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KERALA FLOOD

something about the navy


and army officers.

Date July 2018 – ongoing

Location Kerala, India

Cause Low pressure


Heavy rain
Large
discharge from dams
Landslides

Deaths 445 dead, 15 missing

Property ₹19,500
damage crore (US$3 billion)
(Estimated)[1]
Website www.keralarescue.in

INTRODUCTION
In late July 2018, severe flooding affected the Indian state
of Kerala due to unusually high rainfall during
the monsoon season. It was the worst flooding in Kerala in
nearly a century.[2] Over 445 people died, 15 are
missing[3] within a fortnight, while at least
280,679[4][5]people were evacuated, mainly
from Chengannur,[6] Pandanad,[7] Aranmula, Aluva, Chalak
udy, Kuttanad and Pandalam. All 14 districtsof the state
were placed on high alert.[8][9] According to the Kerala
government, one-sixth of the total population of Kerala had
been directly affected by the floods and related
incidents.[10] The Union government had declared it a
Level 3 Calamity or 'Calamity of a severe nature'.[11][12]
Thirty-five out of the forty-two dams within the state were
opened for the first time in history. All five overflow gates
of the Idukki Damwere opened at the same time, for the
first time in 26 years.[13] Heavy rains in Wayanad and
Idukki have caused severe landslides and have left the
hilly districts isolated.[14][10] The situation was regularly
monitored by the Prime Minister and the National Crisis
Management Committee coordinated the rescue and relief
operations

CAUSES
Kerala received heavy monsoon rainfall on the mid
evening of August 8 resulting in dams filling to capacity; in
the first 24 hours of rainfall the state received 310 mm
(12 in) of rain.[16] Almost all dams have been opened since
the water level has risen close to overflow level due to
heavy rainfall, flooding local low-lying areas.[17] For the first
time in the state's history, 35 of its 42 dams have been
opened.[18]
Most of the regions affected by this monsoon were
classified as ecologically-sensitive zones (ESZs) by the
Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel, the Gadgil
Committee. Most of the recommendations and directions
by the committee was either neglected or rejected.
Chairman of the committee Madhav Gadgil accused the
state government and its irresponsible environmental
policy for the recent landslides and floods. He called it
a "man-made calamity".[19][20][21]
The Government of Kerala argued in the Supreme
Court that the sudden release of water from
the Mullaperiyar Dam by the Tamil Nadu government was
one of the reasons for the devastating flood in
Kerala.[10] The Tamil Nadu government rejected the
argument saying that Kerala suffered the deluge due to
the discharge of excess water from 80 reservoirs across
Kerala, spurred by heavy rains from within the state; It
also argued that the flood surplus from the Idukki dam is
mainly due to the flows generated from its own
independent catchment due to unprecedented heavy
rainfall while the discharge from Mullaperiyar dam was
significantly less.[22]
Though it is difficult to attribute a single event to climate
change, its possible role in causing the heavy rainfall
event over Kerala cannot be discarded[23]. Recent
research indicates that rising temperatures have led to
huge fluctuations in the monsoon winds carrying the
moisture from the Arabian Sea, resulting in heavy-to-
extreme rains over the Western Ghats and central India,
lasting for two to three days[

Impact[edit]

Aerial view of the flood

Red alert issued by India Meteorological


Department (earlier in August)
A state official told AFP that 370 people have died,
while The Economic Times has reported that 33,000
people have been rescued.[8][25][26]The Kerala State
Disaster Management Authority has placed the state in a
red alert as a result of the intense flooding.[27] A number of
water treatment plants were forced to cease pumping
water, resulting in poor access to clean water, especially
in northern districts of the state.[28]Over 5,645 relief
camps[4] have been opened at various locations to
accommodate the flood victims. It is estimated that
1,247,496 people[4]have found shelter in such
camps.[29][30] The flooding has affected hundreds of
villages, destroyed an estimated 10,000 km (6,200 mi) of
roads and thousands of homes have been damaged or
destroyed.[27] The Government has
cancelled Onam celebrations, whose allocated funds have
been reallocated to relief efforts.[31]

Industry[edit]
On August 15, Cochin International Airport, India's fourth
busiest in terms of international traffic, and the busiest in
the state, suspended all operations until 29 August,
following runway flooding.[8] Many schools throughout the
state have been closed, and tourists have been dissuaded
or banned from some districts due to safety
concerns.[25] The Kochi Metro closed briefly on August 16,
and has since begun offering free service to aid those
affected by the flooding.[18] Due to heavy rain and rising
water levels the southern railway has suspended train
services on Thiruvananthapuram-Kottayam-Ernakulam
and Ernakulam-Shoranur-Palakkad sections.[32]
Over 80% of the state had been cut off from power
supply.[33] An orange weather alert had been issued in 11
of the 14 districts of the state.[34]
Religious[edit]
Trekking in the Hindu pilgrimage centre of Sabrimala has
been stopped due to the overflow of the nearby Pamba
Riverwhich is affected by flood.[3

Rescue[edit]

Southern Naval Command initiates Operation Madad in


Kerala
Youths coordinating relief supplies with different
organizations for various relief camps across state.
Being instructed by the Cabinet Secretary, Senior officers
of Defence Services, NDRF, NDMA and Secretaries of
Civilian Ministries conducted meetings with Kerala Chief
Secretary. Following the decisions taken during these
meetings, the Centre launched massive rescue and relief
operations. In one of the largest rescue operations, 40
helicopters, 31 aircraft, 182 teams for rescue, 18 medical
teams of defense forces, 58 teams of NDRF and 7
companies of Central Armed Police Forces were pressed
into service along with over 500 boats and necessary
rescue equipments.[15]
Additionally, 52 rescue teams of central forces including
units of the Indian Army and the Indian Navy and state
governed forces like Kerala Police and Kerala Fire and
Rescue Services assisted the civilian administration in
rescue work and restoration.[8] In addition to the 10 teams
of the National Disaster Response Force, four additional
teams were airlifted from Guntur and Arakkonam to assist
the Ernakulam districtadministration. Union Minister for
Home Affairs Rajnath Singh conducted an aerial survey of
Idukki and Ernakulam districts along with Chief
Minister Pinarayi Vijayan.[36][37]
Fisherman from Thiruvananthapuram and Kollam districts
took part in the rescue operations with their boats and
rescued several who were trapped in their homes by rising
waters. The Kerala Government announced financial aid
in return for their support and effort in the rescue
mission.[38]
Mananthavady and Vythiri in the hilly Wayanad
district have been totally cut-off, with roads washed
away.[39]
According to the latest official figures, more than 800,000
people have been lodged in over 4,000 relief camps
across 14 districts.[36][40] On August 19, the state's Chief
Minister Pinarayi Vijayanvowed "to save even the last
person stranded."[41]
Animals[edit]
Sally Varma of Humane Society International arranged for
animals to be rescued and transported to special shelters
that housed affected animals. Social media has been used
to highlight the rescue of multiple animals - dogs, cats,
goats, cows, cattle, ducks and snakes, with animal feed
and medicine transported to affected areas.[42]
A worker with the Humane Society International spoke out
against the tethering and leaving of pets that occurred.
"That became a problem. So many tethered animals just
drowned. These animals are natural swimmers, and it is
better to keep them free so they can swim to higher
ground." According to government records more than
8,000 cattle, calves and buffaloes, 3,297 goats, and 47
dogs have died due to the flooding.[42]
The District Collector of Malappuram, and its Chief of
Police have instructed the police force to save any animal
that they encounter during rescue operations.[43]
Relief and monetary aid[edit]
Government, NGOs and NPOs[edit]
 The Government of Kerala started a donation website
for flood victims.[44] As of 27 August 2018, ₹674
crore (US$98 million) was collected from the public.[45]
 Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi announced a
sum of ₹500 crore (US$73 million) as interim relief for
Kerala on 18 August 2018. This is in addition to ₹100
crore(US$15 million) announced by the Home Minister
on 12 August 2018.[46] The central government also said
in its press release that this ₹600 crore (US$87 million)
is only the advance assistance and that additional funds
will be released by the NDRF when an inter-ministerial
team visits again and assesses the damage.[15][47]
 European Union has announced an assistance of ₹1.53
crore (US$220,000) in aid funding to the Indian Red
Cross Society for providing relief to flood-affected
people in Kerala.[48]
 Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan announced that Vice-
President and Prime Minister of the United Arab
Emirates HH Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al
Maktoum and Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi and Deputy
Supreme Commander of the UAE's Armed Forces HH
Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan verbally
offered an amount of ₹700 crore(US$100 million) for
assistance towards relief works.[49] However, the
spokesperson of Ministry of External Affairs of
India made it clear that in line with the existing foreign
policy, India won't be able to accept such funds from a
foreign government.[50][51][52] Later, the UAE Ambassador
to India declared that officially, there was no
announcement on donation of ₹700
crore (US$100 million) to the State of Kerala.[53]
 Extending condolences to the families of the
deceased, Qatar Prime Minister Abdullah bin Nasser bin
Khalifa Al Thani offered a sum of ₹34.5
crore (US$5.0 million) for the relief works.[54]
 Pakistan Prime Minister Imran Khan, while expressing
solidarity in his tweet, offered to provide humanitarian
assistance.[55]
 The governments of Maldives and Thailand have also
offered aid and support.[56]
 The Israeli humanitarian organization IsraAid sent relief
workers to distribute supplies and assess needs for
clean water, sanitation, and psychological care..[57][58]
 Many Members of Parliament, Members of State
Legislative Assemblies and Councils, civil servants and
government employees across the country have also
donated their one month's salary and/or allowances
towards Kerala Chief Minister’s Distress Relief
Fund.[59][60][61]
 Chief Ministers of almost all the states and Union
Territories have pledged monetary aid from their
respective state funds in addition to dispatch of various
relief materials such as potable water, blankets, packed
food, rice, water-purifying machines, daily-use and
healthcare products. Monetary contributions are listed
below: below:
State/Union Territory Amounts Refs

Andhra Pradesh ₹10 crore(US$1.5 million) [62]

Arunachal Pradesh ₹3 crore (US$440,000) [63]

Assam ₹3 crore (US$440,000) [64]

Bihar ₹10 crore(US$1.5 million) [65]

Chhattisgarh ₹3 crore (US$440,000) [66]

Delhi ₹10 crore(US$1.5 million) [67]

Goa ₹5 crore (US$730,000) [68]

Gujarat ₹10 crore(US$1.5 million) [69]

Haryana ₹10 crore(US$1.5 million) [70]

Himachal Pradesh ₹5 crore (US$730,000) [71]

Jharkhand ₹5 crore (US$730,000) [72]


State/Union Territory Amounts Refs

Karnataka ₹10 crore(US$1.5 million)

Madhya Pradesh ₹10 crore(US$1.5 million) [73]

Maharashtra ₹20 crore(US$2.9 million) [74]

Manipur ₹2 crore (US$290,000) [75]

Mizoram ₹2 crore (US$290,000) [76]

Nagaland ₹1 crore (US$150,000) [77]

Odisha ₹10 crore(US$1.5 million) [78]

Puducherry ₹1 crore (US$150,000) [79]

Punjab ₹5 crore (US$730,000) [80]

Rajasthan ₹10 crore(US$1.5 million) [81]

Tamil Nadu ₹10 crore(US$1.5 million) [82]


State/Union Territory Amounts Refs

Telangana ₹25 crore(US$3.6 million) [83]

Tripura ₹1 crore (US$150,000) [84]

Uttar Pradesh ₹15 crore(US$2.2 million) [85]

Uttarakhand ₹5 crore (US$730,000) [86]

West Bengal ₹10 crore(US$1.5 million) [87]

Total ₹211 crore (US$31 million)

Corporate and Individuals[edit]


 Google, Facebook and e-commerce
websites Amazon, Flipkart, BigBasket, Airtel Payments
Bank, Paytm and Tez have also provided an option for
donation for relief efforts on their respective
platforms.[88]
 Major oil companies of India such
as BPCL, HPCL, IOCL and others have collectively
donated ₹25 crore (US$3.6 million) to the Kerala Chief
Minister’s Distress Relief Fund, in addition to providing
relief materials and helping in rescue operations.[89][90][91]
 Reliance Foundation chairperson Nita Ambani has
announced a donation of ₹21 crore (US$3.1 million) to
the Kerala Chief Minister’s Distress Relief Fund,
besides relief materials worth around ₹50
crore (US$7.3 million).[92]
 Adani Foundation the CSR, sustainability and
community outreach arm of the Adani Group, has
committed to provide ₹1 crore (US$150,000) for
immediate relief and another ₹1 crore (US$150,000) is
earmarked for rehabilitation and resettlement.[93][94]
 Star India, its parent company 21st Century Fox and
their employees have collectively donated ₹5
crore (US$730,000).[95][96][97]
 Bollywood actor Sushant Singh Rajput has donated ₹1
crore (US$150,000) to the Kerala Chief Minister's relief
fund on behalf of an Instagram fan.[98][99][100][101][102] He
also sent his team for relief activity in Kerala.[103] Vidya
Balan, Siddharth Roy Kapoor, Shah Rukh
Khan, Amitabh Bachchan, Abhishek Bachchan, Alia
Bhatt, Siddharth Suryanarayan, Rishi Kapoor, Vidhu
Vinod Chopra, Akshay Kumar and Resul Pookutty are
others from film industry to have contributed to Kerala
Chief Minister's relief fund.[104][105]
 KP Hussain, chairman of Fathima Healthcare Group,
has donated ₹1 crore (US$150,000) to the Kerala Chief
Minister's relief fund, and another ₹4
crore (US$580,000) for medical relief aid.[106]
 Doctor, entrepreneur and philanthropist Dr. Shamsheer
Vayalil will donate ₹50 crore (US$7.3 million) for the
relief of flood victims by setting up a project to fight
housing, education and healthcare issues.[107]
 UAE-based Indian businesses have donated ₹18.85
crore (US$2.7 million) so far to Khalifa Bin Zayed Al
Nahyan Foundation's relief fund. Among those to
donate were Indian businessmen Yusuff Ali M.A.,
chairman and managing director of LuLu Group
International, and Dr. B. R. Shetty, founder and
chairman of NMC Health.[108]
 Indian cricket team captain, Virat Kohli, dedicated his
team's test win over England at Trent Bridge to the flood
victims of Kerala.[109] The Indian team is planning to
donate match fees for Kerala flood victims.[110]
Response[edit]
India's Prime Minister Narendra Modi being received by
the Governor of Kerala P. Sathasivam and the Chief
Minister of Kerala, Pinarayi Vijayan, on his arrival,
in Kochi, to survey the flood-affected areas, on 18 August
2018.
At a press conference on 11 August, Chief Secretary Tom
Jose said, "Things are well under control. The government
is on top of the situation."[111] Prime Minister Narendra
Modi conducted an aerial survey and offered federal
support to Kerala. Chief Minister Pinarayi
Vijayandescribed the floods as "something that has never
happened before in the history of Kerala" and placed
some of the blame on neighbouring Tamil Nadu for not
releasing excess water from the State-
operated Mullaperiyar dam, which worsened the
situation.[25]
International[edit]
The United States embassy urged its citizens to avoid
travelling to the affected areas.[112] The UAE embassy in
India issues warning for its citizens regarding the flood.
The embassy also said that the weather agencies in India
have given warnings regarding heavy rain fall in the
southern state of Kerala.[113] The President of UAE His
Highness Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan has
instructed the formation of a national emergency
committee to provide relief assistance to people affected
by flash floods in the Indian state of Kerala. According to
Sheikh Khalifa's instructions, the committee will be chaired
by the Emirates Red Crescent (ERC), and include
representatives from the UAE's humanitarian
organisations. [114] Imran Khan, the newly elected Prime
minister of Pakistan expressed his grief at the loss of lives
in Kerala floods, and he said his country is ready to
provide any humanitarian assistance if needed.[115]
There was a controversy regarding an alleged offer of
US$100 million from the Government of the UAE. It was
also alleged that India refused to accept this offer. Kerala
Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan argued that the existing
policy did not require India to reject aid from a foreign
government.[52] Ministry of External Affairs of India clarified
that they received no such offer for financial help from any
country.[116] Under the existing foreign policy, assistance
cannot be sought from foreign governments,[117] but if any
country offers assistance it may be accepted after an
assessment. However, NGOs and PIOs worldwide can
donate for the relief efforts.[118][51] Subsequently, the UAE
Ambassador to India declared that, officially, there was no
announcement on donation to the State of Kerala
Rainfall data[edit]
Rainfall departures[edit]
Week by week departures from normal (%) (date indicates
the end of the week)[119]
50
100
150
200
250
300
6/6
6/13
6/20
6/27
7/4
7/11
7/18
7/25
8/1
8/8
8/15
8/22
Cumulative rainfall by district[edit]
Cumulative rainfall by district
(1 June 2018 – 17 August 2018)[120][121]

Rainfall Normal
District % increase
(mm) (mm)

Alappuzha 1648.1 1309.5 29%

Ernakulam 2305.9 1606.0 48%

Idukki 3211.1 1749.1 89%

Kannur 2450.9 2234.9 10%

Kasaragod 2549.94 2489.1 12%

Kollam 1427.3 985.4 51%

Kottayam 2137.6 1452.6 50%

Kozhikode 2796.4 2156.5 30%

Malappuram 2529.8 1687.3 52%

Palakkad 2135.0 1254.2 75%


Cumulative rainfall by district
(1 June 2018 – 17 August 2018)[120][121]

Rainfall Normal
District % increase
(mm) (mm)

Pathanamthitta 1762.7 1287.5 44%

Thiruvananthapuram 920.8 643.0 45%

Thrissur 1894.5 1738.2 16%

Wayanad 2676.8 2167.2 26%

Kerala 2226.4 1620.0 41%

the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has extended $100


million (roughly Rs 700 crore) as financial assistance to
rebuild the southern Indian state amid a host of other
nations.
. "As we prepare to celebrate Eid-al-Adha, we do not forget
to help our brothers in India," they said.
 The Abu Dhabi committee of the KMCC has committed
to raise Rs 5o lakh, the report said.
 e Minister Rajnath Singh had visited the state on 12
August and declared an immediate assistance of Rs 100
crore to Kerala. Later, Prime Minister Narendra Modi,
during his visit to the
 state on 16 August, had announced an aid of Rs 500
crore.
 central government has also decided to give ex-gratia of
Rs 2 lakh each to the family of those killed in the floods
and Rs 50,000 to the injured.
CONS
1) kerala may sufferd loss around rs 35000 crore
2) total number of deaths as on 27 august are 370 and
expected to reach more than 500
3) more than 8 lakh peoples were sent to 4000 relief
camps
4) wildlife is badly affected by flood
5) more than 3 lakh peoples become homeless
6) agriculture production badly hit,los may be cross 1356
crore
7) The tourism industry in Kerala, which accounts for 12
per cent of the state's economy, has come to a
grinding halt as floods damaged roads, airports, rail
lines, forcing tourists to cancel their trips.
8) Floods have damaged paddy, banana, spices and other
crops in 45,000 hectare of farmland
9)
Schemes
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