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Masters Theses Student Research & Creative Works

1965

Epoxy resin admixture for concrete


Kuo-Chu Hu

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-·.. 11
I'

EPOXY RESIN ADMIXTURE FOR CONCRETE

BY
KUO-CHU HU I I t{z.,?;

THESIS

submitted to the faculty of the


UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT ROLLA

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the


Degree of
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

Rolla, Missouri
1965

APPROVED BY

~'~ ~~...._(Advisor)
~-q"'1 \Z ~
ii

ABSTRACT

This thesis describes laboratory tests on concrete

having epoxy as an admixture. Cylinders for compression and

elastic modulus tests were cured under two different curing

conditions, standard laboratory cure and a simulated job

cure. Beams cured under laboratory conditions were tested

for flexural strength.

Test results show the compressive strength increases

with an increase of epoxy content for job curing conditions.

However, compressive and flexural strengths of specimens

cured under laboratory conditions show a slight decrease.

The elastic modulus of concrete containing epoxy also de-

creases in comparison to ordinary concrete.


iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The author wishes to express his sincerest thanks to

Professor J. E. Spooner of the Civil Engineering Department

for his valuable advice and suggestions in the writing of

this thesis. He also appreciates very much his help and

direction on the use of machines for the tests.

He also wishes to express his thanks to Dr. K. G.

Mayhan, Professor of Chemical Engineering Department, for

his primary tests on epoxy resln systems for the determina-

tion of proper formulation.


iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT • lll

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . vi

LIST OF TABLES . . • • • • • Vll

I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . ..
. . . . . . . 1

II. HISTORY AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE . . . 3

III. EPOXY RESIN SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

A. Resins . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Curing . . . . . . . . .
'

B. . . . 8

IV. LABORATORY PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 10

A. Test Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1. Sieves and Sieve Shakers . . . . . . . . . 10
2. Concrete Mixer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3. Compression Testing Machines . 10
4. Los Angeles Abrasion Testing Machine . ll
5. Ames Dial Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
B. Materials Used In Tests . . . 12
1. Cement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2. Aggregate . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3. \-'later . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 14
4. Admixture . . . . . . . . 14
c. Mixing Procedure . . . . . .
. 14
1. Design of the Mixtures . . . . . . .
. 14
2. Mixing Concrete . . . . . . . . . .
. 15
3. Handling Precautions . . . . . . . .
. 18
D. Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 18
1. 'rest Procedure for Compressive Strength 18
2. Test Procedure for Flexural Strength . .
. 19
3. Test Procedure for Modulus of Elasticity . 21

v. TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . . . . . . . . . 22

A. Properties of Fresh Concrete . . . . . . . . . 22


B. Compressive Strength Test 22
c. Flexural Strength Test . . . . . . . . . 23
D. Modulus of Elasticity Test . . . . 24

VI. CONCLUSIONS ........ . . . . . . . . . 32


v

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
APPENDIX . . . . . . 35

BIBLIOGRAPHY . 42

VITA . . . . . . . 43
Vl

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Figures Page

l. Compressive Stress Vs. Admixture Content,


Laboratory Curing Conditions . . . . . . . . 25

2. Compressive Stress Vs. Admixture Content,


Job Curing Conditions .......... . 26

3. Compressive Stress Vs. Age, Laboratory Curing


Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

4. Compressive Stress Vs. Age, Job Curing Conditions 28

5. Modulus of Rupture Vs. Admixture Content,


Laboratory Curing Conditions . . . . . . . 29

6. Modulus of Elasticity at 28 Days Vs. Admixture


Content, Laboratory Curing Conditions . . . 30

7. Modulus of Elasticity at 28 Days Vs. Admixture


Content, Job Curing Conditions . . . . . . . . 31

8. Stress Vs. Strain Curve, Mix A, Laboratory Curing


Conditions . . . ..... .. . . . . . ... 36

9. Stress Vs. Strain Curve, Mix B, Laboratory Curing


Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

10. Stress Vs. Strain Curve, Mix C, Laboratory Curing


Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

11. Stress Vs. Strain Curve, Mix A, Job Curing


Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

12. Stress Vs. Strain Curve, Mix B, Job Curing


Conditions . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . 40

13. Stress Vs. Strain Curve, Mix C, Job Curing


Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
vii

LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

1. Concrete Mix Design . 16


l

I. INTRODUCTION

Since its introduction to this country, epoxy resin has

found a position in the concrete construction field because

of its high compressive and tensile strengths as well as ex-


cellent adhesive properties. In recent years most of the ap-

plications have been in bonding concrete to concrete in re-

pairing damaged or deteriorated construction. Therefore,

studies and applications have been concentrated on its adhe-

sive properties. Engineers, of course, have been aware of

its high strength but little research has been done in this

direction.

Although epoxy concrete, in which epoxy resin compound

replaces cement paste, possesses high compressive and tensile

strengths; it has not been widely used in concrete construc-

tion despite its outstanding properties. The high cost of

epoxy resin definitely limits the use of epoxy concrete since

the cost of epoxy concrete is of the order of $200 per cubic

yard (5). Only the repair of bridges subject to heavy traf-

fie can justify its application because of its fast setting

properties; the repaired bridges can be opened to traffic

after only a few hours.

Although higher strength concrete can be produced by

other means, the partial replacement of the cement paste

with epoxy was considered worth exploring in order to see if

some of the properties of the pure epoxy concrete would be

retained.
2

In this investigation, the tests were planned to deter-

mine the effect of epoxy content upon the compressive

strength, modulus of rupture, and the modulus of elasticity.

Curing conditions were specified to include both a standard


laboratory cure and a simulated job cure.
3

II. HISTORY AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The discovery of epoxy was first reported in 1891 by


the Norwegian scientist, Lindeman (1). Subsequent to that
time, the use of epoxy was limited to laboratory investiga-

tions until industrial applications of epoxy resins were be-

gun in Germany in the Thirties. During World War II, Germany

made practical use of epoxy by using it to stick treads to


their tanks.

Epoxy resins were first introduced in the United States

in 1949 (4). As commercial quantities became available, it

was primarily used by the paint industry in heavy-duty in-

dustrial maintenance paints, and by the aircraft industry

as a structural adhesive to bond aluminum to aluminum. How-

ever, it was not used in concrete construction until the

California State Highway Department used epoxy adhesives to

cement reflective traffic markers to pavements in 1954 (5).

These markers have withstood heavy traffic for five years

without failure in bond. They also found that when an epoxy

resin was mixed with flexibiliser the mixture would bond to

hardened concrete and also that fresh concrete would adhere

to it if applied while the epoxy mixture was still tacky.

Since then, much work has been done by manufacturers, gov-

ernment agencies, and others in perfecting epoxy resin sys-

tems for application in concrete construction and repair.

Bailey Tremper (3) described in his paper the use of


4

adhesives and binders containing epoxy resins by the California

Division of Highways in repairing concrete. In patching

spalled areas with epoxy mortar or epoxy concrete, the binder


used by the California Division of Highways has a pot life

of about 20 minutes at 70°F. Under favorable conditions


the repair has been opened to traffic within 3-5 hours. The

ratio of epoxy binder to sand used by the California Division


of Highways is of the order of 1 to 7 by weight. For large
volume repairs, both coarse and fine aggregates are used and
the ratio of epoxy binder to aggregate can be as large as

1:18 by weight.

The formulation most frequently used by the California

Division of Highways both for an adhesive and a binder con-

sists of:
Epoxy resin 10 parts by weight

Polysulfide polymer 4 parts by weight

Curing agent 1 part by weight

Filler Variable

Elliott N. Dorman and M. M. Gruber (6) have shown that

concrete pipe for sewers can be coated with epoxy. The re-

sistance of these coatings to sewage, chemicals, fumes and


hydrostatic pressure assures long life and maintenance-free

service.

Surfacing compounds with a high friction coefficient

are of considerable importance on superhighways and heavily


5

traveled bridges (6). Because of its high adhesive properties,


epoxy resin is used as a binder for high-friction aggregate
and as an adhesive to bond it to the pavement. Such binders
must also be tough enough to withstand continuous abrasion
from heavy vehicles being breaked at high speed.

Epoxy resin is also used in chemical resistant floor

topping; it is the bonding agent that holds the topping


together and binds i t to the floor (7). This floor topping

protects concrete floors subjected to acids, strong alkalies


and solvents that react with cement.

Tests on epoxy have been conducted by Leo Carbett (1),

Director of Research of Great Western Corp. of Los Angeles.

In the Great Western Laboratory, epoxy test cylinders were


immersed in sulphuric acid which dissolves steel in minutes.
Due to their excellent chemical resistant properties, they

have survived after one week of immersion. Other tests


showed that the bond strength as an adhesive was greater
than that of concrete. Broken beams cemented together by

epoxy resin compound were loaded to failure in flexure.


Rupture always occurred in the concrete, not in the adhesive

bond.

In 1962, a report (4) was published by A.C.I. Committee

403 describing proper procedures for the use of epoxy resin

compounds for various purposes. Methods for specific appli-


cations outlined by the Committee include patching, crack and
6

joint sealing, water-proofing, skid resistant overlays,

bonding hardened concrete to hardened concrete, bonding


new concrete to old concrete. It is emphasized that before
attempting the application of epoxy resin compound, surface
conditions must be met. The surface on which epoxy is
applied must be strong, clean and dry.

G. B. Welch, A. J. Carmichael and D. E. Hattersley (2)

of the University of New South Wales, Australia conducted a


series of tests on the compressive strength, tensile

strength and other properties of epoxy concrete. Four dif-


, ferent types of epoxy formulations were examined as the ce-

menting material in the concrete mixtures and each type of

epoxy formulation had one to four different proportions of


aggregates. Test results showed that ultimate compressive
strengths ranged from 7,000 psi to 13,000 psi while tensile

strength exceeded 1200 psi.


7

III. EPOXY RESIN SYSTEMS

A. RESINS

Uncured epoxy resins are water insoluble, clear plas-

tics, which in the pure and uncontaminated state possess

indefinite shelf life. The grades of epoxy resins are gen-


erally specified by viscosity and epoxide equivalent. 1'he
viscosity of an epoxy system can be reduced by adding dilu-

ents, but the use of diluents should be held to a minimum as,


in most cases, they degrade the physical properties of the

cured system.

Epoxy resins belong to a class of thermosetting materi-

als which requires an external influence to convert them to

a stable solid mass. The systems which are of concern here


are generally furnished in two componentsi resin and curing
agent. When the curing agent is added to the resin, a
cur1ng reaction commences, and the conversion to a solid

occurs. Oftentimes, other materials are added to alter the

physical characteristics of the cured system.

Unlike thermoplastic materials, thermosetting epoxy

resins become permanently hard once they cure and will not
melt at elevated temperatures. Cured epoxy resins are char-

acterized by possessing low chemical reactivity, remarkable


adhesive properties, and high strengths. They can have ulti-

mate compressive strengths of 30,000 psi, flexural strengths


8

up to 18,000 psi and tensile strengths varying from 8,000


to 12,000 psi (3).

Epoxy resins as presently manufactured, are available


in a wide range of consistencies ranging from a solid to
liquids of relatively low viscosity. There are four manu-

facturers in the United States producing epoxy resins. They


are the Bakelite Company, Ciba Products Company, Janes-Dabney
Company and Shell Chemical Company. Each of these manufac-
turers has his own trade name for these products.

B. CURING

Curing agents are necessary to effect the conversion

of the pure epoxy resin to a solid. This conversion is


accompanied by a production of heat. Since the curing pro-
cess 1s rapidly accelerated by higher temperatures, large

batches will harden faster than small ones with similar

geometry due to the decrease in the rate of heat loss from

the large mass.

After adding curing agent to the epoxy, thorough m1x1ng


1s most important. Once the components are mixed, they must

be used within a relatively short time. The time that a mix-


ture remains in a usable or workable condition after mixing
is called the 11
pot life 11
• The pot life of an epoxy resin com-

pound depends on the formulation, the type of curing agent

used, and also its mass and temperature. The use of shallow
9

containers will reduce the heat build-up; hence, increase

the pot life. Curing temperatures for the usual epoxy

formulations are between 50°F and 85°F. Curing below 50°F

is greatly retarded or stops. Above 85°F the cure is great-


ly accelerated and the pot life critically shortened.
10

IV. LABORATORY PROCEDURE

A. TEST APPARATUS

1. Sieves And Sieve Shakers

Two types of mechanical sieve shakers were used for


screening the coarse and fine aggregates. A large shaker,

a product of Gibson Screen Company, Merser, Pennsylvania,


was used to screen the coarse aggregate. A set of wire
screens 17" x 25" in dimension with the following opening

sizes was used: 1", 3/4", 1/2", 3/8", No.4 and No.8.

For screening the fine aggregate, a small shaker having

a set of sieves 8 11
in diameter made by W. S. Tyler Company,

Cleveland, Ohio was used. The mesh opening sizes of sieves


are 3/8", No.4, No.8, No. 16, No. 30, No. 50 and No. 100.

2. Concrete Mixer

The concrete mixer, Type SW153, has a capacity of three

cubic feet. It is a product of the Lancaster Iron Works

Inc., Lancaster, Pennsylvania. This mixer is stationary,

nontilting, and electrically driven.

3. Compression Testing Machines

Two hydraulic compression machines were used for the

tests. A machine made by Forney's Inc., New Castle,

Pennsylvania, was used for all compression cylinder tests.


11

This machine has two scales, the low range of 0-60,000 pounds
with 200 pound graduations and the high range of 0-350,000
pounds with 1000 pound graduations.

A Riehle compression machine was used for determining


the flexural strengths. It has a platform 30 1/2 x 32"
in dimension. The size of the platform enables small beams
to be tested. The 0-3,000 pound scale is capable of being
read to the nearest 5 pounds.

4. Los Angeles Abrasion Testing Machine


The Los Angeles Abrasion Testing Machine is a product

of Forney's Inc., New Castle, Pennsylvania. It consists of


a hollow steel cylinder, closed at both ends having an in-

side diameter of 28 inches and inside length of 20 inches.


This electrical driven machine was used to mix the epoxy

resin and fine aggregate before placing in the concrete

mixer.

5. Ames Dial Gage

An Ames dial was used to measure the deformation of the


compression cylinders in the test for modulus of elasticity.

The dial gage was made by Standard Gage Co. Inc.,


Poughkeepsie, New York and had a minimum graduation of 0.001

inch.
12

B. IVlATERIALS USED IN 'I'ESTS

1. Cement

The cement used in all mixes was commercial portland


cement Type 1 Red Ring, and was obtained from the Missouri
Portland Cement Company, Kansas City, Missouri.

2. Aggregate

The coarse aggregate used in all mixes was crushed


white limestone from Springfield, Missouri and was supplied
by C. F. Farney of Rolla. The specific gravity of the
coarse aggregate was 2.65. The sieve analysis was conducted
in accordance with "Standard Method of Test for Sieve Analysis

of Coarse and Fine Aggregate". ASTM Designation C 136 and


the results were as follows:
Sieve Size Percent Passing
1 inch 100
3/4 inch 95
1/2 inch 47.5
3/8 inch 20
No. 4 2.5

No. 8 0

The ASTM Designation C-33, specification for 3/4"

coarse aggregate gradation is as follows:


Sieve Size Percent Passing
1 inch 100

3/4 inch 90 - 100

3/8 inch 20 55
No. 4 0 - 10
No. 8 0 - 5
13

The results obtained from the sieve analysis showed

that the coarse aggregate used in the mixes met the require-

ment of the ASTM specification.

The fine aggregate was obtained from the Meramec River

Sand and Gravel Company, Pacific, Missouri. The specific

gravity of the fine aggregate was 2.65. The sieve analysis

was performed in accordance with the "Standard Method of

Test for Sieve Analysis of Coarse and Fine Aggregate"

ASTM Designation C 136 and the results were as follows:

Sieve Size Percent Passing

3/8 inch 100

No. 4 99

No. 8 82

No. 16 66

No. 30 55

No. 50 18

No. 100 3

The ASTM Designation C-33, Specification for fine

aggregate gradation is as follows:

Sieve Size Percent Passing

3/8 inch 100

No. 4 95 - 100

No. 8 80 - 100

No. 16 50 - 85
No. 30 25 - 60
No. 50 10 - 30
No. 100 2 10
14

The results from the sieve analysis showed that the


fine aggregate used met the requirement of the ASTM specifi-
cation. The fineness modulus calculated was 2.77.

3. Water

The water used in the mixes was ordinary water obtainea


from the University of Missouri.

4• Admixture

The epoxy resin used as an admixture was Ciba Araldite


6010 {diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) . It was produced by
the Ciba Products Company, Fair Lawn, New Jersey. It is a
water insoluble, transparent, thermosetting material in liquid
form having an epoxy equivalent of 195, and a viscosity of
160 poises at 25 degrees C. The curing agent used was Ciba
Hardener 951 (triethylene tetramine) •

The formulation of the epoxy resin system used in the


tests was 100 parts of resin and 20 parts of curing agent

by weight.

C. MIXING PROCEDURE

1. Design Of The Mixtures

Since it was thought that the effect of the epoxy would


be related to the fraction of voids filled, the epoxy content
was expressed as a percentage of the void volume or cement

paste. In order to keep the volume of epoxy to a minimum, a


lean mix was used since this produced a smaller void ratio.
15

In addition, since a lean mix has a lower strength than a


rich mix, a change in strength was easier to detect with the
lean mix used as a basis of comparison.

Three mixes of concrete, each with a different percent-


age of epoxy resin compound were made. The percentages of
epoxy resin compound were zero, four and eight per cent of
the volume of cement paste and these three mixes were desig-
nated as Mix A, B and C respectively. The amount of epoxy
resin compound used was equal to the volume of cement paste

removed. This means that the volume of cement paste plus


epoxy resin compound was constant for all mixes. Mix D was
the same as Mix C except that the mixing procedure was changed.
The amount of ingredients of the mixes was calculated in ac-
cordance with "Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures", pub-
lished by Portland Cement Association (see Table l) .

2. Mixing Concrete

A three cubic foot batch was used for Mix A, B and C.

The usual mixing procedure followed for Mix A was:


(1) add coarse aggregate to the mixer,

(2) add fine aggregate,


(3) add cement,
(4) add water,

(5) mix for two minutes.

On the other hand, due to the presence of epoxy resin

and curing agent, a different procedure was set up for Mix B


TABLE I. CONCRETE MIX DESIGN*

------------------------------------------------------------------·
Type of Coarse Fine Epoxy Curing
Mix Aggregate Aggregate Cement Water Resin Agent
(lb.) (lb.) (lb.) (lb.) (lb.) (lb.)

Mix A 1620 1690 427 302


Mix B 1620 1690 410 290 16.4 3.3

~1ix C 1620 1690 393 278 32.8 6.6

Mix D 1620 1690 393 278 32.8 6.6

* Basis: 1 cubic yard of concrete

Maximum size of aggregate = 3/4"


F. M. of sand= 2.77

Water per sack of cement = 8 gal.


Slump = l l/2"

1-'
0'\
~I

and C as follows:

(1) Thorough mixing of fine aggregate with epoxy in


advance was necessary. This was done, for Mix B, by adding
the epoxy resin to fine aggregate and mixing in a Los Angeles
Abrasion Testing Machine. After mixing for thirty minutes,
this sand-epoxy mixture was transferred to the concrete mixer
for further mixing because epoxy lumps still could be seen
in the Los Angeles Abrasion Testing Machine. For Mix C,
epoxy resin and fine aggregate and some coarse aggregate were
mixed directly in the concrete m1xer. Only seven minutes
were required to produce a thorough mixing for Mix c.
(2) After the epoxy lumps were eliminated in step l,
approximately half of the coarse aggregate was added to the
mixer and mixed for five more minutes. The addition of

coarse aggregate helped to produce more thorough mixing of

epoxy resin and aggregate.


(3) The rest of the coarse aggregate and cement was

added.
(4) The curing agent was added to the water, and then
the premixed curing agent and water and cement were added to

concrete mixer.
(5) Mixing was continued for two minutes.

However, the mixing procedure for Mix D was changed from


that of Mix B and C in order to determine if any different

results would be obtained. In Mix D epoxy resin was mixed


thoroughly with the curing agent before being added to the
18

fine aggregate. The epoxy and sand were mixed for two min-
utes in the concrete mixer, and then half of the coarse
aggregate was added and mixed for three minutes. The rest
of the coarse aggregate, cement and water was then added and
mixing was continued for two minutes.

3. Handling Precautions

The curing agents employed in epoxy resin formulations


are strong skin irritants. These materials can produce
local injury on very short exposure and may even cause per-
manent bodily injury after prolonged exposure. Therefore,
epoxy resin plus curing agent in the uncured state should be
handled with care. It is emphasized that direct skin contact
must be avoided. Glasses and rubber gloves should be worn in
handling these materials. If it should contact the skin, it
should be removed immediately by washing the contaminated
area thoroughly with soap and water.

D. TEST PROCEDURE

1. Test Procedure For Compressive Strength

Forty-two cylinders were cast from four batches of con-


crete with different percentages of epoxy resin compound.
Mix A consisted of eighteen cylinders from two batches.
Mix B and c consisted of twelve cylinders, each set being

cast from one batch. 6 11 x 12 11 cylinders were cast in


paraffined paper molds with metal bottoms. They were placed
in the curing room which was maintained at 70°F and
19

100 per cent relative humidity. After three days, half of


the cylinders were removed from the curing room and were kept
outside the curing room until the proper age for testing.
This was done to simulate job curing conditions.

The tests were performed in accordance with the "Stand-


ard Method of Test for Compressive Strength of Molded Con-
crete Cylinders", ASTM Designation C-39. Cylinders were
tested at ages of 7, 14 and 28 days. They were capped with
a sulphur compound before the test. All cylinders were
loaded to failure and the ultimate loads were recorded. The
compressive strength of the specimen was calculated by di-
viding the ultimate load by the cross-sectional area of the

specimen

p
f = A

where
f = unit stress in pounds per square inch
P = ultimate load in pounds
A - cross-sectional area of the cylinder in square

inches

The procedure was the same for testing at various ages.


At the age of 28 days, the modulus of elasticity was also de-
termined simultaneously with the compression test.

2. Test Procedure for Flexural Strength

seven 3 1/2 11 x 4 1/2" x 18" beams were cast for the


20

flexural strength tests from three batches, each with a


different percentage of epoxy resin compound. Mix A con-
sisted of three beams while MLx B and Mix C each consisted

of two beams. Beams were placed in the curing room which


was maintained at 70°F and 100 percent relative humidity.

All beams remained in the curing room for 28 days.

The tests were conducted in accordance with the "Stand-


ard Method of Test for Flexural Strength of Concrete Using
Simple Beam with Center-Point Loading 11 , ASTM Designation

C293. A Riehle compression Testing Machine was used in


performing the beam tests. The 0-3,000 pound scale was

used and the beams were supported over a span of 15". The

load was applied at the center of the beam at a rate of 2 psi

per second in terms of maximum fiber stress.

The beams were loaded to failure and the ultimate loads

were recorded. The modulus of rupture was calculated as

follows:

3PL
R - 2bd2

where

R - modulus of rupture in pounds per square inch


p - maximum applied load in pounds
L - span length in inches
b = width of specimen in inches

and d - depth of specimen in inches


21

In the calculations the weight of the specimen was


neglected.

3. Test Procedure For Modulus of Elasticity

Tests for modulus of elasticity were made simultaneously


with compression tests at 28 days. Fourteen compression
test cylinders, six from Mix A, four from each of Mix B and C
were tested and results obtained for both laboratory curing
conditions and job curing conditions.

An Ames dial held by a stand was placed against the


lower platform of the testing machine to measure the deforma-
tion of the concrete cylinder under load. Deformations and

loading at intervals of ten kips were read.

The secant modulus of elasticity was determined by the


ratio of stress, taken at 50 per cent of the ultimate
J

strength, to strain. The elastic modulus for 6" x 12"

cylinders is given by the equation


p
E = 0.424
~
where
E - modulus of elasticity in pounds per square inch

p - applied load in pounds


6 = total deformation in inches
22

V. TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A. PROPERTIES OF FRESH CONCRETE

The effect of admixture on the properties of fresh

concrete was not very large. The slump for the two batches

of Mix A was 1 1/2" and 1". The slumps for Mix B, Mix c and
Mix D were 2", 1 1/2" and 1 1/2" respectively. The test re-

sults show that there is no appreciable change in slump due

to the increase in percentage of admixture.

Laboratory observations indicate that the tendency of

water to collect on the tops of the specimens decreases with


an increase in percentage of admixture. This may be caused,

in part, by the epoxy plugging the gaps between aggregate

particles.

B. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST

The results of the compressive tests are shown in

Figures 1 to 4. Figure 1 shows the relation between per-

centage of admixture used and compressive strength at the

ages of 7, 14 and 28 days under laboratory curing conditions.

Figure 2 shows the relation between percentage of admixture

used and compressive strength at the ages of 7, 14 and 28

days under job curing conditions. In Figures 3 and 4, com-

pressive strength was plotted against age for Mix A, B, C

and D in order to have a clear comparison.

Under laboratory curing conditions, the average stress


23

at 7 days of Mix B and c specimens is 106 per cent of Mix A


which has no admixture. The compressive stress at 14 days
of Mix B and c is 90 per cent and 103 per cent of Mix A
respectively. At the age of 28 days, the strength of Mix B

and C specimens is 90.5 per cent and 98 per cent of Mix A.

Under job curing conditions, the average compressive


stress at 7 days of Mix B and C specimens is 116 per cent
and 118 per cent of Mix A respectively. The compressive
stress at 14 days of Mix B and C is 119 per cent and 131 per
cent of Mix A. At the age of 28 days, the strength of Mix B
and C is 108 per cent and 121 per cent of Mix A. The in-
crease in compressive strength due to the increased amount of
admixture under job curing conditions is nearly linear at the
ages of 14 and 28 days. However, the results indicate that
the compressive strength at 14 and 28 days of Mix B under
laboratory curing conditions decreased with respect to Mix A.
This reduction in compressive strength is probably due to the

exposure of specimens to moisture during the curing procedure.


~o~sture may affect the curing of epoxy resin.

C. FLEXURAL STRENGTH TEST

The results of the tests on flexural strength of

beams are shown in Figure 5. This Figure shows the relation

between modulus of rupture at the age of 28 days and percent-

age of admixture used. The average strength of specimens of

Mix B and c is 81.5 per cent and 93.5 per cent of Mix A re-
spectively.
24

Because all beams were placed in the curing room until


the time for testing, the decrease in flexural strength is

also apparently due to the presence of moisture during cur-

ing. The curve plotted for modulus of rupture vs. percent-

age of admixture follows the same pattern of that for com-

pressive strength under laboratory curing conditions.

D. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY TEST

The results of modulus of elasticity tests on com-


pression cylinders are shown in Figures 6 and 7. In the
Appendix, Figures 8, 9, and 10 show the stress-strain curve

for Mixes A, B and C respectively under laboratory curing

conditions. Figures 11, 12, and 13 show the stress-strain

curve for Mixes A, B and C respectively under job curing

conditions.

The secant modulus of elasticity was determined at 50

per cent of the ultimate stress. The modulus of Mix B and C

specimens under laboratory curing conditions is 95 per cent

and 91 per cent respectively of Mix A and decreases linearly

with increase of percentage of admixture. The elastic

modulus of the Mix B and C specimens under job curing condi-

tions is 78 per cent and 84 per cent respectively of Mix A.

The decrease in elastic modulus is probably due to the low

elastic modulus properties of epoxy resin.


25

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32

VI. CONCLUSIONS

Since there is very little existing data on this sub-


ject, there is no comparison with previous data. The con-
elusions drawn are based on the data from this series of
tests. The results of the tests show that the compressive
strength of concrete at various ages under job curing con-
ditions definitely increased with an increase in percentage
of admixture used. On the other hand, the compressive
strength decreased slightly under laboratory curing condi-
tions. This indicates that the curing of epoxy resin seems
to be affected by moisture.

Figures 3 and 4 show that the compressive strength of


Mix A specimens at various ages under laboratory curing con-
ditions is much higher than that under job curing conditions

as is usually the case. But the reverse effect is observed

for specimens having admixture.

Like the compressive strength under laboratory curing


conditions, the modulus of rupture also generally decreases
because all beams for flexural strength tests were placed
in the moisture room until the age of 28 days. Both the B

and C mixes exhibit a decrease in strength when compared

with Mix A.

As is expected, the modulus of elasticity of Mixes B

and c specimens decreases in comparison to Mix A under both


laboratory and job curing conditions because the epoxy resin
33

itself has a low modulus of elasticity ranging from


4 0 0 , 0 0 0 to 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 psi ( 3) .

The elastic modulus of concrete of the strength range


in this investigation should be approximately 2,700,000 psi.
The measured values for Mix A of 1,110,000 psi for the job

curing conditions and 1,050,000 psi for the laboratory curing


conditions are low. This is probably due to the method of
measurement. In this investigation, the deformation was not

measured directly from the cylinder. The measurement was

obtained by the Ames dial placed against the lower platform.


The reading was affected by the sulphur compound cylinder

cap which had a low elastic modulus itself and the extension

of the steel posts of the compression machine under applied


load. Since the investigation is on the basis of comparison

and the same measuring method was used for all mixes, the

comparisons were apparently not affected by the difference


between the actual and the measured modulus of elasticity.

Mixing procedure for Mix B and C was changed for Mix D

which has the same percentage of admixture as Mix C. Test


results show that the compressive strength at 7 days of Mix D

specimens is only 62 per cent of Mix C and the compressive

strength at 14 days is approximately 67 per cent of Mix C


under the same curing conditions. The low strength is at-

tributed to the inadequate mixing of epoxy resin and aggre-

gate. The mixing time was limited for Mix D because the
34

epoxy resin had been mixed with curing agent before it was
mixed with aggregate thus shortening the pot life. However,
epoxy resin and sand can be mixed as long as desired for
Mix C and B because the curing agent was added in the last
step.

Epoxy resins are highly adhesive materials but there


was no problem in cleaning equipment for the small percent-
ages used in this investigation. However, releasing agent
might be necessary to clean the equipment in the case of a
high percentage of epoxy used in the mixture.
35

APPENDIX
! .
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· · ·, •-•,
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rl+f- -H-
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t.' '
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42

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. ''The Wonderful World of Epoxy", Concrete Products,


November 1964, pp. 46-50.

2. Welch, G. B, Carmichael, A. J. and Hattersley, D. E.,


"Epoxy Resin Concrete" Civil Engineering and Public
Works Review (London}, June 1962, pp. 759-762;
July 1962, pp. 905, 906.

3. Lee, Neville, Epoxy Resins, McGraw-Hill Book Company


Inc., New York, 1957.

4. ACI Cormnittee 403, "Guide for Use of Epoxy Compounds


With Concrete 11 , Proceedings American Concrete
Institute, Vol. 59, 1962, pp. 1121-1142.

5. Tremper, Bailey, "Repair of Damaged Concrete with Epoxy


Resins", Proceedings American Concrete Institute,
Vol. 57, 1960, pp. 173-182.
6. Dorman, Elliott N. and Gruber H. M., "Epoxies Big
Potential, New Volume Markets Now Opening in Highway
and Building Applications", Modern Plastics, V. 36,
N. 59, 1958, pp. 156-160.

7. 1
'Good Industrial Floors - Chemical Resistant Epoxy
Floor Toppings", Civil Engineering, August 1962,
p. 4 0.
43

VITA

Kuo Chu Hu was born on February 2, 1923 in Tungkuan,


Kwangtung, China. He received his early education in
China and completed his high school education in July, 1939.
He received the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil En-
gineering in July, 1943 from Kuo Min University, Chu-Kiang,
Kwangtung, China.

His experience was gained by working in the Service of


Supply, U. S. Army as a junior engineer for one year starting
in 1945; in the Service of Supply, Chinese Army as an assist-
ant engineer for one year; in the Designing and Construction

Office for Fertilizer Factory No. 6, Formosa for two and


one-half years; in the Military Construction Bureau, Formosa
for three years; in the Shihmen Development Commission,

Formosa for two years.

He was married to Miss Pao-Ting Yuen of Macao in January,


1949, and they now have one son and one daughter living in

Hong Kong.