LAB REPORT FOR FATIGUE LAB (MAE 351)

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LAB REPORT FOR FATIGUE LAB (MAE 351)

© All Rights Reserved

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Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 18

Spring 2018

03/21/2018

University of Miami

2

B. Abstract

This paper reports the behavior of two samples of aluminum 6061 heat treated and

artificially aged (-T6). The samples examined were first subjected to a saw cut and then placed

on a MTS fatigue test machine that applied cyclic loads over a number of intervals that induced

the cracking of the alloy on the area where a saw cut was employed. The total number of

measurements taken until the material experienced failure were 33 for one specimen, and 20

for the second. All the data, including the measurement taken with a caliper and a ruler during

the lab, were passed to an Excel spreadsheet for further analysis. Crucial constants for the

experiment include the stress intensity factor and the rate of change of the crack over the rate

of change of the cycles. With this data, two log-log scatter plot for each specimen were created

and a trend line was added to it in order to get the values of the slope m on the equation of the

line, this value resulted on 1.7897 for one sample and 2.2373 to the other one, which reports

that the first sample took a longer time to experience fracture. Another important value was

that of the constant, and it was found from the trend line equations to be 3.70766E-05 for

sample one, and of 7.89042E-07 for sample 2 .These values were then compared to previous

experiments in order to come to a conclusion if our experiment was reliable or not. It turned

out that the results found seemed to describe fairly accurately the behavior of heat treated and

artificially aged aluminum alloy 6061. The specimen 1 of aluminum experienced failure only

after 0.926 millimeters of extension from the first recorded crack and the specimen 2 only after

0.567 millimeters. In suma, the crack growth is described by the curve described by:

log(da/dN)=3.7E-05log(ΔK)^1.7897 for sample 1, and log(da/dN)=7.89E-07log(ΔK)^2.2373 for

sample 2.

3

C. Table of Contents

I.

A. Title Page......................................................................................................1

B. Abstract........................................................................................................2

C. Table of Contents..........................................................................................3

II.

1. Introduction ..................................................................................................4

2. Methods........................................................................................................7

2.1 Experimental Procedures

2.2 Data Analysis and Calculations on Excel

3. Results..........................................................................................................10

3.1 Tables and Graphs

3.2 Fracture Analysis

4. Discussion ......................................................................................................14

5. Conclusions………………………………………………………………………………………………..15

6. Appendix…………………………………………………………………………………………………….16

7. References......................................................................................................18

4

1. Introduction

Fatigue testing composes an essential process on the design of any mechanical system

because the material of choice, after being subjected to a certain amount of load, may

experience a failure that might compromise the entire system that it is part of. This failure

happens because the engineering component lost its strength due to brittle fracture. An

important point for predicting fatigue is to know and understand the external loads that will be

applied to the structure during its service life. In the case of an airplane, the loads may vary

from those implied by the air pressure, the atmospheric conditions, the weight on of the

aircraft and the pilot’s maneuvers. Examples of atmospheric conditions include the wind shear,

environment convection and jet streams.

Test for the fatigue lifetime have proven to be important after the engineering

community have been blamed for a number of accidents. An example of these accidents can be

drawn back to the year of 1969, with the F-111 military aircraft failure, in which an entire wing

fell off the aircraft’s structure, resulting on the death of two of the crew members. After this

accident, structural safety started to be thoroughly considered by demanding the development

of damage tolerance for structures.

Multiple element damage can be considered as an example of fatigue damage. In this

scenario, a primary element experiences failure because the crack population has degraded the

load-carrying capability of a structure. This results on widespread fatigue damage, making the

structure unable to carry the residual load.

Aluminum alloys are regularly used in general application and they can be modified in

order to achieve higher strength, corrosion resistance, fatigue, and toughness, Aluminum 6061

is one of the most widely used form out of all alloys and it is mostly composed of magnesium

and silicon. T6 temper 6061 has an ultimate tensile strength of at least 290 MPa and yield

strength of minimum 240 MPa, which makes this aluminum useful for a wide range of

applications where strength is necessary. Applications of 6061-T6 involve an aircraft fuselage,

where a high strength-to-weight ratio is necessary in order to achieve less fuel consumption by

the engine. The T6 on the nomenclature of this class of aluminum stands for the process that

the material underwent, which in this case means that it was heat treated and artificially aged.

Cracks can be caused by cyclic loading, normally known as fatigue crack growth. The

stress intensity factor is a tool that helps us to make an analysis of the engineering crack growth

and it is known as the letter K, which quantifies the severity of a through crack in causing a high

stress level at the tip of a crack. Specifically, K can be evaluated by

K FS a (1)

Where a is crack length, S is nominal stress, F is a dimensionless function of geometry, and the

relative crack length = a/b (b is the width of the cracked component).

5

For a flat specimen or plate specimen, if the applied loading is cycled between the

maximum load, Pmax, and the minimum load, Pmin, the corresponding gross section nominal

stresses Smax and Smin are given by

Pmax

S max (2)

bt

Pmin

S min (3),

bt

Respectively, where t is the thickness of the specimen. For fatigue crack growth analysis, it is

convenient to use the stress range, S, defined by

S min

R (5).

S max

The primary variable affecting the growth rate of a crack is the range of the stress intensity

factor, K that can be evaluated by

K FS a (6).

The value of F depends only on the geometry and relative crack length, = a/b, just as if the

loading were not cyclic. According to Eqs 1-6, the following equations hold.

6

S min P K

R min min (10)

S max Pmax K max

At intermediate growth rate or K, there is often a straight line on the log (da/dN )-log

(K) plot. A relationship representing this line is

da

C (K ) m (13)

dN

Where C is a constant and m is the slope on the log-log plot, assuming, of course, that the

decades on both log scales are the same length. This equation (Paris’s Law) is identified with

da

Paul Paris, who first used it in 1960. However, in order to find dN , one must take the value of

the crack length according to the number of the measurement and subtract this value from the

previously found crack. This value, should be divided by the cycle of the current crack minus the

value of the previous crack related to the previous crack growth. To simplify the previous

explanation, this relationship is described as follows,

(14)

The secondary variable controlling crack growth rate is stress ratio. Where for a given

K, increasing R increases the growth rate, and vice versa. If m is not expected to be affected by

R, C is a function of R as follows,

C0

C (15)

(1 R) m (1 )

7

Where C0 is the constant in the Paris’s law when R=0 and γ is a constant for the material.

The major objective of this experiment was to obtain the constants C and m for the

Paris’s Law, defined by eq. 13, and as well as the initial constant on eq. 14. These results are

important because during the process of finding them, we were allowed to determine a log-log

plot of da/dN vs Delta K that showed the data for the fatigue crack growth rates over a wide

range of stress intensities for the 6061-T6 aluminum specimen.

2. Methods

2.1. Experimental Procedures

The experiment consisted on applying a cyclic load to a specimen of aluminum 6061-T6

material, characterized by the following composition: 0.28% Cu, 0.2% Cr, 1.0% Mg, 0.6% Si with

the remaining being aluminum and T6. The load was of initially 1100 lbs. with an amplitude of

+/- 500 lbs., which means that the maximum load was

1600 lbs., and the minimum was 600 lbs. The flat

specimen contained a saw cut which was measured

by a ruler and determined to have 3.06 millimeters of

width, and to have a length of 16.594 millimeters.

During the experiment, the machine used was a MTS

fatigue test machine and it would apply a load that

initialized the crack growth. When the growth was

detected, the load would be reduced to allow the

proliferation of the crack growth, which would be

immediately measured after a number of cycles with

a caliper. The length of the crack growth was named

“a”. A drawing of the specimen used may be found in

the Solidworks drawing (Figure 2.2), with the

necessary dimensions labeled on Figure 2.1.

samples

8

Fatigue Testing Frame worked based on a force

capacity of 5.5 kip (25 kN), possessed a number

of two columns with 17.5 inches of distance

between them and could be used with materials

with at maximum 24 inches. The dimensions of

the machine were 26.5’’ x 20’’ x 93’’ of

maximum height, and it weighted approximately

500 lbs. Fatigue testing were carried out in sine

waveform (fatigue stress cycle), at 5Hz and at

room temperature.

Before mounting the specimen on the

machine, the team measured every dimension

of the material and found its thickness

(measured with a caliper) to be 1.559

millimeters, its width to be 32.5 millimeters

Figure 2.2: Solidworks drawing of sample 1.

(ruler), and the gage length 55.5 millimeters (ruler), every

measurement was averaged after a total of three trials being conducted. After the

measurements, the maximum loading was set to be 1600

lbs. and the minimum 600 lbs. with a frequency of 5 Hz. The

cyclic loading was started and only at a cycle of a thousand

the team was able to identify the first propagation, so the

machine was stopped, the crack growth measured, and the

load decreased. Later, the cracks started to become more

recurrent because of the brittle fracture that occurred after

1000 cycles. All these cracks were written down together

with the corresponding cycles until the experiment was

completed.

The ending of the experiment happened when the

material experienced fracture on its middle and could not

resist the load anymore. As a consequence of that, all the

data was collected until that point and data analysis was

ready to be done.

Fatigue Testing Frame.

9

Firstly, an Excel spreadsheet was created to plug in all the formulas previously stated. It

was decided in the moment that most of the measurements would either be reported on MPa

or in millimeters because it was found to be convenient. Since the load given by the machine

was in pounds, the parameter used for conversion was that 1 lb. is 4.448222 Newton,

therefore, the value of Pmax and Pmin went from 1600 lb. and 600 lb., to 7117.155 N and

2668.933 N, respectively.

To calculate values such as ΔK, it is important to take a look at Table 1 below in order to

have an idea of the propagation of the cracks in relation to their cycles. With the information

from the table, it was easy to find and use the value of alpha, which is simply the crack length

divided by the width measured as 32.5 millimeters. With help from references (Norman E.

Dowling, 2013, pp. 327, Figure 8.12 (c)) the geometry factor, F, necessary on the formula of the

growth rate expressed by eq. 6 was found for each value of alpha.

Cycles, N “a” Cycles, N “a”

0 16.594 6805 17

1000 16.598 6949 17.02

1600 16.64 7072 17.04

3393 16.702 7080 17.06

3850 16.717 7551 17.08

4250 16.721 7650 17.1

4660 16.723 7810 17.12

4813 16.788 7881 17.14

4959 16.82 7900 17.15

5190 16.84 7940 17.16

5329 16.86 8118 17.22

5701 16.88 8209 17.27

5890 16.9 8254 17.32

5980 16.92 8293 17.39

6170 16.94 8356 17.44

6421 16.96 8763 17.47

6577 16.98 8907 17.52

Table 2.1: Cycles and crack lengths measured in laboratory.

In addition to all calculations previously stated, it was necessary to find the value of

a/N, which corresponds to the rate of crack growth with respect to the cycles and it is

described by eq. 14. This value was calculated using an Excel spreadsheet with a formula

10

generated on each cell that would take the rate of the crack growth and divide the resultant

value for the rate of the cycles.

This was pretty much all the data needed to generate the graph necessary for the

analysis. What was left to do was just to take the logarithmic value of a/N and plot it with

relation to the logarithmic value of ΔK, which resulted on an scatter graph in which a least

squares fit was performed, with the dependent value being y = log(a/N) and the

independent variable x = log(ΔK).

This same procedure was repeated for the second sample and the results were fairly

similar. They will be mentioned on the results section, but the value for the crack length and

the cycles may be found on table 2.2 below.

0 9.05

50 9.23

100 9.54

150 9.62

200 9.83

350 9.86

400 10.07

450 10.18

550 10.47

600 10.55

700 10.72

800 11.35

900 11.71

1000 12.01

1100 12.54

1200 13.72

1354 Break

Table 2.1: Cycles and crack lengths measured in laboratory for sample 2, after sample 1 broke.

3. Results

3.1. Tables and Graphs

Beginning the process of interpreting the data from the methods section, an

examination of the crack growth was plotted against the number of cycles, using as a reference,

that the detectable value in which the crack began to be noticed by the group of students, was

when “a” had 17.46 millimeters during the cycle of number 8650. This crack increased for a

number of 250 cycles until it eventually torn the whole specimen apart, with the critical crack

11

length being of 17.52 millimeters. This plot can be seen on Graph 3.1, where the point of

rupture is highlighted on the line.

N x Crack Length

17.53

17.52

17.51

Crack length (mm)

17.5

17.49

17.48

17.47

17.46

17.45

17.44

8650 8700 8750 8800 8850 8900

Cycles, N

Graph 3.1: Number of cycles from detectable crack length until its critical value for sample 1.

The nominal stresses Smax and Smin were found by dividing Pmax and Pmin by the

thickness times the width, and resulted on 140.468 MPa for max, and 52.675 MPa for min. The

value of R was found by taking the ratio of Smin over Smax and had the value of 0.375.

Additionally, ΔS was found by subtracting Smin from Smax, which resulted in a value of 87.792.

Additionally, alpha was found by taking the ratio between the global crack lengths and dividing

it by the width of the cracked component. The results for alpha ranged from 0.00012 to

0.02849.

The value for the Geometry factor, F, found on eq. 6 ranged from 0.694 to 0.707, which

after compared to the literature showed to be very reasonable. After plugging in all values on

eq. 6, the average stress intensity factor was found to be 2.19 MPa (m)^0.5, which is a

reasonable value as aluminum is a strong material. It also makes sense to when compared to

results found on published journals (L. Collini, A. Pirondi and D. Fersini, 2004, pp. 7, Table 4),

which show values for the stress intensity factor, being of around 1.4 for values of R near the

ones used in this experiment. All this data can be seen and better understood on Table 3.1 and

3.2 on the appendix, where all the values were rounded to three significant figures but da/dn

because they turned out to be small numbers, as expected.

12

Propagation (Sample 2)

0

1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

-0.5

-1

-1.5

log(da/dN)

y = 2.2373x - 6.1029

R² = 0.2421

-2

-2.5

-3

-3.5

log(ΔK)

Graph 3.2: log-log plot of ΔK vs da/dN (Sample 1). Graph 3.3: log-log plot for Sample 2.

The next step taken after the measuring and calculation of all the values was making a

scatter plot and adding a trend line for the log values of da/dn and ΔK, which resulted on Graph

3.2 for the first sample and 3.3 for the second one, with a line described by y = 1.7897x-4.4309

and a R squared value of 0.526, and y = 2.2373x - 6.1029 and R squared equals 0.2421. The

values for m and C were found to be 1.7897 and 3.70766E-05, and 2.2373 and 7.89042E-07

respectively. These figures reflect the value of the slope of the line (m), and the value of C

(log(C) = -4.4309 and log(C) = - 6.1029).

The value for C0 and γ were found to be 1.59877E-05 for C0 when γ is equals to zero and

R (Smin over Smax) is equals to 0.375. For the sample number two, these values changed to

3.98453E-07 for C0 when γ is equals to zero and is equals to 0.263.

13

As for the specimen of aluminum, the zone of failure from the fatigue testing is

important for examination because it sums up much of the data calculated. When examining

the picture collected from the experiment (Figure 3.1), it is clear to see two distinct zones on

the failure area. One of these zones is where the initial crack was located and where it grew

during the various applications of loads and cycles, named fatigue zone. If a fracture analysis

were to be conducted more carefully in that zone, we would be able to identify, on the surface

of the crack, that for high values of stress intensity, a greater number of dimples are formed

around the material’s particles, which demonstrate traces of plastic strain along the matrix. It is

also noticeable on that zone, granular traces that show the progression of the fatigue crack

emanating from the origin.

Origin of the

crack

Granular traces

Saw cut

Figure 3.1: Representation of specimen used with greater details on the part of the crack and rupture

14

The second identifiable zone is called rupture zone, the area of final failure. This area

starts off at the final recorded crack length, which describes the portion in which the material

could not withstand the applied load anymore because of the smaller area reduced by the

prolongation of the crack.

Fatigue zone

Rupture zone

Figure 3.2: Experimental specimen of aluminum under fatigue load. Two distinguished zones marked.

4. Discussion

The reported values for this experiment, such as C and m, fall within the range of the

literature, where it cites that they should be near 4.55 for m and 1.04E-08 for C (L. Collini, A.

Pirondi and D. Fersini, 1997, pp. 7, Table 4) for a specimen of aluminum 6061 that is not heat

treated nor artificially aged. The values represent good examination of data during the length of

the experiment, however, there are still a margin of error for when we look at the log-log trend

line on Graph 3.2. This error must have originated from the cycles measured during the lab

experiment. This is because, after taking a look at Table 2.1, one can easily notice that the

difference between the cycles vary in a manner that affect the results from the graph of

15

log(ΔK) vs log(da/dn) because dn is in reality Δn. For that reason, if the initial value that is being

subtracted by the next value have a big and disordered difference, we will have irregularity on

the values of Δa/Δn, which can be easily seen on Graph 3.2.

This experiment although being accurate and reliable, could have also generated better

results if it weren’t for sources of error such as the number of people grouped on the same

location conducting the experiment using the same machine. Also, if every measurement were

taken individually, maybe they would have been reported more accurately since it is possible

that trouble in communication can happen when it comes to sharing the data.

5. Conclusions

The fatigue lifetime behavior of Aluminum 6061-T6 alloy found on this study is similar to

properties found on previous literature. The main difference may be attributed to limited

sources of error, and also to the stress ratio of 0.375 and 0.263 for the two different samples,

which affects the experimental data. Additionally, when comparing the log-log plot of ΔK vs

Δa/Δn for Aluminum 6061-T6 alloy to the graph of simply Aluminum 6061, we can spot a

difference on the slope value, m, which is stated on previous literature to be on the range of 2-

4 for Al 6061, and found to be 1.7897 and 2.2373 here. This slope value directly correlates the

propagation of crack over the cycles to the number of the stress intensity factor, meaning that

an aluminum specimen heat treated and artificially aged, shows better response to applied

stress because its slope is less accentuated. This slope is different because of the process that

the material went. Heat treatment in aluminum alloys is well known for increasing the strength

of the material, which is the reason that made this specimen to resist loading and to extend its

crack only after additional 0.926 millimeters from the first measured crack for sample 1 and

0.567 millimeters for sample 2.

When comparing sample 1 to sample 2, and the values of m and C for both of the

specimens, one can conclude some important and relevant observations. For instance, the

steeper slope for sample 1 (1.7897) when compared to 2.2373 of the second one, may induce

one to think that the first material had a bigger resistance to the cyclic loading than the second

one. This is very plausible when we compare the properties of both materials on Table 5.1,

where it is seen that the first material had a greater thickness, width, and gage length.

Sample 1 Sample 2

Thickness (mm) 1.60 1.56

Width (mm) 32.50 31.67

Length (mm) 55.50 51.00

Initial crack length (mm) 16.59 16.70

16

6. Appendix

XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX

0.694 0.000 0.216 4E-06 -5.398 -0.666

0.694 0.001 0.732 7E-05 -4.155 -0.135

0.695 0.003 1.123 3.46E-05 -4.461 0.051

0.695 0.004 1.199 3.28E-05 -4.484 0.079

0.695 0.004 1.219 1E-05 -5.000 0.086

0.695 0.004 1.228 4.88E-06 -5.312 0.089

0.696 0.006 1.508 0.000425 -3.372 0.178

0.696 0.007 1.629 0.000219 -3.659 0.212

0.696 0.008 1.700 8.66E-05 -4.063 0.230

0.697 0.008 1.768 0.000144 -3.842 0.248

0.697 0.009 1.834 5.38E-05 -4.270 0.263

0.697 0.009 1.898 0.000106 -3.975 0.278

0.698 0.010 1.960 0.000222 -3.653 0.292

0.698 0.011 2.020 0.000105 -3.978 0.305

0.698 0.011 2.078 7.97E-05 -4.099 0.318

0.698 0.012 2.135 0.000128 -3.892 0.329

0.699 0.012 2.191 8.77E-05 -4.057 0.341

0.699 0.013 2.245 0.000139 -3.857 0.351

0.699 0.014 2.298 0.000163 -3.789 0.361

0.700 0.014 2.350 0.00025 -3.602 0.371

0.700 0.015 2.401 4.25E-05 -4.372 0.380

0.700 0.016 2.451 0.000202 -3.695 0.389

0.701 0.016 2.500 0.000125 -3.903 0.398

0.701 0.017 2.548 0.000282 -3.550 0.406

0.701 0.017 2.572 0.000526 -3.279 0.410

0.701 0.017 2.596 0.00025 -3.602 0.414

0.702 0.019 2.734 0.000337 -3.472 0.437

0.703 0.021 2.844 0.000549 -3.260 0.454

0.704 0.022 2.951 0.001111 -2.954 0.470

0.705 0.024 3.095 0.000179 -3.747 0.491

0.706 0.026 3.195 0.000794 -3.100 0.505

0.707 0.027 3.254 7.37E-05 -4.132 0.512

0.707 0.028 3.350 0.000347 -3.459 0.525

Table 3.1: Experimental values for sample 1.

17

XX XX XX XX XX XX

1.633159333 0.291443 1.5609799 0.0036 -2.443697499 1.547604

1.788175389 0.333123 1.6090757 0.0016 -2.795880017 1.612395

2.304821466 0.433218 1.6932458 0.0118 -1.928117993 1.787674

Table 3.2: Experimental values for sample 2.

18

7. References

1. Rao, S.S., Mechanical Vibrations, Addison-Wesley Inc, 1995

2. Fittipaldi, Mauro, MEN 351 Fatigue Crack Growth in Aluminum Alloy, University of

Miami, spring 2018

3. E. Dowling, Norman, Mechanical Behavior of Materials 4th Edition, Pearson, 2013

4. Hwa, Ping, Fatigue Behaviour of 6061 Aluminium Alloy and Its Composite, School of

Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, 2001

5. Collini, L., Pirondi, A., Fersini, D., Fatigue Crack Resistance of 6061 and 7005

Aluminum Alloy, 2004

6. MTS SYSTEMS CORPORATION, MTS 810 & 858 Material Testing Systems, 2006

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