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Introductory

EngInEErIng

graphIcs

Introductory

EngInEErIng

graphIcs

Edward E. osakuE

Introductory EngInEErIng graphIcs Edward E. osakuE MOMENTUM PR ESS, LLC, NEW YORK

MOMENTUM PR ESS, LLC, NEW YORK

Introductory Engineering Graphics

Copyright © Momentum Press ® , LLC, 2018.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means— electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording, or any other—except for brief quotations, not to exceed 400 words, without the prior permission of the publisher.

First published by Momentum Press ® , LLC 222 East 46th Street, New York, NY 10017 www.momentumpress.net

ISBN-13: 978-1-94708-360-8 (print) ISBN-13: 978-1-94708-361-5 (e-book)

Momentum Press General Engineering and K-12 Engineering Education Collection

Cover and interior design by Exeter Premedia Services Private Ltd., Chennai, India

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Printed in the United States of America

AbstrAct

Introductory Engineering Graphics concentrates on the main concepts and principles of technical graphics and provides users with the informa- tion they need most in an easy and straightforward manner. The chapters and topics are organized in a sequence that makes learning a gradual tran- sition from one level to another. However, each chapter is presented in a self-contained manner and may be studied separately. In each chapter, techniques are presented for implementing the topics treated. Chapter 1 discusses the guidelines for drafting. Chapter 2 presents the principles and techniques for creating standard multiview drawings. Chapter 3 discusses auxiliary view creation, whereas Chapter 4 focuses on section view cre- ation. Basic dimensioning is covered in Chapter 5. Isometric pictorials are presented in Chapter 6. Working drawings are covered in Chapter 7, the heart of drafting, and practical information is provided for creating them. The Appendices provide introductory discussions about screw fasteners, general and geometric tolerancing, and surface quality and symbols. This book is designed as a material for instruction and study for students and instructors of engineering, engineering technology, and design technology. It should be useful to technical consultants, design project managers, computer design drafting (CDD) managers, design supervisors, design engineers, and everyone interested in learning the fun- damentals of design drafting. The book is written with full cognizance of current standards of American National Standards Institute/American

Society for Mechanical Engineers (ANSI/ASME). The style is plain, and discussions are straight to the point. Its principal goal is meeting the needs

of first- and second-year students in engineering, engineering technology,

design technology, and related disciplines.

Keywords

auxiliary views, CDD, design, dimensioning, graphics, isometric views, multiview drawings, orthographic projection, section views, shape con- struction, technical, working drawings

contents

List of

figures

xi

List

of

tab Les

xix

Preface

xxi

  • 1 guideLines for drafting

1

 
  • 1.1 Introduction

1

  • 1.2 Conventions and Standards

2

  • 1.3 Drawing Units

4

  • 1.4 Drawing Media

5

  • 1.5 Sheet Layout

7

  • 1.6 Annotations

10

  • 1.7 Linestyles

14

  • 1.8 Precedence of Linestyles

17

  • 1.9 Applying Linestyles

17

  • 1.10 Chapter Review Questions

18

  • 1.11 Chapter Exercises

19

  • 2 standard orthograP hic drawing Views

21

 
  • 2.1 Introduction

21

  • 2.2 Projection Types

21

  • 2.3 Orthographic Projection Concepts and Assumptions

23

  • 2.4 Object Planes and Features

24

  • 2.5 Bounding Box Concept

25

  • 2.6 Visualizing an Orthographic View Projection

26

  • 2.7 Drawing Views

27

  • 2.8 Nonunique Views

31

  • 2.9 Required Views and Placement

31

  • 2.10 Constructing Standard Multiviews

33

  • 2.11 Generating Views from Solid Models

37

viii

•  Contents

  • 2.13 Chapter Review Questions

39

  • 2.14 Chapter Exercises

40

  • 3 auxiLiary drawing Views

45

  • 3.1 Introduction

45

  • 3.2 Understanding Auxiliary Views

45

  • 3.3 Visualizing Auxiliary Views

48

  • 3.4 Constructing Auxiliary Views

49

  • 3.5 Generating Auxiliary Views from Solid Models

57

  • 3.6 Combined Standard and Partial Auxiliary Views

61

  • 3.7 Chapter Review Questions

62

  • 3.8 Chapter Exercises

63

  • 4 section drawing Views

67

  • 4.1 Introduction

67

  • 4.2 Concept of Sections

67

  • 4.3 Cutting Plane Line Styles

69

  • 4.4 Hatch Patterns

69

  • 4.5 Section View Representation and Placement

71

  • 4.6 Section View Types

72

  • 4.7 Conventional Breaks

81

  • 4.8 Constructing Section Views

81

  • 4.9 Generating Section Views from Solids

83

  • 4.10 Chapter Review Questions

84

  • 4.11 Chapter Exercises

85

  • 5 basic dimensioning

89

  • 5.1 Introduction

89

  • 5.2 Engineering Drawing and Size Descriptions

90

  • 5.3 Dimension Elements and Symbols

91

  • 5.4 Dimension Types and Line Spacing

92

  • 5.5 Placing Dimensions on Object Features

94

  • 5.6 Dimensioning Methods

102

  • 5.7 Dimension Style

104

  • 5.8 Manual Dimensioning

105

  • 5.9 CDD Automatic Dimension Placement

108

  • 5.10 Chapter Review Questions

111

  • 5.11 Chapter Exercises

111

  • 6 isometric drawings

117

  • 6.1 Introduction

117

  • 6.2 Isometric Projection and Scale

117

Contents   •  ix

 
  • 6.4 Constructing Isometric Arcs and Circles

120

  • 6.5 Construction Techniques for Isometric Drawing

123

  • 6.6 Isometric Annotations

129

  • 6.7 Applications of Isometric Views

130

  • 6.8 Dimetric and Trimetric Projections

133

  • 6.9 Chapter Review Questions

134

6.10

Chapter Exercises

134

7

working drawings

139

  • 7.1 Introduction

139

  • 7.2 Elements of Working Drawings

140

  • 7.3 Component Detail Drawings

144

  • 7.4 Standard Parts

146

  • 7.5 Assembly Working Drawings

146

  • 7.6 Checking Drawings

150

  • 7.7 Specification Documents

153

  • 7.8 Working Drawing Set

154

  • 7.9 Chapter Review Questions

159

7.10

Chapter Exercises

159

aPPendix i: screw fasteners

167

 

A1.1

Screw Features

167

A1.2

Standard Threads and Thread Profiles

167

A1.3

Thread Series

168

A1.4

Thread Classes

168

A1.5

Thread Specification

169

aPPendix ii: generaL toLerancing and dimensioning

171

 

A2.1

Symbolic Specification

172

A2.2

Value Specification

172

A2.3

Hole-Basis or Shaft-Basis Fit Systems

173

aPPendix iii: geometric toLerancing and dimensioning

177

aPPendix iV: surface texture

181

 

A4.1

Surface Texture Specification

181

A4.2

Surface Roughness Production

183

bibLiograPhy

185

ab out the author

187

index

189

List of figures

Figure 1.1.

Drawing sheet orientations.

7

Figure 1.2.

Sheet layout elements.

8

Figure 1.3.

A simple bill of materials.

9

Figure 1.4.

V ertical characters.

11

Figure 1.5.

Inclined characters.

11

Figure 1.6.

Drawing with tolerances

12

Figure 1.7.

Leader, balloon, and callout.

12

Figure 1.8.

Samples of fonts.

13

Figure 1.9.

Linestyles.

15

Figure 1.10.

Drawing view with different linestyles.

17

Figure 1.11.

Use of centerline and center mark.

18

Figure 2.1.

Basic types of projection. (a) Parallel projection.

  • (b) Perspective projection.

22

Figure 2.2.

Normal faces.

24

Figure 2.3.

Non-normal faces.

24

Figure 2.4.

Planar and oblique faces.

24

Figure 2.5.

Bounding box and principal dimensions.

25

Figure 2.6.

Image box and object.

27

Figure 2.7.

Object views on principal planes.

27

Figure 2.8.

Image box faces and principal planes.

28

Figure 2.9.

Layout of six principal views on flat paper.

28

Figure 2.10. Spatial and planar quadrants. (a) Spatial layout.

 
  • (b) Planar layout (Right view).

29

Figure 2.11.

First angle projection.

29

Figure 2.12.

Third angle projection.

29

xii

•  List of figures

Figure 2.13.

U.S. standard views.

30

Figure 2.14.

European standard views.

30

Figure 2.15.

Principal dimensions and drawing layout.

(a)

Object principal dimensions. (b) Layout of

standard views.

31

Figure 2.16.

Nonunique side views.

32

Figure 2.17.

Placement and alignment of multiviews. (a) Correct placement and alignment.(b) Top view not aligned.

(c)

Front view not aligned.(d) Right view not aligned.

33

Figure 2.18a.

Object.

34

Figure 2.18b.

Bounding box.

34

Figure 2.19.

Front view choice, local axes, and view directions.

(a)

Front view choice. (b) Axes and view directions.

35

Figure 2.20.

V iew layout. (a) Top and front views’ boundaries.

(b)

Bounding blocks for views.

36

Figure 2.21.

Development of views. (a) Visible features development. (b) Hidden features development.

36

Figure 2.22.

Completed views.

37

Figure 2.23.

Generated views of a component.

38

Figure 2.24.

Plain multiview drawing.

38

Figure 3.1.

Inclined and oblique faces. (a) Inclined face.

(b)

Oblique face.

46

Figure 3.2.

Identifying or creating a TL line. (a) Inclined face.

(b)

Oblique face.

47

Figure 3.3.

An auxiliary image box and layout. (a) Image box.

(b)

Layout.

48

Figure 3.4.

T ypes of auxiliary views. (a) Full. (b) Partial.

49

Figure 3.5.

T wo principal views.

50

Figure 3.6.

Projection lines for auxiliary view.

50

Figure 3.7.

Draw outline of face.

51

Figure 3.8.

Draw the feature.

52

Figure 3.9.

Principal views.

53

Figure 3.10.

TL line and projection lines.

54

Figure 3.11.

Reference line and edge view.

54

Figure 3.12.

Projection from edge view.

55

List of figures   •  xiii

Figure 3.13.

Draw outline of an oblique face.

56

Figure 3.14.

Draw feature(s) on an oblique face.

56

Figure 3.15.

Principal views.

58

Figure 3.16.

Full auxiliary view.

58

Figure 3.17.

Standard view.

59

Figure 3.18.

Edge view from base view.

60

Figure 3.19.

Full auxiliary view for an oblique face.

61

Figure 3.20.

Partial auxiliary and standard views.

62

Figure 4.1.

Concept of sections. (a) Standard views.

  • (b) Mixed views.

68

Figure 4.2.

Cutting plane line styles. (a) Thick centerline.

  • (b) Thick phantom line. (c) Broken visible line.

69

Figure 4.3.

Hatch pattern layout.

70

Figure 4.4.

Assembly hatch patterns.

70

Figure 4.5.

(a) Material type hatch patterns. (b) Material type hatch patterns.

71

Figure 4.6.

Section view representation. (a) Right. (b) Wrong.

72

Figure 4.7.

Placement of section views. (a) Top section view.

  • (b) Front section view. (c) Right section view.

72

Figure 4.8.

Straight section view.

73

Figure 4.9.

Offset section view.

74

Figure 4.10.

Removed section views.

74

Figure 4.11.

Revolved section views.

75

Figure 4.12. Aligned section views. (a) Component with arms.

 
  • (b) Component without arms.

75

Figure 4.13.

Half section.

76

Figure 4.14.

Broken section.

77

Figure 4.15.

Detail section view.

78

Figure 4.16.

Auxiliary section view.

78

Figure 4.17.

Assembly section view.

79

Figure 4.18.

Un-sectioned features.

80

Figure 4.19.

Hatching un-sectioned features.

80

Figure 4.20.

Un-sectioned parts.

80

Figure 4.21.

Break lines for different shapes and materials.

81

xiv •  List of figures

Figure 4.22.

Constructing a regular section.

82

Figure 4.23.

Constructing an aligned section.

83

Figure 4.24. Generating a section from solid model (Section A-A).

84

Figure 5.1.

Dimensional elements and terminators. (a) Elements of a dimension. (b) Dimension line terminators.

91

Figure 5.2.

Dimensioned component.

93

Figure 5.3.

T ypes of dimensions.

93

Figure 5.4.

Spacing of dimensions.

94

Figure 5.5.

Arc dimensions.

95

Figure 5.6.

Circle dimensions.

96

Figure 5.7.

Dimensioning diameters. (a) Diameter on profile view.

  • (b) Section view showing diameter. (c) Multiple

diameters on profile view.

96

Figure 5.8.

Angular dimensions.

97

Figure 5.9.

Hole dimensions.

97

Figure 5.10. Dimensioning slots. (a) Full length. (b) Length between centers. (c) Slot width.

98

Figure 5.11.

Fillets and rounds.

98

Figure 5.12.

Fillets and rounds on a component.

98

Figure 5.13.

Chamfers. (a) External. (b) Internal.

99

Figure 5.14. Dimensioning counterbore, countersink, and spotface.

100

Figure 5.15.

Keyseat and keyway.

100

Figure 5.16. (a) Regular keyseat. (b) Woodruff keyseat.

 
  • (c) Sledge runner keyseat.

101

Figure 5.17. Rectangular neck. (a) Depth specified.

 
  • (b) Diameter specified.

102

Figure 5.18. Circular neck. (a) Depth specified. (b) Diameter specified.

102

Figure 5.19. T runcated conical neck. (a) Depth specified.

 
  • (b) Diameter specified.

102

Figure 5.20. Repeated features. (a) Linear array.

 
  • (b) Polar array

102

Figure 5.21.

Datum dimensioning.

103

List of figures   •  xv

Figure 5.22.

Chain method.

103

Figure 5.23.

T abular method.

104

Figure 5.24.

Engineering diagram of a component.

106

Figure 5.25.

Adding horizontal dimensions to diagram.

106

Figure 5.26.

Adding vertical dimensions to diagram.

107

Figure 5.27.

Adding circle dimensions to diagram.

108

Figure 5.28.

Generated views of a component.

109

Figure 5.29.

Add centerlines to generated multiviews.

109

Figure 5.30.

Adding dimensions to multiview drawing.

110

Figure 5.31.

Dimensioned multiview drawing.

111

Figure 6.1.

Isometric projection. (a) Isometric rotations.

(b)

Isometric axes in image plane.

118

Figure 6.2.

(a) Types of isometric lines. (b) Isometric scale.

119

Figure 6.3.

T ypes of isometric drawings. (a) Regular. (b) Reverse.

(c)

Long-axis.

120

Figure 6.4.

Isometric arcs.

121

Figure 6.5.

(a) Constructing top isocircle. (b) Constructing top isocircles continued.

121

Figure 6.6.

Constructing a left isocircle.

122

Figure 6.7.

Constructing a right isocircle.

122

Figure 6.8.

Constructing top isocircle.

123

Figure 6.9.

(a) Box method for normal faces. (b) Box method for normal faces continued.

124

Figure 6.10. (a) Box method for inclined face. (b) Box method for inclined face continued.

125

Figure 6.11.

Box method for oblique face.

125

Figure 6.12.

Box method for angles.

126

Figure 6.13.

Box method for ellipse on inclined face.

127

Figure 6.14.

Box method for irregular curve.

127

Figure 6.15.

Centerline method for isometric drawing.

128

Figure 6.16. Isometric annotations. (a) Aligned dimension placement. (b) Horizontal dimension placement.

130

Figure 6.17.

Iso-detail drawings.

131

xvi

•  List of figures

Figure 6.18. Isometric section views. (a) Straight section.

 
  • (b) Half section. (c) Broken section. (d) Offset section.

132

Figure 6.19. Assembly isometric views. (a) Outline. (b) Exploded.

132

Figure 6.20. Examples of isoplanes in other axonometric projections. (a) Dimetric. (b) Trimetric.

133

Figure 7.1.

An iso-insert in an ortho-detail drawing.

141

Figure 7.2.

Standard projection symbols. (a) First angle.

  • (b) Third angle.

144

Figure 7.3.

Standard orthographic projections. (a) Isometric.

  • (b) First angle projection layout. (c) Third angle

projection layout.

144

Figure 7.4.

Mixed views detail drawing.

145

Figure 7.5.

Isometric assembly drawings. (a) Outline isometric.

  • (b) Exploded isometric. (c) Half section isometric.

148

Figure 7.6.

Exploded isometric assembly with BOM.

149

Figure 7.7.

Section assembly drawings. (a) Outline ortho-view of assembly. (b) Front ortho-view section.

150

Figure 7.8.

Exploded assembly drawing.

155

Figure 7.9.

Shaft detail drawing.

155

Figure 7.10.

Flange detail drawing.

156

Figure 7.11.

Pulley detail drawing.

156

Figure 7.12.

Gear detail drawing.

157

Figure 7.13.

Retainer detail drawing.

157

Figure 7.14.

Sleeve detail drawing.

158

Figure 7.15.

Schedule of purchase parts.

158

Figure P7.1. Component drawings of Figure P7.1.

161

Figure P7.2. Component drawings for Figure P7.2a.

163

Figure P7.3. Component drawings for Figure P7.3a.

165

Figure A1.1. Thread nomenclature. (a) External thread. (b) Internal thread.

168

Figure A1.2.

Metric thread specifications.

169

Figure A1.3.

English thread specifications.

170

Figure A2.1.

Unilateral tolerance specification.

173

Figure A2.2.

Bilateral tolerance specification.

173

Figure A2.3.

Limits specification.

173

List of figures   •  xvii

Figure A3.1.

Examples of GD&T.

179

Figure A4.1.

Elements of surface texture.

182

Figure A4.2.

Full specification of surface texture.

182

Figure A4.3.

Basic specification of surface texture symbol.

182

Figure A4.4.

Application example.

183

List of tAbLes

Table 1.1.

Some ANSI/ASME Y14 standards

3

Table 1.2.

Some ISO drawing standards

3

Table 1.3.

Drawing units

4

Table 1.4.

Standard paper sizes

6

Table 2.1.

Principal views and dimensions

31

Table 5.1.

Common dimensioning symbols

92

Table 5.2.

Values of dimensions

103

Table 5.3.

Some dimension style attributes (AutoCAD application)

104

Table A1.1.

Metric thread classes

168

Table A1.2.

English thread classes

169

Table A1.3.

Interpreting metric thread specification

169

Table A1.4.

Interpreting English thread specification

170

Table A2.1.

Preferred fits (ANSI B4.2)

174

Table A3.1.

GD&T symbols

178

Table A4.1. Typical surface roughness height for some manufacturing processes

184

PrefAce

The technical educational environment has changed dramatically in the last few decades. Instructors and students in design technology, engi- neering technology, engineering, and related disciplines are faced with limited study time, but with increasing information for training in tech- nical graphics. Contact hours for lectures and laboratories in technical graphics have been shrinking, but product design continues to grow in complexities, and the time to market continues to shrink! New design tools that are largely computer based come into the workplace at aston- ishing speed. There are more materials to cover, but in fewer contact hours. These challenges need serious considerations, and this book is

written to address them. Instructors are free to use any CDD package of their choice to imple-

ment the concepts and principles discussed in each chapter. They may first

give a lecture on the chapter and ask the students to answer the chapter

review questions. A quiz on the chapter can be created and administered by the instructor before the chapter exercises are attempted. An alternative approach is to assign a chapter as a reading assignment with the students required to answer the chapter review questions before the lecture. A quiz can then be administered after the lecture. These approaches should help the students to understand the “rules” before playing the “game,” that is doing the exercises. Introductory Engineering Graphics is highly condensed so as to maximize the use of production materials. I hope students and teachers,

the primary audience, will find the book a valuable resource and enjoy

using it. I am deeply grateful to Momentum Press’s dedicated team of reviewers for their professional critique and invaluable suggestions. Many thanks to the hundreds of students who have taken my drafting courses for their suggestions and critiques over the years. Please feel free to inform

xxii

•  PrefaCe

me of any error found and comment(s) for improvement will be highly appreciated. All communications should, please, be channeled through the publisher.

Edward E. Osakue April, 2018.

CHAPTER 1

guideLines for drAfting

1.1

InTRoduCTIon

Drafting is the process of creating technical drawings consisting of two- dimensional (2D) images and annotations, and the term draughting is used

to describe the language of drafting in this book. Draughting defines the

terminology, symbology, conventions, and standards used in drafting. It is the universal technical language that is used for clearly and accurately

describing the form, size, finish, and color of a graphic design model for

construction or recording. Draughting guidelines deal with standards and conventions in drawing media, lettering, linestyes, projection standards, plot scales, dimensioning rules, sectioning rules, and so on. In this chapter, we will concentrate mainly on drawing media, lettering, and linestyles, while others will be discussed in the appropriate chapters. The 2D images in drafting are constructed from lines and curves, while annotations are composed from characters. 2D technical drawings may be created using axonometric and perspective principles. Axonomet- ric drawings are 2D drawings obtained by applying orthogonal projection principles to three-dimensional (3D) objects and include orthographic, isometric, dimetric, and trimetric drawings. Pictorial drawings such as isometric and perspective drawings mimic 3D objects in appearance, but are made of 2D entities by composition. Most technical drawings are of the orthographic and isometric types, which are the focus of this book. Some standards and conventions apply to both lines and characters in drafting, and they must be learned and used correctly. Therefore, draft-

ing skills involve learning to correctly apply the rules of draughting in

creating acceptable or industry standard technical drawings. Proficiency

in drafting involves being able to create high-quality technical drawings,

therefore, becoming proficient in drafting must be a commitment executed with determined effort.

2

•  InTRoduCToRy EngInEERIng gRAPHICs

  • 1.2 ConvEnTIons And sTAndARds

Draughting principles, conventions, rules, and standards help to minimize misinterpretations of drawing contents and eliminate errors in the commu- nication of technical ideas. Conventions are commonly accepted practices, methods, or rules used in technical drawings. Standards are sets of rules established through voluntary agreements that govern the representation of technical drawings. Standards ensure clear communication of technical ideas. The design drafter must study and understand these conventions and standards and learn to apply them correctly in practice. For example, good technical drawings are achieved by following some principles such as:

  • 1. Keeping all lines black, crisp, and consistent.

  • 2. Using different linestyles.

  • 3. Ensuring clarity in linestyle differences such as in thickness or line weight.

  • 4. Ensuring dashes have consistent spacing with definite endpoints.

  • 5. Keeping guide or construction lines very thin.

  • 6. Ensuring that corners are sharp and without overlap in drawing views.

  • 7. Placing dimension with thoughtfulness and adequate spacing.

  • 8. Making notes simple and concise.

  • 9. Making drawing readability a high priority.

  • 10. Ensuring a pleasing drawing layout.

Principles one to six are largely built into computer design draft- ing (CDD) software or packages. This means the CDD operator need

not worry about them, except know what linestyle to use for different

features of objects and assign appropriate line weight or thickness. How-

ever, principles 7 to 10 must be mastered and consistently applied. These have bearings on accuracy, legibility, neatness, and visual pleasantness of drawings. There are national and international organizations that develop and manage the development of standards. Examples are the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Standardiza- tion Organization (ISO). ANSI is a federation of government, private companies, professional, technical, trade, labor, and consumer organiza- tions that serve as a clearinghouse for nationally coordinated voluntary standards. The standards may deal with dimensions, rating, test meth-

ods, safety and performance specifications for equipment, products and

components, symbols and terminology, and so on. Major contributors

Guidelines for draftinG  •  3

Table 1.1. Some ANSI/ASME Y14 standards

Item

Section

Size and format

Y14.1

Lettering and linestyles

Y14.2

Projections

Y14.3

Pictorial drawings

Y14.4

Dimensioning and tolerancing

Y14.5M

Screw threads

Y14.6

Gears, splines, and serrations

Y14.7

Mechanical assemblies

Y14.14

to ANSI standards include American Society of Mechanical Engi- neers (ASME), Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), American Society for Testing Metals (ASTM), and so on. Drafting stan- dards are specified in ANSI Y14 documents, which give only the charac-

ter of the graphic language. It is to contain 27 or more separate sections

when completed. ANSI/ASME Y14.2, Y14.3, and Y14.5M are popular

draughting standards in the United States and sample sections of the standard are given Table 1.1. ISO is a nongovernmental worldwide body that coordinates stan - dards development process in virtually every area of human activities. It is located in Switzerland and was founded in 1947. Membership includes over 150 countries, with each country represented by one national standards institution. ANSI is the U.S. representative to ISO. ANSI standards are usually similar but not identical to ISO standards. The design drafter must be diligent in adhering to the standards that are relevant to a particular work. Table 1.2 gives some ISO drawing standards documents.

Table 1.2. Some ISO drawing standards

Item

Section

Technical drawings: sizes and layout of drawing sheets

ISO 5457

Technical drawings: general principles of presentation

ISO 128

Technical drawings: methods of indicating surface texture

ISO 1302

General tolerances

ISO 2768

4

•  InTRoduCToRy EngInEERIng gRAPHICs

  • 1.3 dRAwIng unITs

All engineering drawings must carry a unit of measure. This is required so that the drawing sizes can be correctly interpreted. Because graphics have linear and angular attributes, the units of length and angles are indispens- able in drafting and design.

  • 1.3.1 Units of l ength

The SI unit of length is the meter. The English or U.S. customary unit of length is the foot (ft). Table 1.3 shows the length denominations for SI and English units. English units are still in use in North America, especially in the United States. The SI linear unit for drafting is the millimeter. Mechanical draw- ings are dimensioned in millimeter (mm). Architectural drawings may be dimensioned in millimeter (mm) and meter (m). Meter and kilometer (km) are used for civil dimensioning. Only decimals are used in metric dimen- sioning; fractions are not allowed. For numbers less than 1.0, which must be expressed as decimals, a zero before the decimal marker is preferred. For example, 0.234 is preferred to .234. The period symbol is the decimal marker in this example. In Europe and some other countries, “,” is used as decimal marker, i.e. 0,234 means the same as 0.234 in North America. In English units, mechanical drawings are dimensioned in decimal inches, architectural drawings are commonly dimensioned in feet (‘), and fractional inches and civil drawings are dimensioned in decimal feet and inches. In North America, drawings in metric units carry a general note such as “all dimensions are in millimeter, unless otherwise stated” or the label “METRIC.”

Table 1.3. Drawing units

SI: meter (m)

Customary: Inch (in)-foot (ft)

  • 1 m = 1,000 mm = 10 3 mm

  • 1 in = 16 lines

  • 1 m = 100 cm = 10 2 cm

  • 1 ft = 12 inches

  • 1 km = 1,000 m = 10 3 m

  • 1 in = 25.4 mm

  • 1.3.2 Units of Angle

Angle refers to the relative orientation of lines on a plane or the relative orientation of planes in space and is measured in degrees (°) or radians. There are 360 degrees in a circle; 60 minutes in a degree; and 60 seconds

Guidelines for draftinG  •  5

in a minute. The radian is the SI unit of angular measure. One radian is approximately 57.3°. However, the degree is the unit of angular measure in technical drawings.

  • 1.4 dRAwIng MEdIA

Drawing media are physical materials that can retain graphic and textual information for a reasonable time period when placed on their surfaces. They are used to produce hard or paper copies of models and drawings. Certain characteristics make these media suitable for drawings and include

smoothness, eraseability, dimensional stability, transparency, durabil- ity, and cost. Smoothness describes the ease of the media to accept lines

and letters without excessive effort. Eraseability describes the ease of the

media to allow lines and letters to be erased and cleaned-up. Ghosting is a term used to describe the mark left after lines are erased. The more visible they are, the poorer the eraseability. Dimensional stability refers

to the ability of the media to retain size in varying weather conditions. Transparency allows drawings on one side of the media to be visible on the other side. This used to be an important characteristic in traditional drafting, but photocopying technology and plotter capabilities today make this requirement a noncritical factor. Durability refers to the ability of the

media to resist normal usage wear and tear. Wear and tear is ever present

because wrinkles develop with usage that render drawings difficult to read

or reproduce. Drawing media include bond stationary, vellum, mylar, grid papers, and tracing papers. Bond stationary or plain paper is good for all types of technical draw- ing. They are made from wood pulp of higher quality than newsprint. How-

ever, they have low durability. There are different grades of plain paper in

the market. The better ones are whiter and smoother. Plain papers should be preferably used for sketches, exploratory design drawings, and check prints. Vellum is the most popular drafting paper. It is specially designed to accept pencil marks and ink. It has good smoothness and transparency, but susceptible to humidity and other weather conditions. This makes it not to be very stable dimensionally. Some brands have better eraseability. Mylar is a plastic type (polyester) drafting material that has excellent dimensional stability, eraseability, durability, and transparency. It takes ink easily, but it is expensive and requires special polyester lead for draw- ing on it. It is, thus, used for very high-quality jobs or when cost is not a factor. Mylar may have single or double working (mat) surfaces. The single mat surface is more common.

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•  InTRoduCToRy EngInEERIng gRAPHICs

Tracing paper is a translucent medium that is good when the need to reduce manual repetitive work is considerable. It can also be used to

obtain a final sketch if the original sketch was drawn on a grid paper. The

grid background is not traced in this case. Tracing is a fast and accurate method of reproducing an existing drawing manually. Grid papers are especially helpful for good alignment and propor- tioning of features on drawings when sketching. Advantage should be taken of them whenever available. The square grid is used for sketch- ing orthographic views, and isometric grid is used for sketching isometric views. These grid papers are very common.

1.4.1

Dr A wing s heet or PAP er

s izes

 

Paper or sheet sizes have been standardized by ANSI and ISO. Standard drafting papers are available in sheet or roll form. Table 1.4 summarizes the standard paper or sheet sizes for English (ANSI) and metric (ISO) applications with metric as preferred units. The sizes are the overall dimensions of the sheets without allowance for margins. Roll sheets come

in different widths and lengths with the width usually equal to one of the

standard sheet dimensions as shown in Table 1.4. Metric roll sizes vary from 297 to 420 mm in width. Large metric sheet sizes are cut from metric rolls. Roll sizes in English unit vary in width from 18” to 48”, and the usual length of a roll is 100’ long. In English unit, large sheet sizes F, G,

H, J, and K are cut from rolls. In most situations, the paper size is specified

by the company or stated in a given problem.

 

Table 1.4. Standard paper sizes

 

Metric sizes (mm)

English sizes (inches)

A4

210 × 297

A

8.5 × 11

A3

297 × 420

B

11 × 17

A2

420 × 594

C

17 × 22

A1

594 × 841

D

22 × 34

A0

841 × 1189

E

34 × 44

1.4.2

s heet o rientAtion

Standard drawing sheet may be oriented with the long-side horizontal and the short-side vertical as shown in Figure 1.1a. This type of orientation is known as landscape and is generally preferred for sheet sizes B, C, D, and E in English unit or sheet sizes A3, A2, A1, and A0 in metric unit.

Guidelines for draftinG  •  7

(a) Landscape (b) Portrait
(a) Landscape
(b) Portrait

Figure 1.1. Drawing sheet orientations.

Occasionally, portrait orientation, as shown in Figure 1.1b, is used, but is largely limited to A-size sheet in English unit and A4-size sheet in metric unit. In this layout, the short length of the sheet is horizontal and the long side is vertical.

  • 1.5 sHEET LAyouT

Drafting paper layout refers to the arrangement of information on the paper. Figure 1.2 shows the general layout of a template drawing sheet.

Broadly, the information in a drawing sheet may be classified into two

groups of technical and administrative. The technical information consists of drawing views and annotations. Annotation depends on the amount of details desired in a drawing and may include dimensions and tolerances, notes, and bill of materials in assembly drawings. The technical informa- tion usually takes the greater portion of the drawing sheet. Administrative information on a standard drawing sheet includes title block and revision block information. A margin is provided at the four edges (top, bottom,

left, and right) of the sheet and is defined by the border line (not shown

in Figure 1.2) that is drawn at some distance from the edge. They provide spaces for filing and handling the sheet. Based on ANSI recommenda- tions, top, bottom, and right-side margins are in the range of 12.5 mm (1/2”) to 25 mm (1”), depending on the paper size. The left-side margin is often between 12.5 mm (1/2”) to 40 mm (1–1/2”) to allow for binding of sheets. Drawing views depend on the type of documentation required, and annotation content will vary accordingly.

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•  InTRoduCToRy EngInEERIng gRAPHICs

  • 1.5.1 z oning

Zoning is a technique used in large paper sizes to aid in quickly locat-

ing information on a drawing. It involves assigning spaced numbers on the top and bottom margins of a sheet and spaced letters on the left and right margins as shown in Figure 1.2. This creates a grid system on the drafting paper that is similar to that used for reading information

on maps. A zone is defined by the intersection of a letter segment and

a number segment. As a zone is a very small section of the drawing paper, locating a piece of information in it is fast. The hatched block in Figure 1.2 is for zone B3 .

Views, dimensions, and notes area Title block area
Views, dimensions, and notes area
Title block area

Revision

block area

Figure 1.2. Sheet layout elements.

  • 1.5.2 t itle Block

By ANSI standard, a title block should be located on the lower-right

corner of the drawing sheet. Though different title block designs are used

by companies, the information contained in them is fairly general. Most information in a title block includes:

  • 1. Company: name, address, phone number.

  • 2. Project/Client: project number and title or client’s name and address.

  • 3. Drawing: name or title or number.

  • 4. Personnel: designer, drafter, checker, approver.

  • 5. Scale: ratio of design and drawing sizes.

  • 6. Date: completion date of drawing or project.

  • 7. Sheet: size and number (page) of sheets in drawing set.

Guidelines for draftinG  •  9

  • 9. General tolerance: tolerance applied to a size when unspecified.

  • 10. Projection type symbol: first or third angle.

  • 1.5.3 Bill

of M Ateri A ls (B o M)

An assembly drawing should have a bill of materials (BOM) or parts list. It is usually a table list of the parts or components in an assembly. Figure 1.3 shows a sample of a simple BOM. By ANSI standard, it should be located on the lower-right corner of the drawing sheet. Important infor- mation in BOM is part name, item number, part material, quantity, part number, or catalog number for standard parts. The item number is the number assigned to a component in a particular assembly drawing, a form

of local identification and can change with different assembly drawings. The part number is a fixed number assigned to that specific component, a form of company or global identification and should not change for dif- ferent drawings. Other information like weight and stock size may also be included in the parts list.

Item #

Bill of materials Name

Oty

  • 1 Shaft

1

  • 2 Gear

1

  • 3 Flange

1

  • 4 Sleeve

1

  • 5 Retainer

1

  • 6 Wood ruff key

1

  • 7 Pulley

1

  • 8 P & W key

1

  • 9 Bearing

2

  • 10 Hex. slotted nut

1

  • 11 Hex. jain nut

1

  • 12 Cotter pin

1

  • 13 Seal

1

  • 14 Hex. cap screw

4

Figure 1.3. A simple bill of materials.

  • 1.5.4 r evision Block

A revision block is of the same format as a BOM, but tracks changes made on a component or assembly drawing. It is often located on the top

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•  InTRoduCToRy EngInEERIng gRAPHICs

right-hand corner of the drawing sheet ad indicated in Figure 1.2. Changes on working drawings (prototype and production design drawings) must be approved, so each company usually has a documentation process in place that must be strictly followed. Preliminary design drawings may be changed without following this process, but with the approval of the engineer or designer. Some of the information items in a revision block may include date, change reason, requester, previous and new sizes, and approved by.

1.6

AnnoTATIons

The textual information and symbols added to models and drawing views

for complete documentation of design are commonly called annotations. When annotation is done manually, it is called lettering, which used to be a

tedious and time-consuming task. But, things are quite different now with

computers; they have greatly increased the speed and quality of lettering. Text information consists of groups of characters that express meaning, which could be words, phrases, and or sentences. In technical graphics, the aim is to communicate clearly and legibly so as to avoid misinterpretation

of intent and purpose. The factors that can greatly affect legibility are:

  • 1. Font

  • 2. Character size (text height)

  • 3. Character spacing

  • 4. Word spacing

  • 5. Line spacing (leading)

  • 1.6.1 l ettering c onventions

Characters have different model designs known as fonts. A font is a set or family of character design with specific attributes that determine the print

appearance of the characters. The attributes hold the information about the character set. Simpler font styles are easier to read; therefore, open clean- cut characters are the best for drafting. ANSI standard font for lettering in technical graphics is single-stroke Gothic font. Each character in this font is made up of a single straight or curved line element. This makes it easy to draw the characters and make them clear to read. There are uppercase, lowercase, and inclined Gothic letters. However, the vertical Gothic letters have become industry standard. Figure 1.4a shows vertical uppercase let- ters, Figure 1.4b shows numbers, and Figure 1.4c shows lowercase letters

Guidelines for draftinG  •  11

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N
O P Q
R
S T U VW X Y Z
(a)
a
b c d e f g h i j k l
m n
o p q r s t u v w x y z
(b)
0123567 8 9
(c)

Figure 1.4. Vertical characters.

68º
68º

A BC DE FG H I J a b c d e fg h i j

0

1

2 345 6 7 8 9

Figure 1.5. Inclined characters.

and proportion, and h o is the symbol for text or character height in the figure. Characters in annotations may be inclined from the horizontal at an angle defined by 5/2 (rise over run), approximately 68 degrees per ANSI

as shown in Figure 1.5. An important attribute of a font is the text height or font size. Text height is measured in linear unit of mm (inch). The ANSI recommended text height is 3 mm (1/8”). The width of characters varies depending on the specific font. Some characters are narrow like I and others wide like W. The ratio of a character height to the width is described as width factor or aspect ratio. Common aspect ratios for characters are 5/6, 1, and 4/3. The spacing between words should be approximately equal and a minimum of 1/16” (1.5 mm) is recommended. A full character height for word spacing is preferred. The spacing between lines should be at least half the text height, but preferably a full text height. Sentences should be separated by

at least one text height; however, if space allows, two text heights should be used. Annotation information may be divided into two categories of technical and administrative information. Administrative information includes revision notes and title block. Revision notes are used for doc- ument control and record-keeping of changes in design. The title block contains vital information about the company and the drawing. Techni-

cal information includes BOM, dimensions, notes, and specifications.

Dimensions are the size values of objects, and tolerances are permissible

variations on object sizes. The sizes and tolerances shown on drawing views must be the functional or design sizes and tolerances as specified

by the engineer or designer. In Figure 1.6, the diameter size of 20 mm has a tolerance of 0.05 mm. Annotation symbols are commonly used for geo- metric tolerancing and dimensioning (GD&T). Notes are explanatory or required information needed on models and drawings for proper interpre- tation. There are two types of notes found in drawings: general and local notes. General notes apply to the whole drawing and may be placed in

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•  InTRoduCToRy EngInEERIng gRAPHICs

Metric 36.87º ± 0.25º +0.05 ø20 0 50 30 25±0.05 32.5±0.05 65 Figure 1.6. Drawing with
Metric
36.87º ± 0.25º
+0.05
ø20
0
50
30
25±0.05
32.5±0.05
65
Figure 1.6. Drawing with tolerances
M10×1.5 ø 25.75 Leader line Callout 2 M6×1 Callout Balloon
M10×1.5
ø 25.75
Leader line
Callout
2
M6×1
Callout
Balloon

Figure 1.7. Leader, balloon, and callout.

the title block or at the bottom of a drawing view area. Local notes apply

only to a portion or specific features in a drawing and are placed close to

the feature referenced. A leader line can link a local note to a feature or portion of a drawing; callouts and balloons are special formats of placing local notes. Figure 1.7 shows examples of a leader, balloon, and callout. Balloons are local notes placed inside a shape (circle, diamond, etc.). Callouts are local notes placed without a shape. Notes should be made

simple and concise. Specifications are technical requirements and are usually about material type, processing, and finishing. They often appear

as general notes or are put together as separate documents. Leader lines

are thin continuous lines used to direct information to specific features

in a drawing. A leader line has an arrow head, an inclined segment, and

a horizontal segment as a tail. The inclined segment connects the arrow head with the horizontal segment. Annotation in CDD is much easier than lettering. CDD letters are neat, consistent, stylish, and can be created with speed and accuracy.

Guidelines for draftinG  •  13

Many fonts are available in the CDD software, so there is a tendency to use several fonts in CDD lettering. However, this should be limited, per- haps to two or three. Figure 1.8 shows a sample of fonts. In architectural drawings, Country blueprint and City Blueprint are popular fonts, while Simplex font is popular in mechanical drafting. Placing text in CDD draw-

ings requires decisions on text height and inclination angle at the least. The inclination angle of text is 90 ° by default, but this could be changed. The recommended inclination angle is about 68 ° . The position of the text is often selected by clicking with a mouse. Text alignment or justifica- tion is important in CDD lettering because it affects document appearance and readability. Text can be aligned to the left (left justified), aligned to the center (center justified), or aligned to the right (right justified). Texts

that are aligned on both left and right edges are referred to as fully justi-

fied. In technical notes, text should be left justified. Character, word, and

line spacing have been discussed earlier and in CDD packages; they have

default settings that may be changed if desired. Fonts can be formatted by applying different treatments like bold, italic, and underline. These are called special effects. They add aesthetics and emphasis to annotations.

The plot height of a character is the actual size on a printed sheet and

may be small print, normal print, or large print. Normal print is the recom- mended ANSI text height of 3 mm (0.125”). Normal print is used within

the drawing views area and works fine for average-sized sheets such as A4 (A-size) and A3 (B-size). Dimensions, notes, and specifications should be

printed in normal print or standard height. Small prints are smaller than the normal prints and are used when space is limited. They may vary in height from 1.5 to 2.5 mm. It is often used in revision blocks and part lists or BOM. Plot height in large prints can vary from 5 to 10 mm (0.188” to 0.375”). They are used for headers, view names, titles, labels, and numbers in title blocks. For large-sized sheets, text height of 0.175 to 0.25” (5–6 mm) is common, but may be as high as 0.375 (10 mm). Text height for zone letters and numbers is usually larger than those for dimensions or tol- erances. Uncrowded text (high aspect ratio) is easy to read, but needs more space than crowded text (small aspect ratio). Some companies may prefer

Font name

Lowercase

Uppercase

Arial

Lettering

LETTERING

Century Gothic

Lettering

LETTERING

Helvetica

Lettering

LETTERING

Impact

Lettering

LETTERING

Simplex

Lettering

LETTERING

Figure 1.8. Samples of fonts.

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•  InTRoduCToRy EngInEERIng gRAPHICs

crowded text to uncrowded; however, clean and easy-to-read annotations

should be the goal. It is good practice to find out what the convention is in

your company and stick to it! The design drafter must choose a plot size that is legible and comfortable to read when hard copies are made. Small plot sizes tend to be hard on the eyes and should normally be avoided. In CDD situations, there are two aspects of text height: plot size and

screen size. The plot size is the actual text height value on a printed or plot- ted document. ANSI-recommended plot size for small sized drawings is 3 mm (0.125”). The screen text size in CDD is the text display size on the

monitor screen of the computer. This may be different from the plot size if

a drawing is not full scale in the default workspace of a CDD package. In this case, a screen scale factor must be applied to the desired plot size for comfortable reading or viewing on the screen. The screen text height is the plot size times the screen scale factor in reduction scaling where the image plot size is smaller than the image design size. The screen text size is the plot size divided by the screen scale factor in enlargement scaling where the image plot size is larger than the image design size. Reduction scaling is common in macro-technology products while enlargement scaling is common in micro- or nano-technology products. The ANSI standard plot or print text height of 3 mm (1/8”) works well with A4-size (metric) or A-size (English) sheet. For other sheet sizes, some adjustment in text height may be necessary for comfortable reading of prints.

1.7

LInEsTyLEs

Linestyle describes the visual appearance of lines on papers and monitor

screens. Drafting uses different linestyles and symbols to describe object

models, especially in describing details of 3D graphics in 2D space. Good line quality is essential for accurate communication of drawings. CDD linestyles are crisp, consistent, clear, and different line thickness (or line- weight) and colors can be assigned to them. Their dashes have consistent spacing and constant width. Figure 1.9 shows some linestyles. There are two fundamental linestyles, namely, continuous (solid) and broken lines. Continuous lines have no gaps but broken lines do. Contin- uous line variants include visible (object), construction, extension, and border lines. These lines are distinguished by thickness or width. ANSI recommends two line weights of thick and thin, with the thick being twice the line weight of the thin. Thick lines have width greater than 0.3 mm and thin lines have width of 0.3 mm or less. Visible and border lines are thick, while guidelines, construction, and extension lines are thin. Broken lines have visible gaps between consecutive line segments. The length of

Guidelines for draftinG  •  15

Thick line (0.6 mm) Thin line (0.3 mm) Visible line Hidden line Center line Cutting plane
Thick line (0.6 mm)
Thin line (0.3 mm)
Visible line
Hidden line
Center line
Cutting plane lines
Dimension line
Extension line
158.31
Dimension line terminator
Short brake
Long brake
Phantom line
Section (hatch) line
Stitch (dot) line

Figure 1.9. Linestyles.

dash lines can vary from 3 to 10 mm (1/8”–3/8”), and the gap can vary from 1.5 to 3 mm (1/16”–1/8”). Thickness of lines and length of dashes mentioned here are best for an A-size sheet. Visible (object) lines are thick continuous (solid) lines that repre- sent visible edges or outlines of object. Straight edges are formed where two planes intersect. Curved edges arise from curved faces and surfaces. Visible lines should be crisp and black with thickness of 0.40, 0.50, or 0.60 mm, depending on sheet size, but ANSI-recommended thickness of visible line is 0.60 mm. Hidden lines are thin dashed lines representing edges that are within the object or behind some features, and so are not directly seen from a view direction. The edges are known to be physically present in an object. Hidden lines generally have dash length of 3 mm (1/8”) and a gap of 1 mm (1/32”), but can vary with sheet size or drawings. The gap is about

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•  InTRoduCToRy EngInEERIng gRAPHICs

a quarter of the dash length. Hidden lines should start or end at visible or other hidden lines. No gap is allowed between hidden and visible lines. Centerlines are thin broken lines of alternating long and short strokes separated by a gap. A centerline is used to show and locate centers of cir- cles and arcs and to represent lines of symmetry and paths of motion in objects. Centerlines should cross visible lines with 3 mm or more beyond them. The gap and short stroke are of equal length. The short stroke is about a quarter of the long stroke, which is about 10 mm long. Dimension lines are continuous thin lines used to indicate the value of a dimension. A dimension line has three elements: the dimension value,

the terminator, and the stem. The stem is the thin line that ends with the

terminators at both ends. The terminator may be arrows (usually filled),

slashes, or filled circles. The dimension value may be placed on top of the

stem or at a broken portion of the stem. Extension lines are a pair of continuous thin lines used to establish the extent of a dimension. The extension line references a point on a feature with a small gap (1.5 mm minimum) between the point and the beginning of the extension line. They are used in conjunction with dimension lines and slightly extend beyond the dimension lines about 3 mm. Extension and dimension lines are always perpendicular. Phantom lines are thin dashed lines used to identify alternative posi- tions of moving paths, adjacent positions of related paths, or repetitive details. A phantom line consists of a long dash, two short dashes, and gaps between the dashes. Gaps are about 3 mm long but can vary. Cutting plane lines are used to indicate the position and direction of view for cutting planes placed on an object model to create section views. They are also used to indicate auxiliary view plane and direction. Cutting plane lines are either thick phantom or hidden lines with arrow heads that are normal to the main lines. The arrows point in the view directions. The

long dash is about five times the short dash. The short dash and gap are of

equal length. Gaps are about 3 mm long but can vary. Section (hatch) lines are thin inclined lines used to identify a solid

material cut through by a section plane. They form a pattern on the section

affected. Section assembly drawings often have components of different

materials in the section plane. The deferent materials are distinguished by

using different angles for section lines in the section. Section line angles

normally vary between 15° and 75°. Break lines can be either thin or thick. Long breaks are thin, while short breaks are thick. They are used to show that some portion of an object is left out. A short break line is used for small areas of interest and allows greater details to be shown. Long break lines are used when space

Guidelines for draftinG  •  17

needs to be saved in representing very long objects. Usually, the middle portion of the object is broken off or the portion without additional infor- mation is left out. Stitch lines consist of a series of dots and are also called dot lines. They may be used as projection lines or guidelines in grid papers used for freehand sketching.

  • 1.8 PRECEdEnCE of LInEsTyLEs

When lines of different styles overlap or coincide in a view, some take

precedence. Generally, lines of thicker weight take precedence over others of thinner weight. Visible lines take precedence over all other linestyles. The following order of precedence is generally accepted: visible, hidden, cutting plane, centerline, break line, dimension and extension lines, and hatch line. If more than one linestyles coincide in a view, then the rule of precedence must be applied.

  • 1.9 APPLyIng LInEsTyLEs

Figure 1.10 shows a drawing view with several linestyles used in its rep- resentation. The visible, hidden, and centerline styles are perhaps the most

frequently used in drawings. Though CDD has highly simplified linestyle

Phantom line (motion path)

Center line A A Cutting plane line Visible line Hidden line Short break line Phantom line
Center line
A
A
Cutting plane line
Visible line
Hidden line
Short break line
Phantom line
(object line)
Section (hatch) line
Extension line
58, 45
Section A-A
Dimension line

Figure 1.10. Drawing view with different linestyles.

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•  InTRoduCToRy EngInEERIng gRAPHICs

Center line extends beyond visible line Center marks Figure 1.11. Use of centerline and center mark.
Center line extends
beyond visible line
Center marks
Figure 1.11. Use of centerline and center mark.

creation and placements, attention should be paid to the placement of center-

lines. This is because when the length of the horizontal and vertical centerlines are unequal over a circle or arc, the center mark for the circle or arc will appear

unequal. This does not give a neat appearance in a drawing. One way to fix

this is to draw the centerlines across the circle or arc diameters. Then, scale the

centerlines with a scale factor slightly more than 1.0, say 1.25, 1.3, 1.4, or 1.5. Figure 1.11 shows the use of centerlines and center marks. Note that centerlines must not terminate on visible lines. They should extend beyond visible lines at least 3 mm. The center marks may be used in place of centerlines in circles or arcs of small radii or when overcrowding of line types may be a problem. This is due to concern about drawing clarity and readability, a top priority in graphic communication. Conventions and standards must be applied to ensure unambiguous communication. Center marks are easy and fast to apply to drawings in CDD systems. Linestyle mistakes used to be quite common with board drafting. However, CDD has largely eliminated these because the coding of the CDD software can implement consistent and accurate line weight, line

crossing, and display. But, in freehand and instrument sketches, efforts

must be made to avoid these errors.

  • 1.10 CHAPTER REvIEw QuEsTIons

    • 1. Define the terms draughting and drafting as used in this textbook.

Guidelines for draftinG  •  19

  • 3. State the principles for creating good technical drawings.

  • 4. What are the meanings of the acronyms ANSI and ISO?

  • 5. What ANSI standard deals with drafting?

  • 6. Which section of ANSI drafting standard is concerned with dimen- sioning and tolerancing?

  • 7. What measurement units are found or used in drafting?

  • 8. List the first three standard paper sizes in metric system.

  • 9. List the first three standard paper sizes in English system.

  • 10. What are the size specifications of A- and A4 sheets?

  • 11. What information is often shown in a title block?

  • 12. Define zoning as used in drawing sheets.

  • 13. What is annotation? Describe lettering.

  • 14. What are the two fundamental types of linestyles?

  • 15. List three examples of each fundamental type of linestyles.

  • 16. What are the types of line thickness mentioned in this chapter?

  • 17. Distinguish between visible and hidden linestyles. When are they used in drawings?

  • 18. When are phantom lines used in drawings?

  • 19. Where are centerlines used in drawings?

  • 20. Can centerlines end at visible lines?

  • 21. When can you replace centerlines with center marks?

  • 1.11 CHAPTER ExERCIsEs

e xercise 1

  • (a) Sketch the following linestyes:

    • 1. Visible line

    • 2. Hidden line

    • 3. Centerline

    • 4. Phantom line

  • (b) Sketch two circles: one big and the other small. Show centerlines on the big circle and center marks on the small circle.

  • e xercise 2

    Use freehand sketching to reproduce Figure 1.10 and Figure 1.11, indicat- ing the linestyles.

    A

    index

    generating for inclined faces,

    Actual size, 90

    149–150

    57–58

    Aligned section views, 75

    generating for oblique faces,

    American National Standards

    59–61

    Institute (ANSI), 2 American Society for Testing Metals (ASTM), 3 Annotations in drafting, 10–14 isometric, 129–130 ANSI. See American National

    overview of, 45 understanding of, 45–47 view image box, 48 visualizing, 48–49 Auxiliary section views, 77–78 Auxiliary view image box, 48 Axonometric projections, 22

    Standards Institute Arcs and circles

    B

    dimensioning, 95–96

    Basic surface texture specification,

    isometric drawings, 120–123

    183

    Assembly drawing checklist, 151 Assembly section views, 79

    Bill of materials (BOM), 9 BOM. See Bill of materials

    Assembly working drawings BOM, 147 iso-assembly drawings, 148–149 ortho-assembly drawings,

    Bond stationary, 5 Bounding box concept, 25–26 Box technique, 123–124 Break lines, 16–17 Broken section views, 76

    overview of, 146–147 types of, 148

    Auxiliary drawing views

    C

    ASTM. See American Society for Testing Metals

    combined standard and partial,

    Centerlines, 16 Centerline technique, 128–129 Chamfer dimensioning, 98–99 Checking drawings

    61–62

    assembly drawing checklist, 151

    constructing on inclined faces,

    detail drawing checklist,

    50–52

    152–153

    constructing on oblique faces,

    overview of, 150–151

    52–56

    Component detail drawings,

    190

       Index

    Conventional break lines, 81 Counterbore, 99 Countersink, 99 Cutting plane lines, 16 Cutting plane line styles, 69

    Drawing views, 140–141 principal dimensions and layout,

    30–31

    principal views, 27–28 projection standards, 28–30 standard views, 30

    D

    Durability, 5

    Design size, 90 Detail drawing checklist, 152–153

    E

    Detail section views, 77

    Engineering diagrams, 89

    Dimensional stability, 5

    Engineering drawings

    Dimensioning

    definition of, 89

    angles, 96 arcs and circles, 95–96 CDD automatic dimension

    dimensions in, 90 Eraseability, 5 Extension lines, 16

    placement, 108–111 chamfer, 98–99

    F

    counterbore, countersink, and

    Fillet and round, dimensioning,

    spotface, 99

    97–98

    definition of, 89

    elements and symbols, 91–92

    fillet and round, 97–98

    holes, 96–97 keyseats and keyways, 99–101 manual, 105–108 methods of, 102–104 necks and undercuts, 101 placing, 94–102 repeated features, 101–102 slots, 97 style, 104–105 types and line spacing, 92–94 Dimension lines, 16 Dimensions and tolerances, 142 Dimetric projections, 133–134 Drafting, 1 Draughting, 1 Drawing media drawing sheet or paper sizes, 6 overview of, 5–6 sheet orientation, 6–7 Drawing sheet, 6 Drawing units of angle, 4–5 of length, 4

    Full auxiliary view, 48–49 Full section views, 72

    Full surface texture specification,

    182

    G

    GD&T. See Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing General surface texture

    specification, 183

    Geometric dimensioning and

    tolerancing (GD&T), 177–179 Ghosting, 5 Grid papers, 6

    H

    Half section views, 76

    Hatch patterns, 69–71 Hidden lines, 15–16

    Hole-basis fit system, 173–174

    I

    IEEE. See Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Inclined faces constructing, 50–52

    Index      191

    generating for auxiliary drawing views, 57–58 isometric drawings, 124–125 Institute of Electrical and

    Linestyles applying, 17–18 precedence of, 17 types of, 14–17

    Electronic Engineers (IEEE), 3 International Standardization

    M

    Organization (ISO), 2

    Manual dimensioning, 105–108

    Irregular curves, isometric drawings, 127 ISO. See International Standardization Organization

    Multiview drawing checklist for, 39 standard, 33–37 Mylar, 5

    Iso-assembly drawings, 148–149 Iso-detail drawings, 130–131

    N

    Isometric annotations, 129–130 Isometric assembly views,

    Necessary views, 145–146 Necks and undercuts, 101

    132–133

    Isometric drawings annotations, 129–130 applications of, 130–133 box technique, 123–124 centerline technique, 128–129 constructing arcs and circles,

    120–123

    definition of, 117

    dimetric and trimetric projections, 133–134 exploded views, 131–132 object with angled faces,

    125–126

    object with ellipse on inclined faces, 126–127 object with inclined faces,

    124–125

    Nonunique views, 31

    O

    Object planes, 24–25 Oblique faces constructing, 52–56 generating for auxiliary drawing

    views, 59–61 isometric drawings, 125

    Offset section views, 73

    Ortho-assembly drawings,

    149–150

    Orthographic projection

    assumptions, 24

    concepts, 23

    definition, 23

    Orthographic view projection,

    26–27

    object with irregular curves, 127 object with normal faces, 124 object with oblique faces, 125 projection and scale, 117–119 types of, 119–120

    K

    Keyseats and keyways, 99–101

    P

    Paper sizes, 6 Parallel projection, 22 Partial auxiliary view, 48–49 Partial section views, 76 Perspective projection, 22 Phantom lines, 16 Pictorial drawings, 1

    • L Plot size, 90 Principal dimensions and layout,

    Lettering conventions, 10–14 Line spacing, 92–94

    30–31

    192

       Index

    Principal views, 27–28 Print size, 90 Projection

    definition of, 21–22

    orthographic, 23–24 types of, 22–23 Projection standards, 28–30,

    143–144

    R

    Removed section views, 74 Required views and placement,

    31–33

    Revision block, 9–10, 144 Revolved section views, 74–75

    special, 77 straight, 73 types of, 72–80 un-sectioned, 79–80 Section lines, 16

    Shaft-basis fit system, 173–174

    Sheet layout bill of materials, 9 overview of, 7 revision block, 9–10 title block, 8–9 zoning, 8 Sheet orientation, 6–7 Smoothness, 5 Solid models generating auxiliary views,

    S

    57–61

    Scale factor, 142

    generating orthographic views,

    Screw fasteners

    37–39

    features, 167

    Special section views, 77

    standard threads, 167–168

    Specification documents, 153–154

    thread class, 168–169

    thread profiles, 167–168

    thread series, 168

    thread specification, 169–170

    Section drawing views aligned, 75 assembly, 79 auxiliary, 77–78 broken, 76 concepts of, 67–68

    constructing, 81–83 conventional break lines, 81 cutting plane line styles, 69 detail, 77 full section views, 72 generating from solids, 83–84 half, 76 hatch patterns, 69–71

    offset, 73

    partial, 76 removed, 74 representation and placement,

    71–72

    revolved, 74–75

    Spotface, 99 Standard multiview drawing, 33–37, 39 Standard parts, 146 Standard threads, 167–168 Standard views, 30 Stitch lines, 17

    Straight section views, 73 Surface quality, 142–143 Surface roughness, 183–184 Surface texture, 181

    Surface texture specification basic specification, 183 full specification, 182 general specification, 183

    overview of, 181–182

    Symbolic specification, 172

    T

    Technical drawings 2D, 1 requirements for, 2

    Thread class, 168–169

    Thread profiles, 167–168

    Index      193

    Thread series, 168

    checking, 150–153

    Thread specification, 169–170

    component detail drawings,

    Title block, 8–9, 141

    U

    144–146

    Tracing papers, 6

    definition of, 139

    Trimetric projections, 133–134

    dimensions and tolerances, 142

    2D technical drawings, 1

    drawing views, 140–141 elements of, 140–144 projection standard, 143–144

    Units of angle, 4–5

    revision block, 144

    Units of length, 4 Un-sectioned section views,

    scale factor, 142 set of, 154–158

    79–80

    specification documents,

    153–154

    • V standard parts, 146 surface quality, 142–143 title block, 141

    Value specification, 172–173

    Vellum, 5 Visible (object) lines, 15

    zoning, 143

    W

    Working drawings assembly, 146–150

    Z

    Zone, 8 Zoning, 8, 143