF THE TAKAGI –S UGENO F UZZY C ONTROLLER

Fig. 16. Membership functions for the power that is requested.

Fig. 15. Membership functions for the SOC.

because it causes efficient battery operation and prevents the


battery from depletion or damage. The 65%–75% SOC range
is chosen for efficient battery operation. During braking, it is
allowed to charge the battery up to 0.9 SOC.
Since the engine is the predominant power source, if it
operates at an efficient manner, the overall vehicle efficiency Fig. 17. Battery-charging power for every SOC and the power that is
would be reasonable. For this reason, to avoid energy losses requested.
that are associated with the engine operation at loads where the
engine is inefficient, the battery is charged by augmenting the as described in Section VIII. In this powertrain, the power from
engine and absorbing the part of the engine output allowing it the engine is divided into two paths, and the ratio of power
to operate only at speeds and loads where it is most efficient. directly going to the wheels and to the two motor/generators
The charging power to the battery is determined, depending is continuously variable. For a given engine speed and torque,
on the battery SOC and the power that is requested, i.e., Preq . in which the engine has a certain efficiency, less fraction of the
The main points of calculating the battery-charging power are engine power that indirectly transmits to wheels leads to fewer
as follows. electrical losses, although two-motor/generator efficiencies at
• If the SOC is too high, do not charge the battery. their operating points influence the total efficiency. This simple
• If the SOC is too low, charge as much as possible. idea provides a quick solution, but there is no guarantee for its
• Keep the SOC within the 0.6–0.75 range for most effi- closeness to optimality. A simple rule-based powertrain-mode
cient charging and discharging and for preventing battery switching strategy based on the engine power and the vehicle
damage. speed can be designed to follow the bold line in Fig. 6 in which
• At low power levels, charge the battery to shift the ICE there is minimum fraction of the engine power that indirectly
operating point to a higher efficiency region. transmits to wheels.
• The target SOC is 0.65, and at a low SOC, charge the
battery proportional to the difference between the current
and target SOCs. X. E NGINE S PEED C ONTROL
• Battery charge up to 0.9 SOC is allowed during braking. The engine should operate with an output sum of the power
Fuzzy logic control is found to be a suitable tool for the im- that is requested and the battery-charging power. The system
plementation of the battery-charging strategy [20], [21]. Based must use its motors/generators to operate the engine close to
on the points mentioned, the Takagi–Sugeno type of the fuzzy its optimal efficiency operating line across the engine map.
logic controller is used for calculating the charging power to the The important point, however, is that remaining in the optimal
battery [22]. Table I provides a list of if–then rules that represent engine operating area does not necessarily provide the optimal
the battery-charging strategy described above. vehicle fuel economy due to losses in the transmission [23],
The membership functions for the SOC and the power that [24]. Under certain operational conditions, the engine should
is requested are illustrated in Figs. 15 and 16, respectively. The not operate on the optimal efficiency line because the other
surface in Fig. 17 shows the variation of the charging power losses are too high. In such circumstances, the engine speed
against the SOC and Preq values. should be increased from its corresponding optimum speed. As
Fig. 18 illustrates, the engine operating point is compromised to
a lower efficiency, instead of unnecessarily sending the engine
IX. P OWERTRAIN M ODE O PTION
output power through transmission losses.
Requested power is determined by driver inputs, and battery- To optimize the entire system efficiency, taking Fig. 19 into
charging power is determined by the battery-charging strategy, consideration, the equivalent specific fuel consumption (SFC)
3230 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 59, NO. 7, SEPTEMBER 2010

Fig. 20. Revolutions per minute added to the engine optimum speed to
optimize the entire system efficiency in the engine-only mode.

TABLE II
Fig. 18. Engine speed increasing from the engine optimum speed to optimize S IMULATION R ESULTS FOR F UEL C ONSUMPTION AND P OLLUTION
the entire system.

Fig. 19. Losses in the powertrain. similar works [27]–[29]. Information available in the software
for the first generation of Prius has also been used for the new
configuration (see Appendix A). Simulations have been carried
can be defined as follows:
out for three systems, namely, the THS with a default controller,
SFCeq = ṁf /(Preq + Pch ) the new system with the same components as the THS, and,
finally, the new system with a new designed control strategy.
= SFCE PE /(PE − LossMG1 − LossMG2 ) (15) The main differences between the Advisor default controller
and the designed controller are in the battery-charging strategy
where ṁf is the fuel mass flow rate, and LossMG1 and LossMG2 and the engine control. For simulation of the new system, some
are the power losses of MG1 and MG2, respectively. SFCE blocks in the Simulink model of Prius and some M-files in
is the specific fuel consumption of the engine, and PE is Advisor have been replaced. Simulations have been carried
the engine power. The engine speed should be determined by out using the City Highway Test Procedure. It runs a cold-
minimizing SFCeq in every working condition [25], [26]. start FTP-75 cycle and a hot-start highway fuel economy test
In the controller model of Fig. 13, there are two lookup (HWFET) cycle. Table II summarizes the simulation results.
tables for each PG and differential powertrain modes. These The results show that for both systems with the default
are obtained by a numerical optimization algorithm based on controller of Advisor, there is some 8% improvement in fuel
minimizing the equivalent specific fuel consumption, which consumption for the new system relative to the THS. It also
receives the vehicle speed, the power that is requested, and shows a further 3% improvement in fuel consumption when the
the engine power and decides how much engine speed should new control strategy is used instead of the default controller of
increase from its optimum speed to optimize the entire system. Advisor. The pollution results also shown in Table II are almost
Fig. 20 shows this engine speed increase in the engine-only similar for the two systems; however, some small improvements
mode for the PG mode. A similar surface is also obtained for are still seen for the new system. It is worth noting that the
the differential mode. Fig. 20 also shows that at high speeds pollution was not taken as the input of the controller design.
and low power demands, in which there is more circulating Figs. 21 and 22 illustrate the fraction of the engine power that
power, the engine speed should increase accordingly. In ad- is indirectly transmitted to wheels in every system operating
dition, sometimes, the engine speed should be increased to point in the FTP-75 and HWFET cycles. The figures clearly
release one motor/generator from its very inefficient operating show a considerable decrease in the amount of power that is
condition. indirectly transmitted to the wheels for the case of the new
system.
Acceleration tests were also carried out to investigate the
XI. S IMULATION AND R ESULTS
potential of the new system in utilizing the maximum engine
The vehicle modeling and simulations have been performed torque. Acceleration test results based on the Partnership for
using Advisor, owing to its potential as a simulation tool for a New Generation of Vehicles performance standard [30] are
MASHADI AND EMADI: DUAL-MODE POWER-SPLIT TRANSMISSION FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES 3231

TABLE IV
V EHICLE I NFORMATION U SED FOR THE N EW THS C ONFIGURATION [17]

Fig. 21. Fraction of the engine power that is indirectly transmitted to wheels
in the city cycle.

Fig. 22. Fraction of the engine power that is indirectly transmitted to wheels
in the highway cycle.
Fig. 23. Efficiency map of motor/generator MG1.

TABLE III
ACCELERATION T EST R ESULTS and shift the engine operating point to a higher efficiency region
when needed. The engine speed has also been determined by
minimizing the equivalent specific fuel consumption in every
condition to optimize the entire system efficiency. A numerical
optimization algorithm to optimize the entire system efficiency
has been devised for each powertrain mode to control the engine
speed.
summarized in Table III. A notable improvement in the accel- Simulation results have shown improvements in the overall
eration performance can be seen for the new system. performance by a great deal and reduction in the fuel con-
sumption of some 8%. In addition, the results have shown that
the designed control strategy improved the fuel consumption
XII. C ONCLUSION
a further 3%, in comparison with the default controller of
In this paper, an innovative power-split hybrid transmission Advisor for the original vehicle. It has been shown that the new
has been introduced, which enables vehicles to work in two system decreases the amount of power passing through the two
modes of operation: the PG and differential modes. For the motors/generators, thereby decreasing overall system losses.
assessment of the new system, it has been compared with The new system also has additional advantages. In the
the THS due to existing similarities. A supervisory control electric-assist mode, the whole battery power does not need
system has been designed using the Takagi–Sugeno type of a flow to MG2; therefore, the need for a large electric motor is
fuzzy logic controller to calculate the battery-charging power eliminated. By using the new PSD, the threshold value in the
in every driving condition. The controller receives the battery condition “speed low enough” is raised to 100 km/h in the
SOC, the vehicle speed, and the power that is requested at new system compared with 45 km/h in the THS. Therefore,
wheels and decides which powertrain mode is suitable for in contrast with the THS, at high speeds, it is allowed to turn
system operation. Then, a fuzzy logic controller determines the off the engine at regenerative braking or setting the system in
charging power to the battery to sustain the SOC in high regions the electric-only mode. The possibility of increasing the engine
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