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ON METAKAOLIN, FLY ASH AND RICE RUSK ASH

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Manuscript ID Draft

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Complete List of Authors: Pires, Eliane; Universidade Federal Fluminense, Engenharia Civil

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Pimenta, André; Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio

de Janeiro, Campus Paracambi

Silva, Felipe; Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de

Janeiro, Mecânica Industrial; Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Engenharia

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mecânica e de materiais

Darwish, Fathi; Universidade Federal Fluminense, Engenharia Civil

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Keyword: geopolymer, concrete, fracture toughness, fly ash, rice husk ash

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Page 1 of 15 Materials Research

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3 FRACTURE PROPERTIES OF GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE BASED ON

4 METAKAOLIN, FLY ASH AND RICE RUSK ASH

5

6 PIRES, E. F. C.a; AZEVEDO, C. M. C.a; PIMENTA, A. P.b; SILVA, F. J.b DARWISH, F. A. I a

7

a

8 Department of Civil Engineering, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil

b

9 Technical Course in Industrial Mechanics, Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Paracambi, RJ, Brazil

10

11 Despite the economic crisis concrete production is growing worldwide increasing demand

12 for Portland cement, which contributes to about 5% of anthropogenic emissions of CO2

13 world besides generating other environmental issues. Geopolymers are exclusively of

14 mineral nature and are considered an alternative to materials based on clinker Portland. The

15 geopolymer cement concrete (GCC) may be prepared from natural oxide-aluminosilicates

16

such as metakaolin (MK), or synthetic, such as fly ash (FA) together with active silica

17

18 contained in the rice husk ash (RHA). The fracture properties of the Portland cement

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19 concrete (PCC) with 25 MPa and 50 MPa, and of three different geopolymeric concretes

20 with the same strength Classes were determined for comparative analysis. The aim of this

21 study is to provide support to initiative the use of geopolymers in the reinforced concrete

22 precasting Industry. Three-point bending tests of notched beams with a/d (notch depth/beam

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23 depth) of 0.5 from RILEM TC80-FMT Recommendations were used to determine the critical

24 values of K, G, R and J-integral for crack propagation under mode I. The results showed that

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25 the geopolymeric concretes exhibit similar mechanical behavior and fracture properties

26 higher that those determined in PCC for the same strength class.

27

28

Keywords: geopolymer, concrete, fracture toughness, fly ash, rice husk ash.

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29

30

31 1. Introduction cation that becomes entrapped in the

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33

materials. The ionic-covalent nature of their since there is evidence that it can be leached

34 to the pore solution and hence out of the

35 molecular bonds, the extent of the chains and

the structural arrangement they form lead to matrix by transcapillary evaporation. If there

36 is a reaction medium that accelerates the

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hardened states [1, 2, 3]. At the beginning of the process or if there is too much heating

38

39 reaction, solubilization of the solid reactants without confining the pore water, phenomena

40 occurs, followed by the formation of a sol such as interruption of polymerization,

41 volumetric contraction by shortening of the

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42

cationic reaction medium. With the chains and even depolymerization can occur

43 simultaneously as occurs in organic polymers

44

continuity of the reaction and even during [4,5]

.

45 solubilization, the solution becomes

Although the geopolymer slurry shows

46 supersaturated with mono- and bivalent

less autogenous retraction than Portland

47 cations, silicate and aluminate anions, which

cement paste, during geopolymerization the

48 combine by condensation into short chains of

49 reaction medium requires water as the ionic

tetramer trimeres and sometimes oligomers.

50 conduction vehicle. This water is essential to

The role of the cations at this time is to

51 maintain the degree of saturation necessary

simultaneously destroy the original structure

52 for the geopolymerization to reach the

of the precursor and to form and maintain the

53 required degree. Excess water, as well as

54

new structure formed. In order for chain

scarcity in the mixture, causes disequilibrium

55 growth to occur continuously, through

in the reaction and leads to unstable structure

56 exchanged oxygen, it is necessary to cancel

or with numerous physical discontinuities.

57 the negative overload charge generated by

Despite the control, in practice it is extremely

58 the tetrahedral aluminum. This occurs by the

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Materials Research Page 2 of 15

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3 difficult to prevent discontinuities to be Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics (NLFM) are

4 formed during geopolymerization since sciences that study the influence of the

5 residual elastic tensions tend to be alleviated presence of these sharp discontinuities inside

6 with the formation of discontinuities, often the material under mechanical loading.

7 with the creation of microcracks [6]. Different models have emerged over the last

8

Some studies of the mechanical behavior three decades to quantify the fracture

9

10 of geopolymers point to its characterization toughness of quasi-brittle materials by

11 as a brittle material as some porous clay or considering the effects of the region of

12 even porcelain. Davidovits noted in his early localized elastoplastic deformation (Fracture

13 studies that high resin thixotropy in the fresh Process Zone, FPZ). However, most models

14 state could be used to bond rigid particulate require the separation of elastic and plastic

15 inert materials, with the aim of reducing or components of the FPZ, which could only

16 eliminating the effects of autogenous occur in controlled situations of successive

17 retraction, as occurs with sand and crushed loading and unloading in a piece of suitable

18

stone in mortars and concrete Portland geometry sensitized by a notch in a certain

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19

20 cement [7,8,9]. The experiments generated section, more loaded.

21 positive results, opening up a range of partial The 3-point bending test with

22 or total replacement opportunities for concentrated load in the middle of the span

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23 Portland cement in virtually all of its became a standard test for quasi- brittle

24 application areas. Mechanical materials, whereas, for metals, the compact

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25 characterization work pointed to the high tensile test still remained the most used. The

26 modulus of elasticity of the geopolymers and pioneering works of Hillerborg [11], Jenq &

27 created a series of doubts about the safety of Shah [12] and Bazant & Kazemi [13] provided

28

its structural application [9]. as early as the 90s technical

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29 [14]

30 However, like Portland cement, recommendations by RILEM . Rilem’s

31 geopolymers would also not be used as paste, proposed test model became the standard

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32 but as a binder matrix, forming mortars and reference as an alternative to ASTM C 1018,

33 concretes. Therefore, in mixtures of which referred the toughness indexes under

34 proportion commonly used in the simple bending of non-notched beams with

35 construction practice, with the influence of load applied in the center of the span. The

36 the aggregates, elasticity modules compatible main criticism associated with this model is

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37 with the other materials used (coatings, etc.) due to the fact it is based on readings of

38

could develop. maximum deflections at critical moments,

39

40 The mechanical behavior of mortars and such as the formation of the 1st crack which

41 geopolymer concrete revealed that they are is actually difficult to determine. As there is

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43 cement, that is, they are classified as "quasi- the localized formation of the FPZ, the crack

44 brittle". This category refers to the fact that can form in any position near the loaded

45 they present the elastic-plastic localized section, which compromises the

46 deformation phenomenon in the region characterization by preventing any

47 immediately ahead and around the end (tip) correlation between the size of the defect and

48

of preexisting discontinuities when submitted the load applied in the material [10].

49

50 to mechanical stresses. In the case of Some fracture parameters such as the

51 discontinuities of acute elliptic geometry, as elastic energy release rate, (G), stress

52 occurs with cracks, the stress concentration intensity factor (K), J-integral, fracture

53 makes it easy to reach the limit of tensile resistance (R) were adopted to characterize

54 strength of the material leading to rupture, concretes of Portland cement and

55 sometimes catastrophic [10]. geopolymer. The fracture toughness was

56 The so-called Linear Elastic Fracture used as a measure of the resistance of the

57 Mechanics (LEFM) and its derivation for the material to the crack propagation [15]. The

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Page 3 of 15 Materials Research

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3 stress intensity factor was proposed in 1957 and mixed together at the time of molding.

4 by Irwin to describe the intensity of the The aqueous silicate showed SiO2/Na2O ratio

5 elastic behavior of the crack tip and of 2.24. The potassium hydroxide solution

6 symbolizes the linear elastic fracture had 8.7% K2O. The metakaolin presented a

7 mechanics. R-curve studies stable crack SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of 1.60, specific gravity of

8

growth and response to the effects of 2.52 ± 0.32 kg/dm3, specific surface of

9

10 increased toughness. The J-integral was 1864.22 m2/kg.

11 proposed in 1968 by Rice [17] to characterize Fly ash (FA) was supplied by the

12 the intensity of elastic-plastic behavior at the company Pozofly S.A., based in the city of

13 crack tip and symbolizes the mechanics of Porto Alegre/RS/Brazil. According to ASTM

14 elastic-plastic fracture. C618/12a it belongs to class F, of low

15 pozolanicity. Its specific gravity was 2.32

This paper presents the fracture

16

parameters of three types of geopolymer g/cm3 and the specific surface was 312.33

17 m2/kg. Metakaolin was substituted in 20%

18 (GCC, GCC-20FA, GCC-20FA-RHA),

volume with fly ash, originating the

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19 obtained from different raw materials and

20 nomenclature of the GCC-20FA geopolymer

compared with the results presented by

21 Portland cement concrete (PCC) in two matrix. Rice husk ash (RHA) was supplied

22 strength classes, 25 MPa and 40 MPa, at 28 by TecnoSil S.A., from the Rio Grande do

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days of age.

24 burning for steam and energy generation. Its

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26 density 890 kg/m3, pozzolanic activity of 625

27 The fine aggregate was washed river sand

with a fineness modulus of 2.66 and mg CaO/g. An alternative sodium silicate

28

maximum dimension, Dmáx, of 24 mm, was made from RHA pre-solubilized to fully

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30 considered as average size sand. The coarse replace the commercial sodium silicate. In

31 aggregate used was of gneiss origin with a addition to using 20% FA, this alternative

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32 fineness modulus of 5.72mm, considered as RHA sodium silicate was used resulting in

33 level zero gravel with maximum size of 9.5 the nomenclature of the GCC-20FA-RHA

34 mm. geopolymer matrix. To determine the

35 fracture properties of plain concrete small

The geopolymer cement used in the

36 beams, 24 notched beams were tested at three

manufacturing of the geopolymer concrete

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38 beams was provided by Wincret Designer

Concrete Products Ltda based in São TC80-FMT [2]. Three samples were formed

39

40 Paulo/SP. It is commercially called Cement for each matrix (PCC, GCC, GCC-20FA,

41 Geo-Pol®, with SiO2/Al2O3 ratio equal to GCC-20FA-RHA) by grouping each matrix

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42 5.35 and (Na2O + K2O)/SiO2 equal to 0.209. with each strength class (25 and 40 MPa). All

43 The Portland cement used in the reference specimens were 500 mm x 100 mm x 100

44 concrete was the CPIIF-32 manufactured by mm, with a span (S) / height (d) ratio of 4,

45 and a notch height (a0) and beam height (d)

Lafarge/Mauá S.A. and acquired in the local

46 ratio of 0.5. The loading rate was 50 ± 15

47 market. The mass ratio between the

constituents of the concrete of both matrices N/s. The deflection in the middle of the span

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studied was 1: 1.26: 0.99 (dry binder: sand: was monitored through the resistive

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50 zero gravel) with water/dry binder ratio of displacement transducer with electrical

51 0.36, setting characteristic resistance at 28 course 100 mm, precision of 0.01 mm, mark

52 days of age, fck, of 40 MPa. Already for fck GEFRAN INC. The crack mouth opening

53 25 MPa, the mass ratio was 1: 2.00: 1.57 and displacement (CMOD) was monitored using

54 factor water/dry binder 0.46, according to clip-gage attached under the beam through

55 the latex rods (Figure 1). All electrical

56

Table 1.

The potassium hydroxide and sodium sensors were read using the National

57 Instruments Data Acquisition System Model

58 silicate solutions were prepared separately

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Materials Research Page 4 of 15

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3 cDAQ-9217, assisted by the LabView 8.6

4 software.

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15 Figure 1. Clip Gauge placement detail for CMOD

16 reading.

17 Table 1. Concrete design parameters of Class 25 and 40 MPa

18

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19 Parameters Class 25 Class 40

20 Compressive strength characteristic, fck 25 MPa 40 MPa

21 Compressive strength of design, fcj 35 MPa 49 MPa

22 Standard deviation of design, Sd 5.5 MPa 5.5 MPa

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Water/Cement ratio, w/c 0.457 0.357

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Consumption of binder / m3 of concrete 459.52 kg 640.75 kg

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Proportion (by mass) 1 : 2.00 : 1.57 : 0.46 1 : 1.26 : 0.99 : 0.36

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25

26

27

28 3. Results and discussions In class 40, all geopolymers presented

better results than PCC, with emphasis on

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29

30 P-CMOD curves of both concrete strength GCC-20FA_40. In this class, the RHA

31 class of 25 and 40 MPa are shown in Figures silicate containing matrix did not repeat the

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32 2 and 3, respectively. In class 25, the superior performance as in class 25. This

33 geopolymer with the two ashes (GCC-20FA- could be attributed to the workability loss of

34 RHA_25) showed the best results in stiffness, the matrix with the lowest aggregate content

35 strength and critical value of CMOD. even though there was an increase in Pmax.

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40

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49 Figure 2. Variation of load with CMOD to 25 MPa Figure 3. Variation of load with CMOD to 40 MPa

50 strength class of concrete for all matrices studied. strength class of concrete for all matrices studied.

51

Although less rigid, the standard

52 Figure 4 shows KI versus ∆a for notched

53 geopolymer (GCC_25) showed Pmax and

beams of the strength class of 25 MPa and

54 CMODc higher than the PCC, indicative of

the different matrices. The standard

55 higher toughness. With 20% of FA, stiffness

geopolymer had a small performance gain in

56 was equivalent but Pmax was higher than that

relation to Portland, but the use of FA

57 of PCC.

58 promoted a greater increase of the stress

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Page 5 of 15 Materials Research

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3 intensity factor, KI. As for the influence of the GCC-20FA_25 had the best performance,

4 the RHA, the use of the sodium silicate of surpassing the other geopolymers. The

5 RHA provided a substantial improvement in emphasis in relation to PCC_25 was almost

6 KI values of approximately 35% compared to 100%. In terms of GI-∆a, the standard

7 the standard geopolymer. geopolymer (GCC_25) and the geopolymer

8

with the two ashes (GCC-20FA-RHA_25)

9

10 presented similar performances, but both

11 superior to PCC_25 by approximately 60%.

12

13

14

15

16

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18

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20

21

Figure 4. Variation of the stress intensity factor (KI)

22

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with the nominal extension of the crack (∆a) for

23

concrete strength class notched beams of 25 MPa with

24 different matrices.

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26 A less selective behavior was observed in release with the extension of the crack for concrete

27 the beams of the class 40 MPa (Figure 5). strength class notched beams of 25 MPa with different

28 Although the KI curve of GCC-20FA- matrices.

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30 Figure 7 shows the values of GI as a

can be said that all presented similar function of ∆a for the notched beams of class

31

performance. Another observation is that

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33 when compared to the KI curves of class 25, overlapped for GCC_40 and GCC-20FA-

34 there was no increase of toughness with the RHA_40 and for PCC_40 and GCC-

35 increase of strength class, except in GCC- 20FA_40. These results were unexpected

36 20FA-RHA. since the geopolymers had shown superior or

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equivalent behavior to PCC_40 in several

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39

other parameters as shown above, including

40 KI.

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49

50

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52 Figure 5. Variation of the stress intensity fator

with the extension of the crack for concrete strength

53

class notched beams of 40 MPa with different

54 matrices. Figure 7. Variation of deformation energy release rate

55

Figure 6 shows the GI values as a function with the extension of the crack for concrete strength

56 class notched beams of 40 MPa with different

57

of ∆a for beams of class 25 MPa, for the

different concrete matrices. As can be seen, matrices.

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Materials Research Page 6 of 15

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3 Since GI is directly proportional to (KI)2

4 and inversely proportional to the modulus of

5 elasticity, then, for a same value of KI, the

6 smaller the value of GI [13].

7 Figure 8 presents the results of fracture

8

resistance for concrete of class 25 MPa in the

9

10 different matrices studied. All the

11 geopolymer small beams presented the

12 plateau of the RI-curve above the plateau of

13 PCC_25, revealing its superiority in this

14 parameter indicative of the toughness.

15 Among the geopolymer beams, however, the

16 best performance related to resistance to

17 crack propagation was for GCC_25, with Figure 9. Variation of the RI curves with the

18

values 20% higher than for the GCC- extension of the crack for concrete strength class

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19 notched beams of 40 MPa with different matrices.

20 20FA_25 and 50% higher than the GCC-

21 20FA-RHA_25. This corroborates with

results obtained in the KI analysis. The presence of fly ash and rice husk in

22

the geopolymer did not have a significant

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23

24 influence on the performance of the different

strength concrete classes. Whereas the GCC-

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25

26 20FA lost 20% of the resistance to the

27 fracture with the increase of the strength

28 class of the concrete.

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30 obtained for each type of concrete studied.

31 With the exception of PCC notched beams,

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all the others presented increase of Pmax with

33

34 the increase of strength class, especially the

35 GCC-20FA-RHA. The GCC showed

36 increased stiffness with increased strength

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37 Figure 8. Variation of the RI curves with the class, as expected. However, the other

38 extension of the crack for concrete strength class geopolymeric matrices, as well as the PCC,

39 notched beams of 25 MPa with different matrices. countered this expectation.

40

41 The results obtained for class 40 MPa

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43 plateau for GCC_40 has fallen to half the

44

value for GCC_25 (Figure 9).

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46

47

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49

50

51

52 Figure 10. Average values of load-deflection curves

53 in the middle of the span of the notched beams of

54 different matrices, in both compression strength

55 classes.

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57 Table 2 compares the average values of

58 the critical values of the fracture parameters

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Page 7 of 15 Materials Research

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3 for the notched beams of the different

4 matrices and strength classes. For the 25

(2)

5 MPa strength class, all geopolymers beams

6 had fracture properties better than PCC_25.

7 4.2 Critical rate of strain release energy, GIc

8 Table 2. Average values of fracture parameters.

9 Notched

KIc

GIc RIc Jmáx

10 (MPa.m The critical rate of strain energy release

Beam (N/m) (N/m) (J/m2)

m1/2) for propagation of a crack extension unit was

11 28.45 + 22.37 + 22.38 + 329.76+

PCC_25 obtained by:

12 5.10 6.59 6.59 55.59

13 46.08 + 68.12 + 68.14 + 443.14+

GCC_25 (3)

14.82 23.31 23.32 151.09

14 GCC- 38.72 + 56.03 + 56.04 + 576.37+

15 20FA_25 3.96 11.41 11.41 147.01

16 GCC-

50.17 + 44.60 + 44.62 + 543.90+

20FA-

17 RHA_25

5.98 4.55 4.55 135.32 where KIc is the stress intensity factor in the

18 37.01 + 40.36 + 40.37 + 146.93+ critical state and E, the modulus of elasticity

PCC_40

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19 4.22 10.73 10.73 12.88

38.60 + 29.46 + 29.47 + 358.15+ calculated by the following [14]:

20 GCC_40

5.29 11.92 11.93 93.70

21 GCC- 38.50 + 41.91 + 41.93 + 386.17+ (4)

22 20FA_40 2.91 14.95 14.96 115.76

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GCC-

23 20FA-

61.18 + 50.21 + 50.23 + 454.15+

24 8.06 6.46 6.47 56.27 where S is the span, equal to 400 mm, d is

RHA_40

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26 Observing the KIc parameters, there was b is the width of the beam, equal to 100 mm.

27 loss of toughness of the geopolymer class 25 The parameter V1(α0) was calculated from

28 with the substitution of metakaolin with FA, the following equation [14]:

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but there was an increase when the RHA

30

31 silicate was used. In small beams in class 40, (5)

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33 Portland concrete was observed. The fracture

34 toughness, KIcs, of GCC-20FA-RHA_40 was where: α0 =

0.5

36

The initial compliance, or initial

of PCC_40, GCC_40 and GCC-20FA_40,

flexibility, was calculated by the following:

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37 respectively.

38

39 4 General formulation (6)

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41

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4.1 Critical stress intensity factor for mode I where the CMODi is provided by the clip

42

43 crack propagation, KIc gauge, in a load acting on the elastic phase,

44 Pi.

45 The critical stress intensity factor in the mode

46 I of crack opening, called KIc, was 4.3 Resistance to fracture, RI

47 determined when a = ac, by [18]:

48 Obtaining curves RI (resistance to

49 fracture) was proposed by Ouyang & Shah

50 (1) [19]

from KIc and CTODc and expressed by:

51

where P is the active load, a a is the notch (7)

52

53 extension and equal to 50 mm, b is the width

54 of the small beam and equal to 100 mm, d is

55 the height of the notch equal to 100 mm, F3 where a0 is the initial notch length of 50 mm;

56 (a/d) is a function given by: The coefficients α (equation 8) and β

57 (equation 9) are determined from the

58 biparametric model of fracture:

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Materials Research Page 8 of 15

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3 instantaneous load and δ is the displacement

4 (8) of the point of application of the load.

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6

(17)

7

8 (9) The Jmax is obtained when U = Umax,

9 form P = Pmax and δ = δmax [10].

10

11 The coefficient µ is calculated as follows:

5. Conclusions

12

13

(10) The analysis of the fracture properties of

14

15 the concrete notched beams allowed the

16 verification that for the same class of

17 where E is the tangent modulus of elasticity, compressive strength, the geopolymer

18 cement concrete is tougher than the Portland

f1 and f2 are equal to 1.123 and 1.420,

Fo

19 equalivant. Replacing the metakaolin with

20 respectively, tabulated for notched beam in

the center of the span, under 3-point bending 20% volume fly ash (GCC-20FA) and rice

21 rusk ash based silicate (GCC-20FA-RHA)

22 and with span/height ratio equal to 4.

further improved the performance of the

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23

24 The roots of the equation, d1 and d2, are concrete. The fracture toughness of GCC-

20FA and GCC-20FA-RHA were measured

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26 from parameters such as KIc, J-Integral and

27 R-curves, and showed values 100% higher

(11)

28 than the Portland Cement Concrete.

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30 So,

31

6. Acknowledgment

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33 (12)

34 The authors thank the Structural and

35 Construction Materials Laboratories of UFF /

36 (13) Niterói and CAPES for their financial

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37 support.

38

(14)

39 7. References

40

41 (15)

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43 Silva, F. J.; Pavão, B. Veit, H. The effects of

44 Na2O/SiO2 molar ratio, curing temperature and age

45 4.4 J-Integral on compressive strength, morphology and

microstructure of alkali-activated fly ash-based

46 geopolymers. Cement & Concrete Composites, 33

47 A J-integral was determined according to (2011), pp 653–660.

48 the equation below:

49 2 Silva, F. J.; Barbosa, V. F. F.; Thaumaturgo, C. Use

50 of Environmental Scanning Microscopy (ESEM)

(16) for Study of Alkali-Activated Pulverized Fly Ash.

51

where d represents the width of the specimen In: 6th Brazilian Conference on Microscopy of

52

Materials, Águas de Lindóia. ACTA

53 and (d - a0) represents the height of the MICROSCÓPICA - Anais of 6th Brazilian

54 ligament, a0 is the crack length equal to 50 Conference on Microscopy of Materials, 1998. v.

55 mm, U is the work performed during loading, 7. p. 133-136.

56 calculated by integrating the area under the

57 3 Barbosa, V.F.F., Mackenzie, K.J.D., Thaumaturgo,

P-δ, (equation 17), where P is the C. Synthesis and characterization of materials

58

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Page 9 of 15 Materials Research

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3 based on inorganic polymers of alumina and sílica: 13 Bazant, Z. P.; Kazemi, M. T. Determination of

4 sodium polysialate polymers. International fracture energy, process zone length and brittleness

5 Journal of Inorganic Materials, v. 2, p. 309-317, number from size effect, with application to rock

2000. and concrete. International Journal of Fracture, V.

6

44, n. 2, 1990, pp. 111-131.

7 4 Xu, H.; Deventer, J. S. F. V. The geopolymerization

8 of alumino-silicate mínerals. International miner. 14 RILEM Committee on Fracture Mechanics of

9 process. V. 59, 2000, p. 247 – 266. Concrete – Test Methods. Determination of the

10 fracture parameters (KIcs e CTODc) of plain

5 Xu, H.; Deventer, J. S. F. V. Geopolymerization of

11 concrete by three-point bend tests. Materials and

multiple minerals. 15 1131-1139, 2002

12 Structures, V. 23, 1990, pp. 457-460.

6 Duxon, P., Fernandez-jimenez, A., Provis, J.L.,

13 15 Shinde S. S.; Dhamejani C. L. Literature Review

Lukey, G.C., Palomo, A., van Deventer, J.S.J.

14 Geopolymer technology: the current state of the

on Fracture Toughness and impact toughness.

15 International Journal of Innovations in Engineering

art, Journal of Materials Science, v. 42, 2007, p.

16 Research and Technology, Volume 2, Issue 11,

2917-2933

17 Nov.-2015.

18 7 Davidovits, J. Geopolymers inorganic polymeric

16 Irwin, G. R. Analysis of stress and strains near the

Fo

19 new materials. Journal of Thermal Analysis. Vol.

end of a crack traversing a plate. J. of Applied

37, p. 1633 –1656, 1991.

20 Mechanics, A.S.M.E, New York. 1957.

21 8 Davidovits, J. High-alkali cements for 21stcentury

17 Rice, J. R. A path independent integral and the

22 concretes, conrete technology, past, present and

approximate analysis of strain concentration by

r

notches and cracks. J Appl Mech Trans, V.35,

24 pp.383-398, 1994

375-386, 1968.

Re

18 REINHARDT, H. W., SHILANG, XU. Crack

26 Applications. Terceira edição. Institut

extension resistance and fracture properties of

27 Géopolymère. 2011.

quasi-brittle softening materials like concrete

28 10 Bittencourt, T. N. Fraturamento do concreto based on the complete process of fracture.

vi

29 estrutural: aspectos teóricos, computacionais e International Journal of Fracture. V. 92, 1998, pp.

30 experimentais, e suas aplicações. Tese concurso de 71-99.

31 Livre Docência. Universidade de São Paulo.1999

ew

11 Hillerborg, A.; Modeer, M.; Petersson, P. E. approach for fracture of quasi-britlle materials.

33

Analysis of crack formation an crack growth in Cement and Concrete Research, V. 20, n. 4, 1990,

34 pp. 901-916.

concrete by means of fracture mechanics and finite

35 elements. Cement and Concrete Research. Vol.6,

36 n.6, pp. 773-781, 1976.

On

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38 12 Jenq, Y. S.; Shah, S. P. A two parameter fracture

39 model for concrete. Journal of Engineering

Mechanics, V. 111, n. 4, 1985, pp. 1227-1241

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8 I declare for the proper purpose that the article entitled: “FRACTURE PROPERTIES OF

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GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE BASED ON METAKAOLIN, FLY ASH AND RICE RUSK ASH”, presented

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11 for publication in the journal Materials Research, is unpublished.

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Rio de Janeiro, 11 de dezembro de 2016.

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16 Figure 4. Variation of the stress intensity factor (KI) with the nominal extension of the crack (∆a) for

17 concrete strength class notched beams of 25 MPa with different matrices.

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52 Figure 6. Variation of the rate of deformation energy release with the extension of the crack for concrete

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17 Figure 7. Variation of deformation energy release rate with the extension of the crack for concrete

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3 Table 1. Concrete design parameters of Class 25 and 40 MPa

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5 Parameters Class 25 Class 40

6 Compressive strength characteristic, fck 25 MPa 40 MPa

7 Compressive strength of design, fcj 35 MPa 49 MPa

Standard deviation of design, Sd 5.5 MPa 5.5 MPa

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Water/Cement ratio, w/c 0.457 0.357

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Consumption of binder / m3 of concrete 459.52 kg 640.75 kg

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Proportion (by mass) 1 : 2.00 : 1.57 : 0.46 1 : 1.26 : 0.99 : 0.36

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13 Table 2. Average values of fracture parameters.

14 Notched Beam KIc (MPa.mm1/2)

GIc RIc Jmáx

15 (N/m) (N/m) (J/m2)

PCC_25 28.45 + 5.10 22.37 + 6.59 22.38 + 6.59 329.76+ 55.59

16 GCC_25 46.08 + 14.82 68.12 + 23.31 68.14 + 23.32 443.14+ 151.09

17 GCC-20FA_25 38.72 + 3.96 56.03 + 11.41 56.04 + 11.41 576.37+ 147.01

18 GCC-20FA-RHA_25 50.17 + 5.98 44.60 + 4.55 44.62 + 4.55 543.90+ 135.32

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PCC_40 37.01 + 4.22 40.36 + 10.73 40.37 + 10.73 146.93+ 12.88

19 GCC_40 38.60 + 5.29 29.46 + 11.92 29.47 + 11.93 358.15+ 93.70

20 GCC-20FA_40 38.50 + 2.91 41.91 + 14.95 41.93 + 14.96 386.17+ 115.76

21 GCC-20FA-RHA_40 61.18 + 8.06 50.21 + 6.46 50.23 + 6.47 454.15+ 56.27

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