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# Foundations for columns (spread footing) design Project 3

## 2.4 Initial sizing. Foundations connected by a foundation beam.

In the case of foundations which are connected by a foundation beam, a rectangular reinforced concrete
foundation is to be chosen.
Foundation depth:
D f  H frost  10  20cm
 The foundation should be fixed at least 10-20 cm in the bearing layer.

## Determine the dimensions for the foundation bottom.

Same as elastic foundations.

## Determine the height of the foundation block :

The height of the foundation block can be calculated starting from the minimum value of H / L .
Table. Minimum values of H / L .
Maximum effective Minimum value for H/L, where checking for shear Minimum value for H/L , where
pressure on terrain force is not required. checking of foundations stiffness
(kPa) Concrete C8/10 Concrete C12/15* is not required.
1 2 3 4
100 0.22 0.20 0.25
150 0.25 0.23 0.26
200 0.27 0.26 0.27
250 0.29 0.27 0.28
300 0.30 0.29 0.29
400 0.32 0.30 0.33
600 0.39 0.35 0.35

## The calculation is done according to two hypothesis:

 The foundation beam has a higher stifffness to bending than the coloumn k gr / k st  10  15 . In
this case the loads coming from the coloumns are transmitted through the whole surface of the
beam and foundations bottom.
 The foundation beam has a lower stifffness to bending than the coloumn k gr / k st  10 , the loads
coming from the coloumns are transmitted only bt the end section of the beam .

For the foundations connected with foundation beams, it is admitted that the pressure is developed only
under the foundation bottom. The verification is done according to the following relations:
E d 1 Rd
 for the foundation of the column situated in axis 1 (32)
A1 ' A'
E d 2 Rd
 for the foundation of the column situated in axis 2 (33)
A2 ' A'
where:
E d 1 effect of actions at the foundation bottom in axis 1, under the form of vertical force ,
E d 2 effect of actions at the foundation bottom in axis 1, under the form of vertical force ,
A1 ' effective area at the foundation bottom in axis 1,
A2 ' effective area at the foundation bottom in axis 2.

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Foundations for columns (spread footing) design Project 3

## Rost de tasare bst bst

LIMITA DE PROPRIETATE

## NeD1 NeD2 ±0.00

MxeD1 Grinda de echilibrare MxeD2
T yeD1 TyeD2
VD1 VD2
H1 hgr H2
MxfeD1 MxfeD2
p ef1 p ef2
e
B1 B2

Fundatie izolata
Fundatie izolata
LIMITA DE PROPRIETATE

Grinda de echilibrare

L1 b gr L2

MxfeD1 MxfeD2

E D1 E D2
e T-e
T

## Calculation of the efforts at the foundation bottom:

Axis 1
G fd1   G  L1  B1  H tot   med  ;  med  22
kN
m3
M xfed 1  M xed 1  Tyed 1  H f 1
M yfed 1  M yed 1  Txed 1  H f 1

H d 1  Tyed 1  Txed 1
2 2

Axis 2

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Foundations for columns (spread footing) design Project 3

Vd 2  N ed 2  G fd 2

## G fd 2   G  L2  B2  H tot   med  ;  med  22

kN
m3
M xfed 2  M xed 2  Tyed 2  H f 2
M yfed 2  M yed 2  Txed 2  H f 2

H d 2  Tyed 2  Txed 2
2 2

The effect of actions at the foundation bottom is calculated from the static equilibrium of the foundation
beam, following the conditions:
 M 1  0  Ed 2
M 2
 0  Ed 1

## Calculation of the effective pressures at the foundation bottom

Axis1
M yfed 1
e L1  ; L1 '  L1  2  eL1
Ed1
eB1  0 B1 '  B A1 '  B1  L1 '
E
pef 1  d 1
A1 '
At the foundation bottom tensile efforts should not be present, and for this reason the eccentricities are
limited :
L
e L1  1
6

Axis 2
M yfed 2
eL 2  ; L2 '  L2  2  eL 2
Ed 2
eB 2  0 B2 '  B A2 '  B2  L2 '
E
pef 2  d 2
A2 '
At the foundation bottom tensile efforts should not be present, and for this reason the eccentricities are
limited:
L
eL 2  2
6

## The checking is to be done with the following relations:

E d 1 Rd
 for the foundation of the column in axis 1
A1 ' A'
E d 2 Rd
 for the foundation of the column in axis 2
A2 ' A'

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Foundations for columns (spread footing) design Project 3

## 2.6. Structural check of rigid spread foundations. Reinforcement

The structural reinforcement at the bottom of the reinforced block it determined in order to
overcame the bending moment determined in the sections surrounding the column, by loading the
surface at the bottom of the reinforced block with the pressure’s diagram on the bottom of the block with
a. Structural reinforcement on the bottom of reinforced block, type 1 and 2 are parallel to the block
sides
Conditions to be satisfied:
ømin≥10mm,
dmin≥100mm / dmax≤250mm
pmin≥0,01% (OB37)
pmin≥0,075 (PC52), on each direction.
b. Superior reinforcement, type 3, assures the connection of the reinforced block with the plain
concrete block

 If at the reinforced concrete block in the bottom part there is only compressive stresses – is not
necessary to calculate or to dispose any anchorage reinforcement
 On the other side, when tensile stress appears, it is imposed to dispose the anchorage
reinforcement in order to overcome the tensile stresses.

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Foundations for columns (spread footing) design Project 3

It is disposed from the eccentric compression check of the reinforced section on the contact
surface between the reinforced and plain concrete block.
Design concrete strength:

2  M st cap,cuz
R calc 
bc  lc2
Where bc – width of reinforced block
- the reinforcement is disposed uniformly on the block sides , and the reinforcement sides
are prolonged with the minimum length of 15Φ.

In the case where large loads appear, the pressure distribution it is done according to the figure,
and in this case the reinforcement type 3 is going to overcome the tensile tensions.
1
T    1  a b c
2
In this case an additional check is to be done, namely the check of negative moment (M-) for the
reinforced concrete block, which is loaded with the forces developed in the anchorage reinforcement.
The reinforcement type 3 is disposed with a minimum amount of 2 bars. The constructive
conditions that need to be covered by this reinforcement are the same with the one of calculated
reinforcement.

a. Reinforcement for columns type 5, assures the connection of the reinforced concrete block with
the reinforced column (fig. 4.8). They result from the sizing/verification of column. Have similar
position, diameter and number of bars with the column. Minimum 3 stirrups are required for the
vertical reinforcement. The longitudinal reinforcement needs to be prolonged in the foundation
on a min. distance of la+250mm.
The connective reinforcement needs to be set in place in the reinforced concrete block
before the concrete is poured.
The overlapping distance between the connective reinforcement and the longitudinal
reinforcement of the column is according to SR EN 1992. For the columns with 4
reinforcement’s bars at the corners the overlapping is to be done in the same section. For the
columns that have more than 8 bars, the overlapping is to be done at least in two sections. If we
have high loads, the overlapping is to be done at the basement level. At the overlapping zone, the
stirrups are to be placed closer (≤10Φ).
b. Transversal reinforcement is to be used if tgβ<1, for the shear force.

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Foundations for columns (spread footing) design Project 3

Calculation of bending moments, in order to determine the structural reinforcement at the bottom of the
reinforced concrete block

The positive bending moments in the reinforced concrete block is done considering fixed console
in the section at the face of the column.
It is recommended to use the approximate methods, from the pressures on the contact surface
between the reinforced and plain concrete block (the weight of the reinforced concrete block is not taken
into consideration).

NEd
MEd
y

My
y
lx

bc

x x
ly

lc y pm

p2
p1
p0
ly l y2
M y  lc  (l y  pm  )  lc  pm 
2 2
 l 2l 1   l2 l2 
M x  bc  lx  p0  x   p1  p0   lx  x    bc   p0  x  ( p1  p0 )  x 
 2 3 2  2 3
p1  p2
pm 
2

Bending moments Mx and My are calculated charging the right console, below the x axis, with
the pressure from the contact surface fig. 4.8.
Observations:

1. If p2<0 to determine pressures diagram on bottom of R.C. block we admit p2=0, and:
2  N ST lc lc
p1  , where c   e, e 
3  bc  c 2 6
When for high moments, the active area from the contact surface between the reinforced-plain
concrete blocks is lower than 70% from the bottom of R.C. block (lc*bc), the design bending moments
of the reinforcement are the bending moments of the columns on both directions :

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Foundations for columns (spread footing) design Project 3

Mx=Mx,st
My=My,st.

2.8. Structural check for foundations connected by foundation beams. Reinforcement for the
fondations beam.

MxfeD1 MxfeD2

E D1 E D2
e T-e
T