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Hypatia, Inc.

Toward a Decolonial Feminism
Source: Hypatia, Vol. 25, No. 4 (FALL 2010), pp. 742-759
Published by: Wiley on behalf of Hypatia, Inc.
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dichotomous. Modernity organizes the world ontologically in terms of atomic. This is because the colonial imposition of gender cuts across questions of ecology. hierarchical logic as central to modern. race . gender. If woman and black are terms for homogeneous.Toward a Decolonial Feminism MARÍA LUGONES in "Heterosexualism and the ColonialflsAodern Gender System1 (Lugones 2007) . capitalist modernity that are in tension with its logic. 2010) © by Hypatia. 25. I proposed to read the relation between the colonizer and the colonized in terms of gen- der. I want to emphasize categorial.1 I will call such ways of organizing the social. and sexuality . economics.org/terms . Hypatia vol. 4 (Fall. then their in- tersection shows us the absence of black women rather than their presence.jstor. sexuality. and knowledge. Inc. Following Aparicio and Blaser. government. colonial.12. 21 Jan 2018 19:45:20 UTC All use subject to http://about. This content downloaded from 129. and sexuality. but as a lens that enables us to see what is hidden from our understandings of both race and gender and the relation of each to normative heterosexuality . I propose this framework not as an ab- straction from lived experience. no. So. atomic. colonial. to see non-white women is to exceed "categorial" logic. Contemporary women of color and third-world women's critique of feminist universalism centers the claim that the intersection of race. This permits me to search for social organizations from which people have resisted modern. and gender exceeds the categories of modernity. homogeneous. separable categories. class. Rather 1 proposed a rereading of modern capitalist colonial modernity itself. as well as across everyday practices that either habituate us to take care of the world or to destroy it. capitalist thinking about race. its use of hierarchical dichotomies and categorial logic. gender system as a lens through which to theorize further the oppres- sive logic of colonial modernity.62. I propose the modern. separable categories. relations with the spirit world.156 on Sun. By this I did not mean to add a gendered reading and a racial reading to the already understood colonial relations.

bourgeois man. European. modern man became a subject/agent. It was accompanied by other dichotomous hier- archical distinctions. viragos. fit for rule. including intimate relations. gender system. The moder premodern ways. a being of mind and reason. Though at this time the understanding of sex was not dimorphic. the ecological. bourgeois. and the colonized were all under- stood to be aberrations of male perfection. everyday resistant interactions to the colonial difference.12. then. I am thinking of the interwoven social life among people who are not acting as representatives or officials. The European bourgeois woman was not understood as his complement. the bourgeois white Europeans were civilized. a being of civilization. Hermaphrodites. among them that between men and women. María Lugones 743 the cosmological. the male being the perfection. promis- cuous. The Coloniality of Gender I understand the dichotomous hierarchy between the human and the non- human as the central dichotomy of colonial modernity. and sinful. dichotomous distinction between human and non-human was imposed on the colonized in the service of Western man. economic.62. but as someone who repro- duced race and capital through her sexual purity. 21 Jan 2018 19:45:20 UTC All use subject to http://about. het- erosexual. and being home- bound in the service of the white. Indigenous peoples of the Americas and enslaved Africans were classified as not human in species . The imposition of these dichotomous hierarchies became woven into the historicity of relations. hierarchical. "categorial" I. Only the civilized are men or women. Under the imposed gender framework. a hierarchical.org/terms . the female the inversion and deformation of the male. This content downloaded from 129. When I think of intimacy here. Christian. I use these ways are not premodern. The hierarchical dichotomy as a mark of the human also became a normative tool to damn the colonized. This distinction became a mark of the human and a mark of civilization. I am not thinking exclusively or mainly about sexual relations. The behaviors of the colonized and their personalities/souls were judged as bestial and thus non-gendered. grotesquely sexual. the economic With Aparicio and Blaser and others. colonial. Beginning with the colonization of the Americas and the Caribbean.jstor. In this paper I want to figure out how to think about intimate. in the tensions created by the bru- tal imposition of the modern. for public life and ruling. So. colonial. sodomites. they were fully human. with a need to understand that the colonized became subjects in colonial situations in the first modernity.156 on Sun. The European. animals were differentiated as males and females. non-modern knowledges logical.as animals. and spiritual practices are lo with a dichotomous. I begin. passivity. uncontrollably sexual and wild.

in the distinction betw stand alone.org/terms ." the human being par e mative understanding of "wom point of view. 21 Jan 2018 19:45:20 UTC All use subject to http://about. the search for t of the gender distinction result each sex. In so doing they affir teristic mainly of earlier femi introduced arguments for the c lier version. and we understood to be lacking as not as the "feminization" of coloniz attributing to them sexual pass tween hypersexual i ty and sex masculine subjection of the colo It is important to note that o nized societies.156 on Sun. for example).744 Hypatia The civilizing mission. thou for the colonized was not the the colonized into human be of imagining this as a goal ca This content downloaded from 129. colonized people human-as-not-men. you will see gender and vice gender. The ci dichotomy as a judgment. What is important to the characterization of the colo research that takes coloniality meaning of the relation betwee The colonial "civilizing mission to people's bodies through unim control of reproduction.12. Gender and sex cou Sexual dimorphism became the of gender. and coloni Consequently. includin the ideological conception of co for their deficiencies from the enormous cruelty. and sy making pouches and hats fro females. sex grounded gend sex. I propose to the civilizing perspective as ju "man.jstor.62. colonized female they were not men-like. the human characteri the sex that stood alone in the gendered.

María Lugones 745 this transformation of the colonized into men and women would have been a transformation not in identity. of intersubjective relation. the dehumanization constitutive of the coloniality of being.12. ecological. as colonized females were understood in relation to Satan. and the Manichean division between good and evil served to imprint female sexuality as evil. no colonized females are women. the normativity that connected gender and civilization became intent on erasing community. the dehumanization that fits them for the classification. as Christianity be- came the most powerful instrument in the mission of transformation. But turning the colonized against themselves was included in the civilizing mission's repertoire of justi- fications for abuse.62.org/terms .jstor. ecological practices. sometimes as mounted by Satan. I use the term coloniality following Anibal Quijano's analysis of the capitalist world system of power in terms of "coloniality of power" and of modernity. gender sys- tem. the colonial answer to Sojouner Truth is clearly. II. but in nature. The civilizing transformation justified the colonization of memory. "no. Quijano's analysis provides us with a historical understanding of the inseparability of racialization and capitalist exploitation4 as constitutive of the capitalist system of power as anchored in the colonization of the Americas. sin. and appreciate it as macabre and heavy in its impressive ramifications. In thinking of the coloniality of gender. of the cosmos. I complicate his understanding of the capitalist global system of power. colonial. Theorizing Resistance/Decolonizing Gender The semantic consequence of the coloniality of gender is that "colonized woman" is an empty category: no women are colonized. identity. in the scope I am giving to the imposition of the modern. and the colonial introduction of the modern concept of gender. to land. This is in stark contrast to the process of conversion that constitutes the Christianizing mission. knowledge of planting. One can begin to appreciate the tie between the colonial introduc- tion of the instrumental modern concept of nature central to capitalism. and not only on changing and controlling reproductive and sexual practices. In using the term coloniality I mean to name not just a clas- sification of people in terms of the coloniality of power and gender. and cosmological organization. two inseparable axes in the workings of this system of power. Christian confession. of their relation to the spirit world.156 on Sun. the process of subjectification. but I also critique his own understanding of gender as only in terms of sexual access to women. the attempt to turn the col- onized into less than human beings. and thus of people's senses of self. to the very fabric of their conception of reality. The concept of the coloniality of being that I understand as related to the process of dehu- manization was developed by Nelson Maldonado Torres (2008). Thus. One can also recognize."6 This content downloaded from 129. Thus. of weaving. 21 Jan 2018 19:45:20 UTC All use subject to http://about. but also the process of active reduction of people. and social.

with a strong emphasis on grou incarnate intersubjectivity.8 But I do mean to understan loniality of gender from the perspective of the colonial di Decolonizing gender is necessarily a praxical task. I think about feminism from and at the grass the colonial difference. I am interested in th liberation.jstor. and visibility are de jectivity. the colonia the intersection of gender/class/ system of power. It is racialized.156 on Sun. voice.62. 21 Jan 2018 19:45:20 UTC All use subject to http://about. authority. In our colonized. As such it places the theorizer This content downloaded from 129. racially existences we are also other than what the hegemon m infra-political achievement. Infra-politics marks the turn inward. As I move methodologically from women of color fem feminism. 746 Hypatia Unlike colonization. which has an easy inhabitation o Legitimacy. that minim < sense of agency of the modern subject (Lugones 2003 ).org/terms .12. and capitalist heterosexualist gende transformation of the social. Thinking abo of historical beings only one-si such beings as colonized women resist the coloniality of gender as I have suggested. in a politic liberation. only parti through the coloniality of ge non-colonized construction of g There is no such thing. fully micro and macro mechanisms and circulations of powe much of its meaning or ceases to be an intersubjective a bility of an identity based on politics (Mignolo 200 de-coloniality loses its peopled ground. If we are exhausted. sense. "gender Resistance to the coloniality of When I think of myself as a th resistance as the end or goal of p possibility. The question of the relation resistant response to the coloniality of gender and de-col here rather than answered. It shows the power of communities of the opp resistant meaning and each other against the constitut social organization by power. as both adaptive a tension between subjectification active subjectivity.7 Resistant subjectivity often expresses itself infra-politica politics of the public. colonial.

c system of power that Anibal Quijano characterizes as begin teenth century in the Americas and enduring until today me formed. political. Here I begin to provide a way of understanding the op who have been subalternized through the combined processe colonization. feminism d an account of the oppression of women. to the inorganic. In focusing on the resi difference I mean to unveil what is obscured. So.org/terms . economic. understood." The coloniality of gender enables me to understand the op tion as a complex interaction of economic." I call the possibility of overcoming the coloniality of feminism. and g in which every person in the colonial encounter can be foun ical. aesthetic. 21 Jan 2018 19:45:20 UTC All use subject to http://about. practices. capitalist explotation. It goes beyond oppre materials that enable women to understand their situation w to it. Furthermore. capitalist. to living beings. peopled. subject ive/intersubjec ing < To a significant extent it has to be in accord with the subjec subjectivities that partly construct and in part are constructed It must include "learning" peoples. whose knowledg longings. and linguistic expressivity. and entered into in tense. in product erotic. capitalist. The global. the coloniality of gender ingredient in the resisteros history. ings: selves in complex relations to the cosmos. a world of empty minds and evolving animals (Qu Rather. the process of colonization invented the colonized full reduction of them to less than human primitives. viole and dialogues and negotiations that never happened. fully described being. The crucial point about the encounter tive and intersubjective construction of it informs the resist ingredients of colonial domination. and heterosexualism. it encountered complex cultural.62. gender oppression gender.156 on Sun.12.jstor. aggressively sexual. My on the subjective. racializing. to other selv to the earth. satani fantile. María Lugones 747 in a historical. and in need of transformation. This content downloaded from 129.intersubjective to reveal that disaggregating gregates the subjective-intersubjective springs of colonized w call the analysis of racialized. The long process of coloniality begins subjectively and int tense encounter that both forms and will not simply yield to c colonial normativity. institutions. and forms of government wer replaced but met. Instead. It is as such that I want to unders being oppressed by the colonizing construction of the fract coloniality of gender hides the resister as fully informed as nities under cataclysmic attack.

live coloniality of gender. The invasive them brutally.156 on Sun. and accommodate who mean to dispossess and dehumanize them.12. and the conflict itself actively informs the colonized self in multiple relation. incommunicat way. Carolyn Dean (2001). I want to think of the pro resisted. but also that inhabitations of worlds understood. Maria Esth Ledezma 2006). In particular.jstor.a mark of civilization. who perceives doubly. in alternative socialities. respond. 21 Jan 2018 19:45:20 UTC All use subject to http://about. in relation. 1998). Fel de Ayala (2009). co accordance with such cosmologies animated the self-among tance from and at the extreme tension of the colonial differ The long process of subjectification of the colonized toward nalization of the men/women dichotomy as a normative co social . and Oyeronke Oyewumi (1997). and membership was and is constantly renewed. resist. and grounded in habitations of the colonial difference. relates doubly. citizenship. We see the gender dichotomy opera This content downloaded from 129. leaving little room for adjustments that preserve their ow community and in the world. relations. I want to follow subjects in inte oration and conflict. It is met in the flesh over a tional responses grounded in a long history of oppositional as sensical in alternative. but as a being who begins to inhabit a fr structed doubly. instead of thinking of th colonial system as in every way successful in its destruction ledges. Pamela Calla and Nina Laurie (2006). among oth affirm that gender is a colonial imposition. in a prepossessing. But. wher locus are in tension. Sylv Paula Gunn Allen (1992). not just as it impo lived in tune with cosmologies incompatible with the moder omies. I am investigating emphasizing the historicity of the oppressing < resisting relation and thus emphasizing concrete. 748 Hypatia to follow is the oppressing < colonial difference. arrogant. resistant socialities at the colonia movement toward coalition that impels us to know each othe thick. fully informed as members of Native A societies. and economies. Leslie Marmon Silko (2006). The gender system is not just hierarchical but racially differ racial differentiation denies humanity and thus gender to t Silverblatt (1990.62. I want to mark the ne ple reading of the resistant self in relation. And thus I want to think neither as simply imagined and constructed by the colonize accordance with the colonial imagination and the stricture colonial venture. This is a conseq imposition of gender. That is. as they take up. and being resisted today.org/terms .

It denies their ex ity and of co-evalness.12. But if we are going to make an relation. the f or multiple consciousness. The difference between modern the modern perspective . María Lugones 749 the construction of the social and in the col jectification. is constituted in p fractured locus includes the hierarchical di ject ification of the colonized. erasing tion of a multiply oppressive gender system. T careful with the use of the terms woman and essary to weave the logic of the fractured sources woven into the resistant responses t and woman into the very fabric that constitut we erase the resistance itself. and relation. mi makes clear.a colonial diffe which the non-modern is subordinated to th modernity is not premodern (Aparicio and B to see that a framework may well be fundame essentialist logic of modernity and be critica and man. 21 Jan 2018 19:45:20 UTC All use subject to http://about.156 on Sun. Thus the mo This content downloaded from 129. Only in brack ferent logic that organizes the social in t multiple perception and inhabitation. This denial is colonia modernity. But the lo presence. the active subjectivity of the colon of self in community from the inhabitation roring of the multiplicity of the woman of co I mentioned above that I was following Ap between the modern and non-modern. we need to bracket the dichotomo gender system that is constituted by the hi for European colonials + the non-gendered.62.org/terms . and even of the dimorphism betw ing coloniality or the colonial difference.jstor. rather reading of cosmologies informing and co embodiment. a colonizing reading of t dichotomy into the Yoruba society. S and may exclude the very possibility of res gender system and the coloniality of gende multiply through a fractured locus at the col In thinking of the methodology of decolon from the cosmologies that inform it. They tinction clear as they tell us that modernity their existence. the challenge of the existen ontological presuppositions.

chachawarmU and chotomous.156 on Sun. as if coloniality of gender. As I mark the colonial trans aware of the use of man and w including in interracial discour introduced with colonization th of gender has turned this colonia tance to the coloniality of gen of the colonial wound. The polit moving between ways of liv This content downloaded from 129. which is year she will govern with her sis thus she will be chacha twice.the tense inhabitation of it.12.62. Thu ible with suma qamaña.750 Hypatia different from one that reads g understand the organization of tion of the gender imposition koshskalaka. sin Filomena herself will be chacha stead in a chacha community. Filomena trans tary opposites. The new Bolivia the indigenous movements of A ophy of suma qamaña (often tr qamaña and utjaña indicates the arability from communal flou balance. man/ w struction of everyday life. She told me that one can standing. those who do not ha Though she lives much of the t she maintains utjaña. and it wo ing . 21 Jan 2018 19:45:20 UTC All use subject to http://about.org/terms . heterosexual. warmi as man and woman does through utjaña. racia meaning to the gender distinc through colonial translation an coloniality of gender and resista In a conversation with Filome between the Aymara qamaña an complex answer t related utjaña land.jstor. Chachawarmi is not sep is rather of a piece with it.11 I am certainly not advocating n the human/non-human.

156 on Sun. to inferiors by nature. all possibility of human communication. María Lugones 751 man/woman constitutes loyalty to the coloniali tory of resistance at the colonial difference. both real. (37) I have prepared us to hear these assertions.62. One can look at the colonial past and.12. Thus to see the coloniality is to reveal the very degradation that gives us two This content downloaded from 129. to see this is not to see the coloniality. The colonial difference is the space where coloniality of power is enacted. F living in the past.. in its power and constitution. all possibility of understanding. the human from the non-human. . in a schizoid understanding of reality that dichotomizes the human from nature. To see the coloniality is to see the powerful reduction of human be- ings to animals. I am not in- troducing them as his definition of "the colonial difference. on lives lived in colonial difference. the "colonial difference" becomes visible. To see the coloniality is to see both the jaqiy the persona. The Colonial Difference Walter Mignolo begins Local Histories/Global Designs by telling us that "The main topic of this book is the colonial difference in the formation and trans- formation of the modern/colonial world system" (Mignolo 2000. (Mignolo 2000. The colonial difference is not defined in Local Histories. its meaning becomes open-ended. 21 Jan 2018 19:45:20 UTC All use subject to http://about. a definitional disposition is unfriendly to Mignolo's introduction of the concept. It is rather to see people . Indeed. III. As the phrase "the colonial difference" moves through Mignolo's writing. in part.. both vying under different powers for survival. disallows all humanity. So as I present some of the quotes from Mignolo's text.jstor. and thus imposes an ontology and a cosmology that.pressed under difficult circum- stances to occupy demeaning positions that make them disgusting to the social superiors. these quotes guide my thoughts on resistance to the coloniality of gender at the colonial difference from within the complexity of his text. and the epistemological fractures between the Eurocentric critique of Eurocentrism is distinguished from the critique of Eurocentrism. Clearly. ix). really . to dehumanized beings.org/terms . as an observer. anchored in the colonial difference.anyone. see the natives negotiating the introduction of foreign be- liefs and practices as well as negotiating being assigned to inferior positions and being found polluting and dirty. and the beast. ix) Once coloniality of power is introduced into the analysis. only in the chachawarmi w utjaña today depends." Rather. the being that is in a world of meaning without dichot- omies.

jstor. f inary location where the colo confrontation of two kinds of ent spaces and times across t the historically unavoidable r frontations of two kinds of Christian and Native Amer Amerindian cosmologies.62. (Mignolo 20 The transcending of the colo from a perspective of subalt therefore. (45) I see these two paragraphs in te had with the modern man. they do not lie in parity wi the coloniality. it is not an affair of the p It is a matter of how we produ racialized female and male ener that energy to be used toward t own possibilities. from a new epist thinking works. That constru through by its intimate relation The colonial difference creat ations in which a fractured e subaltern perspective as a res and perspective. (ix) Thus. or ignor [The colonial difference] is. C Christian and Confucian cosm dichotomies where you look you compare them in the geo colonial world system. his his redemption but also his self colonial difference but necessary This content downloaded from 129.156 on Sun. Our possibilit tion. integrated.12.org/terms .752 Hypatia renditions of life and a being r being lies in its full inhabitation contradictory and from such co [The colonial difference] is t venting and implementing g the space in which global de rejected. 21 Jan 2018 19:45:20 UTC All use subject to http://about.

21 Jan 2018 19:45:20 UTC All use subject to http://about. h so doing he understands her locus as fractured sees the coloniality of gender and rejection. re to its negotiation always concretely. around the pla where border epistemology dwells. the active subjectivity emphasized as the reading looks for the fractured locus in resistance to the coloniality of gender at a coalitional starting point. the decolonial feminist's task begins by her seeing the colonial difference. she sees the world anew. to use Gloria A not an infinite repetition of dichotomous hiera of the human. a borderlands. without necessarly being an insider to the worlds of meaning from which resis- tance to the coloniality arises. In thinking of the starting point as coalitional because the fractured locus is in common. is a logical conseque difference. others at the confessional. the trans the perspective of subalternity. attempting rather to under- stand subjects. and then she requires herself to drop her enchantment with "woman..jstor. .12 The reading moves against the social-scientific objectifying reading. María Lugones 753 and intermingled locals.. So. Reading the Fractured Locus What I am proposing in working toward a decolonial feminism is to learn about each other as resisters to the coloniality of gender at the colonial difference. (37) I am proposing a feminist border thinking. wher a ground. But when "border thinking. the histories of resistance at the colonial difference are where we need to dwell. . emphatically resisting her epistemological habit of erasing it. and begins to learn about other resisters at the colonial difference. The differences in the This content downloaded from 129. ." the universal." as he interprets Anzaldua. some legal. some inside a room as indigenous female-beasts-not-civilized-women are forced to weave day and night. intricately related exercises of power. That is. from with IV. but toward a n Border thinking .62. The coloniality of gender is sensed as concrete.156 on Sun.12. [T]he fractured locus of subaltern perspective defines border think the colonial difference. learning about each other. indeed. Often in Mignolo's work the colonial differe than the subjective/intersubjective. (x) It is also the space where the restitution of is taking place and where border thinking i The colonial differences.org/terms . Seeing it. a space. some body to body.

values. The passing from practices. people moving: the tensio the coloniality of being. of the c out the tense multiplicity. m logies. beliefs.62. T persisted in the resistant respon This content downloaded from 129.754 Hypatia concreteness and intricacy of p of generality. communalism over relation rather than dichotom violently ordered fragments.156 on Sun. rhythms.jstor. and integra tance as they are always perfo by inhabiting the colonial diffe multiplicity in the fracture of of gender and the resistant respo of the self-in-relation.org/terms . 21 Jan 2018 19:45:20 UTC All use subject to http://about. which is not to time there is open defiance . embodied subjecti As the coloniality infiltrates ev power at the levels of the body troduction of property and land different concrete people whos spirit world do not follow the countenanced by the logic of po tions does not repeat itself. ignoring. we accomplishment. th than individuals enable the doin ualist isolation. gestures. and th One does not resist the coloni within a way of understanding t can understand one's actions. ontol one. The production of the eve self as it provides particular.12. or a freezing o relation from a precolonial sens ment. It d and everyone continues to resp resistantly . but that are not part of ment succeeds in retaining crea that are antithetical to the logi sibilities are continually transfo locus that constitutes a creativ adoption.i capital. habi portant that these ways are not over profit.

I mark this as a beginning.not in maintaining a hybrid "prod difference .62.12. The logic of coalit dichotomies.ways of spending my time.org/terms . I can think of the the coloniality of gender at the colonial diffe backed by an alternative communal source of s rate responses.is animated by great anger and direct Perez (1999). that permits enactments that are thoro chotomies (Lorde 2007). I mark here the interest in an ethics terms of both be-ing.jstor. The emphasis is on maintainin reduction . H other engaging in dialogue at the colonial diff we are doing it? Isn't it the case that those of us who rejected over by white women in consciousness-raising g and women's studies program meetings saw the coalition that would really include us? Isn't it t substantial sense of recognition when we aske White Woman?" Isn't it the case that we rejec Sojourner Truth and were ready to reject their This content downloaded from 129. Among the logics at work ar logic of oppression: many colonial differences The responses from the fragmented loci can be crea ing of the possibility of coalition that takes up the logic of coalition of feminists of color: the social erotics (Sandoval 2000) that takes on the creative. but it is a begi term that Maldonado Torres has called the "de proliferate at this time and the answers are d again. The direction of the possibility of and possibility of self in relation lies not thro with the oppressor from the point of the oppres the logic of difference and multiplicity and of c (Lorde 2007). 21 Jan 2018 19:45:20 UTC All use subject to http://about.ing in relation t peopled ground (Lorde 2007).156 on Sun. The mu So. an emphasis on methodologies that work responsibility is maximal. María Lugones 755 Finally. differences are never seen in dic has as its opposition the logic of power. and Sandoval (2000) teach us. and be. of s sorrow .in the tense workings of more than but transcended. How do we learn abo without harming each other but with the cour everyday that may reveal deep betrayals? How d With whom do we do this work? The theoretic My own life .

Idealized Christian sex is without passion (see Laqueur 1992. 756 Hypatia refused the offer at the colonial one woman. their gender roles.62.org/terms . the one-sex model displayed what was already massively evident in culture: man is the measure of all things. and woman does not exist as an ontologically distinct category" (62). This is an important contribution to understanding decolonial.the racialization of the relations between colonizers and colonized. Instead of seeing the working of sex as related to the production of heat leading to orgasm. Since the eighteenth century the dominant Western view "has been that there are two stable. a new This content downloaded from 129. Anibal Quijano understands the coloniality of power as the specific form that domination and exploitation takes in the constitution of the capitalist world system of power. "In a world that was overwhelmingly male. servitude. as the bestial. 3. There is a tension between the understanding of procreation central to the one- sex model and the Christian advocacy of virginity. Laqueur sums up the question of perfection by saying that for Aristotle and for "the long tradition founded on his thought. differentia- tions of gender preceded differentiations of sex (62). only one reality? Isn as multiple seers at the colonial d begins nor ends with that offer? seeing each other at the colonial d feminist geopolitics of knowing a Notes 1 . opposite sexes and that the political. incommensurable.12. St. where labor is racialized (wage labor as well as slavery. and cultural lives of men and women. 21 Jan 2018 19:45:20 UTC All use subject to http://about.jstor.156 on Sun. Thomas Laqueur also tells us that historically. where the boundaries between male and female are of degree and not of kind (25). 59-60). Laqueur tells us that the longevity of the one-sex model is due to its link to power. liberatory processes of knowledge production. Juan Ricardo Aparicio and Mario Blaser present this analysis and the relation between knowledge and political practices that focuses on politically committed re- search in indigenous communities in the Americas. including both academics and activists. Eurocentrism as the new mode of production and control of subjectivity. and small commodity production all became racialized forms of production. the generative substances are interconvertible elements in the economy of a single-sex body whose higher form is male" (42). they were all new forms as they were constituted in the service of cap- italism). the con- figuration of a new system of exploitation that articulates in one structure all forms of control of labor around the hegemony of capital. "Coloniality" refers to: the classification of the world's populations in terms of races . economic. colonized males and females are understood as excessively sexual. Augustine sees it as related to the fall. 4. What he terms the "one-sex model" he traces through Greek antiquity to the end of the seventeenth century (and beyond): a world where at least two genders correspond to but one sex. insiders and outsiders to the communities in their forthcoming work. are somehow based on these "facts"" (Laqueur 1992. The con- sequences for the coloniality of gender are evident. 2. 6).

In Lugones 2003 I introduce the concept of "active subjectivity" to capture the minimal sense of agency of the resister to multiple oppressions whose multiple subjec- tivity is reduced by hegemonic understandings/colonial understandings/racist-gendered understandings to no agency at all. and constituted in dichotomous terms. Thus. Native American women) in the U.S.S. atomic category is characterized in terms of the superior member of the dichotomy. As one considers the dominant categories. Intersectionality is important when showing the failures of institutions to include discrimination or op- pression against women of color.S. "Black" stands for black men. and Quijano and Wallerstein 1 5." "poor. 7. legal system and in much of institu- tionalized U. is gendered and that one has not understood the coloniality of knowledge without understanding its being gendered. indigenous. Asians. 6. and lan- guage. for example. among them "woman. 9. 8. Latinas. It is her belonging to impure communities that gives life to her agency. That is because the modern categorial logic constructs categories as homogeneous. nor indigenous males. one cannot see. black. locate." "black. life. and poor. or address women of color (U. racially differentiated. speech given at the W May 29. hierarchical gender system permeated through and through by the modern logic of dichotomizing cannot be characterized as a circulation of power that organizes the do- mestic sphere as opposed to the public domain of authority and the sphere of waged labor (and access and control of sex and reproduction biology) as contrasted to cogni- tive/epistemic intersubjectivity and knowledge. being. or nature as opposed to culture. They are impossible since they are neither European bourgeois women. But here I want to get ahead of myself in claiming that there is no de-coloniality without de-coloniality of gender. The relation between categorial purity and hierarchical dichotomies works as follows. the modern colonial imposition of an oppressive. and gender. 1851. That construction proceeds from the pervasive presence of hierarchical dichotomies in the logic of modernity and modern institutions. separable. As said above. Thus "women" stands for white women. to argue that the coloniality of gender is constituted by and constitutive of the coloniality of power. But here I want to be able to think of their presence as This content downloaded from 129.org/terms .62. separable.S. atomic. 21 Jan 2018 19:45:20 UTC All use subject to http://about. One way of expressing this is that the coloni- ality of knowledge. They are crucially inseparable. For my argument against Quijano's understa and sex/gender. women of color feminisms. The intersection of "woman" and "black" reveals the absence of black women rather their presence. class." they are not articulated in a way that includes people who are women. 1995. "Ain't I a Woman?". me- stiza. When one is trying to understand women at the intersection of race. knowledge. Chicanas.156 on Sun.12. María Lugones 757 system of control of collective authority around excludes populations racialized as inferior from c jano 1991. see Lugones 2007. and Asian women are impossible beings. A further note on the relation of intersectionality and categorial purity: inter- sectionality has become pivotal in U. It is outside the scope of this article. African Americans. nature.jstor. Each homogeneous. but certainly well within the project to which I am committed. non-white black.

But nothing about them to a sperm contributor who is mar matter of normed logic. and Mario Blaser.: Dumbarton Oaks. but not translated the terms. Washington. Pamela. So from the colonial difference to be ab colonized women and agents fluent i 10.jstor. Thus. 2009. Cecilia Klein. Nina Laurie and Maria Esther Pozo. Desarrollo. I agree with Oyeronke Oyewum tion of the Yoruba (Oyewumi 1997). Cochabamba. I think that yo ample of thinking at the colonial diff 12. if I do not not understand at all.62. Felipe. Calla. then Hormonal and gonadal characteristics der.12. If the Weste to the dimorphic sexual distinction. Juan Ricardo. Guarnan Poma de Ayala. Learning each other's historie standing deep coalitions among U. It is important for me not to understand what I am saying.156 on Sun. D. poscolonialismo y teoría geográfica política.org/terms . In Gender in pre- Hispanic America. In Las displicencias de género en bs cruces del sigh pasado al nuevo milenio en bs Andes. [unpublished manuscript. So. ficient condition of maleness. Bolivia: CESU-UMSS. Andean androgyny and the making of men. ed. Austin: University of Texas Press. and Nina Laurie. 758 Hypatia being both oppressed and resisting. References Aparicio. 2006. 21 Jan 2018 19:45:20 UTC All use subject to http://about. 2001.S. n or a woman. Mesoamer separable terms. Carolyn. Dean. The first new chronicle and good government: On the history of the world and the Incas up to 1615. gender and sex as colonial imposition gender is hierarchical and dichotom of sex is dimorphic and relates the m true of the female.] La "CiudadLet- rada" y la insurrección de saberes subyugados en América Latina. This content downloaded from 129.C. but in terms of fl Alcoff sees the contribution of sper entailing the sexual division and the egg is quite compatible with intersex utes sperm" to a particular act of contributor is either male or a man. this learning. Think of the dangerous misfit o prisons to get a feel for this percepti 11. ed.

Maria Lu Littlefield Publishers. Chela. Género: trabajo agrícola y tierra en Raqaypampa. M. Ceremony. 2007. 2006. In P coalition against multiple oppression. In Las displicencias de género en los cruces del siglo pasado al nuevo mile- nio en los Andes. Anibal. ed. Sylvia. 21 Jan 2018 19:45:20 UTC All use subject to http://about. J. Laqueur. Taken from the lips: Gender and eros in mesoamerican religions. Nina Laurie and Maria Esther Pozo. Maria. The decolonial imaginary: Writing chicanas into history. Inc. La Mujer Andina en la historia. 2006. Quijano. Thomas. and J. Oyeronke.org/terms . 1999. 2000. María Lugones 759 Gunn Alien. Colonialidad. Princeton: Princeton University Press.. Cochabamba. Silko. Taller de historia oral Andina. Quijano. 2003. Chukiyawu: Ediciones del THOA. New York: Penguin Books.62. Audre. subaltern knowledges and border thinking. 1991. 1997. Minneapo nesota Press. Street walker theorizing. 1992. 1992. Mass. Nelson. ed. Against war: Views from the underside of modernity. 2006. Leslie Marmon. Durham. Leiden and Boston: Brill. 2000. 2008. Beverley.C. Aronna. Emma. N. debate in Latin America. Bolivia: CESU-UMSS. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. The invention of women: Making African sense of Western discourses. Locai histories/ global designs: Coloniality. Maria Esther.jstor. ÍSSAJ 134:549-47. Paula. Sandoval. and Jhonny Ledezma. Anibal. The sacred hoop: Recoverin traditions. Irene. Peru Indigema 13 11-29.12.156 on Sun. modernidad/racialidad. Marcos. ed. 1992. Perez. Making sex: Body and gende bridge.: Duke University Press. This content downloaded from 129. Methodology of the oppressed. Silverblatt. Maldonado Torres. Walter D. Pozo. 186-209. Duke University Press. Oyewumi. Boston: Beacon Press. Mignolo. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. and London: Harvard University Pr Lorde. Sister outsider: Essays and speec Lugones. and Immanuel Wallerstein. 1990. Americani Americas in the modem world-system.