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I{\fs14 NTRODUCCI�N }
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-280 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi320 Actualmente la pericia gen�tica realizada sobre restos biol�gicos es

\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 una


actividad rutinaria en el entorno forense. El an�lisis de muestras
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
involucradas en ciertos delitos puede ayudar a esclarecer c�mo ocu-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
rrieron los hechos o quienes intervinieron en los mismos. Asimismo, la
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
aplicaci�n de t�cnicas moleculares en la identificaci�n de cad�veres ha
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
permitido resolver aquellos casos que no pod�an solventarse mediante
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
t�cnicas cl�sicas de identificaci�n (huella dactilar, ficha dental, etc).
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-200 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi320 Este tipo de pericias se caracteriza por su objetividad, ya que se basan
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 en
fundamentos cient�ficos plenamente demostrados y validados. Los
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
resultados que se obtienen en el an�lisis de evidencias en un laborato-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 rio,
por tanto, han de coincidir plenamente con los obtenidos en otros
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
diferentes, si todos son cient�ficamente rigurosos y cumplen con las con-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
diciones de calidad. En este sentido es de gran importancia asegurarse de
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 que la
pericia se realiza en un laboratorio debidamente acreditado.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-200 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi320 Si bien actualmente la identificaci�n gen�tica es una de las
pruebas
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 m�s
importantes al servicio de la Justicia, hemos de reconocer que una
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 de las
principales limitaciones que tiene es el factor tiempo. A diferencia
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 de
otras pruebas de car�cter identificador de gran relevancia en �pocas
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
anteriores (como la huella dactilar), el an�lisis de ADN no ofrece resul-

\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 tados


con la rapidez deseada, pues los protocolos exigen unos tiempos
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
m�nimos en el tratamiento de las muestras. Sin embargo, hemos asistido a
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 una
gran evoluci�n de la gen�tica molecular en las �ltimas d�cadas y por
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 ello
no debemos descartar que alg�n d�a quiz� la �prueba del ADN� sea
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
pr�cticamente inmediata. As� lo deseamos todos los que nos dedicamos
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 a tan
interesante especialidad.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5155\absw6982\absh6677 \sl-283 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi3238 1872 \par
}
\sect\sectd\pard\plain
\pgwsxn9637\pghsxn13606
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a28a00ffd9
}}\par}{\phpg\posx3520\pvpg\posy1244\absw2708\absh133 \f21 \fs14 \cf0 \f21 \fs14
\cf0 APLICACIONES FORENSES DEL ADN \par
}
{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
B{\fs14 REVE}{\fs14 INTRODUCCI�N}{\fs14 AL}{\fs14 CONCEPTO},{\fs14 TIPOS}
{\fs14 Y}{\fs14 VARIABILIDAD}{\fs14 DE} ADN
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-259 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi320 Para entender c�mo se realizan los an�lisis moleculares con fines
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
identificadores y c�mo se interpretan los resultados introduciremos bre-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
vemente y de la manera m�s sencilla posible el concepto de ADN (�cido
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
desoxirribonucleico), los tipos de ADN que podemos estudiar y c�mo
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 var�a
entre los individuos.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-358 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi320
La mol�cula de ADN se localiza dentro de la mayor�a de las c�lulas
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 que
forman los diferentes tejidos de un individuo. Se trata de una mol�-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 cula
muy larga compuesta por unos 3000 millones de unidades llamadas
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
nucle�tidos. La forma m�s sencilla de pensar en una mol�cula de ADN
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 es
imaginar una larga cadena formada por 3000 millones de eslabo-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 nes
(nucle�tidos). Dentro de cada c�lula, la mayor parte del ADN se
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
encuentra en un compartimento denominado n�cleo, separado del resto
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
(citoplasma) por una membrana llamada nuclear. La cadena de ADN se
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
encuentra empaquetada, formando unas estructuras denominadas cro-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
mosomas (figura 1). En los humanos existen 23 pares de cromosomas,
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 22 de
ellos denominados autosomas y el par restante corresponde a los
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
cromosomas sexuales. En las mujeres este par est� formado por dos
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
cromosomas similares denominados X (par XX) y en los varones est�
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
compuesto por un cromosoma X y un cromosoma Y (par XY). El ADN
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
cromos�mico (tanto autos�mico como sexual) se llama ADN nuclear
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 (ADNn)
y existen �nicamente 2 copias del mismo en cada c�lula (simpli-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
ficando, una procedente del padre y otra procedente de la madre).
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-358 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi320
En gen�tica forense se estudian fragmentos de ADN que est�n situa-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 dos
tanto en los autosomas como en los cromosomas sexuales (XY).
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 Dado
que el cromosoma Y s�lo existe en varones, es importante cono-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 cer
c�mo se hereda; todos los individuos varones emparentados por
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 l�nea
paterna comparten el cromosoma Y (casi en su totalidad) pues se
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 hereda
directamente de padres a hijos sin mezclarse con ning�n material
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
procedente de la madre (figura 2A). Por tanto, no es posible identificar
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
individuos mediante el estudio de su cromosoma Y, s�lo es posible iden-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
tificar linajes paternos.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-358 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi320
Adem�s del ADN nuclear existe otro tipo de ADN denominado ADN
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
mitocondrial (ADNmt) mucho m�s corto (unos 16500 eslabones) localiza-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 do
dentro de unos org�nulos celulares llamados mitocondrias presentes
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 en el
citoplasma. Existen numerosas mitocondrias en cada c�lula y varias
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 copias
de ADNmt en cada mitocondria, es decir, existe mayor cantidad
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 de
copias de ADNmt que de ADNn por c�lula. Este hecho hace que en
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
muestras forenses muy cr�ticas (con escasa cantidad de ADN o con ADN
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 en
mal estado) tenga m�s �xito el an�lisis de ADNmt que el estudio de
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7110\absh9687 \sl-283 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi3238 1873 \par
}
\sect\sectd\pard\plain
\pgwsxn9637\pghsxn13606
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}}\par}{\phpg\posx3921\pvpg\posy1244\absw1845\absh133 \f21 \fs14 \cf0 \f21 \fs14
\cf0 LOURDES PRIETO SOLLA \par
}
{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
ADNn. Sin embargo, el ADNmt presenta un peculiaridad, se hereda �nica
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 e
�ntegramente de la madre, es decir, todos los individuos relacionados
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
familiarmente por v�a materna presentan id�ntico ADNmt (figura 2B). Por
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 tanto
no permite la identificaci�n de individuos, sino de l�neas familiares
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
maternas.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-325 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi319
Los eslabones que forman la cadena de ADN pueden ser de cuatro
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 tipos,
por ejemplo podemos imaginar que son de cuatro colores dife-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 rentes
(hay cuatro tipos de nucle�tidos llamados Adenina o A, Timina o
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 T,
Citosina o C y Guanina o G). El orden o secuencia de estos tipos de
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
eslabones a lo largo de toda la cadena es pr�cticamente igual en todos
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 los
humanos pero existen algunas zonas de la cadena que difieren de
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 unos
individuos a otros. Estas zonas llamadas polim�rficas son las que
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 nos
interesan en gen�tica forense para poder diferenciar unas muestras
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 de
otras. Por tanto, no es interesante analizar la mol�cula de ADN com-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 pleta,
principalmente por dos razones: (i) tardar�amos mucho tiempo y
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 (ii)
la mayor parte de la mol�cula es com�n en todos los humanos y no
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
podr�amos distinguirlos.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-325 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi319
A cada fragmento variable de ADN que estudiamos en identificaci�n
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
gen�tica lo denominamos marcador, sistema o locus (loci, en plural) y
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 los
alelos son las variantes (�posibilidades�) que tiene cada uno (figura 3).
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 Cada
marcador tiene un nombre propio que suele hacer referencia a su
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
localizaci�n dentro de la mol�cula de ADN; por otro lado, la mayor�a de
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7038\absh5134 \sl-289 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 los
alelos de cada marcador se representan con n�meros (tabla 1). \par
}
{\phpg\posx1663\pvpg\posy7870\absw1079\absh1025 \f21 \fs17 \cf0 \f21 \fs17 \cf0
MARCADOR
\par}{\phpg\posx1663\pvpg\posy7870\absw1079\absh1025 \sl-293 \f21 \fs17 \cf0 \fi97
HUMTH01
\par}{\phpg\posx1663\pvpg\posy7870\absw1079\absh1025 \sl-337 \f21 \fs17 \cf0 \fi202
CSF1PO
\par}{\phpg\posx1663\pvpg\posy7870\absw1079\absh1025 \sl-337 \f21 \fs17 \cf0 \fi177
D8S1179 \par
}
{\phpg\posx3298\pvpg\posy7870\absw4700\absh1025 \f21 \fs17 \cf0 \f21 \fs17 \cf0
ALELOS DETECTADOS EN LA POBLACI�N ESPA�OLA
\par}{\phpg\posx3298\pvpg\posy7870\absw4700\absh1025 \sl-293 \f21 \fs17 \cf0
\fi1375 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 9.3, 10 y 11
\par}{\phpg\posx3298\pvpg\posy7870\absw4700\absh1025 \sl-337 \f21 \fs17 \cf0
\fi1156 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 y 15
\par}{\phpg\posx3298\pvpg\posy7870\absw4700\absh1025 \sl-337 \f21 \fs17 \cf0 \fi812
8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 y 18 \par
}
{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9238\absw6949\absh3002 \f21 \fs15 \cf0 \fi597 \f21
\fs15 \cf0 T{\fs11 ABLA} 1. Ejemplos de marcadores utilizados en gen�tica
forense y sus alelos
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9238\absw6949\absh3002 \sl-179 \f21 \fs15 \cf0
\fi2599 en poblaci�n espa�ola.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9238\absw6949\absh3002 \sl-207 \par\f21 \fs15 \cf0
\fi319 {\fs19 Cada}{\fs19 individuo}{\fs19 hereda}{\fs19 un}{\fs19 alelo}
{\fs19 de}{\fs19 su}{\fs19 madre}{\fs19 y}{\fs19 otro}{\fs19 de}{\fs19
su}{\fs19 padre.}{\fs19 Si }
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9238\absw6949\absh3002 \sl-239 \f21 \fs15 \cf0 {\fs19
los}{\fs19 alelos}{\fs19 heredados}{\fs19 en}{\fs19 un}{\fs19 marcador}{\fs19
concreto}{\fs19 coinciden}{\fs19 diremos}{\fs19 que}{\fs19 el }
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9238\absw6949\absh3002 \sl-239 \f21 \fs15 \cf0 {\fs19
individuo}{\fs19 es}{\fs19 homocigoto}{\fs19 y}{\fs19 si}{\fs19 difieren}
{\fs19 se}{\fs19 tratar�}{\fs19 de}{\fs19 un}{\fs19 heterocigoto}{\fs19
(figu- }
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9238\absw6949\absh3002 \sl-239 \f21 \fs15 \cf0 {\fs19
ra}{\fs19 4).}{\fs19 As�,}{\fs19 un}{\fs19 individuo}{\fs19 que}{\fs19
herede}{\fs19 de}{\fs19 ambos}{\fs19 progenitores}{\fs19 el}{\fs19 alelo}
{\fs19 7}{\fs19 en }
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9238\absw6949\absh3002 \sl-239 \f21 \fs15 \cf0 {\fs19
el}{\fs19 marcador}{\fs19 TH01}{\fs19 ser�}{\fs19 homocigoto}{\fs19 7-7}
{\fs19 y}{\fs19 otro}{\fs19 que}{\fs19 herede}{\fs19 el}{\fs19 alelo}
{\fs19 7}{\fs19 de }
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9238\absw6949\absh3002 \sl-239 \f21 \fs15 \cf0 {\fs19
su}{\fs19 madre}{\fs19 y}{\fs19 el}{\fs19 9}{\fs19 de}{\fs19 su}{\fs19
padre,}{\fs19 ser�}{\fs19 heterocigoto}{\fs19 7-9. }
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9238\absw6949\absh3002 \sl-325 \f21 \fs15 \cf0 \fi319
{\fs19 Como}{\fs19 puede}{\fs19 suponerse}{\fs19 hay}{\fs19 que}{\fs19
analizar}{\fs19 varios}{\fs19 marcadores}{\fs19 en}{\fs19 una }
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9238\absw6949\absh3002 \sl-239 \f21 \fs15 \cf0 {\fs19
muestra}{\fs19 para}{\fs19 poder}{\fs19 identificarla}{\fs19 pues}{\fs19 dos}
{\fs19 muestras}{\fs19 distintas}{\fs19 pueden}{\fs19 coin- }
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9238\absw6949\absh3002 \sl-239 \f21 \fs15 \cf0 {\fs19
cidir}{\fs19 por}{\fs19 simple}{\fs19 azar}{\fs19 en}{\fs19 los}{\fs19
alelos}{\fs19 de}{\fs19 un}{\fs19 marcador.}{\fs19 A}{\fs19 mayor}{\fs19 de}
{\fs19 n�mero }
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9238\absw6949\absh3002 \sl-283 \par\f21 \fs15 \cf0
\fi3238 {\fs19 1874 }\par
}
\sect\sectd\pard\plain
\pgwsxn9637\pghsxn13606
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07ffd9
}}\par}{\phpg\posx3520\pvpg\posy1244\absw2708\absh133 \f21 \fs14 \cf0 \f21 \fs14
\cf0 APLICACIONES FORENSES DEL ADN \par
}
{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6944\absh615 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 de
marcadores analizados, mayores posibilidades de distinguir dos mues-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6944\absh615 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 tras
sin error. El perfil gen�tico de un individuo o de una evidencia es la
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6944\absh615 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
sucesi�n de los alelos que presenta en cada marcador (tabla 2). \par
}
{\phpg\posx1399\pvpg\posy2952\absw2962\absh112 \f21 \fs12 \cf0 \f21 \fs12 \cf0
MUESTRA TH01 TPOX CSF1PO D3S1358 VWA \par
}
{\phpg\posx1645\pvpg\posy3206\absw1624\absh133 \f21 \fs14 \cf0 \f21 \fs14 \cf0 1
6-9.3 8-11 10-10 \par
}
{\phpg\posx4445\pvpg\posy2952\absw308\absh112 \f21 \fs12 \cf0 \f21 \fs12 \cf0
FGA \par
}
{\phpg\posx4831\pvpg\posy2952\absw3409\absh112 \f21 \fs12 \cf0 \f21 \fs12 \cf0
D8S1179 D21S11 D18S51 D5S818 D13S317 D7S820 SEXO \par
}
{\phpg\posx3436\pvpg\posy3206\absw4750\absh133 \f21 \fs14 \cf0 \f21 \fs14 \cf0 16-
16 16-17 20-21 10-13 30-30 14-15 12-12 10-11 10-10 XY \par
}
{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy3583\absw6951\absh1194 \f21 \fs15 \cf0 \fi1589 \f21
\fs15 \cf0 Tabla 2. Perfil gen�tico de una muestra biol�gica
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy3583\absw6951\absh1194 \sl-219 \par\f21 \fs15 \cf0
\fi319 {\fs19 Actualmente}{\fs19 se}{\fs19 estudia}{\fs19 un}{\fs19 n�mero}
{\fs19 suficiente}{\fs19 de}{\fs19 marcadores}{\fs19 para }
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy3583\absw6951\absh1194 \sl-239 \f21 \fs15 \cf0 {\fs19
distinguir}{\fs19 unas}{\fs19 muestras}{\fs19 de}{\fs19 otras.}{\fs19 La}
{\fs19 mayor�a}{\fs19 de}{\fs19 laboratorios}{\fs19 forenses }
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy3583\absw6951\absh1194 \sl-239 \f21 \fs15 \cf0 {\fs19
utilizan}{\fs19 los}{\fs19 mismos}{\fs19 marcadores}{\fs19 con}{\fs19 el}
{\fs19 fin}{\fs19 de}{\fs19 intercambiar}{\fs19 datos}{\fs19 sin}{\fs19 tener
}
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy3583\absw6951\absh1194 \sl-239 \f21 \fs15 \cf0 {\fs19
que}{\fs19 reanalizar}{\fs19 las}{\fs19 muestras. }\par
}
{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
C{\fs14 ONCEPTO}{\fs14 DE}{\fs14 MUESTRAS}{\fs14 DUBITADAS}{\fs14 E}{\fs14
INDUBITADAS }
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-254 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi319 Para que una pericia gen�tico biol�gica sea concluyente es impres-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
cindible desarrollar el an�lisis en dos tipos de muestras:
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-349 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi319
a) Muestras dubitadas o evidencias: son restos biol�gicos de pro-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi748
cedencia desconocida, es decir, no sabemos a qui�n pertenecen
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi748
(por ejemplo las muestras recogidas en la escena del delito o de
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi748
un cad�ver sin identificar).
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-349 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi319
b) Muestras indubitadas o de referencia: son restos biol�gicos de
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi739
procedencia conocida, es decir, sabemos a qui�n pertenecen
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi739
(por ejemplo la sangre tomada de un cad�ver identificado, o las
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi739
muestras tomadas a familiares de un desaparecido).
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-349 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi319
La anal�tica de ADN se ha denominado en m�ltiples ocasiones �huella
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
gen�tica�; este t�rmino no debe llevarnos a confusi�n pues, si bien es
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 verdad
que cada individuo presenta un ADN diferente (como en el caso
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 de
las huellas dactilares), no existe una base de datos formada por las
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
caracter�sticas gen�ticas de cada individuo que vive en Espa�a (a diferen-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 cia de
la huella dactilar, de la cual existe un registro del �ndice derecho
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 de
todas las persona con DNI). Por este motivo, s�lo podremos identi-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 ficar
las evidencias biol�gicas si disponemos de muestras de referencia
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 para
su comparaci�n.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-349 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi319
Los tipos de muestras dubitadas m�s frecuentemente analizadas por
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
t�cnicas gen�tico moleculares son (figura 5): sangre (habitualmente en
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 forma
de mancha), semen (lavados vaginales o manchas sobre prendas
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 de la
v�ctima), saliva (colillas de cigarrillo, chicles, sobres y sellos), pelos,
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5576\absw7017\absh6298 \sl-283 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi3238 1875 \par
}
\sect\sectd\pard\plain
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a28a00ffd9
}}\par}{\phpg\posx3921\pvpg\posy1244\absw1845\absh133 \f21 \fs14 \cf0 \f21 \fs14
\cf0 LOURDES PRIETO SOLLA \par
}
{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6986\absh2761 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
u�as, tejidos blandos, restos �seos y dentarios (estos �ltimos relaciona-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6986\absh2761 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 dos
fundamentalmente con la identificaci�n de cad�veres).
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6986\absh2761 \sl-352 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi319
El tipo de muestras indubitadas m�s habituales son sangre y saliva
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6986\absh2761 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
(frotis bucal). No es necesario que las muestras de referencia sean del
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6986\absh2761 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 mismo
tipo que las evidencias, es decir, podremos comparar distintos
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6986\absh2761 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 tipos
de restos biol�gicos entre s� ya que el ADN es igual (salvo excep-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6986\absh2761 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
ciones) en todos tejidos de un mismo individuo.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6986\absh2761 \sl-352 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi319
Podemos diferenciar tres etapas principales en el an�lisis de una
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6986\absh2761 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
muestra forense (figura 6): (i) pruebas preliminares para determinar la
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6986\absh2761 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
naturaleza y el organismo de procedencia de la muestra; (ii) an�lisis del
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6986\absh2761 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 ADN
presente en la muestra con fines identificadores y (iii) an�lisis e
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6986\absh2761 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
interpretaci�n de los resultados obtenidos. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
P{\fs14 RUEBAS}{\fs14 PRELIMINARES}{\fs14 EN}{\fs14 LAS}{\fs14 PERICIAS}
{\fs14 GEN�TICO}-{\fs14 BIOL�GICAS }
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-256 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi320 Antes de realizar un estudio de ADN con el fin de individualizar
las
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
evidencias existen pasos previos en la anal�tica que nos permiten dis-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
criminar el tipo de resto biol�gico ante el que nos encontramos. Ello se
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 logra
a trav�s de las pruebas preliminares, que si bien son m�s sencillas
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 que el
propio an�lisis del ADN presente en una muestra, no por ello son
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 menos
importantes. El peso de la evidencia var�a seg�n se trate de un
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 tipo
de resto biol�gico u otro, es decir, no es lo mismo hallar una man-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 cha de
sangre (que puede implicar lucha) que un filtro de cigarrillo (que
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
simplemente puede indicar la presencia de un individuo en la escena del
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
delito, pero no necesariamente su participaci�n activa en �l). Sin embar-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 go, en
cada caso las circunstancias son diferentes y muestras biol�gicas
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 que
quiz� no tengan relevancia en un hecho delictivo la pueden tener
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 en
otro distinto.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-352 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi320
Existen fundamentalmente tres tipos de pruebas preliminares (figu-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 ra 6):

\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-352 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi320


a) Orientativas: se trata de t�cnicas que nos revelan la posible
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi724
naturaleza de la mancha pero no nos la aseguran, es decir, sir-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi724
ven s�lo para descartar, pero no para concluir. Por ejemplo, la
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi724
llamada reacci�n de Adler es una sencilla prueba colorim�trica
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi724
que si resulta positiva nos orienta a pensar que estamos ante una
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi724
mancha de sangre, pero sin poder asegurarlo pues existen otras
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi724
sustancias (jugos vegetales, �xido, lej�a) que tambi�n dan positiva
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi724
esta reacci�n. Si la prueba resulta negativa podremos asegurar
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi724
que el resto que estamos analizando no es sangre. Estas pruebas
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy5547\absw7013\absh6324 \sl-283 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi3238 1876 \par
}
\sect\sectd\pard\plain
\pgwsxn9637\pghsxn13606
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a28a00ffd9
}}\par}{\phpg\posx3520\pvpg\posy1244\absw2708\absh133 \f21 \fs14 \cf0 \f21 \fs14
\cf0 APLICACIONES FORENSES DEL ADN \par
}
{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi724 \f21
\fs19 \cf0 son sencillas de realizar, son de bajo coste, muy r�pidas, y
nos
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi724
ayudan a seleccionar las manchas a analizar.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-392 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi319
b) De certeza: nos permiten determinar el tipo de resto biol�gi-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi742
co analizado con seguridad. La detecci�n de hemoglobina en
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi742
la muestra para determinaci�n de sangre o la visualizaci�n al
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi742
microscopio de espermatozoides para la determinaci�n de semen
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi742
son algunos ejemplos (figura 7).
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-392 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi319
c) Espec�ficas: nos permiten determinar el tipo de organismo al que
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi720
pertenece el resto biol�gico. Una vez que hemos determinado el
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi720
tipo de muestra que hemos de analizar, interesa saber si se trata
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi720
de una muestra humana o no. Existen principalmente dos tipos de
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi720
pruebas espec�ficas: unas basadas reacciones ant�geno-anticuerpo
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi720
y otras basadas en el estudio de ciertas regiones del ADN, si bien,
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi720
en cierto tipo de muestras (pelos, restos �seos) puede realizarse
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi720
un estudio de las caracter�sticas morfol�gicas para determinar el
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi720
tipo de organismo. En el caso de que nos encontremos ante una
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi720
muestra de origen animal, normalmente los an�lisis terminar�n en
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi720
este punto a no ser que el objetivo sea precisamente determinar
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi720
la especie (por ejemplo, en caso de delitos ecol�gicos y de caza
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi720
furtiva). En el caso de muestras de origen humano se proceder�
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi720
a realizar la segunda etapa del estudio destinada a individualizar
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi720
la muestra mediante t�cnicas de ADN.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-392 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi319
Conviene se�alar que en determinadas ocasiones no es posible deter-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 minar
el tipo de resto biol�gico hallado por la escasa cantidad de mues-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 tra
disponible. En estos casos se suele proceder directamente a realizar
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6962\absh5994 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 los
estudios de ADN para intentar individualizar la muestra. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9179\absw7036\absh3055 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
I{\fs14 NDIVIDUALIZACI�N}{\fs14 DE}{\fs14 LAS}{\fs14 MUESTRAS}{\fs14
BIOL�GICAS }
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9179\absw7036\absh3055 \sl-276 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi320 Actualmente, para determinar a qu� individuo pertenece una muestra
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9179\absw7036\absh3055 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
biol�gica se recurre al estudio de parte de su ADN. La mol�cula de ADN
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9179\absw7036\absh3055 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 se
localiza dentro de las c�lulas que forman los diferentes tejidos de un
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9179\absw7036\absh3055 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
individuo y para poder analizarla, previamente hay que aislarla separ�n-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9179\absw7036\absh3055 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 dola
del resto de componentes celulares. A pesar de que en una primera
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9179\absw7036\absh3055 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 fase
aislaremos la mol�cula completa, posteriormente s�lo estudiaremos
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9179\absw7036\absh3055 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
ciertas regiones de ella, concretamente las zonas m�s polim�rficas (�mar-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9179\absw7036\absh3055 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
cadores�, �sistemas� o �loci� polim�rficos).
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9179\absw7036\absh3055 \sl-392 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi320
La anal�tica de ADN se realiza en cuatro fases (figura 6):
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9179\absw7036\absh3055 \sl-283 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi3238 1877 \par
}
\sect\sectd\pard\plain
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a28a00ffd9
}}\par}{\phpg\posx3921\pvpg\posy1244\absw1845\absh133 \f21 \fs14 \cf0 \f21 \fs14
\cf0 LOURDES PRIETO SOLLA \par
}
{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 a)
Extracci�n de ADN: consiste en separar la mol�cula de ADN del
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi404
resto de componentes celulares. Se trata de un paso fundamental
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi404
en el an�lisis gen�tico de muestras forenses, pues el �xito del
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi404
estudio puede verse afectado en gran medida si no se realiza un
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi404
buen aislamiento de la mol�cula. Existen gran cantidad de sus-
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi404
tancias que pueden interferir en este proceso, bien de los propios
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi404
reactivos utilizados durante la extracci�n o bien de los soportes
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi404
en los que se encuentran situados las manchas biol�gicas. La
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi404
duraci�n y rendimiento de este proceso tambi�n depende en
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi404
gran medida del tipo de resto biol�gico que se est� analizando.
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi404
As�, a partir de las muestras de sangre o de saliva el proceso de
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi404
extracci�n es m�s r�pido que a partir de un resto �seo o dentario
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi404
donde el ADN es menos accesible.
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-336 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 b)
Cuantificaci�n de ADN: una vez que hemos finalizado la extrac-
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi422
ci�n se realiza la cuantificaci�n para saber qu� cantidad de ADN
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi422
hemos logrado aislar y en qu� estado se encuentra (completo o
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi422
roto).
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-336 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 c)
Amplificaci�n de ADN: consiste en copiar muchas veces el frag-
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi400
mento concreto de ADN que queremos estudiar para obtener
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi400
una cantidad adecuada que nos permita su detecci�n. Este pro-
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi400
ceso se denomina PCR (polymerase chain reaction) y gracias a
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi400
�l podemos analizar peque�as cantidades de muestra biol�gica.
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi400
Normalmente se amplifican varios fragmentos de ADN en para-
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi400
lelo para evitar agotar la muestra y para conseguir una mayor
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi400
rapidez en el an�lisis (multiplex PCR).
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-336 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 d)
Detecci�n del producto amplificado o tipaje: esta es la fase final
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi422
del an�lisis molecular y es la que nos permite caracterizar y cla-
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi422
sificar los fragmentos de ADN estudiados en cada muestra para
\par}{\phpg\posx1680\pvpg\posy1810\absw6733\absh6491 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi422
diferenciar unas de otras. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9675\absw6916\absh2609 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
A{\fs14 N�LISIS}{\fs14 DE}{\fs14 LOS}{\fs14 RESULTADOS }
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9675\absw6916\absh2609 \sl-247 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi319 Una vez que se ha finalizado el estudio molecular propiamente dicho
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9675\absw6916\absh2609 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 se
procede al an�lisis de los resultados obtenidos. Podemos encontrarnos
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9675\absw6916\absh2609 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 con
dos situaciones (figura 6):
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9675\absw6916\absh2609 \sl-336 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi319
1. Que dispongamos de muestras indubitadas de referencia para
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9675\absw6916\absh2609 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
cotejar con las evidencias.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9675\absw6916\absh2609 \sl-336 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi319
2. Que no tengamos acceso a muestras de referencia para com-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9675\absw6916\absh2609 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 parar.

\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy9675\absw6916\absh2609 \sl-283 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0


\fi3238 1878 \par
}
\sect\sectd\pard\plain
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a28a00ffd9
}}\par}{\phpg\posx3520\pvpg\posy1244\absw2708\absh133 \f21 \fs14 \cf0 \f21 \fs14
\cf0 APLICACIONES FORENSES DEL ADN \par
}
{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \fi319 \f21
\fs19 \cf0 En el caso de que nos encontremos ante la primera situaci�n, el resul-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 tado
de la comparaci�n entre muestras dubitadas e indubitadas puede
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-240 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 ser de
dos tipos:
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-199 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi319 1.1 Coincidencia o compatibilidad: el perfil gen�tico evidenciado
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 en
ambos tipos de muestras es coincidente (criminal�stica) o compati-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 ble
(paternidades) . En este caso se ha de valorar estad�sticamente si la
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
coincidencia es debida al azar o a que realmente la evidencia biol�gica
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
pertenece al individuo de referencia. Es evidente que este an�lisis depen-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 de �a
priori� del n�mero de marcadores analizados en las muestras y una
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 vez
realizado el an�lisis, de lo frecuente o no que sean los alelos de
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 cada
marcador (por ejemplo, en el hipot�tico caso de que estudi�ramos
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 el
grupo sangu�neo, el grupo 0 es muy frecuente en nuestra poblaci�n
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 por
lo que este resultado se ha de valorar con menor �fuerza� que si
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
obtenemos un grupo AB, mucho menos frecuente). Por esta raz�n, los
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
laboratorios analizan de rutina en cada muestra una bater�a de marcado-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 res
con elevado poder de discriminaci�n.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-199 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi319 1.2 No coincidencia o incompatibilidad: el perfil gen�tico eviden-

\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 ciado


en las muestras dubitadas no coincide con el de la muestra indubi-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 tada;
o bien, en casos de paternidad, el supuesto padre no comparte ale-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 los
con el hijo (incompatibilidad). En estos casos no es necesario realizar
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 una
valoraci�n estad�stica pues la exclusi�n se informa con seguridad.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-199 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi319 En los casos donde no disponemos de muestras de referencia para
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
comparar con las evidencias podemos introducir los perfiles gen�ticos
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
obtenidos en una base de datos de perfiles an�nimos. Esto nos permitir�
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
relacionar distintos delitos entre s�, facilitando as� la investigaci�n policial
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 y
judicial en hechos reincidentes como violaciones y robos. Actualmente
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
algunos laboratorios poseen sus propias bases de datos de evidencias,
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 pero
ser�a deseable que se unificaran criterios as� como la informaci�n
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
contenida en cada una de ellas con el fin de intercambiar datos de forma
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
rutinaria. Por otro lado, en otros pa�ses ya existe una legislaci�n
sobre
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 la
introducci�n de perfiles gen�ticos de car�cter indubitado relaciona-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 dos
con pr�cticamente todos o cierto tipo de delitos (seg�n el pa�s); en
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 Espa�a
ser�a necesario que existiera un marco legal con el fin de evitar
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 la
p�rdida de informaci�n que proporcionar�an dichos perfiles.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-199 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi319 Adem�s de las bases de datos de perfiles gen�ticos an�nimos obteni-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 dos a
partir de las evidencias, existen bases de datos de perfiles proce-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 dentes
de cad�veres sin identificar y de familiares de desaparecidos que
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 dieron
su consentimiento para el an�lisis de su ADN. Con estas bases
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 de
datos los laboratorios pretenden facilitar la dif�cil tarea de identificar

\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-239 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 cuando


no existen otros medios que el an�lisis gen�tico.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw7009\absh9687 \sl-283 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi3238 1879 \par
}
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a28a00ffd9
}}\par}{\phpg\posx3921\pvpg\posy1244\absw1845\absh133 \f21 \fs14 \cf0 \f21 \fs14
\cf0 LOURDES PRIETO SOLLA \par
}
{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
P{\fs14 ROBLEM�TICA}{\fs14 DE}{\fs14 LAS}{\fs14 MUESTRAS}{\fs14
BIOL�GICAS }
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-280 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi320 Ya hemos visto que, actualmente, para determinar a qu� individuo
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
pertenece una muestra biol�gica, se recurre al estudio de sus polimorfis-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 mos de
ADN y ya hemos descrito todas las fases anal�ticas que se han de
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
realizar (extracci�n, cuantificaci�n, amplificaci�n y tipaje), pero creemos
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
conveniente apuntar la problem�tica del d�a a d�a del laboratorio en las
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
diferentes etapas del an�lisis de estos polimorfismos.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-200 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi320 Las muestras indubitadas que pertenecen a individuos vivos no sue-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 len
dar problemas en el an�lisis gen�tico si fueron recogidas y enviadas
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 al
laboratorio en condiciones �ptimas. Sin embargo, las evidencias con
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
car�cter dubitado pueden sufrir una serie de modificaciones que depen-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 der�n
no s�lo del tiempo transcurrido hasta el momento de su estudio,
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 sino
de las condiciones ambientales a las cuales se vieron sometidas, de
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 la
cantidad de muestra, del soporte en el cual se encuentran, del lugar
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 de
procedencia y del tipo de muestra biol�gica.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-200 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi320 De todos los tipos de muestras biol�gicas que se analizan diariamente
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 en el
laboratorio forense, quiz� sean las de sangre las m�s agradecidas.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 Sin
embargo algunas veces tambi�n dan problemas. La sangre podemos
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
hallarla bien en estado l�quido o en forma de mancha. La sangre l�quida
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 bien
conservada no ofrece ning�n tipo de problema, pero no es raro que
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 al
laboratorio llegue sangre putrefacta bien porque se ha estropeado
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
durante el transporte o bien porque pertenece a un cad�ver en el cual
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 se ha
iniciado la descomposici�n. Para evitar el primer problema es con-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
veniente realizar una mancha sobre una gasa antes de proceder al trans-
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 porte
de la muestra y para el segundo no queda m�s remedio que tratar
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 de
buscar otra muestra para el an�lisis, bien sea un tejido blando, u�as, o
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 un
resto �seo, dependiendo del estado de conservaci�n del cuerpo. Por
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 el
contrario, la sangre en forma de mancha se conserva m�s f�cilmente
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 y
puede analizarse tras varios a�os si las condiciones de secado fueron
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
adecuadas. Quiz� las manchas sobre cueros, maderas tratadas, restos
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
vegetales y tierras sean de las m�s cr�ticas pues estos materiales
tienen
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
diferentes grados de absorci�n y en ellos se encuentran presentes gran
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
cantidad de inhibidores de la PCR como los taninos, que impiden que la
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
reacci�n funcione.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-200 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi319 Las muestras de saliva no suelen presentar problemas en la anal�tica
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 de
ADN. Suelen llegar al laboratorio en forma de mancha, sobre filtros de
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0
cigarrillo, sellos, chicles o prendas (por ejemplo la zona coincidente con
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 la
boca en un pasamonta�as utilizado en un atraco) o bien en soportes
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-241 \f21 \fs19 \cf0 m�s
engorrosos como vasos, botellas o huesos de fruta.
\par}{\phpg\posx1360\pvpg\posy1810\absw6977\absh9687 \sl-283 \par\f21 \fs19 \cf0
\fi3238 1880 \par
}
\sect\sectd\pard\plain
}