Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 7

Research Article

Research Article
Research Article

1695

Received: 18 November 2009

Revised: 12 February 2010

Accepted: 2 April 2010

Published online in Wiley Interscience: 26 May 2010

(www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI 10.1002/jsfa.4004

Effects of dietary yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition and humoral immune response of laying hens

Sakine Yalc¸ın, a Suzan Yalc¸ın, b Kemal C¸ akın, a Onder Eltan c

¨

and Levent Dagas˘

¸an d

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary yeast autolysate on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation of egg yolk, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of laying hens during a 16 week period. A total of 225 Hyline Brown laying hens, 22 weeks of age, were allocated equally to one control group and four treatment groups. Yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae , InteWall) was used at levels of 1, 2, 3 and 4 g kg 1 in the diets of the first, second, third and fourth treatment groups respectively.

RESULTS: Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight, feed intake and egg traits. Yeast autolysate supplementation increased egg production ( P < 0.001) and egg weight (P < 0.001) and improved feed efficiency (P < 0.05). Yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg 1 decreased egg yolk cholesterol level as mg g 1 yolk (P < 0.01) and blood serum levels of cholesterol and triglyceride ( P < 0.05) and increased antibody titres to sheep red blood cells ( P < 0.01). Total saturated fatty acids and the ratio of saturated/unsaturated fatty acids increased (P < 0.01) and total monounsaturated fatty acids ( P < 0.001) decreased with yeast autolysate supplementation.

CONCLUSION: Dietary yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg 1 had beneficial effects on performance, egg cholesterol content and humoral immune response. It is concluded that 2 g kg 1 yeast autolysate will be enough to have beneficial effects in laying hens. c 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

Keywords: yeast autolysate; laying hen; performance; egg traits; egg cholesterol; egg yolk fatty acid; immune response

; egg cholesterol; egg yolk fatty acid; immune response INTRODUCTION The use of antibiotics as growth

INTRODUCTION

The use of antibiotics as growth promoters in feed for poultry is banned in many countries because of developed resistance and the potential effects on humans. Yeasts and yeast products may serve as alternatives to antibiotics for growth promotion and disease resistance in poultry. Yeast autolysates consist of ruptured or lysed cells and contain both intracellular and cell wall fractions. 1 Yeast cell walls contain (w/w) 29–64% β-glucans, 31% mannans, 13% proteins, 9% lipids and 1–2% chitin. The exact structure and composition of the yeast cell wall depends strongly on the cultivation conditions. 2 Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), derived from the outer cell wall of yeast, shift the gastrointestinal microflora balance towards beneficial organisms. 3 (1 3),(1 6)-β-D-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a well-known immunomodulator with a strong positive effect on the animal immune system. 4 MOS also have immunomodulatory properties. They have the ability to attach to mannose-binding proteins on the cell surface of some strains of

bacteria, thereby preventing these bacteria from colonising the intestinal tract by interfering with the binding of carbohydrate residues on epithelial cell surfaces. 3 Yeast cell walls also exhibit high antioxidant activity after a few easy extraction steps (disruption, hot water extraction and proteolytic treatment). 2 The major antioxidant defences of baker’s yeast may be attributed

antioxidant defences of baker’s yeast may be attributed ∗ Correspondence to: Sakine Yalc¸ın, Department of

Correspondence to: Sakine Yalc¸ın, Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University, 06110 Dıs¸kapı, Ankara, Turkey. E-mail: yalcin@veterinary.ankara.edu.tr

a Department

of

Animal

Nutrition,

University, Ankara, Turkey

Faculty

of

Veterinary

Medicine,

Ankara

b Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Selc¸uk University, Konya, Turkey

c Integro Food and Feed Manufacturing Company, Istanbul, Turkey

d Pak Biotechnology Center, Izmit, Turkey

Istanbul, Turkey d Pak Biotechnology Center, Izmit, Turkey J Sci Food Agric 2010; 90 : 1695–1701

J Sci Food Agric 2010; 90: 1695–1701

www.soci.org

c

2010 Society of Chemical Industry

www.soci.org S Yalc ¸ın et al .

www.soci.org

S Yalc¸ın et al.

www.soci.org S Yalc ¸ın et al .

1696

Table 1.

Ingredients and chemical composition of basal diet

 

Ingredients (g

kg 1 )

Fatty acids (% of total fatty acid methyl esters)

 

Corn Soybean meal Full fat soya Meat and bone meal Limestone Dicalcium phosphate Salt DL-Methionine Lysine Vitamin/mineral premix a

 

570.3

Myristic

acid

(C14 : 0) (C16 : 0)

0.19

165.0

Palmitic

acid

11.62

120.0

Palmitoleic acid (C16 : 1)

0.26

40.0

Heptadecanoic acid

Heptadesenoic acid

(C17 : 0) (C17 : 1)

0.18

82.0

0.10

15.0

Stearic acid (C18 : 0) Oleic acid (C18 : 1) Linoleic acid (C18 : 2) Linolenic acid (C18 : 3)

5.02

2.7

22.20

2.0

51.88

0.5

7.98

2.5

Eikosenoic acid (C20 : 1) Behenic acid (C22 : 0)

0.16

 

0.31

Chemical composition

(analysed)

Lignoseric acid

(C24 : 0)

0.10

Metabolisable

energy b (kcal kg 1 )

2830

Saturated fatty acids (SFA) Unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) MUFA/SFA PUFA/SFA

17.42

Crude protein

(g

kg 1 )

181.2

82.58

Calcium (g kg 1 ) Total phosphorus (g kg 1 )

40.8

22.72

8.6

59.86

 

1.30

3.44

a Supplied 12 000 000 IU vitamin A, 2 400 000 IU vitamin D 3 , 30 g vitamin E, 2.5 g vitamin K 3 , 2.5 g vitamin B 1 , 6 g vitamin B 2 , 4 g vitamin B 6 , 20 mg vitamin B 12 , 25 g niacin, 8 g calcium D-pantothenate, 1 g folic acid, 50 g vitamin C, 50 mg D-biotin, 150 g choline chloride, 1.5 g canthaxanthin, 0.5 g apo-carotenoic acid ester, 80 g manganese, 60 g zinc, 60 g iron, 5 g copper, 1 g iodine, 0.5 g cobalt and 0.15 g selenium kg 1 diet. b Estimated according to the Carpenter and Clegg equation. 13

to superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and glutathione, which protect the brain tissues from superoxide, hydrogen peroxide toxicity and hydroxyl radical-initiated membrane lipid peroxidation. Among antioxidants, baker’s yeast may therefore be useful as a clinical agent against free radical-induced diseases. 5 There are some reports about the usage of various yeast and yeast products such as inactive dried yeast, yeast culture, whey yeast, selenium yeast, chromium yeast and yeast cell walls in the diets of laying hens. 69 However, no studies have determined the effects of dietary supplementation of yeast autolysate in laying hens. Therefore the present study was aimed to examine the effects of different levels of yeast autolysate as a feed additive on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol concentration, egg yolk fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation of egg yolk, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of laying hens.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

A total of 225 Hyline Brown laying hens, 22 weeks of age and with an average body weight of 1556 g, were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into one control group and four treatment groups of 45 hens each. Each group was divided into five replicates as subgroups, comprising nine hens each. They were housed in cages (30 cm × 44 cm × 44 cm) in a windowed poultry house with a 16/8 h light/dark regimen. Feed in mash form and water were provided ad libitum during the 16 week experimental period. The ingredients and chemical composition of the basal diet are presented in Table 1. The basal diet was supplemented with yeast autolysate (InteWall, S. cerevisiae, NCYC R 625, Integro Food and Feed Manufacturing Company, Istanbul, Turkey) at levels of 1, 2, 3 and 4 g kg 1 for the diets of the first, second, third and fourth treatment groups respectively. The yeast autolysate contained 920 g kg 1 dry matter, 410 g kg 1 crude protein, 50 g kg 1 ether extract and 40 g kg 1 crude ash.

The nutrient composition of the basal diet was determined according to the AOAC. 10 The diet sample was ashed in a muffle furnace prior to the analysis of calcium 11 and total phosphorus. 12 The metabolisable energy (ME) of the basal diet was estimated using the Carpenter and Clegg equation: 13

ME (kcal kg 1 ) = 53 + 38 × [crude protein (%)

+ 2.25 × ether extract (%) + 1.1 × starch (%) + sugar (%)]

Free and total amino acids of the yeast autolysate were determined by modified o-phtalaldehyde derivatisation using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system (Agilent 1100, Agilent Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany). Hens were weighed individually at the beginning and end of the experiment. Mortality was recorded as it occurred. Eggs were collected daily and egg production was expressed on a hen-day basis. All eggs laid during the last two consecutive days of every week were collected and weighed individually to determine egg weight. Feed intake was recorded biweekly and calculated as g day 1 per hen. Feed efficiency was calculated as kg feed kg 1 egg. To determine egg traits, 15 eggs laid between 09 : 00 and 12 : 00 were collected randomly from each group (three eggs per replicate) on the first day of weeks 4, 8, 12 and 16 of the experiment (giving a total of 60 eggs per group during the experiment). Individual eggs were weighed and egg shell breaking strength was measured using an egg-breaking tester (static compression device, Dr.-Ing. Georg Wazau Mess- + Pruftechnick,¨ Berlin, Germany). The content of each egg was broken onto a glass-topped table. Egg shell thickness was measured at three different parts (upper and lower ends and middle) using a micrometer (Mitutoya No. 1044N, 0.01–5 mm, Kawasaki, Japan). The heights of the albumen and the yolk were measured with a tripod micrometer (Mitutoya No. 2050-08, 0.01–20 mm). The length and width of the albumen and

0.01–20 mm). The length and width of the albumen and www.interscience.wiley.com/jsfa c 2010 Society of Chemical

www.interscience.wiley.com/jsfa

c

2010 Society of Chemical Industry

J Sci Food Agric 2010; 90: 1695–1701

Effect of yeast autolysate on laying hens

www.soci.org

Effect of yeast autolysate on laying hens www.soci.org
Effect of yeast autolysate on laying hens www.soci.org

1697

the diameter of the yolk were measured using a digital caliper. From these values, yolk index, albumen index and Haugh unit were calculated. 14 Egg internal and external quality analyses were completed within 24 h of the eggs being collected. Egg quality evaluation was performed on individual eggs, as it was done in relation to egg weight. To determine the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the egg yolk, 30 eggs were collected randomly from each group (six eggs per replicate) in the last week of the experiment and stored at 4 C in a refrigerator. Fifteen eggs from each group after 1 day of storage and 15 eggs from each group after 7 days of storage were used for MDA analysis. The MDA concentration in the egg yolk was determined using commercial reagents (ImmuChrom GmbH, Heppenheim, Germany) in an Agilent 1100 HPLC system with a fluorescence detector and an IC1900rp HPLC column. In week 15 of the experiment, 15 hens were randomly selected from each group (three hens per replicate) and injected with 0.1 mL of a 2.5 g L 1 suspension of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) in phosphate-buffered saline. Circulating anti-SRBC antibody titres were determined by the microhaemagglutination technique from samples taken at 5 days after immunisation. All titres were expressed as the log 2 of the reciprocal of the serum dilution. 15 Blood samples were collected from the vena brachialis under the wing of 15 fed hens randomly chosen from each group (three hens per replicate) at the end of the experiment and centrifuged at 3000 × g for 10 min. Serum was collected and stored at 20 C for the determination of total protein, uric acid, triglyceride, cholesterol and levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) using a Vitros 350 autoanalyser with accompanying commercial kits (Vitros Chemistry Products, Ortho- Clinical Diagnostics, Johnson & Johnson Company, New York, NY, USA). At the end of the experiment, 20 eggs were randomly selected from each group (four eggs per replicate) to determine yolk cholesterol and yolk fatty acid composition. The eggs were boiled for 5 min, allowed to cool and then broken and their constituent parts were separated and weighed. The shells were weighed after being air dried for 24 h. The percentage values of shell weight, yolk weight and albumen weight were calculated. The yolks were blended with 10 mL isopropyl alcohol g 1 yolk. 16 The cholesterol content of this extract was determined by the enzymatic method of TECO. 17 Yolk cholesterol was calculated and expressed as both mg g 1 yolk and mg per yolk. Yolk lipids were extracted by the method of Folch et al. 18 to determine fatty acid composition. After alkaline hydrolysis, fatty acids were methylated with BF 3 . 19 The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained were analysed by gas chromatography (GC; HP 6890, Agilent, Wilmington, Deleware, USA) using an HP-88 column for FAMEs (100 m × 250 µm × 0.25 µm; Agilent). The GC conditions were as follows: injector temperature, 250 C; detector temperature, 280 C, carrier gas, H 2 ; split ratio, 1/50 to 1/25. The temperature programme was as follows: 120 C for 1 min; increase of 10 C min 1 to 175 C; 175 C for 10 min; increase of 5 C min 1 to 210 C; 210 C for 15 min; increase of 5 C min 1 to 230 C; 230 C for 5 min. Peaks were identified by comparison of retention times with those of the corresponding standards of FAMEmix-37 and FAMEmix-C8-C24 (Supelco, Bellefonte, PA, USA). Identification of the peaks included fatty acids between 4 : 0 and 24 : 0. Amounts of fatty acids were expressed as a percentage (w/w) of total FAMEs. Fatty acids of yeast autolysate and diets as a percentage (w/w) of total FAMEs were also determined by the same method.

Statistical analyses were done using SPSS software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The normality of data distribution was checked using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to examine differences among groups. The significance of mean differences between groups was tested by Duncan’s multiple range test. Values are given as mean ± standard error. Only egg internal and external quality characteristics were compared with ANCOVA (difference and repeated contrast method). The level of significance was taken as P < 0.05. 20

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The basal diet was rich in linoleic and oleic acids (Table 1). The ratios of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids and of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids were 1.30 and 3.44 respectively. Amino acid analysis of the yeast autolysate indicated that it was a source of good quality protein, with high amounts (w/w) of glutamic acid (5.31%), lysine (3.68%), leucine (2.87%), aspartic acid (2.85%), proline (2.33%), valine (2.22%), alanine (2.17%) and threonine (2.01%) but low amounts of methionine, arginine and tryptophan (Table 2). As also seen in Table 2, the major fatty acids of the yeast autolysate were palmitic and oleic acids, together with appreciable amounts of stearic and palmitoleic acids. The dominant fatty acid was palmitic acid, which accounted for 34.47% (w/w) of total FAMEs. During the experimental period, one hen died in each of the groups fed the diets containing yeast autolysate at levels of 1 and 2 g kg 1 , so mortality was not treatment-related. This is consistent with the findings of previous studies of laying hens fed diets supplemented with yeast and yeast products. 8,21 Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight and feed intake of hens (Table 3). Similar results were obtained by other researchers. 21,22 Hen-day egg production of groups fed the diets containing 2, 3 and 4 g kg 1 yeast autolysate was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.001) (Table 3). In agreement with the present study, Mohiti Asli et al. 22 found that dietary supplementation with 1 g kg 1 yeast (S. cerevisiae) had no significant effect on egg production. Some authors have reported a considerable improvement in egg production in poultry fed MOS derived from yeast cell walls. 23,24 This could be due to the MOS reducing the pathogenic bacterial load in the intestine, so the nutrients in the diet are efficiently diverted towards production in poultry fed MOS, which might improve egg production in layers and breeders. 3,25 Yeast autolysate supplementation to the diet of laying hens increased egg weight significantly (P < 0.001) (Table 3). Similarly, egg weight was reported to be increased by dietary supplemen- tation with yeast and yeast products. 4,6,8 In contrast, others found that yeast and yeast product supplementation had no effect on egg weight in laying hens. 9,21,22,26,27 Feed efficiency was improved by yeast autolysate supplemen- tation at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg 1 (P < 0.05) (Table 3). The improvement in feed efficiency was primarily reflected in the increase in egg weight. Some researchers observed that feed efficiency improved when broilers and poults were fed diets supplemented with MOS. 28,29 Dietary supplementation with inac- tivated or autolysed brewer’s yeast was found to serve as a growth enhancer under certain conditions, such as chronic infection, in sub-adult hybrid striped bass, and fish fed 20 g kg 1 brewer’s yeast showed significantly higher feed efficiency than fish fed the

significantly higher feed efficiency than fish fed the J Sci Food Agric 2010; 90 : 1695–1701

J Sci Food Agric 2010; 90: 1695–1701

c

2010 Society of Chemical Industry

www.interscience.wiley.com/jsfa

www.soci.org S Yalc ¸ın et al .

www.soci.org

S Yalc¸ın et al.

www.soci.org S Yalc ¸ın et al .

1698

Table 2.

Amino acid and fatty acid composition of yeast autolysate

 

Amino acids (mg per 100

g)

 

Fatty acids (% of total fatty acid methyl esters)

 

Total

Free

Aspartic acid

2846

36

Caprylic acid (C8 : 0) Capric acid (C10 : 0)

 

0.02

Glutamic acid

5305

2332

0.12

Asparagine

16

Myristic

acid

acid

(C14 : 0) (C16 : 0)

0.68

Serine

1721

142

Palmitic

34.47

Histidine

853

49

Palmitoleic acid (C16 : 1)

12.71

Glycine

1849

67

Heptadecanoic acid Heptadesenoic acid Stearic acid (C18 : 0) Oleic acid (C18 : 1)

(C17 : 0) (C17 : 1)

0.15

Threonine

2007

86

0.24

Citrulline

107

17

13.90

Arginine

247

234

29.81

Alanine

2168

370

Linoleic acid (C18 : 2)

5.98

Tyrosine

1340

92

Linolenic

acid

acid

(C18 : 3) (C20 : 0)

0.09

Cystine

92

10

Arachidic

0.28

Valine

2216

208

Eikosenoic acid (C20 : 1)

0.11

Methionine

601

34

Behenic acid (C22 : 0) Lignoseric acid (C24 : 0)

0.07

Tryptophan

19

0.04

Phenylalanine

1835

77

Isoleucine

1922

107

Ornithine

1372

53

Leucine

2866

152

Lysine

3679

185

Hydroxyproline

1632

114

Sarcosine

21

Proline

2325

166

Table 3.

Effects of dietary supplementation with yeast autolysate on performance of laying hens (mean ± standard error, n)

 
 

Yeast autolysate (g kg 1 )

 

Parameter

0

1

2

3

4

P

Initial body weight (g)

 

1545 ± 18

1583 ± 17

1571 ± 20

1555 ± 19

1528 ± 19

0.248

 

(45)

(45)

(45)

(45)

(45)

Final body weight (g)

 

1745 ± 25

1806 ± 24

1805 ± 26

1764 ± 20

1811 ± 29

0.223

 

(45)

(44)

(44)

(45)

(45)

Feed intake (g day 1 per hen)

 

103.4 ± 0.4

104.1 ± 0.4

103.8 ± 0.2

103.9 ± 0.2

104.3 ± 0.2

0.270

 

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

Hen-day egg production (%)

 

93.8 ± 0.4b

94.8 ± 0.6b

96.5 ± 0.4a

96.9 ± 0.2a

97.0 ± 0.3a

<0.001

 

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

Egg weight (g)

 

59.5 ± 0.1b

60.2 ± 0.1a

60.2 ± 0.1a

60.3 ± 0.1a

60.2 ± 0.1a

<0.001

 

(1300)

(1280)

(1307)

(1328)

(1306)

Feed efficiency (kg feed kg 1 egg)

 

1.85 ± 0.02a

1.83 ± 0.03ab

1.79 ± 0.01b

1.78 ± 0.01b

1.79 ± 0.01b

0.030

 

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

Means within a row followed by different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05).

 

control diet. 30 The improvement in feed efficiency could be due to the yeast reducing the pathogenic bacterial load in the intestine. The inclusion of yeast autolysate in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on the mean values of egg breaking strength, egg shell thickness, yolk index, albumen height, albumen index and Haugh unit (data not shown) and the percentages of egg parts (data not shown). Similarly, Yalc¸ın et al. 8 found that yeast culture supplementation did not significantly affect interior and exterior egg quality characteristics. McKillop et al. 27 also reported that albumen height was not affected by yeast β- glucan supplementation at levels of 25, 50 and 250 g t 1 . However Ayanwale et al. 6 observed that egg shell weight and yolk weight

were higher in laying hens fed a diet containing 7.5 g kg 1 dried yeast (S. cerevisiae). The level of lipid oxidation was determined by MDA assay. Dietary yeast autolysate supplementation did not affect the yolk MDA concentration of eggs stored for 1 and 7 days at 4 C (data not shown). MDA is one of the major lipid peroxidation products. This aldehyde is formed during lipid peroxidation of fatty acids with three or more double bonds. Zhang et al. 31 reported that S. cerevisiae supplementation to a corn/soybean meal-based con- trol diet could improve the oxidative stability of broiler meat and suggested that this was due to some antioxidant factors present in S.cerevisiae shifting the oxidative fat or fatty acid profile in the meat.

the oxidative fat or fatty acid profile in the meat. www.interscience.wiley.com/jsfa c 2010 Society of Chemical

www.interscience.wiley.com/jsfa

c

2010 Society of Chemical Industry

J Sci Food Agric 2010; 90: 1695–1701

Effect of yeast autolysate on laying hens

www.soci.org

Effect of yeast autolysate on laying hens www.soci.org
Effect of yeast autolysate on laying hens www.soci.org

1699

Table 4. Effects of dietary supplementation with yeast autolysate on anti-SRBC titre, egg yolk cholesterol and some blood serum parameters in laying hens (mean ± standard error)

 

Yeast autolysate (g kg 1 )

Parameter

n

0

1

234

P

Anti-SRBC titre (log 2 )

15

5.13 ± 0.22b 16.4 ± 0.5a 264 ± 8a 48.6 ± 0.5 44.1 ± 2.8 1.47 ± 0.06a 13.0 ± 0.08a 172.3 ± 2.6 201.7 ± 15.3a

5.73 ± 0.21ab 14.8 ± 0.5b 242 ± 8b 49.4 ± 1.5 45.0 ± 3.3 1.35 ± 0.05ab 12.84 ± 0.10ab 168.3 ± 2.6 202.5 ± 13.9ab

6.20 ± 0.26a 14.4 ± 0.4b 242 ± 8b 50.1 ± 1.1 44.2 ± 3.2 1.29 ± 0.04b 12.68 ± 0.09b 169.9 ± 6.4 208.1 ± 16.2b

6.20 ± 0.22a 14.4 ± 0.4b 238 ± 6b 49.9 ± 1.1 45.3 ± 2.6 1.31 ± 0.04b 12.65 ± 0.10b 177.9 ± 4.7 241.5 ± 12.7b

6.27 ± 0.23a 14.2 ± 0.4b 234 ± 6b 49.1 ± 0.9 44.2 ± 2.2 1.26 ± 0.05b 12.65 ± 0.11b 173.6 ± 2.9 277.9 ± 10.8b

0.003

Yolk cholesterol (mg g 1 yolk) Total yolk cholesterol (mg per yolk)

20

0.004

20

0.043

Total

protein (g L 1 )

15

0.859

Uric acid (mg L 1 ) Cholesterol (g L 1 ) Triglyceride (g L 1 )

15

0.997

15

0.042

15

0.048

AST

(U L 1 ) (U L 1 )

15

0.516

ALP

15

0.001

Means within a row followed by different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05).

 

Table 5. Effects of dietary supplementation with yeast autolysate on yolk fatty acids (% of total fatty acid methyl esters) (mean ± standard error, n = 15 per group)

 

Yeast autolysate (g kg 1 )

Fatty acid

 

0

1

2

3

4

P

6:0

0.219 ± 0.019b 0.438 ± 0.029b

0.599 ± 0.016a 0.425 ± 0.029b

0.548 ± 0.038a 0.498 ± 0.055b 2.782 ± 0.287a 0.435 ± 0.028b 22.14 ± 0.38 1.924 ± 0.067 0.729 ± 0.018a 0.231 ± 0.009a 0.121 ± 0.005 7.224 ± 0.114 39.98 ± 0.33b 19.87 ± 0.39 0.881 ± 0.024 0.157 ± 0.014ab 0.253 ± 0.039 1.232 ± 0.042b 0.143 ± 0.006 0.240 ± 0.010b 0.037 ± 0.004 0.578 ± 0.028a 33.61 ± 0.45a 43.44 ± 0.36b 22.94 ± 0.38 0.507 ± 0.010a 1.30 ± 0.03b 0.69 ± 0.02

0.630 ± 0.045a 0.637 ± 0.030a 3.109 ± 0.240a 0.679 ± 0.050a 22.01 ± 0.29 1.991 ± 0.081 0.673 ± 0.030a 0.234 ± 0.014a 0.118 ± 0.005 7.161 ± 0.139 39.41 ± 0.29bc 19.75 ± 0.31 0.852 ± 0.016 0.167 ± 0.008a 0.385 ± 0.054 1.205 ± 0.028b 0.143 ± 0.007 0.254 ± 0.022b 0.049 ± 0.006 0.542 ± 0.022ab 33.99 ± 0.41a 43.26 ± 0.29bc 22.75 ± 0.30 0.516 ± 0.009a 1.28 ± 0.02b 0.67 ± 0.02

0.639 ± 0.043a 0.733 ± 0.029a 3.127 ± 0.215a 0.640 ± 0.044a 22.03 ± 0.31 2.038 ± 0.111 0.580 ± 0.028b 0.197 ± 0.011b 0.111 ± 0.003 6.931 ± 0.144 38.71 ± 0.27c 20.13 ± 0.20 0.820 ± 0.024 0.161 ± 0.009ab 0.383 ± 0.052 1.507 ± 0.046a 0.134 ± 0.008 0.505 ± 0.033a 0.042 ± 0.004 0.588 ± 0.021a 33.86 ± 0.18a 42.46 ± 0.28c 23.68 ± 0.21 0.512 ± 0.004a 1.25 ± 0.01b 0.70 ± 0.01

<0.001

8:0

<0.001

14

: 0

1.955 ± 0.136b

2.126 ± 0.151b

<0.001

14

: 1

0.395 ± 0.039b

0.470 ± 0.048b

<0.001

16

: 0

21.91 ± 0.33

22.88 ± 0.24

0.195

16

: 1

1.913 ± 0.092

1.950 ± 0.078

0.844

16

: 1c

0.729

± 0.032a

0.751 ± 0.024a

<0.001

17

: 0

0.228 ± 0.008a

0.233 ± 0.004a

0.046

17

: 1

0.118 ± 0.004

0.125 ± 0.004

0.224

18

: 0

7.363 ± 0.155

7.221 ± 0.183

0.353

18

: 1

41.09 ± 0.19a

39.95 ± 0.29b

<0.001

18

: 2

20.26 ± 0.25

19.80 ± 0.28

0.697

18

: 3n-3c

0.792

± 0.036

0.895 ± 0.030

0.051

20

: 0

0.121 ± 0.006c

0.137 ± 0.008bc

0.005

20

: 1

0.313 ± 0.057

0.275 ± 0.036

0.186

20

: 3n-3

1.289 ± 0.074b

1.179 ± 0.031b

<0.001

20

: 3n-6

0.119 ± 0.007

0.141 ± 0.005

0.068

20

: 5n-3

0.229 ± 0.024b

0.232 ± 0.010b

<0.001

22

: 0

0.038 ± 0.004

0.037 ± 0.003

0.293

22

: 6

0.484 ± 0.031b 32.27 ± 0.28b 44.56 ± 0.21a 23.17 ± 0.31 0.477 ± 0.006b 1.38 ± 0.01a 0.72 ± 0.01

0.576 ± 0.025a 33.65 ± 0.28a 43.52 ± 0.27b 22.82 ± 0.30 0.508 ± 0.006a 1.29 ± 0.02b 0.68 ± 0.01

0.036

SFA

0.004

MUFA

<0.001

PUFA

0.206

SFA/USFA

0.004

MUFA/SFA

<0.001

PUFA/SFA

0.152

Means within a row followed by different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05).

 

There was a significantly higher antibody titre in groups fed the diets supplemented with 2, 3 and 4 g kg 1 yeast autolysate compared with the control group (Table 4). This higher antibody titre in laying hens supplemented with yeast autolysate could be explained by the beneficial effects of supplementation in maintaining a physiological balance of immunopotent cells and therefore providing a healthy environment for the immune system.

Mohiti Asli et al. 22 observed greater antibody production against SRBCs in laying hens fed 1 g kg 1 yeast in the diet compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Other researchers reported higher antibody responses in broiler breeders fed MOS. 25,32 Dietary supplementation with yeast autolysate at 2, 3 and 4 g kg 1 reduced the levels of serum cholesterol and triglyceride (P < 0.05) but increased the serum activity of ALP (P < 0.01)

but increased the serum activity of ALP ( P < 0 . 01) J Sci Food

J Sci Food Agric 2010; 90: 1695–1701

c

2010 Society of Chemical Industry

www.interscience.wiley.com/jsfa

www.soci.org S Yalc ¸ın et al .

www.soci.org

S Yalc¸ın et al.

www.soci.org S Yalc ¸ın et al .

1700

(Table 4). However, there were no significant differences in the levels of serum total protein, uric acid and AST. Yalc¸ın et al. 8 reported that serum levels of total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, AST and ALP were not affected by the addition of yeast culture. Saoud and Daghir 33 found that single-cell protein had no effect on serum uric acid in broilers. However, Yalc¸ın et al. 8 observed that serum uric acid was increased (P < 0.05) by dietary yeast culture supplementation. Egg yolk cholesterol content as mg per yolk (P < 0.05) and mg g 1 yolk (P < 0.01) was significantly lowered in all yeast autolysate-supplemented groups compared with the control group (Table 4). There were no significant differences in yolk cholesterol between layers fed different amounts of yeast au- tolysate in the diet. Similarly, other researchers observed that serum cholesterol 34 and egg yolk cholesterol 8,9 values were de- creased by supplementation with yeast or yeast products. This reduction in yolk cholesterol could be explained by the reduced absorption and/or synthesis of cholesterol in the gastrointestinal tract. 34 However, Mohiti Asli et al. 22 reported that yeast supple- mentation had no effect on egg yolk cholesterol concentration. Krasowska et al. 35 indicated that Saccharomyces strains are able to remove cholesterol from the growth medium and that baker’s yeast S. cerevisiae seems to be the perfect organism for lower- ing cholesterol in the gastrointestinal tract. Nicolosi et al. 36 also reported that yeast-derived β-glucan significantly lowered total cholesterol concentrations in hypercholesterolaemic men. The effects of dietary supplementation with yeast autolysate on yolk methylated fatty acids are shown in Table 5. Yeast

autolysate supplementation increased the levels of caproic acid (6 : 0), caprylic acid (8 : 0), myristic acid (14 : 0), myristoleic acid

(14 : 1), arachidic acid (20 : 0), eicosapentaenoic acid (20 : 5n-3) and

docosahexaenoic acid (22 : 6) and decreased the level of oleic

acid (18 : 1) significantly. Total saturated fatty acids increased significantly (P < 0.01) and total monounsaturated fatty acids

(P < 0.001) and the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids to

saturated fatty acids (P < 0.001) decreased with yeast autolysate supplementation. No previous study was found evaluating the effects of yeast autolysate on these parameters. Therefore further studies will be required to explain the effects of yeast autolysate on the lipid profile of serum and egg.

CONCLUSIONS

Dietary supplementation with yeast autolysate (InteWall, S. cere- visiae) at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg 1 in laying hens had beneficial effects on egg production, egg weight, feed efficiency, egg choles- terol content and humoral immunity. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were reduced by yeast autolysate supplementa- tion at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg 1 . No adverse effects were seen on other parameters. Supplementation with yeast autolysate has po- tential commercial application for improvement in performance and production of low-cholesterol eggs.

REFERENCES

1 Stone CW, Yeast Products in the Feed Industry. A Practical Guide for Feed Professionals. Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, IA (1998).

2 Jaehrig SC, Rohn S, Kroh LW, Wildenauer FX, Lisdat F, Fleischer LG, et al, Antioxidative activity of (1 3),(1 6)-β-D-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on different media. LWT – Food Sci Technol 41:868–877 (2008).

3 Spring P, Wenk C, Dawson KA and Newman KE, The effects of dietary mannanoligosaccharides on cecal parameters and the

concentrations of enteric bacteria in the ceca of Salmonella- challenged broiler chicks. Poultry Sci 79:205–211 (2000).

4

Li J, Li DF, Xing JJ, Cheng ZB and Lai CH, Effects of β-glucan exctracted from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth performance, and immunological and somatotropic responses of pigs challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. J Anim Sci 84:2374–2381

(2006).

5

Santiago LA and Mori A, Antioxidant defenses of bakers yeast against free radicals and lipid peroxides in rat brain. Arch Biochem Biophys 306:16–21 (1993).

6

Ayanwale BA, Kpe M and Ayanwale VA, The effect of supplementing Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the diets on egg laying and egg quality characteristics of pullets. Int J Poultry Sci 5:759–763 (2006).

7

Hosseini SA, Lotfollahian H, Kamyab A and Mahdavi A, Study on the effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae SC47) utilization on the commercial layer hen’s performance. Pak J Biol Sci 9:2346–2349

(2006).

¨

8

Yalc¸ın S, Ozsoy B, Erol H and Yalc¸ın S, Yeast culture supplementation to laying hen diets containing soybean meal or sunflower seed meal and its effect on performance, egg quality traits and blood chemistry. J Appl Poultry Res 17:229–236 (2008).

9

Yousefi M and Karkoodi K, Effect of probiotic Thepax and Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on performance and egg quality of laying hens. Int J Poultry Sci 6:52–54 (2007).

10

AOAC, Official Methods of Analysis (17th edn). AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD (2000).

11

Farese G, Schmidt JL and Mager M, An automated method for the determination of serum calcium with glyoxal bis(2-hydroxyanil). Clin Chem 13:515–520 (1967).

12

ADAS (Agricultural Development and Advisory Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food), TheAnalysisofAgriculturalMaterials (2nd edn). HMSO, London (1981).

13

Leeson S and Summers JD, Nutrition of the Chicken. University Books, Guelph (2001).

14

Card LE and Nesheim MC, Poultry Production (11th edn). Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, PA (1972).

15

Onbas¸ılar EE and Aksoy T, Stress parameters and immune response of layers under different cage floor and density conditions. Livest Prod Sci 95:255–263 (2005).

16

Waldroup PW, Ndide LI, Hellwig HM, Hebert JA and Berrio L, Influence of probucol (4,4 -isopropylidine dithio)-bis(2,6-di-t-butyl-phenol) on egg yolk cholesterol content and performance of laying hens. Poultry Sci 65:1949–1954 (1986).

17

TECO, Cholesterol (Liquid) Reagent. C507. Teco Diagnostics, Anaheim, CA (2001).

18

Folch J, Lees M and Sloane-Stanley GHS, A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226:497–509 (1957).

19

AOCS, Official Methods and Recommended Practices. American Oil Chemists’ Society, Champaign, IL (1997).

20

Dawson B and Trap RG, Basic and Clinical Biostatistics (3rd edn). Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill Medical, New York, NY (2001).

21

Abubakar A, Tukur HM, Sekoni AA and Hassan WA, Performance and egg quality characteristics of laying birds fed diets containing rice bran with and without yeast supplementation. Asian J Anim Sci 1:1–9 (2007).

22

Mohiti Asli M, Hosseini SA, Lotfollahian H and Shariatmadan F, Effect of probiotics, yeast, vitamin E and vitamin C supplements on performance and immune response of laying hen during high environmental temperature. Int J Poultry Sci 6:895–900 (2007).

23

Berry WD and Lui P, Egg production, egg shell quality and bone parameters in broiler breeder hens receiving Bio Mos and Eggshell 49 (Abstract). Poultry Sci 79(Suppl. 1):124 (2000).

24

Stanley VG, Brown C and Sefton T, Single and combined effects of dietary protease and mannanoligosaccharide on the performance of laying hens (Abstract). Poultry Sci 79(Suppl. 1):62 (2000).

25

Shashidhara RG and Devegowda G, Effect of dietary mannanoligosac- charide on broiler breeder production traits and immunity. Poultry Sci 82:1319–1325 (2003).

26

Day EJ, Dilworth BC and Omar S, Effect of varying levels of phosphorus and live yeast culture in caged layer diets. Poultry Sci 66:1402–1410

(1987).

27

McKillop N, MacIsaac J and Rathgeber B, Feeding White Leghorn hens yeast beta-glucans to influence egg quality (Abstract). Poultry Sci 85(Suppl. 1):101 (2006).

quality (Abstract). Poultry Sci 85 (Suppl. 1):101 (2006). www.interscience.wiley.com/jsfa c 2010 Society of Chemical

www.interscience.wiley.com/jsfa

c

2010 Society of Chemical Industry

J Sci Food Agric 2010; 90: 1695–1701

Effect of yeast autolysate on laying hens

www.soci.org

Effect of yeast autolysate on laying hens www.soci.org
Effect of yeast autolysate on laying hens www.soci.org

1701

28 Kumprecht I, Zobac P, Sikse V, Sefton AE and Spring P, Effects of dietary mannanoligosaccharide level on performance and nutrient utilization of broilers (Abstract). Poultry Sci 76(Suppl. 1):132 (1997).

29 Savage TF, Zakrzewska EI and Andreasen JR, The effects of feeding mannan oligosaccharide supplemented diets to poults on performance and morphology of small intestine (Abstract). Poultry Sci 76(Suppl. 1):139 (1997).

30 Li P and Gatlin III DM, Evaluation of the prebiotic GroBiotic -A and brewers yeast as dietary supplements for sub-adult hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis) challenged in situ with Mycobacterium marinum. Aquaculture 248:197–205 (2005).

31 Zhang AW, Lee BD, Lee SK, Lee KW, An GH, Song KB, et al, Effects of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell components on growth performance, meat quality, and ileal mucosa development of broiler chicks. Poultry Sci 84:1015–1021 (2005).

32 Cotter PF, Sefton AE and Lilburn MS, Manipulating the immune system of layers and breeders: novel applications for mannan

oligosaccharides, in Nutritional Biotechnology in the Feed and Food Industries, ed. by Lyons TP and Jacques KA. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, pp. 21–28 (2002).

33 Saoud NB and Daghir NJ, Blood constituents of yeast fed chicks. Poultry Sci 59:1807–1811 (1980).

34 Mohan B, Kadirvel M, Bhaskaran M and Natarajan A, Effect of probiotic supplementation on serum/yolk cholesterol and on egg shell thickness in layers. Br Poultry Sci 36:799–803 (1995).

35 Krasowska A, Kubik A, Prescha A and Lukaszewicz M, Assimilation of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids and removing of cholesterol from environment by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces boulardii strains (Abstract). J Biotechnol 131:S63–S64 (2007).

36 Nicolosi R, Bell SJ, Bistrian BR, Greenberg I, Forse RA and Blackburn GL, Plasma lipid changes after supplementation with β-glucan fiber from yeast. Am J Clin Nutr 70:208–212 (1999).

fiber from yeast. Am J Clin Nutr 70 :208–212 (1999). J Sci Food Agric 2010; 90

J Sci Food Agric 2010; 90: 1695–1701

c

2010 Society of Chemical Industry

www.interscience.wiley.com/jsfa