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Lawrence B. Finer and Rubina Hussain (2013).

Unintended Pregnancy and Unsafe


Abortion in the Philippines: Context and Consequences. Guttmacher Institute. New York.

In 2008, there were 1.9 million unintended pregnancies in the Philippines, resulting in
two main outcomes—unplanned births and unsafe abortions. In the Philippines, 37% of all births
are either not wanted at the time of pregnancy (mistimed) or entirely unwanted and 54% of all
pregnancies are unintended. On average, Filipino women give birth to more children than they
want, highlighting how difficult it is for a woman to meet her fertility desires. This is particularly
striking among the poorest Filipino women, who have nearly two children more than they intend
to have. Among married women using any method of contraception in 2011, one in four used a
traditional, less effective method such as periodic abstinence. Though married women showed a
modest increase in modern method use between 1998 and 2011 (from 28% to 37%), this latter
rate was still substantially lower than the comparable subregional average in Southeastern Asia
(55%) and rates in other populous countries in the subregion, such as Indonesia (57%), Vietnam
(68%) and Thailand (79%). Much of the gap between women’s total and wanted fertility rates in
the Philippines can be attributed to low contraceptive use and high levels of unmet need for
contraception: In 2008, more than 90% of unintended pregnancies occurred among women using
traditional, ineffective methods or no method at all. In 2011, only 49% of married women of
reproductive age were using any contraceptive method, and this represented a negligible increase
since 1998. Poor women are less likely to use a contraceptive method than nonpoor women (43%
vs. 51%), and in regions where poverty is common, contraceptive use is substantially lower than
the national average—for example, 38% in the Zamboanga Peninsula and 24% in the
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.
National Demographic Health Survey(2008-2013)Adolescent Health & Development
Program MOIDA-JADE B. BINWAG, RN, MAN VIRGINIA L. NARCISO,
Philippines

The 2008 and 2013 National Demographic Health Survey showed that the percentage of
women age fifteen (15) – nineteen (19) who had a live birth or is pregnant with first child had
increased from 9.9% – 10.1% in the country. In the Cordillera Administrative Region, the
percentage of women age fifteen (15) – twenty four (24) who have begun childbearing also
increased from 26% – 29%.This was attributed to the following risky behaviors identified by the
adolescents during the Regional Adolescent Congress which was conducted last year: Early sex,
Substance abuse, Pornography, VAWC (rape case) ,Fraternities (bad gangs) & Prostitution.

The program strategies to be implemented include1) Health promotion and behavior


change for adolescents to utilize health services, practice healthy behaviors, avoid risks 2)
Improving access to quality and adolescent-friendly health care services and information 3)
Expanding health insurance 4) Enhancing skills of service providers, families and
adolescents to protect their health and development 5).Strengthening partnerships among
adolescent groups, government agencies, civil society, the private sector, families and
communities for the achievement of MDG IV & V 6) Strengthening policy at all levels to ensure
that all adolescents have access to information and services 7) Ensuring sufficient resources to
implement a sustainable adolescent health program 8Resource mobilization.
Dr. Jera Armendarez, (2016)Teenage pregnancy still a problem — DOH May B. Miasco
cebu Philippines

Dr. Jera Armendarez, officer-in-charge of Family Health Section of the Department of


Health-7, said teenage pregnancy remains a problem confronting health authorities nationwide.

Most teenagers recorded to have gotten pregnant were aged 16.

“These young women may not yet still understand the bodily changes they are
undergoing,” said Armendarez.

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CEBU NEWS
Teenage pregnancy still a problem — DOH
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May B. Miasco (The Freeman) - August 3, 2016 - 12:00am
CEBU, Philippines - The ideal age to bear a child is 25, but a local medical officer said
she encountered a 12-year-old girl whom she considered as the youngest female pregnant patient.

Dr. Jera Armendarez, officer-in-charge of Family Health Section of the Department of


Health-7, said teenage pregnancy remains a problem confronting health authorities nationwide.
Most teenagers recorded to have gotten pregnant were aged 16.

“These young women may not yet still understand the bodily changes they are
undergoing,” said Armendarez.
Armendarez was one of the panelists of yesterday’s forum organized by Philippine
Information Agency-7 in collaboration with the Association of Government Information
Officers.

To address teenage pregnancy, DOH-7 has come up with interventions such as expanding
their services to health care providers in DOH-retained hospitals.

Armendarez said these hospitals were commissioned to institutionalize the Teenage


Pregnancy Program.

Some DOH-retained hospitals have already established separate clinics for teenage moms
and have created a database that keeps track of these young individuals for them to provide
regular counseling and education.

In Cebu, there are four DOH-retained hospitals: St. Anthony Mother and Child Hospital,
Vicente Sotto Memorial Medical Center, Talisay District Hospital, and Eversley Child's
Sanitarium and General Hospital.

Armendarez said these hospitals also tap community-based groups to link with them as
they conduct weekly counseling and education campaign.

She added that some health units are slowly adopting the program but limited spaces
become a problem so they end up referring patients to other hospitals.
“For now, we can’t say that teenage pregnancy is much of a big problem. We are still on
the stage of catching up. We are still keeping a profile of these teenagers who are giving birth at
an early age,” said Armendarez.

According to Armendarez, teenage pregnancy also puts the mother and her child at high
risk, which has actually contributed to the maternal mortality rate in the country.

For mothers at the right age, health authorities have also advised for them to observe the
ideal and proper “spacing” or a gap of three to five years before they bear child again.

Local health authorities want to promote responsible parenthood through family


planning, which includes the use of commodities such as contraceptives, coupled with proper
education.

Armendarez said DOH-7’s thrust is focused on “informed choice and voluntarism,”


which means health providers cannot impose a policy on mothers but rather provide them with
the right information on methods or commodities.

“Pregnancy must be wanted and planned. Knowing we are pregnant should not be
feared… because the very essence of a woman is having a child,” she said.

Read more at https://www.philstar.com/the-freeman/cebu-


news/2016/08/03/1609633/teenage-pregnancy-still-problem-doh#2IeXZKP5EPkwJbdA.99
Alice Sterling Honig (2012) Teen pregnancy, International Journal of Adolescence and
Youth, 17:4, 181-187, DOI: 10.1080/02673843.2012.655912
Paturel 2011Heavy drinking can lead to teen pregnancy. Teachers in a health course for
teens need to explain clearly how different the brain is when a teen drinks heavily. Weekend
drinking contests are frequent for some teens. The teenage brain seems to be less reactive to
alcohol's short-term effects. Yet, for teens, alcohol impairs the memory system in the
hippocampus and severely limits the ability of the frontal lobes to carry out thoughtful and
logical thinking. ‘Without mature frontal lobes, young people are less able to weigh negatives
consequences and inhibit impulsive behavior like binge drinking … Binge drinking can lead to
unsafe sex and unwanted pregnancy
De Leon, B. (2013) Number of Pinay teenagers giving birth up by more than 60 percent
in 10 years 3rd highest in ASEAN by Ime Morales, Philippines

Benjamin de Leon,(2013) president of the Forum for Family Planning and Development,
an NGO working on adolescent health issues, expressed alarm that almost 10 percent of all
Filipino women aged 15-19 have already given birth. This is a reality that we must address, he
said.

There is an urgency for all sectors “to work together to help address adolescent
reproductive health issues and teen pregnancy because of the health and economic implications
to the country, he said. high rate of teen pregnancy also means a high risk for maternal deaths
among our young girls.
Dr. Babatunde Osotimehin 2013, The state of world population 2013:Motherhood in
childhood New York

The UNFPA report shows that girls who remain in school longer are less likely to
become pregnant.

Education prepares girls for future jobs and livelihoods, raises their self-esteem and
status, and gives them more say in decisions affecting their lives.

Education also reduces the likelihood of child marriage and delays childbearing.

It is also critically important to enact laws against child marriage and enforce those on the
books.

We must protect adolescents’ rights to comprehensive sexuality education and tear down
obstacles to information and services that can help them avoid pregnancy.

We must socialize boys differently so they see girls as equal human beings who deserve
the same rights and opportunities as everyone else. Help boys—and men—become part of the
solution.

And girls who are pregnant need our support, not stigma. They need our help to stay in
school while they are pregnant and resume their education after they give birth.
What Are the Effects of Teenage Pregnancy?
Medically reviewed by Katie Mena, MD on September 19, 2016 — Written by Rachel
Nall, RN, BSN, CCRN

According to a study published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, teenage


parents often don’t complete higher levels of education. They often have more restricted
economic opportunities than older parents.

Around one-half of teen moms have their high school diploma by age 22. Only 10
percent of teen moms typically complete a two- or four-year degree. While there are certainly
exceptions, high school completion and higher education is typically associated with a greater
ability to earn more income over the course of a lifetime.
Mohd Azri MS,Adibha HI,Haliza G (2015) A review of teenage pregnancy research in
Malaysia.
University of pytra malaysia

More than 19,000 births to teenage mothers were recorded each year between 2009 and
2011. Adolescent fertility rates were recorded at 6 births per 1000 women ages 15-19 years in
2013. Many of these births were from unwed pregnancies, which accounted for 1.99% of total
deliveries. A majority of young mothers were willing to take care of their baby, although some of
them planned to put their baby up for adoption. Risk factors for teenage pregnancy were found to
be similar to those published in studies worldwide.
Unintended Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study
Kidest Getu Melese,1 Mignote Hailu Gebrie,2 Martha Berta Badi,3 and Wubalem Fekadu
Mersha4
1Department of Midwifery, College of Health Sciences and Medicine, Wolaita Sodo
University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia
2Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of
Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
3Department of Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of
Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
4Department of Psychiatry, College of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bahir Dar
University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

Received 8 May 2016; Accepted 4 August 2016

Academic Editor: Enrique Hernandez

Copyright © 2016 Kidest Getu Melese et al. This is an open access article distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution,
and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

According to mga authors nasa taas.


Unintended pregnant women will have low physical and mental health, low self-care,
poor health, high level of substance addiction, and depression during pregnancy [3, 11, 12].
Besides, fetus will be delivered by unskilled attendant, delivered as low birth weight, increased
rate of hospitalization, and poor growth and inadequate immunization adversely leads to
maternal and child death
Arshi (2017) How can teenage pregnancy affects your life?
https://www.momjunction.com/articles/how-can-teenage-pregnancy-affect-your-
life_00352431/?ref=content
According to arshi 2017 This is one of the serious effects of teen pregnancy on social life.
Teenage pregnancy is one of the leading reasons for young girls dropping out of school.
Research shows that less than 40% of all pregnant teens graduate after dropping out of school.
Your reasons for missing school can vary. Maybe you need to visit your gynecologist or you
may be on bed rest. Once you give birth, attending school becomes all the more difficult. These
factors can affect your overall academic performance.
Felix Chima Anyanwu, Daniel Ter Goon, and Augustine Tugli (2013) Perception on the
severity of unwanted pregnancy among university students University of Venda

The study indicated that majority of the students believed that an unwanted pregnancy
may result to impaired mental health and other health problems; indicating no significant gender
difference. This finding is similar to a study which found that women with unplanned pregnancy
had fewer positive prenatal care behaviours, experienced more physical problems, had more
negative experiences and pain in labour, and experienced more mental problems in the early
postpartum period.19

Although studies have shown that young mothers tend to have fewer years of education
when compared to those who have their first child after 20 years of age.20 The impart of
unwanted pregnancy on the education of a young person depends on the timing of the pregnancy
and the outlook of the girl and her family regarding unwanted pregnancy.21 In addition, only
about a third of young women in South Africa return to school after pregnancy22 and less than
two third (60.30%) of the students in this present study believed that the scholastic ambition of a
young girl could be truncated as a result of an unwanted pregnancy. This perception was low and
showed no significant difference between male and female. However, it was slightly lower than
that reported in a Nigerian university; showing that 62% of participants agreed that unwanted
pregnancy could cause termination of educational career.
Felix Chima Anyanwu, Daniel Ter Goon, and Augustine Tugli (2013) Perception on the
severity of unwanted pregnancy among university students University of Venda

The study indicated that majority of the students believed that an unwanted pregnancy
may result to impaired mental health and other health problems; indicating no significant gender
difference. This finding is similar to a study which found that women with unplanned pregnancy
had fewer positive prenatal care behaviours, experienced more physical problems, had more
negative experiences and pain in labour, and experienced more mental problems in the early
postpartum period.19

Although studies have shown that young mothers tend to have fewer years of education
when compared to those who have their first child after 20 years of age.20 The impart of
unwanted pregnancy on the education of a young person depends on the timing of the pregnancy
and the outlook of the girl and her family regarding unwanted pregnancy.21 In addition, only
about a third of young women in South Africa return to school after pregnancy22 and less than
two third (60.30%) of the students in this present study believed that the scholastic ambition of a
young girl could be truncated as a result of an unwanted pregnancy. This perception was low and
showed no significant difference between male and female. However, it was slightly lower than
that reported in a Nigerian university; showing that 62% of participants agreed that unwanted
pregnancy could cause termination of educational career.
Effects of unwanted pregnancy among university students
By Jacob.M. Tagwi | Publish Date: Sep 27 2013 5:00AM
Department of Mass Communication, University of Maiduguri.

According to jacob m. tagwi An unwanted pregnancy can cause many serious problems
for the body, mind, and the social status of female university students who are not yet ready to be
mothers.
They are often nervous as they can’t solve the problem and their parents may not accept them
and the pregnancy.
Some may finally seek illegal abortion which can cause them their lives. Even when they do not
terminate the pregnancy,some of them maybe too young to give birth and have health
complications.
Pregnant university students in some ways too are directly or indirectly forced to quit their
studies to stay at home until they give birth. These unprepared young mothers often inevitably
encounter financial problems. Stress and worries can harm their mentality. Many of them lack
knowledge to deal with the problem and don’t know how to take care of their children.
Both financial stability and emotional maturity become problems for parenting or caring
responsibilities. Getting back into the education system often very difficult. University female
students have to worry about losing the educational opportunities. They have to quit university to
escape the pressures of society while university male students can still go to university regularly.
It is therefore important for female university students to stay away from sexual relationships
until they are ready to get married or able to care for themselves and the children when born.
Josefina natividad 2014 Number of teenage pregnancies doubled in Philippines in last
decade: study.Australia network news

Professor Natividad says young people are also largely influenced by their peers and this
could be key to raising awareness about safe sex outside of formal sex education programs.
"There is a lot of non-governmental work going on that is trying to engage young people," she
said.
"It seems like young people will listen to people of their own age.
"The survey is also showing that if the young people have questions about sex, the people they
will tend to turn to would be their friends.
"So if we have programs on peer education, that is probably one way of reaching these young
people, by having people their own age be the advocates for change."
Browne, S. P. and LaLumia, S. (2014), The Effects of Contraception on Female Poverty.
J. Pol. Anal. Manage., 33: 602–622. doi: 10.1002/pam.21761.

This is a study of how the availability of contraception or lack there of effects women in
poverty. The study shows that households where single women are the sole income provider
have higher rates of poverty and often these households fall below the poverty line after
childbirth. The study estimates that access to oral contraception reduces female poverty by 0.5
percentage points. This relates to my proposal as it shows the positive effects access to
contraceptives can have on women below the poverty line.
Finer, L., & Zolna, M. (2011). Unintended Pregnancy In The United States: Incidence
And Disparities, 2006. Contraception, 84(5), 478-485. Retrieved November 12, 2014

This study is focused on the statistics surrounding unintended pregnancy and the
disparities in various social groups. From surveying data from the National Survey of Family
Growth, National Centre for Health Statistics, and US Census Bureau it is concluded that the rate
of unintended pregnancy increased from 2001 to 2006 and that rates are highest in poor women.
Authors suggest that initiatives to help decrease unintended pregnancies should focus on women
below the poverty line. This study illustrates my suggestion that unintended pregnancies can be
reduced if funding goes to education of poor women.
Gold RB et al., Next Steps for America’s Family Planning Program: Leveraging the
Potential of Medicaid and Title X in an Evolving Health Care System, New York: Guttmacher
Institute, 2009. Retrieved November 12, 2014

This study focuses on the current challenges facing family planning programs in
America and suggests some next steps to confront these challenges. Some of the main
conclusions are that the gap in contraceptive use and number of unintended pregnancies between
high-income level individuals and low-income level individuals is increasing and that the
majority of mothers of unintended pregnancies depend on publicly funded programs. The
portion of the study that most directly relates to my study is the “Challenges Facing Family
Planning Centers” This section explains the difficulties in reaching patients/clients who have
complicated life situations. This shows that family planning centers need resources supports my
proposal to give the grant funding to Planned Parenthood.
Singh S, Sedgh G and Hussain R, Unintended pregnancy: worldwide levels, trends and
outcomes, Studies in Family Planning, 2010, 41(4):241–250. Retrieved November 12, 2014
The incidence of pregnancy by intention status and outcome was estimated for the world
and various regions in 2008. These estimates show that of the 208 million pregnancies that
occurred in 2008, 41 percent were unintended. Developed regions in general showed a drop of
29 percent however North America is the only region where the unintended pregnancy rate did
not decrease. This illustrates the severity of the issue described in my proposal because other
developed countries don’t have as many unintended pregnancies.
Sonfield, A., & Kost, K. (2013, October 1). Public Costs from Unintended Pregnancies
and the Role of Public Insurance Programs in Paying for Pregnancy and Infant Care: Estimates
for 2008,. Retrieved November 12, 2014

This is an analysis of national and state expenditures on births from unintended


pregnancy as well as the social and economic consequences of unintended pregnancies. The
authors conclude that public health insurance programs including Medicaid paid for 65% of
unplanned births in the U.S. $12.5 billion dollars a year could be saved between state and
federal governments if the number of unintended pregnancies is decreased. This relates to my
paper because it shows the financial need and benefit of decreasing the number of unintended
pregnancies in the U.S.
Wildsmith, E., Guzzo, K., & Hayford, S. (2010). Repeat Unintended, Unwanted And
Seriously Mistimed Childbearing In The United States. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive
Health, 42(1), 14-22.Retrieved November 12, 2014,
Data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth was used to determine the
number of unintended pregnancies. Levels of repeat unintended pregnancy were greatest among
black women suggesting that they may differ in their birth control decisions as well as in their
access to and ability to afford family planning services. Results suggests efforts to reduce
unintended pregnancy should be particularly focused on black women who seem to be more
prone to repeat unintended pregnancy. This study is relevant to my proposal because it is useful
for deciding where the education programs should be. That is they should certainly be
implemented in areas with more single black females.
UNINTENDED PREGNANCY: Consequences and Solutions for a Worldwide
Problem
Carrie S. Klima CNM, MS
First published: 10 January 2012
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0091-2182(98)00063-9

Unintended pregnancy is a worldwide problem that affects women, their families, and
society. Unintended pregnancy can result from contraceptive failure, non‐use of contraceptive
services, and, less commonly, rape. Abortion is a frequent consequence of unintended pregnancy
and, in the developing world, can result in serious, long‐term negative health effects including
infertility and maternal death. In many developing countries, poverty, malnutrition, and lack of
sanitation and education contribute to serious health consequences for women and their families
experiencing an unintended pregnancy. Regardless of the cause, unintended pregnancy and its
negative consequences can be prevented by access to contraceptive services including
emergency contraception, safe and legal abortion services, and a society that allows women to
determine their own reproductive choices. Addressing unintended pregnancy and its substantial
human and dollar costs should be a priority in every country. The availability of reliable
contraception for all, regardless of age or ability to pay, is an essential first step. Women and
adolescents require access to age‐appropriate and culturally sensitive reproductive health care
services, including emergency contraception. Access to safe, legal abortion services is necessary
to impact the staggering maternal mortality rates worldwide. Midwives throughout the world
provide the majority of care for women of reproductive age. It is essential to identify those at risk
for unintended pregnancy, provide the services they require, and remain diligent to ensure that
those women and their families have safe options to consider when faced with an unintended
pregnancy. In 1920, Magaret Sanger said, “No women can call herself free who does not control
her own body.” Although great strides have been made to improve the health and status of
women since Ms. Sanger spoke those words, there remains much work to be done.
Unplanned pregnancy impacts college success
Shawna Daly
December 8,
2015https://www.google.com.ph/amp/s/thecommunitarian.org/2016/01/08/unplanned-
pregnancy-impacts-college-success/amp/

Campbell says that pregnant students don’t realize that their parents aren’t going to watch
after their grandchild while the mother is at school, and some less fortunate pregnant students
don’t have a support system to begin with.

Furthermore, college doesn’t return to normal after nine months of pregnancy is over.
Campbell says that she has seen new mothers have to drop classes or semesters to find childcare.
And when credits expire, new mothers are too discouraged to return to college.

“Some pregnant students think that after nine months they can return to their life as a
student again and move on,” Campbell said. “But they’re changing their identity from a student
to a young mother.”

Campbell doesn’t believe she has all the resources to counsel pregnant students on a
regular basis. Occasionally, she will assign another counselor to speak with a student about her
pregnancy or sexually abusive relationships.

According to Campbell, DCCC has held sexual health lectures in the STEM building, and
upcoming lectures can be found on the Campus Life events web- page.

Publicly funded family planning services make access to contraceptives and medical
exams accessible for all demographics
Citation: BASCH CE. Teen pregnancy and the achievement gap among urban
minority youth. J Sch Health. 2011; 81: 614-618.Journal of School Health, New york

Teen pregnancy exerts an important influence on


educational outcomes among teens. The causes of dis-
proportionately high rates of teen pregnancy among
urban minority youth are complex and multidimen-
sional. Nevertheless, school-based programs have the
potential to help teens acquire the knowledge and
skills needed to postpone sex, practice safer sex, avoid
unintended pregnancy, and, if pregnant, to complete
high school and pursue postsecondary education. A
secondary benefit of comprehensive sex education is
that it will serve to protect youth from HIV and other
sexually transmitted infections, which also dispropor-
tionately affect urban minority youth.
Michelle Anne P. Soliman
When a girl becomes a mother
April 13, 2018 | 12:31 am
Business World http://www.bworldonline.com/when-a-girl-becomes-a-mother/

Mr. Beck stressed the importance of encouraging conversations on reproductive health in


the home.

“Teenage pregnancies are not really a deliberate choice. It often happens by chance,” said
Mr. Beck. “It happens often because girls don’t really have the information they need to
understand their own bodies. They don’t have the ability to say ‘no’ at times [when it comes to
sex]. We have to go out of our comfort zone. Our comfort zone is to not talk about these things.
If they understand how their bodies work, then they are less likely to become pregnant,” he said.

“Being a father of two young girls, it can be difficult to talk about it. But they know you
have to have the conversation about their bodies. We have to protect young girls from abuse
because some of these pregnancies happen because of it. It has an impact your entire lives going
forward. It may end your education, it may lead you in the worse place financially, it might lead
you to have another child directly afterwards. It changes the trajectory of your life,” he said.
brown girl, akwankwaa a. (2007). college females as mothers : balancing the roles of
student and motherhood

As more female college students are involved in sexual relationships their risk of
conception increases. However, when pregnancy occurs it is only the woman who bears the
burden and risk of the pregnancy and in most cases child care. Female college students who
become pregnant are then faced with, not only the risk of the child birth but also the
responsibility of their education and childcare. This study describes how the women in situations
like this cope with their experiences. In their own words the participants will suggest how they
handle their responsibility of school and parenting. Five themes are associated with this study:
(a) mother's unconditional love; (b) relationship with the child's father; (c) responsibility for
education; (d) family and friends involvement; and (e) the learned lessons. These themes are
used as a guide to get an understanding of what the females go through when faced with these
responsibilities.
Brown RL, et al. ABNF J. 2007 College females as mothers: balancing the roles of
student and motherhood .Florida Department of Children and Families, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

According to Amankwaa (2007), as more female college students are involved in sexual
relationships their risk of conception increases. However, when pregnancy occurs it is only the
woman who bears the burden and risk of the pregnancy and in most cases child care. Female
college students who become pregnant are then faced with, not only the risk of the child birth but
also the responsibility of their education and childcare. This study describes how the women in
situations like this cope with their experiences. In their own words the participants will suggest
how they handle their responsibility of school and parenting. Five themes are associated with this
study: (a) mother’s unconditional love; (b) relationship with the child’s father; (c) responsibility
for education; (d) family and friends involvement; and € the learned lessons. These themes are
used as a guide to get an understanding of what the females go through when faced with these
responsibilities.
Essays, UK. (November 2013). Teenage Pregnancy Study in the Philippines. Retrieved
from https://www.ukessays.com/essays/health-and-social-care/teenage-pregnancy-study-
philippines-4836.php?vref=1

Okey (2012) has said student-mothers go through a number of challenges as they live
double lives as mothers and students. Often challenges are faced like lack of support due to other
factors like lack of finances and time being limited.