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A project on

Design and Fabrication of Gearless Transmission system For

Skew Shafts
Submitted for partial fulfillment of award of

Mechanical engineering


Under the guidance of


Department of mechanical engineering

Naraina college of engineering & technology

Kanpur -208020 (U.P)

Afilliated to


JUNE, 2012

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This is certify that the dissertation entitled “ GEARLESS TRANSMISSION ”



submitted to the Department of mechanical engineering, NCET, Kanpur in the

partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of

Technology in mechanical engineering is a record of bonafide work done by

him under my supervision and guidance during the session 2011-12. This work

has not been submitted to any other university or institute for the award of any

degree or diploma.

Head of department & project Guide

Mr.Mukesh yadav

Department of mechanical engineering

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We express esteemed gratitude and sincere thanks to our worthy lecturer guide

Prof Mukesh yadav , our vocabulary does not have suitable words benefiting to

high standard of knowledge and extreme sincerity deviation and affection with

which have regularly encouraged us to put heart and soul in this work.

We are also thankful our workshop superintendent and assistants, who helped

a lot, for completion of this project. Our parents and relatives,who always bear

with us in very critical situation have contributed a great deal in making this

true for us. We give hour expression of our love and appreciation for them with

our heart in full.

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P- Planning before carrying out the work

R- row material required for the work

O- Organization of the work

J- joint effort put in to the work

E- estimation of material required in the work

C- Costing of the work

T- techniques used in performing

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S. no Name of the topic Page
1 Introduction

2 Working

3 Concept drawing of machine

4 Application

5 Comparision

6 Selection of material

7 Raw material and and standard material

8 Machine design

9 Concept in m.d.p

10 Cost estimation

11 Raw material and and standard material

12 Specification & manufacturing of parts

13 Possible improvements and advances

14 Conclusion
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15 Bibliography

To days world requires speed on each and every field. Hence repidness and

quick working is the most important. Now a days for achieving repidness,

various machines and equipments are manufactured by man. Engineer is

contantly conformed to the challanges of bringing ideas and design in to reality.

New machine and technigues are being developed continuously to manufacture

various products at cheaper rates and high quality. The project “GEARLESS

TRANSMISSION” being compact and portable equipment, which is skilful

and is having something practise in the transmitting power at right angle with

out any gears being manufactured. Most of the material is made available by

our college. The parts can be easily made in our college-shop its price is also

less. this project gives us knowledge, experience,skill and new ideas of the

manufacturing. It is a working project and having guarantee of the success. This

project is the equipment useful to improve the quality of the gear being

manufactured and can be made in less time, hence we have selected this project

el-bow mechanism is an ingenious link mechanism of slider and kinematic

chain principle. This is also called as “gearless transmission mechanism”

this mechanism is very useful for transmitting motion at right angles. However

in certain industrial application “gearless transmission at right angle” can also

work at obtuse or accurate angle plane can be compared to worm and worm

gear or bevel and pinion gear which are invariably used in the industry for

numerous application. The main feature for mechanism comparatively high

efficiency between the input and the output power shafts with regards to the
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gear efficiencies.

It has elaborately discussed in detail in the entire books o engineering that the

gear drives have very low mechanical efficiencies. Since Factor relating to

under frictional Forces between the mating gear teeth, the erratic hunting of the gears, the

back lash between the teeth can not be over come and hence the efficiency can

not be more than 55% Of recent gears of warm bevel type are being manufactured

in poly propqleneand epoxy material where the Frictional Forces are

comparatively eliminated.Even though such gears are used for relatively small

applications the efficiencyis not more than 42%.

The El-bow Mechanism transmits the I/P power towards the O/P side such away

that the angular Forces produced in the slacks are simply transmitted with the

help of pins which takes up the I/P power and the right angle drive is

transferred towards the O/P slack and pin assembly.

Hence very little friction plays while the power is being transmitted; the

Huntingand back lash one absent. Therefore, it is appreciated that efficiency as

high as90-92% are possible in gear less transmission mechanism.

Here we are going to show two applications of El-bow mechanism. How it

willbecome work, which we are showing by cutting the wood by attaching

thewood cutter at the output shaft as well as we are also making it as

compressor.It will suct the air from atmosphere, compressor it & delivers it at

high pressure.As we were calculate the result obtained is we can get the

compressed air at pressure2 bar.

The first application of this mechanism was made use of the “Big Ben

Clock”having four dials on the tower of London. This clock was installed some
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Time between 1630 to 1635 AD. And still it is functioning in good condition.


Here is a wonderful mechanism that carries force through a 90ºbend.Translating

rotational motion around an axis usually involves gears, which can quickly

become complicated, inflexible and clumsy-looking, often ugly. So,instead of

using gears, this technology elegantly converts rotational motionusing a set of

cylindrical bars, bent to 90º, in a clever, simple and smoothprocess that

translates strong rotational force even in restricted spaces.

A gearless transmission is provided for transmitting rotational velocity from

aninput connected to three bent links. Both the input shaft and the housing haverotational

axes. The rotational axis of the input shaft is disposed at an angle of 90 degree

with respect to the rotational axis of the housing. As a result, rotationof the

input shaft results in a processional motion of the axis of the bent link.The

rotary and reciprocating motion of bent link transmit rotation of primemover to

90 degree with out any gear system to an output shaft without gears.The transmission

includes an input shaft.

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The Gearless transmission or El-bow mechanism is a device for transmitting

Motions at any fixed angle between the driving and driven shaft.

The synthesis of this mechanism would reveal that it comprises of a number of

pins would be between 3 to 8 the more the pins the smoother the operation.

These pins slide inside hollow cylinders thus formatting a sliding pair.

Our mechanism has 3 such sliding pairs. These cylinders are placed in a

Hollow pipe and are fastened at 120* to each other. This whole assembly is

mountedon brackets wooden table. Power is supplied by an electric motor.

The working of the mechanism is understood by the diagram. An unused form

of transmission of power on shaft located at an angle.

Motion is transmitted from driving to the driven shaft through the roads which

are bent to conform to the angles between the shafts. These roads are located at

in the holes equally spaced around a circle and they are free to slide in & out as

the shaft revolves. This type of drive is especially suitable where quite operation

at high speed is essential but only recommended for high duty.

The operation of this transmission will be apparent by the action of one

rod.During a revolution. If we assume that driving shaft “A” is revolving

as indicated by arrow the driven shaft B will rotate counter clockwise. As shaft

A turns through half revolution C shown in the inner and most effective driving

position slides out of both shafts A & B.

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The first half revolution and rod “C” then will be at the top then during

The remaining half this rod “C” slide in wards until it again reaches to inner

most position shown in Fig. in the meanwhile the other roads have of

course passed through the same cycle of movements all rods are successively

sliding inwards and outwards.

Although this transmission is an old one many mechanics are skeptical about its

operation, however it is not only practicable but has proved satisfactory for

various applications when the drive is for shafts which are permanently located

at given angle. Although this illustration shows a right angle transmission this

drive can be applied also to shafts located at intermediate angle between 0* and

90*.In making this transmission, it is essential to have the holes for a given rod located

accurately in the same holes must be equally spaced in radial and

circumferential directions, be parallel to each rod should be bent to at angle at

which the shaft are to be located. If the holes drilled in the ends of the shafts

have “blind” or closed ends, there ought to be a small vent at the bottom of each

rod hole for the escape of air compressed by the pumping action of the rods.

These holes are useful for oiling to avoid blind holes shafts may have enlarged

port or shoulder. This transmission may be provided centrally and in line with

the axis of each shaft and provided with a circular groove at each rod or a

cross-pin to permit rotation of the shaft about the rodsimply active as a

retaining device for shipping and handling purposed.

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As mentioned in first chapter that we are showing two applications of

This mechanism at a time.

1) As a wood cutting machine The cutter is attached on the output shaft

2) when motion is transmittedthrough mechanism to output shaft the shaft

will start to rotate at adjusted speed.

The speed is adjusted by means of pulley (i.e..RPM). The cutters

Will also start to rotate along with the shaft the because of cutter is

250mm.the through slot introduces in the table for free rotation of cutter

edges in table. Now the feed given to wooden rods or plywood to cut in

desire shape and size.The speed is adjusted by means of pulley

(i.e...RPM). Thecutters will also start to rotate along with the shaft the

because of cutter is 250mm. the through slot is introduced in the table.

Now feedgiven to wooden rods or plywood to cut in desired shape and


3) As a air compressor or air pump -> the compressor or and pump also

introduced in our project when the pins inside the drilled holes

are reciprocates as well as revolves along the axis of cylinder it gives the

compressor effect. Among the three pins when first pin goes at innerdead

center it sucts the air then it start to move at outer dead center by

revolving, it compresses the air against seal and cylinder head discand

does simultaneously by three pins and we can get continue discharge of

air the quantity.

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3)Mechanical seal is defined as a devise which seals by virtue of axial

contact pressure between two relatively flat surfaces in a plane right angle to

the axis of the shaft.The seal used in EL-BOW m/c compressor is stationary

type. It is placebetween cylinder and cylinder head.

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The featured product has its widest application as an extension for a socket

wrench. Here the design makes it easy to reach fasteners in the automotive and other

mechanical industries, where direct access to bolts and screws is often limited.

However, the possible applications for this technology extend into numerous

fields. Just think of the possibilities for power transmission in push bikes, toys

and hand-cranked equipment, or for movement transmission in store and

outdoor signage.

1. Driving for all kinds four faced tower clocks. The elbow mechanism was

first use in the year 1685 for the famous London tower clocknamed bigben.

2. The mechanism is invariable used for multiple spindle drilling operation

called the gang drilling

3. Used for angular drilling between 0 to 90 degree position.

4. Lubrication pump for C.N.C. lathe machines.

5. The mechanism is very useful for a reaching a drive at a clumsylocation.

6. Air blower for electronic and computer machine.

7. The mechanism has found a very usefully use in electronic and computer

technology for multiple.

8. The elbow mechanism is used for movement of periscope in submarines,

9. the year 1685 for the famous London tower clock.

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The gearless drive is capable of transmitting motion at any fixed angle between

0* to 90*. This desired effect is also possible with help of bevel gearless differ

to a great extent not only in their manufacturing method or working principle

but also in other aspects etc. the aspects have been discussed below:


Bevel gears, which are straight teeth or spiral teeth are manufactured on special

purposes machines like Gearless machines´. These required large amount of

calculation and every pair or set of gear are made together and there is no


The gearless drive has this advantage that it can be machined and manufactured on

conventional machines an it provide complete freedom of interchangeability.


A gear comprises of a frustum of a cone with teeth out on its periphery.The driving gear

mounted on the input shaft meshes with the driven gear and thus provides motion at right

angle to the input shaft .The working of the gearless drive has been explained in the

earlier chapter and it obviously very different from the above-


Starting with the principle that failure id the result of the stress I.e.condition more
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severe then the material can with stand. The various type of failures such as pitting,

corrosion, erosion, fatigue etc. Cause the wearing of the gear tooth resulting in

the tooth leads to the replacement of the entire gear set, which is very expensive.

The effect of pitting, erosion, corrosion etc. will be present in the gearless drive

also but the effect of these will be not be as severe as inthe case of geared drive,

failure will take place in the pi s ton e.g...Either bending or crack. Of the pins,

but the main advantage is thatonly particular pin will have to be replaced instead

of case of failure.


The material chosen for any component must

(a) be easily available

(b) be capable of being processed in the desired eaminations and

c) have the necessary physical properties. The gears generally fail due to

bending, fatigue and impact and the gears are also responsible for

the failure of the components in the gears have to very carefully

determined since it may lead to pitting.


A few open gears drives are lubricated by grease but gear units are usually totally

enclosed and oil lubricated. The arrangement for lubrication is simple and easy,

since it requires only a leak proof housingin which the gears are placed and oil is

filled. This lubricating also acts as cooling medium. The heat generated and it then spreads
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to other areas. In the gearless drive lubrication and cooling plays avery major


The efficiency of the mechanism is affected bylubrication. Although the system

of lubrication and cooling complex as discussed in the next chapter but gives

good result. Due to sliding contract, between pins and cylinders, heat generated

is more and thus effective cooling is a must.


The gear drive is capable of transmitting very high torque ascompared to the gearless drive

which is ment only for low torque applications.


Designed life represents the total period of operation, regardless of any

variations of torque or speed, which may occur during that the time industrial

The geared drive is capable of giving an efficiency of about 40% and certain

errors like backlash, hunting etc..can not be eliminated.

In the gearless drive, although the life has not been calculated but it is assumed that its life

will be in comparison to that of geared drive but its efficiency couldbe as high as 85 % to

92%with proper lubrication and cooling.

VIII) Comparison of this drive with gear drive infinite no of speed can be

available which can not to easily possible in gearbox.

IX) Optimum machining is important which require exact machining speed

for particular operation which is very difficult to gain for gear drive but can
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easily available by this drives increase the following.

1)Tool life


3)Energy saving.

X) The different speed at eight angle ( 0 to 90) is possible which is not

Easily possible in gear drive

XI) Efficiency can be increased by increasing no of pins, by precise

machining,selecting suitable material and proper lubrication.

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The proper selection of material for the different part of a machine is the main

objective in the fabrication of machine. For a design engineer it is must that he be

familiar with the effect, which the manufacturing process and heat treatment

have on the properties of materials. The Choice of material for engineering

purposes depends upon the following factors:

1.Availability of the materials.

2. Suitability of materials for the working condition in service.

3.The cost of materials.

4.Physical and chemical properties of material.

5.Mechanical properties of material.

The mechanical properties of the metals are those, which are associated with the

ability of the material to resist mechanical forces and load. We shall now

discuss these properties as follows:

1.Strength : It is the ability of a material to resist the externally applied forces

2.Stress: Without breaking or yielding. The internal resistance offered by apart

to an externally applied force is called stress.

3.Stiffness: It is the ability of material to resist deformation under stresses.The

modules of elasticity of the measure of stiffness.

4.Elasticity: It is the property of a material to regain its original shape

after deformation when the external forces are removed. This property
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is desirable for material used in tools and machines. It may be noted that steel is

more elastic than rubber.

5.Plasticity: It is the property of a material, which retain the deformation

produced under load permanently. This property of material is necessary for

forging, in stamping images on coins and in ornamental work.

6.Ductility: It is the property of a material enabling it to be drawn intowire with

the application of a tensile force. A ductile material must be both strong and

plastic. The ductility is usually measured by the terms,percentage elongation

and percent reduction in area. The ductile materials commonly used in

engineering practice are mild steel, copper,aluminum, nickel, zinc, tin and lead.

7.Brittleness: It is the property of material opposite to ductile. It is the property

of breaking of a material with little permanent distortion. Brittle materials when

subjected to tensile loads snap off without giving anysensible elongation. Cast

iron is a brittle material.

8.Malleability: It is a special case of ductility, which permits material to

Be rolled or hammered into thin sheets, a malleable material should be plastic

but it is not essential to be so strong. The malleable materials commonly used

in engineering practice are lead, soft steel, wrought iron,copper and aluminum.

Toughness: It is the property of a material to resist the fracture due to high

impact loads like hammer blows. The toughness of the material decreaseswhen it

is heated. It is measured by the amount of absorbed after being

9.stressed up to the point of fracture. This property is desirable in parts subjected

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to shock an impact loads.

10.Resilience: It is the property of a material to absorb energy and to resist rock

and impact loads. It is measured by amount of energy absorbed per unit volume

with in elastic limit. This property is essential for spring material.

11. Creep: When a part is subjected to a constant stress at high temperature

for long period of time, it will undergo a slow and permanent deformation

called creep. This property is considered in designing internal combustion

engines, boilers and turbines.

12.Hardness: It is a very important property of the metals and has a wideverity of

meanings.It embraces many different properties such as resistance to wear

scratching, deformation and mach inability etc. It also means the ability of the

metal to cut another metal. The hardness is usually expressedin numbers, which

are dependent on the method of making the test. The hardness of a metal may be

determined by the following test

.a)Brinell hardness test

b)Rockwell hardness test

c)Vickers hardness (also called diamond pyramid) test and

d) Share scaleroscope.

The science of the metal is a specialized and although it over flows in to

Real ms of knowledge it tends to shut away from the general reader. The

knowledge of materials and their properties is of great significance for a design

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engineer. The machine elements should be made of such a material which has

properties suitable for the conditions of operations. In addition to this a design

engineer must be familiar with the manufacturing processes and the heat

treatment shave on the properties of the materials. In designing the various part

of the machine it is necessary to know how the material will function in service.

For this certain characteristics or mechanical properties mostly used in

mechanical engineering practice are commonly determined from standard

tensile tests. In engineering practice, the machine parts are subjected to various

forces, which may be due to either one or more of the following.

1.Energy transmitted

2.Weight of machine

3.Frictional resistance

4.Inertia of reciprocating parts

5.Change of temperature

6.Lack of balance of moving parts

The selection of the materials depends upon the various types of stresses that

are set up during operation. The material selected should with stand it.

Another criteria for selection of metal depend upon the type of load because a

Machine part resist load more easily than a live load and live load more easily

than a shock load.

Selection of the material depends upon factor of safety, which in turn

Depends upon the following factors.

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1.Reliabilities of properties

2.Reliability of applied load

3.The certainty as to exact mode of failure

4.The extent of simplifying assumptions

5.The extent of localized

6.The extent of initial stresses set up during manufacturing

7.The extent loss of life if failure occurs

8.The extent of loss of property if failure occurs

Materials selected in m/c

Base plate, motor support, sleeve and shaft

Material used

Mild steel


1.Mild steel is readily available in market

2.It is economical to use

3.It is available in standard sizes

4.It has good mechanical properties i.e. it is easily machinable

5.It has moderate factor of safety, because factor of safety results in

unnecessary wastage of material and heavy selection. Low factor of safety

results in unnecessary risk of failure

6.It has high tensile strength

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7.Low co-efficient of thermal expansion

Properties of Mild Steel:

M.S. has a carbon content from 0 . 15 % to 0.30%. They are easily wieldable

thus can be hardened only. They are similar to wrought iron in properties.

Bothultimate tensile and compressive strength of these steel increases

With increasing carbon content. They can be easily gas welded or electric or

arcwelded. With increase in the carbon percentage weld ability decreases.

Mild steel serve the purpose and was hence was selected because of the above



It is a machine dawned. The main basic difference between mild steel and bright

metal is that mild steel plates and bars are forged in the forging machineby means is not

forged. But the materials are drawn from the dies in the plasticstate. Therefore the

material has good surface finish than mild steel and has nocarbon deposits on its

surface for extrusion and formation of engineering materials thus giving them a

good surface finish and though retaining their metallic properties

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1 FRAME Ms 1 C section 75x 40x 4 mm

2 MOTER STD 1 0.25 hp 1440 rpm

3 Ms 2 Dia 20mm x 350mm

4 Ms 2 Dia 95 mm x 62 mm
5 Ms 3 Dia 10 mm x 240 mm
6 PULLEY CI 2 Dia 45 & 250 mm

7 CI 4 P204
8 BELT Leather 1 a-56

9 MS 1 35 x 35 x 5 mm
10 MS 10 M10

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The subject of MACHINE DESIGN deals with the art of designing machine of

structure. A machine is a combination of resistance bodies with successfully

constrained relative motions which is used for transforming other forms of

energy into mechanical energy or transmitting and modifying available design is

to create new and better machines or structures and improving the existing ones

such that it will convert and control motions either with or without transmitting

power. It is the practical application of machinery to the design and construction

of machine and structure. In order to design simple component satisfactorily,

a sound knowledge of appliedscience is essential. In addition, strength and

properties of materials includingsome metrological are of prime importance.

knowledge of theory of machine and other branch of applied mechanics is also

required in order to know the velocity. Acceleration and inertia force of the

various links in motion,mechanics of machinery involve the design.

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Consideration in Machine Design When a machine is to be designed the

following points to be considered: -

i)Types of load and stresses caused by the load.

ii)Motion of the parts and kinematics of machine. This deals with the

iii) type of motion i.e. reciprocating . Rotary and oscillatory.

iv) Selection of material & factors like strength, durability, weight,corrosion

resistant, weld ability, machine ability are considered.

v) Form and size of the components.

vi) Frictional resistances and ease of lubrication.

vii) Convience and economical in operation.

viii) use of standard parts.

ix) Facilities available for manufacturing.

x) Cost of making the machine.

xi) Number of machine or product are manufactured

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The general steps to be followed in designing the machine are asfollowed.

i)Preparation of a statement of the problem indicating the

ii) purpose of the machine.

iii) Selection of groups of mechanism for the desire motion.

iv) Calculation of the force and energy on each machine member.

v) Selection of material.

vi) Determining the size of component drawing and sending for manufacture.

vii) Preparation of component drawing and sending for manufacture.

viii) Manufacturing and assembling the machine.

Testing of the machine and for functioning

Power of motor = ¼ H.P = 746 x .25 = 186.5 N- m /s

Rpm of motor = 1440 rpm

Power of motor = P = 186.5 watt.

P = 2 πN TP /60

Where, N = Rpm of motor = 1440

T = Torque transmitted

186.5 = 2π×140×T/60

T = 1.23 N-m

T = 1238 N-mm
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The material forces that are developed on any cross section of the shaft give rise

to stresses at every point. The internal or resisting moment gives rise to so called bending



When the shaft is twisted by the couple such that the axis of the shaft and the

axis of the couple coincides, the shaft is subjected to pure torsion and thestresses at any

point of cross section is torsion or shear stresses.


In practice the shaft in general are subjected to combination of the above

Two types of stresses. The bending stresses may be due to following

1.Weight of belt

2.Pull of belts

3.Eccentric Mounting

4. Misalignment The torsional movement on the other hand may be due to direct

or indirect twisting. Thus any cross-section of the shaft is subjected

simultaneously of both bending stresses and torsional stresses.

Following stresses are normally adopted in shaft design

Max tensile stress = 60 N/mm2

Maxm shear stress = 40 N/mm2

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Shaft design on basic of study

Considering 25 % overload

Tmax= 1238 x 1.25= 1.525 x 10 3N-mm

The shaft is subject to pure torsional stress

We know T= 3. 14/16 x fs x d3

15250 = 3. 14/ 16 x 70x d3

D =10.20mm

Taking factor of safety = 2

D = 10 x 2 = 20mm

Same torque is transmitted to bent link shaft

So torque on each shaft = T /3 = 15250 /3 = 5083 N mm

T= 3. 14/16x fs x d3

5083 = 3. 14/ 16 x 70x d3

D = 7.17 mm

Taking factor of safety =1.4

D = 7 x 1 .4 = 9.8 =10mm


Material: - M.S.

The vertical column channel is subjected to bending stress

Stress given by => M/I = f b / y

In above equation first we will find the moment of inertia about x and yAxis
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and take the minimum moment of inertia considering the channel of

ISLC 75 x 40 size.

We know the channel is subject to axial compressive loadIn

column section the maximum bending moment occurs at channel of section

M = Ra x L/2

M = 750 x 1500/2

M = 562500 N-mm

We know

F b = M/Z

Z = t (l x b + (b2/6))

Z = 5 (40x 65 + (652/6))

Z = 3304 mm3

Now check bending stress induced in CSection

F b induced = M/Z

F b induced = 562500 /3304 = 170.25 N / mm2

As induced stress value is less than allowable stress value design is safe.

F b = Permissble bending stress = 320 N / mm²

F b induced < f b allowable

Hence our design is safe.

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The welded joint is subjected to pure bending moment . so it should be design

for bending stress. We know minimum area of weld or throat area

A = 0.707 x s x l

Where s = size of weld

l = length of weld

A = 0.707 x 5 x ( 75 + 40 + 35 + 58 +35 )

A = 0.707 x 5 x 243

A = 859 mm2

Bending strength of parallel fillet weld P = A x f b

F b = 80 N / mm2

As load applied at the end of lever is 250 N . So moment generated at the

welded joint is

M =P x L= 250x 450= 112500 N – mm

we know f b = M /Z

BH3 - bh3
Z = --------------------------------

40×753 -35 x 583

Z = ----------------------------------
6 x 75

Z = 209824
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Calculating induce stress developed in welded joint

F b induced = 112500 / 209824= 0.536 N /mm2

As induce stress is less then allowable stress the design is safe.


Diameter of shaft = D = 20 mm.

Size of weld = s = 4 mm

F s = load/shear area

=600/π .D x t

=600/π x 20 x t

now, t = s.cos 45 = 0.707 s

f s = 9.55/0.707×4 N/mm2

f s = 3.37 N/mm2

As induced stress value is less than allowable value, which is 56 N/mm2

So design is safe.
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Cost estimation may be defined as the process of forecasting the expenses that

must be incurred to manufacture a product. These expenses take into a

consideration all expenditure involved in a design andmanufacturing with all

related services facilities such as pattern making, tool,making as well as a

portion of the general administrative and selling costs.


1.To determine the selling price of a product for a quotation or contract so as to

ensure a reasonable profit to the company.

2.Check the quotation supplied by vendors.

3.Determine the most economical process or material to manufacture the


4.To determine standards of production performance that may be used to control

the cost.



1.material cost

2.Machining cost
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Material cost estimation gives the total amount required to collect the raw material which

has to be processed or fabricated to desired size and functioning of the


These materials are divided into two categories.

1.Material for fabrication:

In this the material in obtained in raw condition and is manufactured

or processed to finished size for proper functioning of the component.

2.Standard purchased parts:

This includes the parts which was readily available in the market like

Allen screws etc. A list is forecast by the estimation stating the quality, size and

standard parts, the weight of raw material and cost per kg. For the fabricated



This cost estimation is an attempt to forecast the total expenses that may include to

manufacture apart from material cost. Cost estimation of manufactured parts can

be considered as judgment on and after careful consideration which includes

labour, material and factory services required to produce the required part.
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The general procedure for calculation of material cost estimation is

1.After designing a project a bill of material is prepared which is divided into

two categories.

a.Fabricated components

b.Standard purchased components

2.The rates of all standard items are taken and added up.

3. Cost of raw material purchased taken and added up.


It is the cost of remuneration (wages, salaries, commission, bonus etc.) of

The employees of a concern or enterprise.

Labour cost is classifies as:

1)Direct labour cost

2 )Indirect labour cost


The direct labour cost is the cost of labour that can be identified directly with

the manufacture of the product and allocated to cost centers or cost units. The

direct labour is one who counters the direct material into sale able product; the

wages etc. of such employees constitute direct labour cost.Direct labour cost

may be apportioned to the unit cost of job or either on thebasis of time spend by a

worker on the job or as a price for some physical measurement of product.

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It is that labour cost which can not be allocated but which can be apportioned to

or absorbed by cost centers or cost units. This is the cost of labour that does not

alters the construction, confirmation, composition or condition of direct material

but is necessary for the progressive movement and handling of product to the

point of dispatch e.g. maintenance, men, helpers, machine setters,supervisors

and foremen etc.

The total labour cost is calculated on the basis of wages paid to the labour for8

hours per day.

Cost estimation is done as under

Cost of project = (A) material cost + (B) Machining cost + (C) lab our cost

(A) Material cost is calculated as under :-

1)Raw material cost

ii) Finished product cost


It includes the material in the form of the Material supplied by the

³Steel authority of India limited´ and µIndian aluminum co.,’ as the round

bars,angles, square rods, plates along with the strip material form. We have

to search for the suitable available material as per the requirement of

designed safe values. We have searched the material as follows:-

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The following are the various manufacturing process used in mechanical



The process used for the preliminary shaping of the machine component

is known as primary shaping process.


The process used for giving final shape to the machine component,according to

planned dimensions is known as machining process. The common operation

drilling, boring etc.


The process used to provide a good shape surface finish for the

Machine components are known as surface finishing processes. The common

operation used for the process are polishing, buffing, lapping etc.


The process used for joining machine components are known as joining process.

The common operation used for this process are soldering, brazing,welding etc.
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These are intended to import specific properties to material e.g. heat treatment,

hot working, cold rolling etc.



A welded joint is a permanent joint, which is obtained by the fusion of the edges

of the two parts, to be joined together, with or without the application of

pressure and a filler material.

Welding is intensively used in fabrication as an alternative method for casting

or forging and as a replacement for bolted and reverted joints. It is also used as a

repair medium.


1) The welded structures are usually lighter than riveted structures.

2)The welded joints provide maximum efficiency which to impossible

innervated joints

3) Alteration and addition can be easily made.

4) As the welded structure is smooth in appearance, it is good looking.

5) In welded structures, tension members are not weakened.

6) In a welded joint has high strength often more than parent metal.
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1) Since there is uneven heating and cooling during fabrication therefore the

members may get distorted as additional stresses may develop.

2) It requires a highly skilled labour and supervision.

3)No provision for expansion and contraction in the frame, therefore there is

possibility of cracks.

4) The inspection of welding work is difficult than riveting work.


V - belt is mostly used in factories and workshops where a great amount of

power is to be transmitted from one pulley to another then the two pulley sare

very near to each other.

The V - belt are made of fabric and cords moulded in rubber and covered in fabric and

rubber. The power is transmitted by the wedging action between the belt and the v –

groove in the pulley as sheave.


1) The drive is positive.

2)Since the v - belts are made endless and there is no joint cable, therefore

the drive is smooth.

3) It provides larger life, 3 to 5 years.

4) It can be easily installed and removed.

5) The operation of the belt and pulley is quiet.

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6) The belt have the ability to cushion the shack when the machines are started.

7) The wedging action gives high value of limiting friction therefore power transmitted by

v - belts is more than flat belts for the same coefficient of friction, are of

contact and allowable tension.


1)The v - belt drive connect be used with large centre distances because

of larger weight, for unit length.

2)The v - belt are not so durable as flat.

3)The construction of pulleys for v - belts is more complicated than pulleys

of flat belt.

4)Since the v - belts are subjected to certain amount of creep, therefore not

suitable for constant speed applications.

5)The belt life is greatly influenced with temperature change, improper belt

tension and mismatching of belt lengths.




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1 Cutting the Gas cutting Gas cutter Steel rule 15 min.
channel in to machine
length of 1000
mm long
2 Cutting the Gas cutting Gas cutter Steel rule 15 min.
channel in to machine
length of 480
mm long
3 Filling Bench vice File Try square 15 min.
operation can
be performed
on cutting side
and bring it in
4 Weld the Electric arc ................. Try square 20 min
channels to the welding
required size as machine
per the
5 Drilling the Radial drill Twist drill Vernier calliper 10 min
frame at machine
required points
as per the

Name of part: pin

Material : bright steel

Quantity: 3
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Sr. Detail m/c used Tool used accs Mea.inst

no. operation

1 Marking on - - - Scale

2 Cutting as per Power Hock saw Jig & Scale

dwg hack saw blade fixtures

3 Facing both Lathe Single chuck Vernier

side of shaft machine point calliper

4 Turning as per - - - -
dwg size

5 Bending Gas Right Vice -

cutting angle

6 Filling on both Flate file Vice -


Name of part: housing

Material : bright steel

Quantity: 2
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Sr. Detail m/c used Tool used accs Mea.inst

no. operation

1 Marking on - - - Scale

2 Cutting as per Power Hock saw Jig & Scale

dwg hack saw blade fixtures

3 Facing both Lathe Single chuck Vernier

side of shaft machine point caliper

4 Turning as per - - - -
dwg size

5 Drilling 3 hole Drilling Drill Vernier

machine caliper

6 Filling on both Flate file Vice -


Name of part: pully

Material : C.I

Quantity: 2
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1 Take standard ............. ................ .................... ............

pully as per

2 Face both side Lathe m/c Single Vernier calliper 15 min.

of hub portion point

3 Hold it in Lathe m/c Single Vernier calliper 20 min.

three jack point
chuck & bore cutting
inner dia as per tool
shaft size

4 Drilling the Radial drill Twist drill Vernier calliper 10 min

hub at required m/c
point as per the

5 Tap the hub at Hand tap tap Vernier calliper 10 min

drill area set
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The project designed and manufactured by us although is only model and has not

undergone any extensive research or study but we are quite confident that it is

possible to improve it’s efficiency to a considerable extent by improving the

manufacturing techniques and also by corporative certain modifications.

This device can also be used for various other applications besides just

transmitting motion at desired angle those applications have discussed indetailing

the following: -


Manufacturing of improving efficiency: -

The main motion is transmitted with the help of a sliding pair which formed between pin &

the cylinder. These pins have to be lapped and cleaned and itshould be capable of

providing complete interchangeability similarly with the cylinder, they too have to

be hone or lapped so a to provide smooth surfacefinish. This will result in less frictional loss

and loss heat generation.


Lubrication and cooling are a must in sliding members. One of the simple

techniques applied for lubrication can be to drill oil holes in the cylinder body
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for fill than up with oil. But this technique will not be very effective since the

weight and use of cylinders will increase.


One of the methods by which efficiency or performance can be enhanced is by

increasing the number of pins. From the working of the mechanism we know that the pin

at the inner most position is the drawing pin the pins the mechanism. Thus if the no.

required for the next pin to attain the inner most position is considerable reduced and

thus the performance of the mechanism &its life increases.


We can also use this transmission system as

1.As lubricating pump while transmitting power.

2.Steam engine (eliminating the crank of shaft & complicated valve system).


The small change which have to incorporate for this purpose is to place

stationary disc at the rear and it so fits with the cylinder that it avoids leak ages.


The slot position and length is so that adjusted that when pin is at inner most position

cylinder meshes with the suction port & suction of oil is started the slotre mains

open till pin given maximum outward stroke, after that cylinder end isclosed by

the dics. Now the pin starts moving inwards and thus compression stroke

commences. The delivery slot location is so adjusted that after the completion
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of 80 to 85% of compression stroke, the cylinder meshes with the delivery

stroke & thus the compressed fluid is discharged at high pressure. The delivery

slot length was such adjusted that remains in mesh with cylinder for 15to 20%

of compression for complete delivery of the compressed fluid. The suction slot

length is adjusted for complete outward stroke of pin.


Due to such an in built pump we do not require any external pump As soon as

mechanism is started lubrication system automatically starts.

The pump is of the displacement type.

Necessity for lubrication of the mechanism is eliminated.

As a steam engine Modification for the steam engine is same as that for the

pump. The onlydifference is in position & the size.


Here, the inlet slot position the cylinder just meshes with the inlet slot & high

pressure steam is admitted in the cylinder & thus does work on pin & pushes the pin

toward s the outer most position.

When the pin is at the outer most position, the cylinder meshes with thedelivery slot &

thus delivery stroke starts & steam is driven out. After the pin isreached the

inner most position again suction stroke starts.

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1)Mechanism is very simply due to elimination of value mechanisms.

2)Mechanism is small & compact.

3)No crank & crank shaft are necessary.

4)Lesser vibration because the reciprocating force areperfectly balanced.

5)Smooth & high speed operation can be easily obtained by cause of elimination of

the value setting linkage.


1)It is only useful for small power generation.

2)It requires at least six cylinder piston pair.

3)Priming is always necessary for starting theengine.

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Some successful mechanical devices function smoothly however poor fly they

Are made while other does this only by virtue of a accurate construction &

fitting of their moving parts.

This projects which looks very simple & easy to construct was actually

Very difficult to conceive & imagine without seeing an actual one in practice. It

is an event a fact in the creative mental process nit the forces, which

predominate among the schemes of the active tinkers. Motions demands to be

studied first &we have done that very thing.

We find that while acceptable analysis for existing mechanism can often be

Made quite easily we cannot without insight & imagination make effective

synthesis of new mechanism hence we are mould to present this our project gear

less transmission at 90*(El-bow mechanism) which we have managed to

successfully device after long & hard input in conceiving its working principle.
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We referred the following books,


Thermal Engineering R.S.Khurmi

Machine Design R.S.Khurmi

Work Shop Technology S.K.Hajra, Chaudhary