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References:

Buchanan, D. & Huczynski, A. (1997) Organizational Behaviour: An Introductory Text, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall,
Buchanan, D. & Huczynski, A. (1997) Organizational Behaviour: An Introductory Text,
3rd ed., Prentice Hall, London.
Barnard, C.I. (1938) Functions of the Executive, Harvard University ,Press, Cambridge,
MA.
Pugh, D. (1971) Organization Theory: Selected Readings, Penguin, Harmondsworth.
Ivancevich, J. & Matteson, M. (1998) Organizational Behaviour and Management, 3rd
edn, Irwin, Chicago and London.
Wood, J. (1997) in Dickson, T. & Bickerstaffe, G. (eds.) Mastering Management: The
Definitive Guide to the Foundations and Frontiers of Finance, FT/Pitman Publishing,
London.

Management Process

Unit 1

Introduction Objectives Management Functions Self Assessment Questions1 Management roles and skills Self Assessment
Introduction
Objectives
Management Functions
Self Assessment Questions1
Management roles and skills
Self Assessment Questions 2
Effective vs. Successful Managerial Activities
Self Assessment Questions 3
Summary
Terminal Questions
Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s

Unit 1

Management Process

Structure

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.1 Introduction

Organizational behavior (OB) is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within an organization, then applies that knowledge to make organizations work more effectively (Robbins, 2003). In recent times, we notice the following changes in the organizational set up:

1. Demise of traditional hierarchical structure

2. Emergence of workforce with different expectations form organizations

3. Advancement of information technology

4. Increasing importance on empowerment and teamwork

5. Concern for work­life balance

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An affective and efficient manager therefore, should focus on two key results. The first is task performance—the quality and quantity of the work produced or the services provided by the work unit as a whole. The second is job satisfaction—how people feel about their work and the work setting. OB directs a manager’s attention to such matters as job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment, as well as measures of actual task performance. OB also recognizes the need for changing behavior, attitude and managerial styles in the context of the above. Hence, management processes and functions are vital to organizational effectiveness. An understanding of the basis management functions helps in comprehending the key roles managers need to play to run organizations effectively.

Management Functions Management roles and skills
Management Functions
Management roles and skills

Learning objectives

The learning objectives of this unit are as follows:

1.

2.

1.2 Management Functions

Follett (1933) defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". [2] One can also think of management functionally, as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan.

Management functions are as follows (Fayol, 1949):

1. Planning

2. Organizing

3. Commanding

4. Coordinating

5. Controlling

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However, in recent time, management functions have been regrouped into four categories, since the managerial tasks have become highly challenging a fluid in nature making distinctions redundant to a certain extend. The four functions are as follows:

to a certain extend. The four functions are as follows: 1. Planning 2. Organizing 3. Leading

1. Planning

2. Organizing

3. Leading

4. Controlling

1. Planning –

It

developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. Planning also enhances the decision­making process. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. Planning in order to be useful must be linked to the strategic intent of an organization. Therefore, planning is often referred to as strategic in nature and also termed as strategic planning.

involves the process of defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving these goals, and

Strategic Planning: Top level managers engage chiefly in strategic planning or long range planning Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization's mission, overall goals, general strategies, and allocating resources.

The tasks of the strategic planning process include the following steps:

Define the mission:

A

of

does. A mission statement should be short – and should be easily understood and every employee should ideally be able to narrate it from memory. An explicit mission guides employees to work independently and yet collectively toward the realization of the organization's potential. The mission

mission is the purpose of the organization. Thus, planning begins with clearly defining the mission

the organization. The mission statement is broad, deconcise, summarizing what the organization

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statement may be accompanied by an overarching statement of philosophy or strategic purpose designed to convey a vision for the future as envisaged by top management.

a vision for the future as envisaged by top management. Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis

Conduct a situational or SWOT analysis A situation or SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis is vital for the creation of any strategic plan. The SWOT analysis begins with a scan of the external environment. Organizations need to examine their business situation in order to map out the opportunities and threats present in their environments. Sources of information may include stakeholders like, customers (internal and external), suppliers, governments (local, state, federal, international), professional or trade associations (conventions and exhibitions), journals and reports (scientific, professional, and trade). SWOT analysis provides the assumptions and facts on which a plan will be based. Analyzing strengths and weaknesses comprises the internal assessment of the organization. For assessing the strengths of the organization the following questions are important:

1. What makes the organization distinctive?

2. How efficient is our manufacturing?

3. How skilled is our workforce?

4. What is our market share?

5. What financing is available?

6. Do we have a superior reputation?

For assessing the weaknesses of the organization the following questions are important:

1. What are the vulnerable areas of the organization that could be exploited?

2. Are the facilities outdated?

3. Is research and development adequate?

4. Are the technologies obsolete?

For identifying opportunities the following elements need to be looked at:

1. In which areas is the competition not meeting customer needs?

2. What are the possible new markets?

3. What is the strength of the economy?

4. Are our rivals weak?

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5. What are the emerging technologies?

Process Unit 1 5. What are the emerging technologies? 6. Is there a possibility of growth

6. Is there a possibility of growth of existing market?)

Identifying threats involves the following:

1. In which areas does the competition meet customer needs more effectively?

2. Are there new competitors?

3. Is there a shortage of resources?

4. Are market tastes changing?

5. What are the new regulations?

6. What substitute products exist?

In general terms, the best strategy is one that fits the organization's strengths to opportunities in the environment. The SWOT analysis is used as a baseline for future improvement, as well as gap analysis. Comparing the organization to external benchmarks (the best practices) is used to assess current capabilities. Benchmarking systematically compares performance measures such as efficiency, effectiveness, or outcomes of an organization against similar measures from other internal or external organizations.

Set goals and objectives Strategic goals and objectives are developed to fill the gap between current capability and the mission. They are aligned with the mission and form the basis for the action plans of an organization. Objectives are also called performance goals. Generally, organizations have long­term objectives for factors such as, return on investment, earnings per share, etc. It also helps in setting minimum acceptable standards or common­sense minimums.

Develop related strategies (tactical and operational) Tactical plans are based on the organization's strategic plan. In turn, operational plans are based on the organization's tactical plans. These are specific plans that are needed for each task or supportive activity comprising the whole. Strategic, tactical, and operational planning must be accompanied by controls to ensure proper implantation of the plans, necessary to maintain competitive advantage in the said market.

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Monitor the plan

Management Process Unit 1 Monitor the plan A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be

A systematic method of monitoring the environment must be adopted to continuously improve the strategic planning process. To develop an environmental monitoring procedure, short­term standards for key variables that will tend to validate and support the long­range estimates must be established. Feedback is encouraged and incorporated to determine if goals and objectives are feasible. This review is used for the next planning cycle and review.

2. Organizing ­ It involves designing, structuring, and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. Organizations are groups of people, with ideas and resources, working toward common goals. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization's resources to achieve organizational goals. Organizational structure is the formal decision­making framework by which job tasks are divided, grouped, and coordinated. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies, procedures, and goals are clearly stated. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles, lines of authority, and relationships between departments. The steps in the organizing process include:

1. Review plans

2. List all tasks to be accomplished

3. Divide tasks into groups one person can accomplish ­ a job

4. Group related jobs together in a logical and efficient manner

5. Assign work to individuals

6. Delegate authority to establish relationships between jobs and groups of jobs.

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3. Leading ­

Management Process Unit 1 3. Leading ­ An organization has the greatest chance of being successful

An organization has the greatest chance of being successful when all of the employees work toward achieving its goals. Since leadership involves the exercise of influence by one person over others, the quality of leadership exhibited by supervisors is a critical determinant of organizational success. Supervisors can learn about leadership through research. Leadership studies can be classified as trait, behavioral, contingency, and transformational. Earliest theories assumed that the primary source of leadership effectiveness lay in the personal traits of the leaders themselves. Yet, traits alone cannot explain leadership effectiveness. Thus, later research focused on what the leader actually did when dealing with employees. These behavioral theories of leadership sought to explain the relationship between what the leader did and how the employees reacted, both emotionally and behaviorally. Yet, behavior can't always account for leadership in different situations. Thus, contingency theories of leadership studied leadership style in different environments. Transactional leaders, such as those identified in contingency theories, clarify role and task requirements for employees. Yet, contingency can't account for the inspiration and innovation that leaders need to compete in today's global marketplace. Newer transformational leadership studies have shown that leaders, who are charismatic and visionary, can inspire followers to transcend their own self­interest for the good of the organization.

Leading involves the following functions:

1.Teambuilding

Rigid department boundaries and fixed teams are giving way to ad hoc squads whose membership changes with every project. Flexible networks of team­based structures are occurring within and between companies, as well as across national borders. Competitive arenas require quick decisions by knowledgeable employees who work close to the source of problems. Teams enable knowledge­ based and innovative decision making. This collaboration is a revolution in the workplace.

2.

Top performance demands the joint effort of many people, working together toward a common goal. When an individual works together with others, effectiveness grows, creating greater productivity for

Consensus Building

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all involved. Together, employees can do more than the collective efforts of each individual working alone.

the collective efforts of each individual working alone. 3. Selecting competent, high­performing employees capable

3.

Selecting competent, high­performing employees capable of sustaining their performance over the long run is a competitive advantage. The selection process consists of forecasting employment needs, recruiting candidates, interviewing applicants, and hiring employees.

Selecting

4.

After employees are selected, they enter an orientation program to be formally introduced to their jobs. Orientation sets a tone for new employees' work by describing job­related expectations and reporting relationships. Employees are informed about benefits, policies, and procedures. Specific duties and responsibilities and performance evaluation are clarified. During orientation, the supervisor has the opportunity to resolve any unrealistic expectations held by the employee. Training refers to improving an employee's knowledge, skills, and attitudes so that he or she can do the job. All new employees (or current employees in new jobs) should be trained. Cross training prepares an employee for a job normally handled by someone else. Also, training is advisable when new processes, equipment or procedures are introduced into the workplace. Training starts with an organization analysis. By focusing on strategy and examining sales forecasts and expected changes in production, distribution and support systems, employers can determine which skills will be needed and to what degree. A comparison with current skill levels is used to estimate staff and training needs. Task analysis identifies the elements of current or future tasks to be done. Personal needs analysis involves asking employees and managers, either in an interview or in a self­administered questionnaire, to analyze their training needs. In general, agreement between managers and employees tends to be low, so it is important that both parties agree to decisions about the training of employees.

Training

4.

It involves monitoring the employees’ behavior and organizational processes and take necessary actions to improve them, if needed. Control is the process through which standards for performance

Controlling –

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of people and processes are set, communicated, and applied. Effective control systems use mechanisms to monitor activities and take corrective action, if necessary. There are four steps in the control process. They are as follows:

are four steps in the control process. They are as follows: Step 1. Establish Performance Standards.

Step 1. Establish Performance Standards. Standards are created when objectives are set during the planning process. A standard is any guideline established as the basis for measurement. It is a precise, explicit statement of expected results from a product, service, machine, individual, or organizational unit. It is usually expressed numerically and is set for quality, quantity, and time. Tolerance is permissible deviation from the standard.

Step 2. Measure Actual Performance. Supervisors collect data to measure actual performance to determine variation from standard. Written data might include time cards, production tallies, inspection reports, and sales tickets. Personal observation, statistical reports, oral reports and written reports can be used to measure performance. Management by walking around, or observation of employees working, provides unfiltered information, extensive coverage, and the ability to read between the lines. While providing insight, this method might be misinterpreted by employees as mistrust. Oral reports allow for fast and extensive feedback. Computers give supervisors direct access to real time, unaltered data, and information. On line systems enable supervisors to identify problems as they occur. Database programs allow supervisors to query, spend less time gathering facts, and be less dependent on other people.

Step 3. Compare Measured Performance Against Established Standards. Comparing results with standards determines variation. Some variation can be expected in all activities and the range of variation ­ the acceptable variance ­ has to be established. Management by exception lets operations continue as long as they fall within the prescribed control limits. Deviations or differences that exceed this range would alert the supervisor to a problem.

Step 4. Take Corrective Action. The supervisor must find the cause of deviation from standard. Then, he or she takes action to remove or minimize the cause. If the source of variation in work performance is from a deficit in activity, then a supervisor can take immediate corrective action and get performance back on track.

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Types of Control Controls are most effective when they are applied at key places. Supervisors can implement controls before the process begins (feed forward), during the process (concurrent), or after it ceases (feedback).

The management process (adopted from Terry, 1972) Planning Organizing Directing Controlling Goal
The management process (adopted from Terry, 1972)
Planning
Organizing
Directing
Controlling
Goal

Feed forward controls focus on operations before they begin. Their goal is to prevent anticipated problems. An example of feed forward control is scheduled maintenance on automobiles and machinery.

Concurrent controls apply to processes as they are happening. Concurrent controls enacted while work is being performed include any type of steering or guiding mechanism such as direct supervision, automated systems (such as computers programmed to inform the user when they have issued the wrong command), and organizational quality programs.

Feedback controls focus on the results of operations. They guide future planning, inputs, and process designs. Examples of feedback controls include timely (weekly, monthly, quarterly, annual) reports so that almost instantaneous adjustments can be made.

The following diagram represents an integrated model connecting all the above­mentioned functions of management.

Resources

HR,

Financial,

Informational

etc.

achievement
achievement

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Self Assessment Questions 1

categories. analysis.
categories.
analysis.

1. In recent time, management functions have been regrouped into

2. Training starts with an

1.3 Management roles and skills

Managerial Roles According to Mintzberg (1973), managerial roles are as follows:

1. Informational roles

2. Decisional roles

3. Interpersonal roles

1. Informational roles: This involves the role of assimilating and disseminating information as and when required. Following are the main sub­roles, which managers often perform:

a. Monitor—collecting information from organizations, both from inside and outside of the organization

b. Disseminator—communicating information to organizational members

c. Spokesperson—representing the organization to outsiders

2. Decisional roles: It involves decision making. Again, this role can be sub­divided

in to the following:

a. Entrepreneur—initiating new ideas to improve organizational performance

b. Disturbance handlers—taking corrective action to cope with adverse situation

c. Resource allocators—allocating human, physical, and monetary resources

d. Negotiator – negotiating with trade unions, or any other stakeholders

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3. Interpersonal roles : This role involves activities with people working in the organization. This is supportive role for informational and decisional roles. Interpersonal roles can be categorized under three sub­headings:

a. Figurehead—Ceremonial and symbolic role

b. Leadership—leading organization in terms of recruiting, motivating etc.

c. Liaison—liasoning with external bodies and public relations activities.

Management Skills

bodies and public relations activities. Management Skills skill. Katz (1974) has identified three essential management

skill.

Katz (1974) has identified three essential management skills: technical, human, and conceptual.

Technical skills: The ability is to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. All jobs require some specialized expertise, and many people develop their technical skills on the job. Vocational and on­ the­job training programs can be used to develop this type of skill.

Human Skill : This is the ability to work with, understand and motivate other people (both individually and a group). This requires sensitivity towards others issues and concerns. People, who are proficient in technical skill, but not with interpersonal skills, may face difficulty to manage their subordinates. To acquire the Human Skill, it is pertinent to recognize the feelings and sentiments of others, ability to motivate others even in adverse situation, and communicate own feelings to others in a positive and inspiring way.

Conceptual Skill : This is an ability to critically analyze, diagnose a situation and forward a feasible solution. It requires creative thinking, generating options and choosing the best available option.

Self Assessment Questions 2

1. Ceremonial and symbolic role of a manager is called

2. Vocational and on­the­job training programs can be used to develop

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1.4 Effective vs. Successful Managerial Activities

Unit 1 1.4 Effective vs. Successful Managerial Activities Luthans (1988), on the basis of his study,

Luthans (1988), on the basis of his study, found that all managers engage in four managerial activities.

1. Traditional management— This activity consists of planning, decision making, and controlling. The average manager spent 32 percent of his or her time performing this activity, whereas successful managers spend 13% and effective managers spend 13% of their time in this activity.

2. Communication—This activity consists of exchanging routine information and processing paperwork. The average manager spent 29 percent of his or her time performing this activity while successful manager spends 28% and effective managers spend 44% of their time in this activity.

3. Human resource management—This activity consists of motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing, and training. The average manager spent 20 percent of his or her time performing this activity, while successful manager spends 11% and effective managers spend 26% of their time in this activity.

4. Networking—This activity involves socializing, politicking, and interacting with outsiders. The average manager spent 19 percent of his or her time performing this activity, while successful manager spends 48% and successful manages spend 11% of their time in this activity.

It was found that successful managers spent more time and effort in socializing, interacting and networking. They did not spend much time to the traditional management activities or to the human resource management activities (Luthans, 1988).

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Self Assessment Questions 3

percent of his or her time performing traditional percent of their time in human resource
percent of his or her time performing traditional
percent
of their time in human resource

1.

management. 2. Effective managers spend management.

The average manager spent

1.4 Summary

Organizational behavior (OB) is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within an organization, then applies that knowledge to make organizations work more effectively (Robbins, 2003). An affective and efficient manager should focus on two key results. The first is task performance—the quality and quantity of the work produced or the services provided by the work unit as a whole. The second is job satisfaction—how people feel about their work and the work setting. management functions have been grouped into four categories: planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Planning involves the process of defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving these goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. Every organization needs to plan for change in order to reach its set goal. Effective planning enables an organization adapt to change by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. It provides the direction for the other functions of management and for effective teamwork. Planning also enhances the decision­making process. All levels of management engage in planning in their own way for achieving their preset goals. Organizing involves designing, structuring, and coordinating the work components to achieve organizational goal. It is the process of determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made. A key issue in accomplishing the goals identified in the planning process is structuring the work of the organization. Organizations are groups of people, with ideas and resources, working toward common goals. The purpose of the organizing function is to make the best use of the organization's resources to achieve organizational goals. Organizational structure is the formal decision­making framework by which job tasks are divided, grouped, and coordinated. Formalization is an important aspect of structure. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies, procedures, and goals are clearly stated. It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management. The formal organization can be

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seen and represented in chart form. An organization chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles, lines of authority, and relationships between departments. Leading involves team building, consensus building, selecting and training. An organization has the greatest chance of being successful when all of the employees work toward achieving its goals. Since leadership involves the exercise of influence by one person over others, the quality of leadership exhibited by supervisors is a critical determinant of organizational success. Controlling involves monitoring the employees’ behavior and organizational processes and take necessary actions to improve them, if needed. Control is the process through which standards for performance of people and processes are set, communicated, and applied. Effective control systems use mechanisms to monitor activities and take corrective action, if necessary. According to Mintzberg ( 1973), managerial roles are: Informational roles, Decisional roles and Interpersonal roles. Katz (1974) has identified three essential management skills: technical, human, and conceptual. Luthans (1988) found that all managers engage in four managerial activities: (i) Traditional management— This activity consists of planning, decision making, and controlling, (ii) Communication—This activity consists of exchanging routine information and processing paperwork, (iii) Human resource management—this activity consists of motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing, and training, and (iv) Networking—this activity involves socializing, politicking, and interacting with outsiders.

socializing, politicking, and interacting with outsiders. Terminal questions 1. Discuss the four management functions

Terminal questions

1. Discuss the four management functions in brief.

2. What do you mean by SWOT analysis? Why is it required by a manager?

3. Discuss three leadership functions of a manager.

4. Based on Katz’s proposition, briefly discus the essential managerial skills.

Answer to Self Assessment Questions Self Assessment Questions 1

1. Four

2. Organization

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Self Assessment Questions 2

Management Process Unit 1 Self Assessment Questions 2 1. Figurehead 2. Technical Self Assessment Questions 3

1. Figurehead

2. Technical

Self Assessment Questions 3

1. 32

2. 26

Answer to Terminal Questions

1. Refer section 1.2

2. Refer section 1.2

3. Refer section 1.2

4. Refer section 1.3

Organizational Behavior

Unit 2

Unit 2

Introduction Objectives Definitions of OB Self Assessment Questions 1 Historical evolution of OB as a
Introduction
Objectives
Definitions of OB
Self Assessment Questions 1
Historical evolution of OB as a discipline
Self Assessment Questions 2
Contributing Disciplines to the OB field
Self Assessment Questions 3
Summary
Terminal Questions
Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s

Organizational Behavior

Structure

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.1 Introduction

In order to be effective organizations need to develop their interpersonal or people skills According to Robbins( 2003), Organizational behavior (OB) is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within an organization, then applies that knowledge to make organizations work more effectively. Specifically, OB focuses on how to improve productivity, reduce absenteeism and turnover, and increase employee citizenship and job satisfaction. An organization is more than a formal arrangement of functions, more than an organization chart, more than a vision statement, more than a set of accounts. An organization consists of people and so it is also a social system. The field of organizational behavior (OB) draws primarily from the behavioral science disciplines of psychology, social psychology, and cultural anthropology. The areas on which OB focuses are individuals who will often be working within groups, which themselves work within organizations, as well as all the interrelationships between them. Some of the specific themes embraced by OB are personality theory, attitudes and values, motivation and learning, interpersonal behavior, group dynamics, leadership and teamwork, organizational structure and design, decision­making, power, conflict, and negotiation. Some OB

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thinkers go further and suggest that the behavior within the organization has to be viewed partly in the wider context of the outside world’s effect on the organization and its human resources, missions, objectives, and strategies.

its human resources, missions, objectives, and strategies. Learning objectives The learning objectives of this unit are

Learning objectives

The learning objectives of this unit are as follows:

1. Historical evolution of OB as a discipline

2. Contributing Disciplines to the OB field

2.2 Definitions Of OB

Buchanan and Huczynski (1997) have defined Organizations as “social arrangements, constructed by people who can also change them. Organizations can be repressive and stifling, but they can also be designed to provide opportunities for self­fulfillment and individual expression. The point is that human consequences depend on how organizations are designed and run.’ Barnard (1938) defined Organizations “as system of co­operative activities – and their co­ordination requires something intangible and personal that is largely a matter of personal relationships”. There are a number of definitions that we can draw on to illuminate and deepen our understanding of the concept of organizational behavior. One of the earliest, and certainly one of the most succinct definitions, comes from Pugh, (1971) for whom, OB is concerned with ‘‘the study of the structure, functioning and performance of organizations, and the behavior of groups and individuals within them”. Ivancevich and Matteson, (1998) in their book Organizational Behavior and Management, offers a broader definition. They opine that OB is about ‘‘the study of human behavior, attitudes and performance within an organizational setting; drawing on theory, methods, and principles from such disciplines as psychology, sociology, and cultural anthropology to learn about individual perception, values, learning capabilities, and actions while working with groups and within the total organization; analyzing the external environment’s effect on the organization and its human resources, missions, objectives and strategies”.

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What emerges from these two definitions is a view of OB as:

Having a distinctly humanistic outlook Performance oriented Seeing the external environment as critical Using
Having a distinctly humanistic outlook
Performance oriented
Seeing the external environment as critical
Using scientific method
Having an applications orientation

1. A way of thinking

2. An interdisciplinary field

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Levels of analysis:

Wood (1997) provides a useful model for exploring behavioral events. He suggests that different levels of analysis can be applied when examining the significance of an organizational issue. He proposes eight, namely:

1. Individual

2. Team

3. Inter­group

4. Organizational

5. Inter­organizational

6. Societal

7. International

8. Global.

The basic issue is that the level of explanation that one chooses, determines the view of the causes of an event or problem. It also affects the actions that one takes, and the solutions that one seeks. In an organization, inappropriate intervention at the wrong level can make a problem worse rather than better.

Three points are important in this regard:

People tend to pick their favorite level of analysis to explain events, and then behave accordingly. This is often particularly true of external consultants brought in to perform a ‘quick fix’.

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activities”. field.
activities”.
field.

arrangements”

People are most familiar with, and often prefer, explanations at the individual level of behavior. Trying to change people by sending them on a training course is simpler than changing structures or upgrading technology. However, such explanations are often too simplistic, inaccurate, or incomplete. It may not solve organizational problems, nor provide the base for creating self sufficiency and sustenance, particularly in a competitive and volatile market. As a general principle, any organizational problem can be usefully analyzed at an increasingly higher level of abstraction. By considering a problem progressively at the individual, group, inter­group, and organizational levels, a deeper understanding of its causes can be gained. As a result, the tools needed to tackle the problem can be chosen more precisely, and applied more effectively. Looking at a problem systemically will always yield a better understanding than simply leaping in with fixed preconceptions. Therefore a contingency approach is what is now preferred rather than any absolute solutions in OB.

Self Assessment Questions 1

1. Buchanan and Huczynski (1997) have defined Organizations as “

2. Barnard (1938) defined Organizations “as system of

3. OB is

2.3 Historical Evolution Of OB As A Discipline

A large number of people have contributed to the growth of OB as a discipline. The most important ones have been described below:

A. Early Theorists Adam Smith’s discussions in the Wealth of nations published in 1776 stated that organizations and society would reap from the division of labor. He concluded that division of labor increased productivity by raising each worker’s skill and dexterity, by saving time other wise lost in changing tasks. The development of assembly line production process in the early 20 th century was obviously stimulated by the economic advantages of work specialization (arising out of division of labor) as stated in the work of Smith.

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The other significant work which influenced this philosophy was that of the work of Charles Babbage in 1832 titled On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures. He added the following to Smith’s list of advantages that can be accrued from division of labor:

of advantages that can be accrued from division of labor: 1. It reduces the time needed

1. It reduces the time needed to learn a job

2. Reduced wastage of material during the learning process

3. Allowed attainment of increased skill levels

4. Careful match of people’s skills and physical abilities with specific tasks

Thus in the writings of these writers the benefits of division of labor were being highlighted where the maximum emphasis was on raising productivity and minimizing wastage of resources and time. Very little were no consideration was given towards the human elements in the workplace.

B. The Classical Era We see this trend to continue in what is called as the classical era which covers the period between 1900 to mid 1930s. the first general theories of management began to evolve and the main contributors during this era were Frederick Taylor, Henri Fayol, Max Weber, Mary parker Follet and Chester Barnard.

Frederick Taylor’s main emphasis was on finding one best way of doing each job. He stressed on selecting the right people for the job , train them to do it precisely in one best way. He favored wage plans to motivate the workers. His scientific principles of management stressed the following principles:

1. Shift all responsibility for the organization of work from the worker to the manager; managers should do all the thinking relating to the planning and design of work, leaving the workers with the task of implementation.

2. Use scientific methods to determine the most efficient way of doing work; assign the worker’s task accordingly, specifying the precise way in which the work is to be done.

3. Select the best person to perform the job thus designed.

4. Train the worker to do the work efficiently.

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Unit 2

5. Monitor worker performances to ensure that appropriate work procedures are followed and that appropriate results are achieved.

are followed and that appropriate results are achieved. Taylor was one of the first to attempt

Taylor was one of the first to attempt to systematically analyze human behavior at work. He insisted the use of time­and­motion study as a means of standardizing work activities. His scientific approach called for detailed observation and measurement of even the most routine work, to find the optimum mode of performance. The results were dramatic, with productivity increasing significantly. With passing time, new organizational functions like personnel and quality control were created. Of course, in breaking down each task to its smallest unit to find what Taylor called ‘‘the one best way’’ to do each job, the effect was to remove human variability. Hence he lay the ground for the mass production techniques that dominated management thinking in the first half of the twentieth century.

Henri Fayol, a mining engineer and manager by profession, defined the nature and working patterns of the twentieth­century organization in his book, General and Industrial Management, published in 1916. In it, he laid down what he called 14 principles of management. This theory is also called the Administrative Theory. The principles of the theory are:

1.

so that expertise is developed and productivity increased.

2.

rewards and penalties; authority should be matched with corresponding responsibility. 3. Discipline: this is essential for the smooth running of business and is dependent on good

Division of work: tasks should be divided up with employees specializing in a limited set of tasks

Authority and responsibility: authority is the right to give orders and entails enforcing them with

leadership, clear and fair arguments, and the judicious application of penalties.

4.

superior only; otherwise authority, discipline, order, and stability are threatened.

5.

by a single plan under one head.

6.

allowed to override those of the business.

Unity of command: for any action whatsoever, an employee should receive orders from one

Unity of direction: a group of activities concerned with a single objective should be co­coordinated

Subordination of individual interest to general interest: individual or group goals must not be

Organizational Behavior

Unit 2

7.

encourage effort, and not lead to overpayment. 8. Centralization: the extent to which orders should be issued only from the top of the organization is a problem which should take into account its characteristics, such as size and the capabilities of the personnel.

9.

Remuneration of personnel: this may be achieved by various methods but it should be fair,

may be achieved by various methods but it should be fair, Scalar chain (line of authority):

Scalar chain (line of authority): communications should normally flow up and down the line of

authority running from the top to the bottom of the organization, but sideways communication between those of equivalent rank in different departments can be desirable so long as superiors are

kept informed.

10.

to their posts so there must be careful organization of work and selection of personnel.

Order: both materials and personnel must always be in their proper place; people must be suited

11. Equity: personnel must be treated with kindness and justice.

12. Stability of tenure of personnel: rapid turnover of personnel should be avoided because of the

time required for the development of expertise.

13.

requirements of authority and discipline.

14.

dissension and divisiveness.

Initiative: all employees should be encouraged to exercise initiative within limits imposed by the

Esprit de corps: efforts must be made to promote harmony within the organization and prevent

The management function, Fayol stated, consisted of planning, organizing, commanding, co­ coordinating and controlling. Many practicing managers, even today, list these functions as the core of their activities. Fayol was also one of the first people to characterize a commercial organization’s activities into its basic components. He suggested that organizations could be sub­divided into six main areas of activity:

1. Technical

2. Commercial

3. Financial

4. Security

5. Accounting

6. Management.

Organizational Behavior

Unit 2

In defining the core principles governing how organizations worked and the contribution of management to that process, Fayol laid down a blueprint that has shaped organization thinking for almost a century.

that has shaped organization thinking for almost a century. Max Weber developed a theory based on

Max Weber developed a theory based on authority relations and was he a pioneer in looking at management and OB from a structural viewpoint. His theory is also known as bureaucratic theory in management. he described an ideal types of organization and called it a bureaucracy. This was a system marked by division of labor, a clearly defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations and impersonal relationships. He wanted this ideal types construct to be taken as a basis for creating organizations in real world. The detailed features of Weber’s ideal bureaucratic structure are a follows:

1. Jurisdictional areas are clearly specified, activities are distributed as official duties (unlike traditional form where duties delegated by leader and changed at any time). 2. Organization follows hierarchical principle ­­ subordinates follow orders or superiors, but have right of appeal (in contrast to more diffuse structure in traditional authority).

2. Intention, abstract rules govern decisions and actions. Rules are stable, exhaustive, and can be learned. Decisions are recorded in permanent files (in traditional forms few explicit rules or written records).

3. Means of production or administration belong to office. Personal property separated from office property.

4. Officials are selected on basis of technical qualifications, appointed not elected, and compensated by salary.

5. Employment by the organization is a career. The official is a full­time employee and looks forward to a life­long career. After a trial period they get tenure of position and are protected from arbitrary dismissal.

C. The Human Relations Movement Since the industrialists of the early decades of the twentieth century followed Taylor’s lead and put the emphasis on efficiency, it was some years before any significant attention was paid to the needs and motivations of that other major factor involved in the work process – the workers. One of the

Organizational Behavior

Unit 2

early pioneers of a view that actually people were central to the world of business was Mary Parker Follett. With this started the beginning of what may be termed as the Human relations Movement as contributor to the field of OB

Human relations Movement as contributor to the field of OB Follet believed that organizations should be

Follet believed that organizations should be based on a group ethic rather than on individualism. The manager’s work was to harmonize and coordinate group efforts. Managers and workers need to look at each other as partners. Therefore managers should rely more on workers’ expertise and knowledge than on formal authority of their position to lead their subordinates. Thus in her writing one can trace the importance of motivation and group togetherness , so much required in modern day organizational situations.

Another major influence in the human relations movement came from the work of Chester Barnard. Barnard viewed organizations as consisting of people who have interacting social relationships. Barnard viewed organizational success in terms of fostering cooperation from various stakeholders such as, employees and others like customers, investors, suppliers and other external constituencies. Thus irrespective of excellent production systems, Barnard emphasized the need for boundary spanning activities and development of skills and motivation of employees for organizational effectiveness and success.

Elton Mayo is known as the founder of the Human Relations Movement, and is known for his research including the Hawthorne Studies, and his book The Social Problems of an Industrialised Civilization (1933). The research he conducted under the Hawthorne Studies of the 1930s showed the significance of groups in affecting the behavior of individuals at work. However, it was not Mayo who conducted the practical experiments but his employees Roethlisberger and Dickinson. This helped him to make certain deductions about how managers should behave. He carried out a number of investigations to look at ways of improving productivity, for example changing lighting conditions in the workplace.

His findings were that work satisfaction depended to a large extent on the informal social pattern of the workgroup. Where ever norms of cooperation and higher output were established it was due to a feeling of importance. Physical conditions or financial incentives had little motivational value. People

Organizational Behavior

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will form workgroups and this can be used by management to benefit the organization. He concluded that people's work performance is dependent on both social issues and job content. He suggested a tension between workers' 'logic of sentiment' and managers' 'logic of cost and efficiency' which could lead to conflict within organizations.

which could lead to conflict within organizations. Summary of Mayo's Beliefs: Individual workers cannot be

Summary of Mayo's Beliefs:

Individual workers cannot be treated in isolation, but must be seen as members of a group. Monetary incentives and good working condition are less important to the individual than the need to belong to a group. Informal or unofficial groups formed at work have a strong influence on the behavior of those workers in a group Managers must be aware of these 'social needs' and cater for them to ensure that employees collaborate with the official organization rather than work against it. Another contributor whose work revolutionized thinking about workplaces was Dale Carnegie. His book ­How to Win Friends and Influence people is a classic which is referred by management experts even today. His main theme centered on the idea that the way to success was through winning the cooperation of people. He advised:

1. To make others feel important through a sincere appreciation of their efforts

2. Seek to make a good impression

3. Win people to your way of thinking by letting others do the talking, being sympathetic and never telling others that they are wrong

4. Change people by praising their good traits and giving chance to others to save their face

The next contributor who influenced the human aspects of management in workplace was Abraham Maslow. Maslow proposed the need hierarchy theory (physiological, safety, social esteem and self actualization needs) and stated that each step in the hierarchy must be satisfied before the next can be activated and once a need was substantially satisfied, it no longer motivated an individual. Self actualization was the ultimate goal of human existence. Managers who accepted this hierarchy theory attempted to alter the organization and management practices to reduce barriers to employees’ self actualization Douglas McGregor was another contributor to the human relations movement. He formulated two sets of assumptions – Theory X and Theory Y about human nature. Theory X posited a negative

Organizational Behavior

Unit 2

view of people stating that this category have little ambition, dislike work, want to avoid responsibility and need to be closely directed at workplace. Theory Y category on the other hand proposed a positive view of people stating that they can exercise self direction, assume responsibility and considered work as a natural activity. McGregor personally believed that Theory Y described best the nature of people at work and therefore form the basis of all management practices in organizations. Managers should give freedom to their subordinates in order to unleash their full creative and productive potential

to unleash their full creative and productive potential D. Behavioral Science Theorists These theorists engaged in

D. Behavioral Science Theorists These theorists engaged in objective research of human behavior in organizations. Some of the major theorists who contributed to the growth of OB as a discipline are briefly given below.

B. F. Skinner ­ His research on conditioning (classical and operant) and behavior modification influenced the design of organization training programs and reward systems. Behavior is a function of consequence according to Skinner and he stated that people engage in a desired behavior only if they are rewarded for it and less likely to be repeated if an individual is not rewarded or punished for it

David McClelland ­ his work has helped organizations to match people with jobs and in redesigning jobs for high achievers in order to maximize their motivation potential. For example, people who have undergone achievement training in India, have been found to work longer hours, initiate more new business ventures, made greater investments in productive assets than those who did not undergo such training

Fred Fiedler ­ work in the field of leadership has contributed immensely to the growth of OB as a discipline. His work on the subject is important since it emphasized the situational aspects of leadership and attempted to develop a comprehensive theory of leadership behavior

Fredrick Herzberg­ his primary interest was in finding out answer to the question: what do individuals want from their jobs? He concluded from his study that people preferred jobs that provided opportunities for recognition, achievement, responsibility and growth. Only providing the

Organizational Behavior

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hygiene factors were insufficient to motivate people in work places. This work is significant to OB as it has helped in enriching jobs and the quality of work life in modern organizations.

jobs and the quality of work life in modern organizations. E. OB is present times What

E. OB is present times What is realized today is that no one theory by itself can improve organizational functioning and effectiveness. What, therefore, is suggested is a contingency approach. While the 1960s and 70s witnessed the development of new theories the efforts since then has been on refining existing theories, clarifying previous assumptions and identifying significant contingency variables. The emphasis today is on understanding the situational factors and how they influence a behavior pattern of individuals in organizational contexts.

Landmark publications on organizational behavior

» 1911: Frederick Taylor: Principles of Scientific Management

» 1916: Henri Fayol: General and Industrial Management

» 1924: MaxWeber: The Theory of Social and Economic Organization

» 1933: Elton Mayo: Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization

» 1938: Chester Barnard: The Functions of the Executive

» 1954: Abraham Maslow: Motivation and Personality

» 1956: William Whyte: The Organization Man

» 1959: Frederick Herzberg: The Motivation to Work

» 1960: Douglas McGregor: The Human Side of Enterprise

» 1964: Robert Blake and Jane Mouton: The Managerial Grid

» 1973: Henry Mintzberg: The Nature of Managerial Work

» 1978: Chris Argyris and Donald Schon: Organizational Learning

» 1979: Reg Revans: Action Learning

» 1981: Richard Pascale and Anthony Athos: The Art of Japanese Management

» 1982: Tom Peters and Bob Waterman: In Search of Excellence

» 1984: Meredith Belbin: Management Teams

» 1985: Edgar Schein: Organizational Culture and Leadership

» 1986: Gareth Morgan: Images of Organization

Organizational Behavior

Unit 2

» 1989: Charles Handy: The Age of Unreason

of labor principles of management. theory.
of labor
principles of management.
theory.

» 1990: Peter Senge: The Fifth Discipline

» 1990: Richard Pascale: Managing on the Edge

» 1993: James Champy and Mike Hammer: Re­engineering the Corporation 1995: Karl Weick: Sensemaking in Organizations

» 1997: Arie de Geus: The Living Company

» 1997: Thomas Stewart: Intellectual Capital

2000: Richard Pascale: Surfing the Edge of Chaos »2001: Daniel Pink: Free Agent Nation

»

Self Assessment Questions 2

1. Adam Smith stated that organizations and society would reap from the

2. Taylor has proposed

3. Fayol has proposed

2.4 Contributing Disciplines To The OB Field

Organizational behavior is an applied behavioral science that is built upon contributions from a number of behavioral disciplines. The main areas are psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, and political science.

Psychology :

Psychology is the science that attempts to measure, explain, and at times change the behavior of humans and other animals. Early industrial/organizational psychologists were concerned with problems of fatigue, boredom, and other factors relevant to working conditions that could disrupt/ impede efficient work performance. More recently, their contributions have been expanded to include learning, perception, personality, emotions, training, leadership effectiveness, needs and motivational forces, job satisfaction, decision making processes, performance appraisals, attitude measurement, employee selection techniques, work design, and job stress.

Organizational Behavior

Unit 2

Sociology

blends the concepts of psychology and sociology.
blends the concepts of psychology and sociology.

Sociologists study the social system in which individuals fill their roles; that is, sociology studies

people in relation to their fellow human beings. Their significant contribution to OB is through their

study of group behavior in organizations, particularly formal and complex organizations.

Social Psychology

Social psychology blends the concepts of psychology and sociology. It focuses on the influence of

people on one another. The major challenge deals with the issue of how to implement it and how to

reduce barriers to its acceptance.

Anthropology

Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.

Anthropologists work on cultures and environments; for example, they have aided in understanding

differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behavior among people in different countries and

within different organizations.

Political Science

Political science studies the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment. It

focuses on areas, such as, conflict, intra­organizational politics and power.

Self Assessment Questions 3

1.

2.

3.

is the science that attempts to measure, explain, and at times change the

behavior of humans and other animals.

Political science studies the behavior of individuals and groups within a environment.

2.5 Summary

Organizational behavior (OB) is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups,

and structure have on behavior within an organization, then applies that knowledge to make

organizations work more effectively. Specifically, OB focuses on how to improve productivity, reduce

absenteeism and turnover, and increase employee citizenship and job satisfaction. An organization

Organizational Behavior

Unit 2

is more than a formal arrangement of functions, more than an organization chart, more than a vision

more than an organization chart, more than a vision statement, more than a set of accounts.

statement, more than a set of accounts. An organization consists of people and so it is also a social

system. The field of organizational behavior (OB) draws primarily from the behavioral science

disciplines of psychology, social psychology, and cultural anthropology. The areas on which OB

focuses are individuals who will often be working within groups, which themselves work within

organizations, as well as all the interrelationships between them. Some of the specific themes

embraced by OB are personality theory, attitudes and values, motivation and learning, interpersonal

behavior, group dynamics, leadership and teamwork, organizational structure and design, decision­

making, power, conflict, and negotiation. OB is an interdisciplinary field, it has distinctly humanistic

outlook, it is performance oriented, it considers external environment as critical, it uses scientific

method and it has an applications orientation. Wood (1997) provides a useful model for exploring

behavioral events. He suggests that different levels of analysis can be applied when examining the

significance of an organizational issue. He proposes eight, namely: Individual, Team, Inter­group,

Organizational, Inter­organizational, Societal, International, and Global. A large number of people

have contributed to the growth of OB as a discipline. Some of the most important works have been

done by Adam Smith, Frederick Taylor, Henri Fayol, Max Weber, Mary parker Follet, Abraham

Maslow, B. F. Skinner, to name a few. Organizational behavior is an applied behavioral science that

is built upon contributions from a number of behavioral disciplines. The main areas are psychology,

sociology, social psychology, anthropology, and political science.

Terminal Questions

1. Discuss Taylors’ scientific principles of management.

2. Explain Fayol’s administrative theory.

3. What is Weber’s ideal bureaucratic structure?

4. Summarize Mayo’ belief.

Answers to Self Assessment Questions

Self Assessment Questions 1

1. Social

2. Co­operative

3. Interdisciplinary

Organizational Behavior

Unit 2

Self Assessment Questions 2

Organizational Behavior Unit 2 Self Assessment Questions 2 1. Division 2. Scientific 3. Administrative Self Assessment

1. Division

2. Scientific

3. Administrative

Self Assessment Questions 3

1. Psychology

2. Social psychology

3. Political

Answers to Terminal Questions

1. Refer section 2.3

2. Refer section 2.3

3. Refer section 2.3

4. Refer section 2.3

Foundation Of Organization Behavior

Unit 3

Unit 3

Biographic Characteristics Ability
Biographic Characteristics
Ability

Foundation Of Organizational Behavior

Structure

3.1 Introduction Objectives

3.2 Biographic characteristics Self Assessment Questions 1

3.3 Ability Self Assessment Questions 2

3.4 Summary Terminal Questions Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s

3.1 Introduction

Organizational Behavior emphasizes on intellectual capital as represented by the sum total of knowledge, expertise, and dedication of an organization’s workforce. It recognizes that even in the age of high technology, people are the indispensable human resources whose knowledge and performance advance the organization’s purpose, mission, and strategies. Only through human efforts can the great advantages be realized from other material resources of organizations, such as, technology, information, raw materials, and money. A Fortune survey (1998) of America’s most­ admired firms reported that “the single best predictor of overall success was a company’s ability to attract, motivate, and retain talented people.”

Learning objectives

The learning objectives of this unit are as follows:

1.

2.

Foundation Of Organization Behavior

Unit 3

3.2 Biographic characteristics

Behavior Unit 3 3.2 Biographic characteristics Finding and analyzing the variables that have an impact on

Finding and analyzing the variables that have an impact on employee productivity, absence, turnover, and satisfaction is often complicated. Many of the concepts—motivation, or power, politics or organizational culture—are hard to assess. Other factors are more easily definable and readily available—data that can be obtained from an employee’s personnel file and would include characteristics, such as:

1. Gender

2. Age

3. Marital status

4. Tenure.

1.

Men and women exhibit no consistent differences in their problem­solving abilities, analytical skills, competitive drive, motivation, learning ability, or sociability. However, women are reported to be more conforming and to have lower expectations of success than men do. And, women’s absenteeism rates tend to be higher than those of men.

Gender ­

2.

Age ­

The research findings concerning age are important given the aging of the workforce. People 50 years old and older account for 85 percent of the projected labor force growth between 1990 and 2005 (American Association of Retired Persons, 1995). Older workers are susceptible to being stereotyped as inflexible and undesirable in other ways. In some cases, workers as young as age forty are considered to be “old” and complain that their experience and skills are no longer valued. On the other hand, small businesses in particular, tend to value older workers for their experience, stability and low turnover. Research is consistent with these preferences and also shows lower avoidable absences (Mayrand, 1992).

3.

There are not enough studies to draw any conclusions about the effect of marital status on job productivity. Research consistently indicates that married employees have fewer absences, undergo less turnover, and are more satisfied with their jobs than are their unmarried coworkers (Garrison &

Marital Status

Foundation Of Organization Behavior

Unit 3

Muchinsky, 1977). Further research needs to be conducted on the other statuses, besides, single or married, such as, divorce, domestic partnering, etc

than those of men. relationship between tenure to absence.
than those of men.
relationship between tenure to absence.

4. Tenure The issue of the impact of job seniority on job performance has been subject of misconceptions and speculations. Extensive reviews of the seniority­productivity relationship have been conducted (Gordon & Fitzgibbons, 1982):

1. There is a positive relationship between tenure and job productivity.

2. There is a negative relationship between tenure to absence.

3. Tenure is also a potent variable in explaining turnover.

4. Tenure has consistently been found to be negatively related to turnover and has been suggested as one of the single best predictors of turnover.

5. The evidence indicates that tenure and satisfaction are positively related

Self­ Assessment Questions 1

1. Women’s absenteeism rates tend to be

2. There is a

3.3 Ability

Ability reflects a person’s existing capacity to perform the various tasks needed for a given job and includes both relevant knowledge and skills (Cummings & Schwab, 1973). Aptitude represents a person’s capability of learning something. In other words, aptitudes are potential abilities, whereas abilities are the knowledge and skills that an individual currently possesses. Managers need to consider both ability and aptitude while selecting candidates for a job. Various tests used to measure mental aptitudes and abilities. Some of these provide an overall intelligent quotient (IQ) score (e.g., the Stanford­Binet IQ Test). Others provide measures of more specific competencies that are required of people entering various educational programs or career fields. Such tests are designed to facilitate the screening and selection of applicants for educational programs or jobs. In addition to mental aptitudes and abilities, some jobs, such as, firefighters and police, require tests for physical

Foundation Of Organization Behavior

Unit 3

Description Job Example Dimension Number aptitude Ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic Accountant Verbal
Description
Job Example
Dimension
Number aptitude
Ability to do speedy and
accurate arithmetic
Accountant
Verbal Communication
Read write speaking ability
Senior managers
Perceptual Speed
Identify similarities and
differences quickly and
accurately
Investigators
Inductive reasoning
Logical sequence drawing
Market Researcher
Deductive reasoning
Ability to use logic and
assess the implications of
the argument
Supervisors
Spatial Visualization
Ability to imagine
Interior decorator
Memory
Ability to retain and recall
past experience
Sales person­
Remembering customer’s
name

abilities. Muscular strength and cardiovascular endurance are two among the many physical ability dimensions (Hogan, 1991). There must be a fit between specific aptitudes and abilities and job requirements. If you want to be a surgeon, for instance, and cannot demonstrate good hand–eye coordination, there will not be a good ability–job fit. Such a fit is so important that it forms a core concept in managing human resources. Individuals overall abilities are made up of two sets of factors: intellectual and physical.

Intellectual Abilities Intellectual abilities are those required to perform mental activities. IQ tests are designed to ascertain one’s general intellectual abilities. Examples of such tests are popular college admission tests such as, the SAT, GMAT, and LSAT. The seven most commonly cited dimensions making up intellectual abilities are: number aptitude, verbal comprehension, perceptual speed, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, spatial visualization, and memory (Dunnette, 1976). The abilities are categorized in the following table:

Foundation Of Organization Behavior

Unit 3

Jobs differ in the demands they place on incumbents to use their intellectual abilities. A review of the evidence demonstrates that tests that assess verbal, numerical, spatial, and perceptual abilities are valid predictors of job proficiency at all levels of jobs. In this regard, the theory of multiple intelligences was developed by Gardner (1983, 1993). This theory suggests eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults. It has been claimed that our intelligence or ability to understand the world around us is complex. Some people are better at understanding some things than others. For some, it is relatively easy to understand how an automobile works, but it is immensely difficult for some to understand and use a musical instrument. For others music might be easy but playing football is difficult. The several different intelligences are listed below:

The several different intelligences are listed below: 1. Linguistic intelligence ("word smart"): 2.

1. Linguistic intelligence ("word smart"):

2. Logical­mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart")

3. Spatial intelligence ("picture smart")

4. Bodily­Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart")

5. Musical intelligence ("music smart")

6. Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart")

7. Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart")

8. Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart")

Physical Abilities Specific physical abilities gain importance in doing less skilled and more standardized jobs. Research has identified nine basic abilities involved in the performance of physical tasks. Individuals differ in the extent to which they have each of these abilities. High employee performance is likely to be achieved when management matches the extent to which a job requires each of the nine abilities and the employees’ abilities.

Foundation Of Organization Behavior

Unit 3

Nine Basic Physical Abilities proposed by Fleishman (1979):

Ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time Ability to exert muscular strength
Ability to exert muscular force repeatedly
or continuously over time
Ability to exert muscular strength using the
trunk (particularly abdominal) muscles
Ability to exert force against
external objects
Ability to expend a maximum of
energy in one or a series of
explosive acts
Ability to move the trunk and back
muscles as far as possible
Ability to make rapid, repeated flexing
Movements
Ability to coordinate the simultaneous
actions of different parts of the body
Ability to maintain equilibrium despite
forces pulling off balance
Ability to continue maximum effort
requiring prolonged effort over time

Strength Factors

Dynamic strength

Trunk strength

Static strength

Explosive strength

Flexibility Factors

Extent flexibility

Dynamic flexibility

Other Factors

Body coordination

Balance Ability

Stamina Ability

Foundation Of Organization Behavior

Unit 3

The Ability­Job Fit Employee performance is enhanced when there is a high ability­job fit. The specific intellectual or physical abilities required depend on the ability requirements of the job. For example, pilots need strong spatial­visualization abilities. Directing attention at only the employee’s abilities, or only the ability requirements of the job, ignores the fact that employee performance depends on the interaction of the two. When the fit is poor employees are likely to fail. When the ability­job fit is out of synchronization because the employee has abilities that far exceed the requirements of the job, performance is likely to be adequate, but there will be organizational inefficiencies and possible declines in employee satisfaction. Abilities significantly above those required can also reduce the employee’s job satisfaction when the employee’s desire to use his or her abilities is particularly strong and is frustrated by the limitations of the job

aptitude. smart. strength.
aptitude.
smart.
strength.

Self Assessment Questions 2

1. Ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic is called

2. Interpersonal intelligence means

3. Ability to exert force against external objects is called as

3.4 Summary

Organizational Behavior emphasizes on intellectual capital as represented by the sum total of knowledge, expertise, and dedication of an organization’s workforce. It recognizes that even in the age of high technology, people are the indispensable human resources whose knowledge and performance advance the organization’s purpose, mission, and strategies. Only through human efforts can the great advantages be realized from other material resources of organizations, such as, technology, information, raw materials, and money. Finding and analyzing the variables that have an impact on employee productivity, absence, turnover, and satisfaction is often complicated. Many of the concepts—motivation, or power, politics or organizational culture—are hard to assess. Other factors are more easily definable and readily available—data that can be obtained from an employee’s personnel file and would include characteristics, such as, gender, age, marital status, and tenure. Ability reflects a person’s existing capacity to perform the various tasks needed for a given job and includes both relevant knowledge and skills (Cummings & Schwab, 1973). Aptitude represents a

Foundation Of Organization Behavior

Unit 3

person’s capability of learning something. In other words, aptitudes are potential abilities, whereas abilities are the knowledge and skills that an individual currently possesses. Managers need to consider both ability and aptitude while selecting candidates for a job. Individuals overall abilities are made up of two sets of factors: intellectual and physical. Intellectual abilities are those required to perform mental activities. The seven most commonly cited dimensions making up intellectual abilities are: number aptitude, verbal comprehension, perceptual speed, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, spatial visualization, and memory. Specific physical abilities gain importance in doing less skilled and more standardized jobs. Research has identified nine basic abilities involved in the performance of physical tasks. Individuals differ in the extent to which they have each of these abilities. High employee performance is likely to be achieved when management matches the extent to which a job requires each of the nine abilities and the employees’ abilities. Employee performance is enhanced when there is a high ability­job fit. The specific intellectual or physical abilities required depend on the ability requirements of the job.

required depend on the ability requirements of the job. Terminal Questions 1. Briefly describe the relationship

Terminal Questions

1. Briefly describe the relationship of biographic characteristics with organizational behavior.

2. What is “ability”? explain the multiple intelligence theory.

3. Explain the significance of ability­job fit.

Answers to Self Assessment Questions Self Assessment Questions 1

1.

2.

Self Assessment Questions 2

Higher

Negative

1.Number

2. People

3. Static

Answers to Terminal Questions

1. Refer to section 3.2

2. Refer to section 3.3

3. Refer to section 3.3

Learning

Unit 9

Unit 4

Learning Unit 9 Unit 4 Learning Structure 4.1 Introduction Objectives 4.2 Theories of learning Self Assessment

Learning

Structure

4.1 Introduction Objectives

4.2 Theories of learning Self Assessment Questions 1

4.3 Shaping behavior Self Assessment Questions 2

4.4 Behavior modification Self Assessment Questions 3

4.5 Specific organizational application

4.6 Summary Terminal Questions Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s

4.1 Introduction Learning refers to a process that enhances the knowledge, skill and attitude (KSA) of individuals, to increase his/her willingness to adopt those newly acquired KSA and to implement them at the workplace. Such learning should be sustainable and comparatively stable for people and for the institutions that serves people. Learning definitely includes academic studies and occupational training through high school and beyond. But it also encompasses the physical, cognitive, emotional and social development of children in the earliest years of their lives. Learning can be defined as “any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience” (Robbins, 2003). Following are the characteristics of learning:

1. First, learning involves change.

2. Second, the change must be relatively permanent.

3. Third, learning is concerned with behavior.

Learning

Unit 9

4.

Learning Unit 9 4. Theories of learning Behavior modification Theories of Learning Classical conditioning: Operant

Theories of learning

Behavior modification

Theories of Learning

Classical conditioning:

Operant Conditioning:

Finally, some form of experience is necessary for learning

Learning objectives

The learning objectives of this unit are as follows:

1.

2.

4.2

There are three theories of learning namely ­ classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning

1.

Classical Conditioning is a form of associative learning process proposed by Pavlov (1927). This process involves presentations of a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance. The neutral stimulus does not lead to an overt behavioral response from the organism. This is called as Conditioned Stimulus (CS). Significant stimulus evokes an innate, often reflexive, response. This is called Unconditioned Stimulus (US) and Unconditioned Response (UR), respectively. If the CS and the US are repeatedly paired, eventually the two stimuli become associated and the organism begins to produce a behavioral response to it. It is the Conditioned Response (CR).Classical conditioning was first experimented by Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov, to teach dogs to salivate in response to the ringing of a bell. During his research on the physiology of digestion in dogs, Pavlov used a bell before giving food to his dog. Rather than simply salivating in the presence of meat (a response to food ­ unconditioned response), after a few repetitions, the dog started to salivate in response to the bell. Thus, a neutral stimulus (bell) became a conditioned stimulus (CS) as a result of consistent pairing with the unconditioned stimulus (US – meat). Pavlov referred to this learned relationship as a Conditioned Response.

2.

The operant conditioning theory is proposed by B.F. Skinner (1953, 1954). This is based on the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to stimuli. When a particular Stimulus­Response (S­R) pattern is reinforced

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(rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond. Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner's S­

R

Principles of operant conditioning are as follows:

S­ R Principles of operant conditioning are as follows: theory. A reinforcer is anything that strengthens

theory. A reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired response.

1. Behavior is learned.

2. Behavior that is positively reinforced will reoccur.

3. Information should be presented in small amounts so that responses can be reinforced ("shaping")

4. Reinforcements will generalize across similar stimuli ("stimulus generalization") producing

secondary conditioning.

5.

For example, if a subordinate is praised by his boss for looking good in a certain attire, the subordinate is likely to wear that attire and present himself in front of boss, especially when he needs

Rewards are most effective if they immediately follow the desired response.

to please the boss.

3. Social Learning The social learning theory was proposed by Bandura. It recognizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. According to Bandura (1977), most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences.

Social learning has four processes:

1. Attentional processes ­ People learn from a model only when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features.

2. Retention processes ­ A model’s influence will depend on how well the individual remembers the model’s action after the it is no longer readily available.

3. Motor reproduction processes ­ After a person has seen a new behavior by observing the model, the watching must be converted to doing.

4. Reinforcement processes­ Individuals will be motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior if positive incentives or rewards are provided.

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Principles of social learning are as follows:

processes
processes

1. The highest level of observational learning is achieved by first organizing and rehearsing the modeled behavior symbolically and then enacting it overtly. Coding modeled behavior into words, labels or images results in better retention than simply observing.

2. Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior, if it results in outcomes they value.

3. Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior, if the model is similar to the observer and has admired status and the behavior has functional value

Self Assessment Questions 1

1. Classical Conditioning is a form of associative learning process proposed by

2. The operant conditioning theory is based on the idea that learning is a function of change in behavior

3. Social learning has

4.3: Shaping behavior When a systematic attempt is made to change individuals’ behaviour by directing their learning in graduated steps, it is called shaping behavior. There are four methods of Shaping Behavior. They are as follows:

Positive reinforcement ­ This is the process of getting something pleasant as a consequence of a desired behavior, to strengthen the same behavior. For example, one get a commission, if he/she achieves sales target

Negative reinforcement ­ This is the process of having a reward taken away as a consequence of a undesired behavior. For example, scholarship is withdrawn from the student who has not done well on the examination Punishment is causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate an undesirable behavior. This is the process of getting a punishment as a consequence of a behavior. Example: having your pay docked for lateness Extinction—eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a behavior. So, if a person puts in extra effort, but gets no recognition for it, he will stop doing it

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Both positive and negative reinforcement result in learning. They strengthen a response and increase the probability of repetition. Both punishment and extinction weaken behavior and tend to decrease its subsequent frequency

behavior and tend to decrease its subsequent frequency Schedules of reinforcement The two major types of

Schedules of reinforcement

The two major types of reinforcement schedules are: 1) continuous and 2) intermittent.

1. A Continuous reinforcement schedule reinforces the desired behavior each and every time it is demonstrated. It is the traditional reinforcement schedule and is called a continuous reinforcement schedule. Each time the correct behavior is performed it gets reinforced.

2. An Intermittent reinforcement schedule are fixed and variable categories. In an intermittent schedule, not every instance of the desirable behavior is reinforced, but reinforcement is given often enough to make the behavior worth repeating. The intermittent, or varied, form of reinforcement tends to promote more resistance to extinction than does the continuous form.

Intermittent techniques be placed into following categories:

Fixed­interval reinforcement schedule—rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals; the critical variable is time, and it is held constant.

Variable­interval reinforcements—rewards are distributed in time so that reinforcements are unpredictable. In a fixed­ratio schedule, after a fixed or constant number of responses are given, a reward is initiated. When the reward varies relative to the behavior of the individual, he or she is said to be reinforced on a variable­ratio schedule For example, honesty pay is fixed interval reinforcement, and piece rate is fixed ratio reinforcement scheme.

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is is eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a behavior performance than fixed schedules.
is
is eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a behavior
performance than fixed schedules.

In general, variable schedules tend to lead to

Behavior modification

In general, variable schedules tend to lead to higher performance than fixed schedules. Continuous reinforcement schedules may lead to early satisfaction and behavior may weaken when reinforcers are withdrawn. Continuous reinforcers, thus, are appropriate for newly desired, unstable, or low­ frequency responses. Intermittent reinforcers do not follow every response and thus, they also may lead to early satisfaction. They are appropriate for stable or high­frequency responses. Variable­ interval schedules generate high rates of response and more stable and consistent behavior because of a high correlation between performance and reward.

Self Assessment Questions 2

1.

behavior

2.

3.

causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate an undesirable

4.4

The typical OB Modification program follows a five­step problem­solving model:

1. Identifying critical behaviors

2. Developing baseline data

3. Identifying behavior consequences

4. Developing and implementing an intervention strategy

5. Evaluating performance improvement

1. Critical behaviors make a significant impact on the employee’s job performance;

2. Developing baseline data determines the number of times the identified behavior is occurring under present conditions.

3. Identifying behavioral consequences tells the manager the antecedent cues that emit the behavior and the consequences that are currently maintaining it.

4. Developing and implementing an intervention strategy will entail changing some elements of the performance­reward linkage­structure, processes, technology, groups, or the task—with the goal of making high­level performance more rewarding.

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5. Evaluating performance improvement is important to demonstrate that a change took place as a result of the intervention strategy.

6. OB Modification has been used by a number of organizations to improve employee productivity and to reduce errors, absenteeism, tardiness, accident rates, and improve friendliness toward customers.

Self Assessment Questions 3

1. The typical OB Modification program follows a

2.

OB Modification has been used by a number of organizations to improve employee

step problem­solving model
step problem­solving model

Specific organizational application

Using lotteries to reduce absenteeism

Well pay vs. sick pay

4.5

1.

For example, Continental Airlines has created a lottery that rewards its 40,000 employees for attendance. Twice a year, Continental holds a raffle and gives away eight new sport utility vehicles. Only employees who have not missed a day of work during the previous six months are eligible. This lottery system thus, follows a variable­ratio schedule where management credits the lottery with significantly reducing the company’s absence rate (Robbins, 2003).

2.

Organizations with paid sick leave programs experience almost twice the absenteeism of organizations without such programs. One of the Midwest organizations in USA implemented a well­ pay program. It paid a bonus to employees who had no absence for any given four­week period and then paid for sick leave only after the first eight hours of absence. The well­pay program produced increased savings to the organization, reduced absenteeism, increased productivity, and improved employee satisfaction. Forbes magazine used the same approach to cut its health care costs. It rewarded employees who stayed healthy and did not file medical claims by paying them the difference between $500 and their medical claims, then doubling the amount. By doing this, Forbes cut its major medical and dental claims by over 30 percent (Robbins, 2003).

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Learning Unit 9 3. Employee discipline a. Every manager will, at some time, have to deal

3. Employee discipline

a. Every manager will, at some time, have to deal with problem behaviors in his/her organization.

a. Managers will respond with disciplinary actions such as oral reprimands, written warnings, and temporary suspensions. However, the use of discipline carries costs. It may provide only a short­ term solution and result in serious side effects.

b. Disciplining employees for undesirable behaviors gives them a message to what not to do. However, it does not tell them what alternative behaviors are preferred.

c. Discipline does have a place in organizations.

d. In practice, it tends to be widely used because of its ability to produce fast results in the short run.

e. Developing training programs

f. Most organizations have some kind of systematic training program.

g. In one recent year, U.S. corporations with 100 or more employees spent in excess of $58 billion on formal training for 47.3 million workers (Robbins, 2003).

4. Social­learning theory suggests that training should

a. Offer a model to grab the trainee’s attention.

b. Provide motivational properties

c. Help the trainee to file away what he or she has learned for later use and provide opportunities to

practice new behaviors.

d.

e. If the training has taken place off the job, allow the trainee some opportunity to transfer what he/she learned to the job.

Offer positive rewards for accomplishments.

5. Self­management

1. Organizational applications of learning concepts can also be used to allow individuals to manage their own behavior.

2. Self­management requires an individual to deliberately manipulate stimuli, internal processes, and responses to achieve personal behavioral outcomes.

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The basic processes involve observing one’s own behavior, comparing the behavior with a standard, and rewarding oneself if the behavior meets the standard.

schedule. to cut its health care costs.
schedule.
to cut its health care costs.

Self Assessment Questions 4

1. Continental Airlines’ lottery system follows a

2. Forbes magazine used the

4.6 Summary Learning refers to a process that enhances the knowledge, skill and attitude (KSA) of individuals, to increase his/her willingness to adopt those newly acquired KSA and to implement them at the workplace. Characteristics of learning are: learning involves change; change must be relatively permanent; learning is concerned with behavior; and some form of experience is necessary for learning. There are three theories of learning namely ­ classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning. Classical Conditioning is a form of associative learning process proposed by Pavlov. This process involves presentations of a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance. The neutral stimulus does not lead to an overt behavioral response from the organism. This is called as Conditioned Stimulus (CS). Significant stimulus evokes an innate, often reflexive, response. This is called Unconditioned Stimulus (US) and Unconditioned Response (UR), respectively. If the CS and the US are repeatedly paired, eventually the two stimuli become associated and the organism begins to produce a behavioral response to it. It is the Conditioned Response (CR). The operant conditioning theory is proposed by B.F. Skinner. This is based on the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to stimuli. When a particular Stimulus­Response (S­R) pattern is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond. Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner's S­ R theory. A reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired response. The social learning theory was proposed by Bandura. It recognizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. According to Bandura (1977), most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences. When a systematic attempt is made to change

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individuals’ behavior by directing their learning in graduated steps, it is called shaping behavior. There are four methods of Shaping Behavior. They are: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction. Both positive and negative reinforcement result in learning. They strengthen a response and increase the probability of repetition. Both punishment and extinction weaken behavior and tend to decrease its subsequent frequency. The typical OB Mod program follows a five­step problem­solving model: Identifying critical behaviors, Developing baseline data, Identifying behavior consequences, Developing and implementing an intervention strategy, and Evaluating performance improvement.

strategy, and Evaluating performance improvement. Terminal Questions 1. Explain the classical conditioning

Terminal Questions

1. Explain the classical conditioning theory and social learning theory.

2. Describe the four methods of shaping behavior.

3. Briefly explain the different types of reinforcement schedules.

4. Explain the five­step problem­solving model of typical OB modification.

Answers to Self Assessing Questions Self Assessing Questions 1

1. Pavlov

2. Overt

3. Four

Self Assessing Questions 2

1. Punishment

2. Extinction

3. Higher

Self Assessing Questions 3

1. Five

2. Productivity

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Self Assessing Questions 4

Learning Unit 9 Self Assessing Questions 4 1. Variable­ratio 2. well pay Answers to Terminal Questions

1. Variable­ratio

2. well pay

Answers to Terminal Questions

1. Refer section 4.2

2. Refer section 4.3

3. Refer section 4.3

4. Refer section 4.4

Value, Ethics And Job Satisfaction

Unit 5

Unit 5

Structure

5.1 Introduction Objectives

5.2 Types of Values Self Assessment Questions 1

5.3 Contemporary Work Cohort Self Assessment Questions 2

5.4 National culture and values Self Assessment Questions 3

5.5 Attitudes

5.6

and values Self Assessment Questions 3 5.5 Attitudes 5.6 Self Assessment Questions 4 Summary Terminal Questions

Self Assessment Questions 4

Summary Terminal Questions Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s

Value, Ethics And Job Satisfaction

5.1 Introduction

Values represent basic convictions that “a specific mode of conduct or end­state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end­state of existence” (Rokeach, 1973). When the values are ranked in terms of their intensity, i.e., when the value are prioritized in terms of their intensity, it is called value system. Types of values include, ethical/moral values, doctrinal/ideological (political, religious) values, social values, and aesthetic values. Values have both content and intensity attributes.

1. The content attribute signifies that a mode of conduct or end­state of existence is important.

2. The intensity attribute specifies how important it is.

3. Ranking an individual’s values in terms of their intensity equals that person’s value system.

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Values build the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation of an individual, since,

of attitudes and motivation of an individual, since, value has a great impact on perceptions. Values

value has a great impact on perceptions. Values shape relationships, behaviors, and choices. The

more positive our values, more positive are people’s actions. A significant portion of the values an

individual holds is established in the early years—from parents, teachers, friends, and others.

Learning objectives:

The learning objectives of this unit are as follows:

1. Types of Values

2. National culture and values

3. Attitudes

5.2 Types Of Values

Rokeach, in his Value Survey (Rokeach Value Survey­ RVS), proposed two sets of values. They are

:Terminal values and Instrumental values. Each set contains 18 individual value items. Terminal

values refer to desirable end­states of existence, the goals that a person would like to achieve during

his/her lifetime. Instrumental values refer to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the

terminal values. This survey proposed that people in the same occupations or categories tend to hold

similar values. The terminal values and instrumental values proposed by RVS are listed below:

Terminal values

1. Equality (brotherhood and equal opportunity for all)

2. A comfortable life (a prosperous life)

3. An Exciting Life (a stimulating, active life)

4. Family Security (taking care of loved ones)

5. Freedom (independence and free choice)

6. Health (physical and mental well­being)

7. Inner Harmony (freedom from inner conflict)

8. Mature Love (sexual and spiritual intimacy)

9. National Security (protection from attack)

10. Pleasure (an enjoyable, leisurely life)

11. Salvation (saved; eternal life)

12. Self­Respect (self­esteem)

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13. A Sense of Accomplishment (a lasting contribution)

value
value

14. Social Recognition (respect and admiration)

15. True Friendship (close companionship)

16. Wisdom (a mature understanding of life)

17. A World at Peace (a world free of war and conflict)

18. A World of Beauty (beauty of nature and the arts)

Instrumental values

1. Ambitious (hardworking and aspiring)

2. Broad­minded (open­minded)

3. Capable (competent; effective)

4. Clean (neat and tidy)

5. Courageous (standing up for your beliefs)

6. Forgiving (willing to pardon others)

7. Helpful (working for the welfare of others)

8. Honest (sincere and truthful)

9. Imaginative (daring and creative)

10. Independent (self­reliant; self­sufficient)

11. Intellectual (intelligent and reflective)

12. Logical (consistent; rational)

13. Loving (affectionate and tender)

14. Loyal (faithful to friends or the group)

15. Obedient (dutiful; respectful)

16. Polite (courteous and well­mannered)

17. Responsible (dependable and reliable)

18. Self­controlled (restrained; self­disciplined)

Self Assessment Questions 1

1. values refer to desirable end­states of existence, the goals that a person would like to achieve during his/her lifetime.

2. Social Recognition is

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3.

Value, Ethics And Job Satisfaction Unit 5 3. values refer to preferable modes of behavior, or

values refer to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal

values

5.3 Contemporary Work Cohort

Robbins (2003) has proposed Contemporary Work Cohort, in which the unique value of different cohorts is that the U.S. workforce has been segmented by the era they entered the workforce. Individuals’ values differ, but tend to reflect the societal values of the period in which they grew up. The cohorts and the respective values have been listed below:

1. Veterans—Workers who entered the workforce from the early 1940s through the early 1960s. They exhibited the following value orientations:

They were influenced by the Great Depression and World War II

1. Believed in hard work

2. Tended to be loyal to their employer

3. Terminal values: Comfortable life and family security

2.

belonged to this category. Their value orientations were:

Boomers—Employees who entered the workforce during the 1960s through the mid­1980s

1. Influenced heavily by John F. Kennedy, the civil rights and feminist movements, the Beatles, the Vietnam War, and baby­boom competition

2. Distrusted authority, but gave a high emphasis on achievement and material success

3. Organizations who employed them were vehicles for their careers

4. Terminal values: sense of accomplishment and social recognition

3. Xers—began to enter the workforce from the mid­1980s. They cherished the following values:

1. Shaped by globalization, two­career parents, MTV, AIDS, and computers

2. Value flexibility, life options, and achievement of job satisfaction

3. Family and relationships were important and enjoyed team­oriented work

4. Money was important, but would trade off for increased leisure time

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5.

Less willing to make personal sacrifices for employers than previous generations

began to enter the workforce from the mid­1980s.
began to enter the workforce from the mid­1980s.

Terminal values: true friendship, happiness, and pleasure 4. Nexters—most recent entrants into the workforce.

1. Grew up in prosperous times, have high expectation, believe in themselves, and confident in their ability to succeed

2. Never­ending search for ideal job; see nothing wrong with job­hopping

3. Seek financial success

4. Enjoy team work, but are highly self­reliant

5. Terminal values: freedom and comfortable life

Self Assessment Questions 2

1.

Workers who entered the workforce from the early 1940s through the early 1960s, are called

2.

5.4 National Culture And Values

Following are the most important research with regard to establishing relationship between national culture and values.

Hofstede’s research Hofstede (1980,1991), in order to find the common dimensions of culture across the countries, gathered data from surveys with 116,000 respondents working from IBM from more than 70 countries around the world. The underlying concept of the four dimensions is described below (Hofsede 1991):

1.

Power distance: This dimension measures the 'social equality' i.e.; to what extent a society accepts unequal distribution of power in families, institutions and organizations. Inequality of power in organizations is generally manifested in hierarchical superior­subordinate relationships.

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2. Uncertainty avoidance: This is a representation of a society's tolerance for uncertain situations. It measures to what extent a society manages those situations by providing specific and conventional rules, regulations and norms; by rejecting aberrant ideas or behavior; by accepting the possibility of absolute truths and the accomplishments of expertise. Countries, which score high in uncertainty avoidance, discourage risk­taking behavior and innovation.

avoidance, discourage risk­taking behavior and innovation. 3. Individualism vs. collectivism: Individualism gauges to

3. Individualism vs. collectivism: Individualism gauges to what extent individuals in a country consider themselves as distinct entities rather than as members of cohesive groups. Collectivism, on the other hand, emphasizes on 'social ties or bonds' between individuals. Individualistic society considers self­interest as more important than the group goal.

4. Masculinity vs. femininity: This dimension refers to what extent dominant values in a society emphasizes masculine social values like a work ethic expressed in terms of money, achievement and recognition as opposed to feminine social role which show more concern for people and quality of life.

Hofstede and Bond (1988) have identified a fifth dimension (based on Confucian dynamism), called ‘long­term orientation’, which measures employees’ devotion to the work ethic and their respect for tradition. It was found that Asian countries like Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan are extremely strong in work ethic and commitment to traditional Confucian values. Hofstede (1991) further proposed that each person carries around several layers of cultural programming. It starts when a child learns basic values: what is right and wrong, good and bad, logical and illogical, beautiful and ugly. Culture is about your fundamental assumptions of what it is to be a person and how you should interact with other persons in your group and with outsiders. The first level of culture is the deepest, the most difficult to change and will vary according to the culture in which we grow up. Other layers of culture are learned or programmed in the course of education, through professional or craft training and in organization life. Some of the aspects of culture learned later have to do with conventions and ethics in your profession. These layers are more of ways of doing things, or practices as opposed to fundamental assumptions about how things are.

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GLOBE research GLOBE project integrates the above –mentioned cultural attributes and variables with managerial behavior in organizations. Following are some of the questions asked in this project to prove that leadership and organizational processes were directly influenced by cultural variables:

processes were directly influenced by cultural variables: 1. Are leader behaviors, attributes and organizational

1. Are leader behaviors, attributes and organizational practices universally accepted and effective across cultures?

2. Are they influenced by societal and organizational cultures?

3. What is the effect of violating cultural norms that are relevant to leadership and organizational practices?

4. Can the universal and culture­specific aspects of leadership behaviour and organizational practice be explained with the help of a theory accounting for systematic differences across cultures?

From the above, GLOBE project identified nine cultural dimensions (House, Javidan, Hanges and Dorfman, 2002: 3­10)

1. Uncertainty­ avoidance: GLOBE project defined this dimension as the extent to which a society or an organization tries to avoid uncertainty by depending heavily on prevalent norms, rituals and bureaucratic practices.

2. Power distance: it is the degree to which power is unequally shared in a society or an organization.

3. Collectivism­I i.e. societal collectivism: it is the degree to which society and organization encourages, and recognizes collective performance.

4. Collectivism­II­ In­group collectivism: it is the degree to which individuals take pride, loyalty and cohesiveness in their organizations and families.

5. Gender egalitarianism: GLOBE has defined this as an extent to which a society or an organization minimizes gender differences and discrimination.

6. Assertiveness: it is the degree to which individuals, both in organizational and social context are, assertive and confrontational.

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7. Future orientation: it is the degree to which individuals are encouraged in long­ term future – orientated behaviors such as planning, investing, etc.

– orientated behaviors such as planning, investing, etc. 8. Performance orientation: this dimension encourages and

8. Performance orientation: this dimension encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement.

9. Humane orientation: it is the degree to which organizations or society encourage or reward for being fair, altruistic, friendly, generous and caring.

Work behavior across cultures In every culture, there are different sets of attitudes and values which affect behavior. Similarly, every individual has a set of attitudes and beliefs – filters through which he/she views management situations within organizational context. Managerial beliefs, attitudes and values can affect organizations positively or negatively. Managers portray trust and respect in their employees in different ways in different cultures. This is a function of their own cultural backgrounds. For example, managers from specific cultures tend to focus only on the behavior that takes place at work, in contrast to managers from diffused cultures who focus on wider range of behavior including employees’ private and professional lives. Trompenaars and Hampden­Turner (1998:86) have conducted a survey to find out whether the employees believe their companies should provide housing to the employees. It was found out that most managers from diffused cultures believed that company should provide such facility (former Yugoslavia 89%, Hungary 83%, China 82%, Russia 78%), whereas less than 20% managers from specific cultures such as UK, Australia, Denmark, France, etc., agreed on the same. Laurent (1983: 75­96), as a result of his survey with managers from nine Western European countries, U.S., three Asian countries found distinctly different patterns for managers in common work situations.

Task and relationship: in response to the statement which states that the main reason for a hierarchical structure was to communicate the authority­ relationship, most U.S. managers disagreed whereas, most Asian , Latin American managers strongly agreed. It was quite evident that U.S managers, having an extremely task­ oriented culture, believed more in flatter organizational structure to become more effective. On the other hand, the second set of managers were from more

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relationship­ oriented cultures where the concept of authority is more important. Similarly, in response to the statement which says that in order to have efficient work relationship it is often necessary to bypass the hierarchical line, differences were found across cultures. Managers from Sweden (task­ oriented culture) projected least problem with bypassing since getting the job done is more important than expressing allegiance to their bosses. In contrast, Italian managers, coming from a relationship­oriented culture, considered bypassing the authority/boss as an act of in­ subordination. The above­ mentioned example is inevitably a caution signal to the universal management approach, irrespective of culture. Managers as experts or problem­solvers: in the same study, Laurent asked managers from various cultures whether it was important for them to have at hand, precise answers to most questions their subordinates might raise about their work. French managers believed that they should give precise answers to the questions in order to maintain their credibility and retain the subordinates’ sense of security. On the contrary, U.S. managers believed that a managers’ role should be to act as a mentor who would facilitate the employees to solve the problem. They also believe that providing direct answers to a problem actually discourages subordinates’ initiative and creativity and ultimately hampers performance.

and creativity and ultimately hampers performance. Self Assessment Questions 3 1. Power distance measures the

Self Assessment Questions 3

1. Power distance measures the

2. gauges to what extent individuals in a country consider themselves as distinct entities rather than as members of cohesive groups.

3. Hofstede and Bond (1988) have identified a fifth dimension called

5.5 Attitudes

Attitudes are evaluative statements that are either favorable or unfavorable concerning objects, people, or events. Attitudes are not the same as values, but the two are interrelated. There are three components of an attitude:

1. Cognition

2. Affect

3. Behavior

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Cognition – It is the mental process involved in gaining knowledge and comprehension, including thinking, knowing, remembering, judging, and problem solving. Affect ­ is the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. Behavior ­ The behavioral component of an attitude refers to an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.

to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. Types of Attitudes Most of the

Types of Attitudes

Most of the research in OB has been concerned with three attitudes: job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment.

1. Job satisfaction 1. It is defined as an individual’s general attitude toward his/her job. A high level of job satisfaction equals positive attitudes toward the job and vice­a­versa.

2. Job involvement 1. It is the measure of the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his/her job and considers his/her perceived performance level important to self­worth.

3. Organizational commitment 1.It is defined as a state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. Research evidence has shown a negative relationship between organizational commitment and both absenteeism as well as turnover. An individual’s level of organizational commitment is a better indicator of turnover than the far more frequently used job satisfaction predictor, because, it is a more global and enduring response to the organization as a whole than is job satisfaction.

Attitudes and Consistency When there is an inconsistency, forces are initiated to return the individual to an equilibrium state where attitudes and behavior are again consistent, by altering either the attitudes or the behavior, or by developing a rationalization for the discrepancy.

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Cognitive Dissonance Theory

And Job Satisfaction Unit 5 Cognitive Dissonance Theory Festinger (1957), while linking attitudes with behavior,

Festinger (1957), while linking attitudes with behavior, argued that, any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and individuals will attempt to reduce the dissonance. The desire to reduce dissonance would be determined by the importance of the elements creating the dissonance, the degree of influence the individual believes he/she has over the elements and the rewards that may be involved in dissonance

Importance: If the elements creating the dissonance are relatively unimportant, the pressure to correct this imbalance will be low.

Influence: If the dissonance is perceived as an uncontrollable result, they are less likely to be receptive to attitude change. Though dissonance exists, it is possible to rationalize and justify it.

Rewards: The inherent tension in high dissonance tends to be reduced with high rewards. However, it is not possible for any individual to completely avoid dissonance. Due to moderating factors, individuals will not necessarily move to reduce dissonance—or consistency. Contemporary research has shown that attitudes can significantly predict future behavior and has confirmed Festinger’s original view that relationship can be enhanced by taking moderating variables into account( Robbins, 2003). The most powerful moderators are:

1. Importance

2. Specificity

3. Accessibility

4. Social pressures

5. Direct experience

1. Importance: refers to fundamental values, self­interest, or identification with individuals or groups that a person values.

2. Specificity: The more specific the attitude and the more specific the behavior, the stronger the link between the two.

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Unit 5

3. Accessibility: Attitudes that are easily remembered are more likely to predict behavior than attitudes that are not accessible in memory.

behavior than attitudes that are not accessible in memory. 4. Social pressures : Discrepancies between attitudes

4. Social pressures: Discrepancies between attitudes and behavior are more likely to occur where social pressures to behave in certain ways hold exceptional power.

Direct experience: The attitude­behavior relationship is likely to be much stronger if an attitude refers to an individual’s direct personal experience.

Self­perception theory Self­perception theory (Bem, 1967) proposes that attitudes are used to make sense out of an action that has already occurred rather than devices that precede and guide action. In contrast to the cognitive dissonance theory, attitudes are just casual verbal statements and they tend to create plausible answers for what has already occurred. While the traditional attitude­behavior relationship is generally positive, the behavior­attitude relationship is stronger especially when attitudes are unclear and ambiguous or little thought has been given to it earlier.

Attitude Surveys

1.

The most popular method for getting information about employee attitudes is through attitude surveys. It provides with valuable feedback about the way employees perceive their working conditions. Managers present the employee with set statements or questions to obtain specific information. What may be viewed by management as fair policies and practices, and as objective, may be seen as inequitable by employees in general, or by certain groups of employees, and may result in negative attitudes about the job and the organization. The use of regular attitude surveys can alert management to potential problems and employees’ intentions well in time, so that action can be taken to prevent repercussions (Robbins, 2003).

Measuring Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction is the sense of fulfillment and pride felt by people who enjoy their work and do it well. For an organization, satisfied work force ensures commitment to high quality performance and

Value, Ethics And Job Satisfaction

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increased productivity Job satisfaction helps organizations to reduce complaints and grievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination. Job satisfaction is also linked to a more healthy work force and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity. And although only little correlation has been found between job satisfaction and productivity, it has also been found that satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequisite to satisfying or delighting customers, thus protecting the "bottom line (Brown, 1996).

thus protecting the "bottom line (Brown, 1996). Creating Job Satisfaction Probably the most important point

Creating Job Satisfaction

Probably the most important point to bear in mind when considering job satisfaction is that there are many factors that affect job satisfaction and that what makes workers happy with their jobs varies from one worker to another and from day to day. Organizations aspiring to create a work environment that enhances job satisfaction need to incorporate the following:

1. Flexible work arrangements

2. Task variety and significance

3. Job security

4. A supportive work environment

5. Competitive salary

6. Career opportunities

It is a deliberate upgrading of responsibility, scope, and challenge in the work itself. Job enrichment usually includes increased responsibility, recognition, and opportunities for growth, learning, and achievement. Large companies that have used job­enrichment programs to increase employee motivation and job satisfaction include, AT&T, IBM, and General Motors (Daft, 1997).

Workers’ role in job satisfaction

A worker should also take some responsibility for his or her job satisfaction. Everett (1995) proposed the following questions which employees ask themselves in regard to job satisfaction at the workplace:

Value, Ethics And Job Satisfaction

Unit 5

1. When have I come closest to expressing my full potential in a work situation?

closest to expressing my full potential in a work situation? 2. What did it look like?

2. What did it look like?

3. What aspects of the workplace were most supportive?

4. What aspects of the work itself were most satisfying?

5. What did I learn from that experience that could be applied to the present situation?

The following suggestions can help a worker find personal job satisfaction:

1. Seek opportunities to demonstrate skills and talents.

2. Develop communication skills.

3. Acquire job related skills and try to implement them.

4. Demonstrate creativity and initiative.

5. Improve team building and leadership skill.

6. Learn to de­stress.

The ways of expressing job dissatisfaction

There are a number of ways in which employees can express dissatisfaction (Robbins, 2003). They are:

1. Exit

2. Voice

3. Loyalty

4. Neglect

1. Exit: Behavior directed toward leaving the organization, actions like looking for a new position as well as resigning.

2. Voice: Actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and some forms of union activity.

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3. Loyalty: Passively, but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve, including standing up for the organization in the face of external criticism/ crisis, and reposing trust in the organization and its management to take the right decisions and set things in order.

components of an attitude theory.
components of an attitude
theory.

4. Neglect: Passively allowing conditions to worsen, including chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate

Self Assessment Questions 4

1. There are

2. Festinger has proposed

3. theory proposes that attitudes are used to make sense out of an action that has already occurred rather than devices that precede and guide action.

5.6 Summary

Values represent basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end­state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end­state of existence. Types of values include, ethical/moral values, doctrinal/ideological (political, religious) values, social values, and aesthetic values. Values build the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation of an individual, since, value has a great impact on perceptions. Values shape relationships, behaviors, and choices. The more positive our values, more positive are people’s actions. A significant portion of the values an individual holds is established in the early years from parents, teachers, friends, and others. Rokeach, in his Value Survey (Rokeach Value Survey­ RVS), proposed two sets of values. They are :Terminal values and Instrumental values. Each set contains 18 individual value items. Terminal values refer to desirable end­states of existence, the goals that a person would like to achieve during his/her lifetime. Instrumental values refer to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values. Hofstede proposed four dimensions of national culture: Power distance (this dimension measures the 'social equality'), Uncertainty avoidance (this is a representation of a society's tolerance for uncertain situations), Individualism vs. collectivism (individualism gauges to what extent individuals in a country consider themselves as distinct entities rather than as members of cohesive groups and collectivism emphasizes on 'social ties or bonds' between individuals) and Masculinity vs. femininity (this dimension refers to what extent dominant values in a society emphasizes masculine social values

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like a work ethic expressed in terms of money, achievement and recognition as opposed to feminine social role which show more concern for people and quality of life). Attitudes are evaluative statements that are either favorable or unfavorable concerning objects, people, or events. Attitudes are not the same as values, but the two are interrelated. There are three components of an attitude:

are interrelated. There are three components of an attitude: Cognition (the mental process involved in gaining

Cognition (the mental process involved in gaining knowledge and comprehension), Affect (the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude) and Behavior (an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something). Festinger (1957), while linking attitudes with behavior, argued that, any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and individuals will attempt to reduce the dissonance. The desire to reduce dissonance would be determined by the importance of the elements creating the dissonance, the degree of influence the individual believes he/she has over the elements and the rewards that may be involved in dissonance. Self­perception theory (Bem, 1967) proposes that attitudes are used to make sense out of an action that has already occurred rather than devices that precede and guide action. In contrast to the cognitive dissonance theory, attitudes are just casual verbal statements and they tend to create plausible answers for what has already occurred.

Terminal Questions

1. What is Rokeach Value Survey­ RVS? Explain the values described in this survey.

2. Explain Hofstede’s research.

3. Describe Laurent’s findings .

4. Explain Cognitive Dissonance Theory and self­ perception theory.

Answers to Self Assessment Questions Self Assessment Questions 1

1. Terminal

2. Terminal

3. Instrumental

Self Assessment Questions 2

1. Veterans

2. Xers

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Unit 5

Self Assessment Questions 3

1.

2.

3.

Social equality Individualism Long­term orientation Three Cognitive Dissonance Self­perception Refer section 5.2
Social equality
Individualism
Long­term orientation
Three
Cognitive Dissonance
Self­perception
Refer section 5.2
Refer section 5.4
Refer section 5.4
Refer section 5.5

Self Assessment Questions 4

1.

2.

3.

Answer to Terminal Questions

1.

2.

3.

4.

Personality

Unit 6

Unit 6

Introduction Objectives Self Assessment Questions 1 Self Assessment Questions 2 Self Assessment Questions 3 Terminal
Introduction
Objectives
Self Assessment Questions 1
Self Assessment Questions 2
Self Assessment Questions 3
Terminal Questions
Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s

Personality

Structure

6.1

6.2 Personality Determinants

6.3 Personality Theories

6.4 Achieving personality fit

6.5 Summary

6.1 Introduction

The term 'personality' has been derived from the Latin term 'persona' which means to 'speak

through'. The Latin word denotes the masks worn by actors in ancient Greece and Rome. Therefore,

a very common meaning of the term personality is the role which the person (actor) displays in the

public domain at large. Personality is a dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a

person’s whole psychological system­it looks at some aggregate whole that is greater than the sum

of the parts. Allport (1937) defined personality as “the dynamic organization within the individual of

those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment”.

Learning objectives:

The learning objectives of this unit are as follows:

1. Personality Determinants

2. Personality Theories

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Unit 6

6.2 Personality Determinants

Personality Unit 6 6.2 Personality Determinants The factors affecting personality development are illustrated below: 1.

The factors affecting personality development are illustrated below:

1.

Heredity ­ The relationship of heredity with personality is a well­accepted fact. Traits like physique, eye color, hair color, height, temperament, energy level, intelligence, reflexes, etc. are generally referred to describe the influence of heredity in developing personality. The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual’s personality is the molecular structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes. Robbins (2003) has argued that the three different streams of research lend some credibility to the argument that heredity plays an important part in determining an individual's personality. The first looks at the genetic underpinnings of human behavior and temperament among young children. The second addresses the study of twins who were separated at birth and the third examines the consistency in job satisfaction over time and across situations.

2.

Environment ­ Environment comprises of culture, family, social and situational factors. The environmental factors influence personality of an individual since they provide the basis of certain experiences which determine the individual’s view about life, both positive and negative.

3.

Culture ­ Culture establishes norms, attitudes and values that are passed on from generation to generation and create consistencies over time. Every culture expects and trains its members to behave in the ways that are acceptable to the group. People from different cultural groups have different attitudes towards independence, aggression, competition, cooperation, artistic talent, etc. However, on the basis of culture, an individual’s personality cannot be always assessed, since individuals within the same culture (but from different family and sub­cultural background) have been seen to differ in their behavior.

4.

Family ­ One of the most important determinants of the personality of a person is the immediate family. Families influence the behavior of a person especially in the early stages of life. The nature of such influence will depend upon the socio­economic level of the family, family size, race, religion, parent's educational level and geographic location.

5.

Situation ­ Situational factors also play a crucial role in determining the personality of a

person. Every individual goes through different type of experiences and events in his/her life. Some of the events and experiences, which an individual goes through in his/her life, can serve as

Personality

Unit 6

important determinants of his/her personality. A trauma suffered by a person in the childhood can
important determinants of his/her personality. A trauma suffered by a person in the childhood can
sometime change the structure of his/her own personality.
Self Assessment Questions 1
1.
The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual’s personality is the
molecular structure of the
2.
One of the most important determinants of the personality of a person is the
family
6.3
Personality Theories
Traits are underlying tendencies to behave in a consistent and distinctive style and they describe the
frequency or intensity of a person's feelings, thoughts, or behaviors. Possession of a trait is,
therefore, a matter of degree.
Some of the most important research works on personality traits are mentioned below:
Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Model
Early research on personality traits resulted in isolating large numbers of traits, which made it
impossible to predict behavior. Cattell’s (1973) is one of the most important personality trait theory,
where the number of traits have been reduced. Cattell referred to these 16 factors as primary factors.
Primary Factors and Descriptors in Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Model (Adapted From Conn &
Rieke, 1994).
Descriptors of Low Range
Primary Factor
Descriptors of High Range
Reserve, impersonal, distant, cool,
reserved, impersonal, detached, formal,
aloof (Sizothymia)
Warmth
Warm, outgoing, attentive to others,
kindly, easy going, participating, likes
people (Affectothymia)
Concrete thinking, lower general mental
capacity, less intelligent, unable to
Reasoning
Abstract­thinking, more intelligent,
bright, higher general mental capacity,

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handle abstract problems (Lower Scholastic Mental Capacity)

Reactive emotionally, changeable, affected by feelings, emotionally less stable, easily upset (Lower Ego Strength)

Deferential, cooperative, avoids conflict, submissive, humble, obedient, easily led, docile, accommodating (Submissiveness)

Serious, restrained, prudent, taciturn, introspective, silent (Desurgency)

Expedient, nonconforming, disregards rules, self indulgent (Low Super Ego Strength)

Shy, threat­sensitive, timid, hesitant, intimidated (Threctia)

Utilitarian, objective, unsentimental, tough minded, self­reliant, no­nonsense, rough (Harria)

Trusting, unsuspecting, accepting, unconditional, easy (Alaxia)

Grounded, practical, prosaic, solution orientated, steady, conventional (Praxernia)

Forthright, genuine, artless, open,

Emotional Stability Dominance Dominant, forceful, assertive, aggressive, competitive, stubborn, bossy (Dominance)
Emotional
Stability
Dominance
Dominant, forceful, assertive,
aggressive, competitive, stubborn,
bossy (Dominance)
Liveliness
Rule­
Consciousness
Social Boldness
Socially bold, venturesome, thick
skinned, uninhibited (Parmia)
Sensitivity
Vigilance
Abstractedness
Privateness
Private, discreet, nondisclosing,

Vigilant, suspicious, skeptical, distrustful, oppositional (Protension)

fast learner (Higher Scholastic Mental Capacity)

Emotionally stable, adaptive, mature, faces reality calm (Higher Ego Strength)

Lively, animated, spontaneous, enthusiastic, happy go lucky, cheerful, expressive, impulsive (Surgency)

Rule­conscious, dutiful, conscientious, conforming, moralistic, staid, rule bound (High Super Ego Strength)

Sensitive, aesthetic, sentimental, tender minded, intuitive, refined (Premsia)

Abstract, imaginative, absent minded, impractical, absorbed in ideas (Autia)

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shrewd, polished, worldly, astute, diplomatic (Shrewdness) Apprehension Openness to Change Self­Reliance
shrewd, polished, worldly, astute,
diplomatic (Shrewdness)
Apprehension
Openness to
Change
Self­Reliance
Self­reliant, solitary, resourceful,
individualistic, self sufficient (Self­
Sufficiency)
Perfectionism
Tension

guileless, naive, unpretentious, involved (Artlessness)

Self­Assured, unworried, complacent, secure, free of guilt, confident, self satisfied (Untroubled)

Apprehensive, self doubting, worried, guilt prone, insecure, worrying, self blaming (Guilt Proneness)

Traditional, attached to familiar, conservative, respecting traditional ideas (Conservatism)

Open to change, experimental, liberal, analytical, critical, free thinking, flexibility (Radicalism)

Group­oriented, affiliative, a joiner and follower dependent (Group Adherence)

Tolerated disorder, unexacting, flexible, undisciplined, lax, self­conflict, impulsive, careless of social rues, uncontrolled (Low Integration)

Perfectionistic, organized, compulsive, self­disciplined, socially precise, exacting will power, control, self – sentimental (High Self­Concept Control)

Tense, high energy, impatient, driven, frustrated, over wrought, time driven. (High Ergic Tension)

Relaxed, placid, tranquil, torpid, patient, composed low drive (Low Ergic Tension)

The Myers­Briggs Type Indicator

The MBTI classifies human beings into four opposite pairs (dichotomies), base on their psychological opposites. These four opposite pairs result into 16 possible combinations. In MBTI, Individuals are classified as (McCrae and Costa, 1989) :

a. Extroverted or introverted (E or I).

b. Sensing or intuitive (S or N).

c. Thinking or feeling (T or F).

d. Perceiving or judging (P or J).

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These classifications are then combined into sixteen personality types. For example:

then combined into sixteen personality types. For example: a. INTJs are visionaries. They usually have original

a. INTJs are visionaries. They usually have original minds and great drive for their own ideas and purposes. They are characterized as skeptical, critical, independent, determined, and often stubborn.

b. ESTJs are organizers. They are realistic, logical, analytical, decisive, and have a natural head for business or mechanics. They like to organize and run activities.

c. The ENTP type is a conceptualizer. He or she is innovative, individualistic, versatile, and attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. This person tends to be resourceful in solving challenging problems but may neglect routine assignments.

The big five model

1.

Many researchers argue that five basic dimensions underlie all other personality dimensions (e.g; McCrae and Costa, 1990; Digman, 1997). The five basic dimensions are:

1. Extraversion. Comfort level with relationships. Extraverts tend to be gregarious, assertive, and sociable. Introverts tend to be reserved, timid, and quiet.

2. Agreeableness. Individual’s propensity to defer to others. High agreeableness people— cooperative, warm, and trusting. Low agreeableness people—cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic.

3. Conscientiousness. A measure of reliability. A high conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable.

4. Emotional stability. A person’s ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm, self­confident, and secure. Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure.

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5.

Openness to experience. The range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive. Those at the other end of the openness category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar.

category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar. Research suggested important relationships between these

Research suggested important relationships between these personality dimensions and job performance (Barrick, & Mount , 1991). For example, conscientiousness predicted job performance for all occupational groups. Individuals who are dependable, reliable, careful, thorough, able to plan, organized, hardworking, persistent, and achievement­oriented tend to have higher job performance. Employees higher in conscientiousness develop higher levels of job knowledge. For the other personality dimensions, predictability depended upon both the performance criterion and the occupational group. Extraversion predicted performance in managerial and sales positions. Openness to experience is important in predicting training proficiency.

Locus of control A person’s perception of the source of his/her fate is termed locus of control. Locus of control was formulated within the framework of Rotter's (1954) social learning theory of personality. Rotter (1975) pointed out that internality and externality represent two ends of a continuum, not an either/or typology. Internals tend to attribute outcomes of events to their own control. Externals attribute outcomes of events to external circumstances. For example, college students with a strong internal locus of control may believe that their grades were achieved through their own abilities and efforts, whereas, those with a strong external locus of control may believe that their grades are the result of good or bad luck, or to a professor who designs bad tests or grades capriciously; hence, they are less likely to expect that their own efforts will result in success and are therefore less likely to work hard for high grades. Individuals who rate high in externality are less satisfied with their jobs, have higher absenteeism rates, are more alienated from the work setting, and are less involved on their jobs than are internals. Internals, facing the same situation, attribute organizational outcomes to their own actions. Internals believe that health is substantially under their own control through proper habits; their incidences of sickness and, hence, of absenteeism, are lower.

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Internals generally perform better on their jobs, but one needs to consider differences in jobs. Internals search more actively for information before making a decision, are more motivated to achieve, and make a greater attempt to control their environment, and hence, internals do well on sophisticated tasks. Internals are more suited to jobs that require initiative and independence of action and want autonomy and independence in their jobs. Externals are more compliant and willing to follow directions and be led, and do well on jobs that are well structured and routine and in which success depends heavily on complying with the direction of others.

depends heavily on complying with the direction of others. Machiavellianism Machiavellianism is the term that some

Machiavellianism Machiavellianism is the term that some social and personality psychologists use to describe a person's tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal gain. The concept is named after Renaissance diplomat and writer Niccolò Machiavelli, who wrote Il Principe (The Prince). Christie and Geis (1970) developed a test for measuring a person's level of Machiavellianism. This eventually became the MACH­IV test, a twenty­statement personality survey that is now the standard self­ assessment tool of Machiavellianism. An individual high in Machiavellianism is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means. High Machs manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less, and persuade others more. High Mach outcomes are moderated by situational factors and flourish when they interact face to face with others, rather than indirectly, and when the situation has a minimum number of rules and regulations, thus, allowing room for improvisation. High Machs make good employees in jobs that require bargaining skills or that offer substantial rewards for winning.

Self­esteem ( SE) Self­esteem is defined as the degree to which people like or dislike themselves (Robbins, 2003). Individuals with high self­esteem tend to take more risks in job selection and are more likely to choose unconventional jobs in contrast to people with low self­esteem. Low SEs are more susceptible to external influence than are high SEs. Low SEs are dependent on the receipt of positive evaluations from others. In managerial positions, therefore, low SEs will tend to be concerned with pleasing others.

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Unit 6

Self­monitoring It refers to an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors. Individuals high in self­monitoring show considerable adaptability. They are highly sensitive to external cues, and are capable of behaving differently in different situations, and presenting striking contradictions between their public persona and their private self. Low self­monitors cannot disguise themselves in that way. They tend to display their true dispositions and attitudes in almost every situation resulting in a high behavioral consistency between who they are and what they do. High self­monitors tend to pay closer attention to the behavior of others. High self­monitoring managers tend to be more mobile in their careers and receive more promotions. High self­monitor is capable of putting on different “faces” for different audiences.

factors. opposite pairs
factors.
opposite pairs

Type A and Type B personality Type A personality is a set of characteristics that includes, being impatient, excessively time­ conscious, insecure about one's status, highly competitive, hostile and aggressive, and incapable of relaxation (Friedman & Rosenman 1974). They are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly, are impatient with the rate at which most events take place, are doing do two or more things at once and cannot cope with leisure time. They are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. Type ‘A’s operate under moderate to high levels of stress. They expose themselves to continuous time pressure, are fast workers, give preference to quantity over quality, work long hours, and are also rarely creative.

Type B personality is rarely hurried by the desire to obtain an increasing number of things or participate in events demanding an ever­decreasing amount of time (Friedman & Rosenman, 1974). Type Bs never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience and feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless otherwise demanded by the situation. They can relax without guilt.

Self Assessment Questions 2

1. Cattell referred to these 16 factors as

2. The MBTI classifies human beings into

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Unit 6

3.

Locus of control was formulated within the framework of Rotter's personality

theory of
theory of

6.4 Achieving Personality­Job­ Fit

According to Holland (1997), workers are not passive victims of their environments, but actively seek potentially compatible work environments. If an individual’s personality and the work environment “fit”—that is, if the personality is congruent with the work environment—the individual will most likely enjoy the work and develop and grow in the career. Matching people to the organizational culture at the time of hiring should result in higher employee satisfaction and reduced turnover. Holland has proposed Six themes of people and work environments, within which all jobs can be classified:

1. Realistic

2. Investigative

3. Artistic

4. Social

5. Enterprising

6. Conventional

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Unit 6

The above­mentioned classification is shown in more details in the following chart: Type Personality Congruent
The above­mentioned classification is shown in more details in the following chart:
Type
Personality
Congruent Occupation
Characteristics
Realistic: Prefers physical
activities that require skill,
strength, and coordination
Shy, genuine, persistent,
stable,
conforming, practical
Mechanic, drill press
operator,
assembly­line worker,
farmer
Investigative: Prefers
activities
that involve thinking,
organizing, and
understanding
Analytical, original, curious,
independent
Biologist, economist,
mathematician, news
reporter
Social: Prefers activities
that
involve helping and
developing others
Sociable, friendly,
cooperative,
understanding
Social workers, teacher,
counselor, clinical
psychologist
Conventional: Prefers rule­
regulated, orderly, and
unambiguous activities
Conforming, efficient,
practical,
unimaginative, inflexible
Accountant, corporate
manager, bank teller, file
clerk
Enterprising: Prefers verbal
activities in which there are
opportunities to influence
others and attain power
Self­confident, ambitious,
energetic, domineering
Lawyer, real estate agent,
public relations specialist,
small
business manager
Artistic: Prefers ambiguous
and
unsystematic activities that
allow creative expression
Imaginative, disorderly,
idealistic,
emotional, impractical
Painter, musician, writer,
interior decorator

Personality

Unit 6

Self Assessment Questions 3

Personality Unit 6 Self Assessment Questions 3 1. Holland has proposed themes of people and work

1. Holland has proposed

jobs can be classified

2. person prefers verbal activities in which there are opportunities to influence others and attain power.

6.5 Summary

The term 'personality' has been derived from the Latin term 'persona' which means to 'speak through'. The factors affecting personality development are Heredity, Environment, Culture, Family, and Situation. Personality Traits are underlying tendencies to behave in a consistent and distinctive style and they describe the frequency or intensity of a person's feelings, thoughts, or behaviors. Possession of a trait is, therefore, a matter of degree. Early research on personality traits resulted in isolating large numbers of traits, which made it impossible to predict behavior. Cattell’s (1973) is one of the most important personality trait theory, where the number of traits have been reduced. Cattell referred to these 16 factors as primary factors. The MBTI classifies human beings into four opposite pairs (dichotomies), base on their psychological opposites. These four opposite pairs result into 16 possible combinations. Many researchers argue that five basic dimensions underlie all other personality dimensions (e.g; McCrae and Costa, 1990; Digman, 1997). The five basic dimensions are Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional stability, and openness to experience. A person’s perception of the source of his/her fate is termed locus of control. Locus of control was formulated within the framework of Rotter's (1954) social learning theory of personality. Rotter (1975) pointed out that internality and externality represent two ends of a continuum, not an either/or typology. Internals tend to attribute outcomes of events to their own control. Machiavellianism is the term that some social and personality psychologists use to describe a person's tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal gain. Self­esteem is defined as the degree to which people like or dislike themselves (Robbins, 2003). Individuals with high self­esteem tend to take more risks in job selection and are more likely to choose unconventional jobs in contrast to people with low self­ esteem. Low SEs are more susceptible to external influence than are high SEs. Low SEs are dependent on the receipt of positive evaluations from others. Self­monitoring refers to an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors. Individuals high in self­monitoring show considerable adaptability. Type A personality is a set of characteristics that includes, being

Personality

Unit 6

impatient, excessively time­conscious, insecure about one's status, highly competitive, hostile and aggressive, and incapable of relaxation. Type B personality is rarely hurried by the desire to obtain an increasing number of things or participate in events demanding an ever­decreasing amount of time. According to Holland (1997), workers are not passive victims of their environments, but actively seek potentially compatible work environments. If an individual’s personality and the work environment “fit”—that is, if the personality is congruent with the work environment—the individual will most likely enjoy the work and develop and grow in the career. Matching people to the organizational culture at the time of hiring should result in higher employee satisfaction and reduced turnover.

1 2 3
1
2
3

Terminal questions

Describe the determinants of personality.

1. Explain The Myers­Briggs Type Indicator.

2. Explain the personality dimensions mentioned in big five model.

3. Explain Type A and Type B personality.

4. Based on Holland’s approach, explain personality­job­fit.

Answer to Self Assessment Questions

Self Assessment Questions

1. Genes

2. Immediate

Self Assessment Questions

1. Primary

2. Four

3. Social learning

Self Assessment Questions

1.Six

2. Enterprising

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Unit 6

Answers to Terminal Questions

Personality Unit 6 Answers to Terminal Questions 1. Refer section 6.2 2. Refer section 6.3 3.

1. Refer section 6.2

2. Refer section 6.3

3. Refer section 6.3

4. Refer section 6.3

5. Refer section 6.4

Emotions

Unit 7

Unit 7

Structure

7.1

Introduction Objectives Self Assessment Questions 1 Self Assessment Questions 2 Self Assessment Questions 3 Terminal
Introduction
Objectives
Self Assessment Questions 1
Self Assessment Questions 2
Self Assessment Questions 3
Terminal Questions
Answer to SAQ’s and TQ’s

Theories of emotion Emotional intelligence

Emotions

7.2 Theories of emotion

7.3 Certain issues

7.4: Emotional intelligence

7.5 Summary

7.1 Introduction

In general, the term ’emotion’ is used to designate "a state of consciousness having to do with the

arousal of feelings (Webster’s New World Dictionary)." It is "distinguished from other mental states,

from cognition, volition, and awareness of physical sensation." Feeling refers to "any of the subjective

reactions, pleasant or unpleasant" that one may experience in a situation.

Learning objectives:

The learning objectives of this unit are as follows:

Emotions

Unit 7

7.2 Theories Of Emotion:

Emotions Unit 7 7.2 Theories Of Emotion: There are many theories of emotion: I. James­Lange Theory

There are many theories of emotion:

I. James­Lange Theory (1890) [cited in Taylor, 1999]: Subjective emotional responses are the result of physiological changes within human bodies. The brain perceives an event and, in turn, sends messages down its neural circuitry to other areas of the brain. This action ultimately produces motor, autonomic and endocrine responses. These responses elicit an emotional response, which in turn, is perceived by the brain. Therefore, it is a cyclical process. This theory argues that physiological behaviors precede the emotion.

II.

subjective emotional experiences and physiological arousal simultaneously. Through experiences, individuals begin to acquire certain expectations for every given situation. These expectations provide a filter and every situation is processed through this filter. During this process, brain produces the emotion and corresponding physiological behaviors at the same time.

Cannon­Bard theory (1927) [cited in Taylor, 1999]: Emotion­provoking events induce the

III.

appraisal of what caused those responses produce emotions. How one interprets the peripheral response will determine the emotion he / she feels. Individuals label the emotional response depending on what we think is causing the response. For example, when someone interprets a stimulus as dangerous, it leads to physiological arousal. Then, this physiological arousal is interpreted to a particular emotion. It can be fear, surprise, excitement, and astonishment depending on how the arousal is labeled.

Schachter­Singer theory (1962): Both feedback from peripheral responses and a cognitive

IV. Lazarus' appraisal theory (1980): An individual makes an initial and sometimes unconscious cognitive appraisal of the situation to decide, if there is a threat; coping action is taken if necessary; and the individual takes a closer look and identifies the emotions he or she is feeling.

V.

the initial evaluation has been made, the individual looks at what caused the event. These attributions of causality can modify the emotion felt. It is the interaction of the perceived internal and

Weiner's attribution theory (1986, 1992): Certain attributions produce specific emotions. Once

Emotions

Unit 7

external causes, controllability and outcome that will determine the emotional responses. What are the basic emotions? Ortony and Turner (1990) collated a wide range of research as to what basic emotions are and the basis of including them as basic emotions and proposed a comprehensive description of basic emotions and corresponding reasons for inclusion :

of basic emotions and corresponding reasons for inclusion : A comprehensive description of basic emotions and

A comprehensive description of basic emotions and corresponding reasons for inclusion

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Unit 7

Source: Ortony, A., & Turner, T. J. (1990). What's basic about basic emotions? Psychological Review,
Source: Ortony, A., & Turner, T. J. (1990). What's basic about basic emotions? Psychological
Review, 97, 3, July, 315­331
Basic Emotions
Basis for Inclusion
Arnold
Anger, aversion, courage, dejection, desire,
despair, fear, hate, hope, love, sadness
Relation to action
tendencies
Ekman, Friesen, and
Ellsworth
Universal facial
Anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, surprise
expressions
Frijda
Desire, happiness, interest, surprise, wonder,
sorrow
Forms of action readiness
Gray
Rage and terror, anxiety, joy
Hardwired
Izard
Anger, contempt, disgust, distress, fear, guilt,
interest, joy, shame, surprise
Hardwired
James
Fear, grief, love, rage
Bodily involvement
McDougall
Anger, disgust, elation, fear, subjection, tender­
emotion, wonder
Relation to instincts
Mowrer
Pain, pleasure
Unlearned emotional
states
Oatley and Johnson­
Laird
Anger, disgust, anxiety, happiness, sadness
Do not require
propositional content
Panksepp
Expectancy, fear, rage, panic
Hardwired
Plutchik
Acceptance, anger, anticipation, disgust, joy,
fear, sadness, surprise
Relation to adaptive
biological processes
Tomkins
Anger, interest, contempt, disgust, distress, fear,
joy, shame, surprise
Density of neural firing
Watson
Fear, love, rage
Hardwired

Weiner and Graham

Happiness, sadness

Attribution independent

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Parrot (2001) has categorized emotions as another classification (Figure no. 1.4): Figure no. 1.4: Parrot’s
Parrot (2001) has categorized emotions as another classification (Figure no. 1.4):
Figure no. 1.4:
Parrot’s classification of emotions
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary emotions
emotion
emotion
Affection
Adoration, affection, love, fondness, liking, attraction,
caring, tenderness, compassion, sentimentality
Love
Lust
Arousal, desire, lust, passion, infatuation
Longing
Longing
Cheerfulness
Amusement, bliss, cheerfulness, gaiety, glee,
jolliness, joviality, joy, delight, enjoyment, gladness,
happiness, jubilation, elation, satisfaction, ecstasy,
euphoria
Zest
Enthusiasm, zeal, zest, excitement, thrill, exhilaration
Joy
Contentment
Contentment, pleasure
Pride
Pride, triumph
Optimism
Eagerness, hope, optimism
Enthrallment
Enthrallment, rapture
Relief
Relief
Surprise
Surprise
Amazement, surprise, astonishment
Irritation
Aggravation, irritation, agitation, annoyance,
grouchiness, grumpiness
Exasperation
Exasperation, frustration
Anger
Rage
Anger, rage, outrage, fury, wrath, hostility, ferocity,
bitterness, hate, loathing, scorn, spite, vengefulness,
dislike, resentment
Disgust
Disgust, revulsion, contempt
Envy
Envy, jealousy
Torment
Torment
Sadness
Suffering
Agony, suffering, hurt, anguish

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Sadness Depression, despair, hopelessness, gloom, glumness, sadness, unhappiness, grief, sorrow, woe, misery,
Sadness
Depression, despair, hopelessness, gloom, glumness,
sadness, unhappiness, grief, sorrow, woe, misery,
melancholy
Disappointment
Dismay, disappointment, displeasure
Shame
Guilt, shame, regret, remorse
Neglect
Alienation, isolation, neglect, loneliness, rejection,
homesickness, defeat, dejection, insecurity,
embarrassment, humiliation, insult
Sympathy
Pity, sympathy
Horror
Alarm, shock, fear, fright, horror, terror, panic,
hysteria, mortification
Fear
Nervousness
Anxiety, nervousness, tenseness, uneasiness,
apprehension, worry, distress, dread
Source: Parrott, W. (2001), Emotions in Social Psychology, Psychology Press, Philadelphia
emotions are an individual’s actual emotions.

Subjective emotional responses are the result of

Both feedback from peripheral responses and a responses produce emotions.

Felt vs. Displayed Emotions (Hochschild, 1979, 1983)

Felt emotions are an individual’s actual emotions. Displayed emotions are those that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job. They are learned. Felt and displayed emotions may be different. This is particularly true in organizations, where role demands and situations often require people to exhibit emotional behaviors that mask their true feelings.

Self Assessment Questions 1

1.

2.

3.

changes within human bodies. appraisal of what caused those