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Materials Research

FRACTURE PROPERTIES OF GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE BASED


ON METAKAOLIN, FLY ASH AND RICE RUSK ASH

Journal: Materials Research


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Manuscript ID Draft

Manuscript Type: Conference: CBECIMAT 2016

Date Submitted by the Author: n/a


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Complete List of Authors: Pires, Eliane; Universidade Federal Fluminense, Engenharia Civil
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Azevedo, Cláudio; Universidade Federal Fluminense, Engenharia Civil


Pimenta, André; Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio
de Janeiro, Campus Paracambi
Silva, Felipe; Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de
Janeiro, Mecânica Industrial; Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Engenharia
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mecânica e de materiais
Darwish, Fathi; Universidade Federal Fluminense, Engenharia Civil
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Keyword: geopolymer, concrete, fracture toughness, fly ash, rice husk ash
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2
3 FRACTURE PROPERTIES OF GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE BASED ON
4 METAKAOLIN, FLY ASH AND RICE RUSK ASH
5
6 PIRES, E. F. C.a; AZEVEDO, C. M. C.a; PIMENTA, A. P.b; SILVA, F. J.b DARWISH, F. A. I a
7
a
8 Department of Civil Engineering, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil
b
9 Technical Course in Industrial Mechanics, Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Paracambi, RJ, Brazil
10
11 Despite the economic crisis concrete production is growing worldwide increasing demand
12 for Portland cement, which contributes to about 5% of anthropogenic emissions of CO2
13 world besides generating other environmental issues. Geopolymers are exclusively of
14 mineral nature and are considered an alternative to materials based on clinker Portland. The
15 geopolymer cement concrete (GCC) may be prepared from natural oxide-aluminosilicates
16
such as metakaolin (MK), or synthetic, such as fly ash (FA) together with active silica
17
18 contained in the rice husk ash (RHA). The fracture properties of the Portland cement
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19 concrete (PCC) with 25 MPa and 50 MPa, and of three different geopolymeric concretes
20 with the same strength Classes were determined for comparative analysis. The aim of this
21 study is to provide support to initiative the use of geopolymers in the reinforced concrete
22 precasting Industry. Three-point bending tests of notched beams with a/d (notch depth/beam
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23 depth) of 0.5 from RILEM TC80-FMT Recommendations were used to determine the critical
24 values of K, G, R and J-integral for crack propagation under mode I. The results showed that
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25 the geopolymeric concretes exhibit similar mechanical behavior and fracture properties
26 higher that those determined in PCC for the same strength class.
27
28
Keywords: geopolymer, concrete, fracture toughness, fly ash, rice husk ash.
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29
30
31 1. Introduction cation that becomes entrapped in the
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32 Geopolymers are considered ceramic structure, but not necessarily immobilized,


33
materials. The ionic-covalent nature of their since there is evidence that it can be leached
34 to the pore solution and hence out of the
35 molecular bonds, the extent of the chains and
the structural arrangement they form lead to matrix by transcapillary evaporation. If there
36 is a reaction medium that accelerates the
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37 particular properties in the fresh and


hardened states [1, 2, 3]. At the beginning of the process or if there is too much heating
38
39 reaction, solubilization of the solid reactants without confining the pore water, phenomena
40 occurs, followed by the formation of a sol such as interruption of polymerization,
41 volumetric contraction by shortening of the
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consisting of solid particles dispersed in a


42
cationic reaction medium. With the chains and even depolymerization can occur
43 simultaneously as occurs in organic polymers
44
continuity of the reaction and even during [4,5]
.
45 solubilization, the solution becomes
Although the geopolymer slurry shows
46 supersaturated with mono- and bivalent
less autogenous retraction than Portland
47 cations, silicate and aluminate anions, which
cement paste, during geopolymerization the
48 combine by condensation into short chains of
49 reaction medium requires water as the ionic
tetramer trimeres and sometimes oligomers.
50 conduction vehicle. This water is essential to
The role of the cations at this time is to
51 maintain the degree of saturation necessary
simultaneously destroy the original structure
52 for the geopolymerization to reach the
of the precursor and to form and maintain the
53 required degree. Excess water, as well as
54
new structure formed. In order for chain
scarcity in the mixture, causes disequilibrium
55 growth to occur continuously, through
in the reaction and leads to unstable structure
56 exchanged oxygen, it is necessary to cancel
or with numerous physical discontinuities.
57 the negative overload charge generated by
Despite the control, in practice it is extremely
58 the tetrahedral aluminum. This occurs by the
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3 difficult to prevent discontinuities to be Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics (NLFM) are
4 formed during geopolymerization since sciences that study the influence of the
5 residual elastic tensions tend to be alleviated presence of these sharp discontinuities inside
6 with the formation of discontinuities, often the material under mechanical loading.
7 with the creation of microcracks [6]. Different models have emerged over the last
8
Some studies of the mechanical behavior three decades to quantify the fracture
9
10 of geopolymers point to its characterization toughness of quasi-brittle materials by
11 as a brittle material as some porous clay or considering the effects of the region of
12 even porcelain. Davidovits noted in his early localized elastoplastic deformation (Fracture
13 studies that high resin thixotropy in the fresh Process Zone, FPZ). However, most models
14 state could be used to bond rigid particulate require the separation of elastic and plastic
15 inert materials, with the aim of reducing or components of the FPZ, which could only
16 eliminating the effects of autogenous occur in controlled situations of successive
17 retraction, as occurs with sand and crushed loading and unloading in a piece of suitable
18
stone in mortars and concrete Portland geometry sensitized by a notch in a certain
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19
20 cement [7,8,9]. The experiments generated section, more loaded.
21 positive results, opening up a range of partial The 3-point bending test with
22 or total replacement opportunities for concentrated load in the middle of the span
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23 Portland cement in virtually all of its became a standard test for quasi- brittle
24 application areas. Mechanical materials, whereas, for metals, the compact
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25 characterization work pointed to the high tensile test still remained the most used. The
26 modulus of elasticity of the geopolymers and pioneering works of Hillerborg [11], Jenq &
27 created a series of doubts about the safety of Shah [12] and Bazant & Kazemi [13] provided
28
its structural application [9]. as early as the 90s technical
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29 [14]
30 However, like Portland cement, recommendations by RILEM . Rilem’s
31 geopolymers would also not be used as paste, proposed test model became the standard
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32 but as a binder matrix, forming mortars and reference as an alternative to ASTM C 1018,
33 concretes. Therefore, in mixtures of which referred the toughness indexes under
34 proportion commonly used in the simple bending of non-notched beams with
35 construction practice, with the influence of load applied in the center of the span. The
36 the aggregates, elasticity modules compatible main criticism associated with this model is
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37 with the other materials used (coatings, etc.) due to the fact it is based on readings of
38
could develop. maximum deflections at critical moments,
39
40 The mechanical behavior of mortars and such as the formation of the 1st crack which
41 geopolymer concrete revealed that they are is actually difficult to determine. As there is
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42 similar to rocks and concretes of Portland no macroscopic stress concentrator to aid in


43 cement, that is, they are classified as "quasi- the localized formation of the FPZ, the crack
44 brittle". This category refers to the fact that can form in any position near the loaded
45 they present the elastic-plastic localized section, which compromises the
46 deformation phenomenon in the region characterization by preventing any
47 immediately ahead and around the end (tip) correlation between the size of the defect and
48
of preexisting discontinuities when submitted the load applied in the material [10].
49
50 to mechanical stresses. In the case of Some fracture parameters such as the
51 discontinuities of acute elliptic geometry, as elastic energy release rate, (G), stress
52 occurs with cracks, the stress concentration intensity factor (K), J-integral, fracture
53 makes it easy to reach the limit of tensile resistance (R) were adopted to characterize
54 strength of the material leading to rupture, concretes of Portland cement and
55 sometimes catastrophic [10]. geopolymer. The fracture toughness was
56 The so-called Linear Elastic Fracture used as a measure of the resistance of the
57 Mechanics (LEFM) and its derivation for the material to the crack propagation [15]. The
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3 stress intensity factor was proposed in 1957 and mixed together at the time of molding.
4 by Irwin to describe the intensity of the The aqueous silicate showed SiO2/Na2O ratio
5 elastic behavior of the crack tip and of 2.24. The potassium hydroxide solution
6 symbolizes the linear elastic fracture had 8.7% K2O. The metakaolin presented a
7 mechanics. R-curve studies stable crack SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of 1.60, specific gravity of
8
growth and response to the effects of 2.52 ± 0.32 kg/dm3, specific surface of
9
10 increased toughness. The J-integral was 1864.22 m2/kg.
11 proposed in 1968 by Rice [17] to characterize Fly ash (FA) was supplied by the
12 the intensity of elastic-plastic behavior at the company Pozofly S.A., based in the city of
13 crack tip and symbolizes the mechanics of Porto Alegre/RS/Brazil. According to ASTM
14 elastic-plastic fracture. C618/12a it belongs to class F, of low
15 pozolanicity. Its specific gravity was 2.32
This paper presents the fracture
16
parameters of three types of geopolymer g/cm3 and the specific surface was 312.33
17 m2/kg. Metakaolin was substituted in 20%
18 (GCC, GCC-20FA, GCC-20FA-RHA),
volume with fly ash, originating the
Fo
19 obtained from different raw materials and
20 nomenclature of the GCC-20FA geopolymer
compared with the results presented by
21 Portland cement concrete (PCC) in two matrix. Rice husk ash (RHA) was supplied
22 strength classes, 25 MPa and 40 MPa, at 28 by TecnoSil S.A., from the Rio Grande do
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23 Sul state and originated from biomass


days of age.
24 burning for steam and energy generation. Its
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25 2. Materials and methods specific gravity was 2.14 kg/dm3, apparent


26 density 890 kg/m3, pozzolanic activity of 625
27 The fine aggregate was washed river sand
with a fineness modulus of 2.66 and mg CaO/g. An alternative sodium silicate
28
maximum dimension, Dmáx, of 24 mm, was made from RHA pre-solubilized to fully
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30 considered as average size sand. The coarse replace the commercial sodium silicate. In
31 aggregate used was of gneiss origin with a addition to using 20% FA, this alternative
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32 fineness modulus of 5.72mm, considered as RHA sodium silicate was used resulting in
33 level zero gravel with maximum size of 9.5 the nomenclature of the GCC-20FA-RHA
34 mm. geopolymer matrix. To determine the
35 fracture properties of plain concrete small
The geopolymer cement used in the
36 beams, 24 notched beams were tested at three
manufacturing of the geopolymer concrete
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37 loading points, as recommended by RILEM


38 beams was provided by Wincret Designer
Concrete Products Ltda based in São TC80-FMT [2]. Three samples were formed
39
40 Paulo/SP. It is commercially called Cement for each matrix (PCC, GCC, GCC-20FA,
41 Geo-Pol®, with SiO2/Al2O3 ratio equal to GCC-20FA-RHA) by grouping each matrix
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42 5.35 and (Na2O + K2O)/SiO2 equal to 0.209. with each strength class (25 and 40 MPa). All
43 The Portland cement used in the reference specimens were 500 mm x 100 mm x 100
44 concrete was the CPIIF-32 manufactured by mm, with a span (S) / height (d) ratio of 4,
45 and a notch height (a0) and beam height (d)
Lafarge/Mauá S.A. and acquired in the local
46 ratio of 0.5. The loading rate was 50 ± 15
47 market. The mass ratio between the
constituents of the concrete of both matrices N/s. The deflection in the middle of the span
48
studied was 1: 1.26: 0.99 (dry binder: sand: was monitored through the resistive
49
50 zero gravel) with water/dry binder ratio of displacement transducer with electrical
51 0.36, setting characteristic resistance at 28 course 100 mm, precision of 0.01 mm, mark
52 days of age, fck, of 40 MPa. Already for fck GEFRAN INC. The crack mouth opening
53 25 MPa, the mass ratio was 1: 2.00: 1.57 and displacement (CMOD) was monitored using
54 factor water/dry binder 0.46, according to clip-gage attached under the beam through
55 the latex rods (Figure 1). All electrical
56
Table 1.
The potassium hydroxide and sodium sensors were read using the National
57 Instruments Data Acquisition System Model
58 silicate solutions were prepared separately
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3 cDAQ-9217, assisted by the LabView 8.6
4 software.
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15 Figure 1. Clip Gauge placement detail for CMOD
16 reading.
17 Table 1. Concrete design parameters of Class 25 and 40 MPa
18
Fo
19 Parameters Class 25 Class 40
20 Compressive strength characteristic, fck 25 MPa 40 MPa
21 Compressive strength of design, fcj 35 MPa 49 MPa
22 Standard deviation of design, Sd 5.5 MPa 5.5 MPa
r
Water/Cement ratio, w/c 0.457 0.357
23
Consumption of binder / m3 of concrete 459.52 kg 640.75 kg
24
Proportion (by mass) 1 : 2.00 : 1.57 : 0.46 1 : 1.26 : 0.99 : 0.36
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25
26
27
28 3. Results and discussions In class 40, all geopolymers presented
better results than PCC, with emphasis on
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29
30 P-CMOD curves of both concrete strength GCC-20FA_40. In this class, the RHA
31 class of 25 and 40 MPa are shown in Figures silicate containing matrix did not repeat the
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32 2 and 3, respectively. In class 25, the superior performance as in class 25. This
33 geopolymer with the two ashes (GCC-20FA- could be attributed to the workability loss of
34 RHA_25) showed the best results in stiffness, the matrix with the lowest aggregate content
35 strength and critical value of CMOD. even though there was an increase in Pmax.
36
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39
40
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43
44
45
46
47
48
49 Figure 2. Variation of load with CMOD to 25 MPa Figure 3. Variation of load with CMOD to 40 MPa
50 strength class of concrete for all matrices studied. strength class of concrete for all matrices studied.
51
Although less rigid, the standard
52 Figure 4 shows KI versus ∆a for notched
53 geopolymer (GCC_25) showed Pmax and
beams of the strength class of 25 MPa and
54 CMODc higher than the PCC, indicative of
the different matrices. The standard
55 higher toughness. With 20% of FA, stiffness
geopolymer had a small performance gain in
56 was equivalent but Pmax was higher than that
relation to Portland, but the use of FA
57 of PCC.
58 promoted a greater increase of the stress
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3 intensity factor, KI. As for the influence of the GCC-20FA_25 had the best performance,
4 the RHA, the use of the sodium silicate of surpassing the other geopolymers. The
5 RHA provided a substantial improvement in emphasis in relation to PCC_25 was almost
6 KI values of approximately 35% compared to 100%. In terms of GI-∆a, the standard
7 the standard geopolymer. geopolymer (GCC_25) and the geopolymer
8
with the two ashes (GCC-20FA-RHA_25)
9
10 presented similar performances, but both
11 superior to PCC_25 by approximately 60%.
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Fo
19
20
21
Figure 4. Variation of the stress intensity factor (KI)
22
r
with the nominal extension of the crack (∆a) for
23
concrete strength class notched beams of 25 MPa with
24 different matrices.
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25 Figure 6. Variation of the rate of deformation energy


26 A less selective behavior was observed in release with the extension of the crack for concrete
27 the beams of the class 40 MPa (Figure 5). strength class notched beams of 25 MPa with different
28 Although the KI curve of GCC-20FA- matrices.
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29 RHA_40 has remained above the others, it


30 Figure 7 shows the values of GI as a
can be said that all presented similar function of ∆a for the notched beams of class
31
performance. Another observation is that
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32 40 MPa and of different matrices. GI curves


33 when compared to the KI curves of class 25, overlapped for GCC_40 and GCC-20FA-
34 there was no increase of toughness with the RHA_40 and for PCC_40 and GCC-
35 increase of strength class, except in GCC- 20FA_40. These results were unexpected
36 20FA-RHA. since the geopolymers had shown superior or
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37
equivalent behavior to PCC_40 in several
38
39
other parameters as shown above, including
40 KI.
41
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43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52 Figure 5. Variation of the stress intensity fator
with the extension of the crack for concrete strength
53
class notched beams of 40 MPa with different
54 matrices. Figure 7. Variation of deformation energy release rate
55
Figure 6 shows the GI values as a function with the extension of the crack for concrete strength
56 class notched beams of 40 MPa with different
57
of ∆a for beams of class 25 MPa, for the
different concrete matrices. As can be seen, matrices.
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3 Since GI is directly proportional to (KI)2
4 and inversely proportional to the modulus of
5 elasticity, then, for a same value of KI, the
6 smaller the value of GI [13].
7 Figure 8 presents the results of fracture
8
resistance for concrete of class 25 MPa in the
9
10 different matrices studied. All the
11 geopolymer small beams presented the
12 plateau of the RI-curve above the plateau of
13 PCC_25, revealing its superiority in this
14 parameter indicative of the toughness.
15 Among the geopolymer beams, however, the
16 best performance related to resistance to
17 crack propagation was for GCC_25, with Figure 9. Variation of the RI curves with the
18
values 20% higher than for the GCC- extension of the crack for concrete strength class
Fo
19 notched beams of 40 MPa with different matrices.
20 20FA_25 and 50% higher than the GCC-
21 20FA-RHA_25. This corroborates with
results obtained in the KI analysis. The presence of fly ash and rice husk in
22
the geopolymer did not have a significant
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23
24 influence on the performance of the different
strength concrete classes. Whereas the GCC-
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25
26 20FA lost 20% of the resistance to the
27 fracture with the increase of the strength
28 class of the concrete.
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29 Figure 10 shows the average P-δ curves


30 obtained for each type of concrete studied.
31 With the exception of PCC notched beams,
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32
all the others presented increase of Pmax with
33
34 the increase of strength class, especially the
35 GCC-20FA-RHA. The GCC showed
36 increased stiffness with increased strength
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37 Figure 8. Variation of the RI curves with the class, as expected. However, the other
38 extension of the crack for concrete strength class geopolymeric matrices, as well as the PCC,
39 notched beams of 25 MPa with different matrices. countered this expectation.
40
41 The results obtained for class 40 MPa
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42 were lower than expected. The RI-curve


43 plateau for GCC_40 has fallen to half the
44
value for GCC_25 (Figure 9).
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52 Figure 10. Average values of load-deflection curves
53 in the middle of the span of the notched beams of
54 different matrices, in both compression strength
55 classes.
56
57 Table 2 compares the average values of
58 the critical values of the fracture parameters
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3 for the notched beams of the different
4 matrices and strength classes. For the 25
(2)
5 MPa strength class, all geopolymers beams
6 had fracture properties better than PCC_25.
7 4.2 Critical rate of strain release energy, GIc
8 Table 2. Average values of fracture parameters.
9 Notched
KIc
GIc RIc Jmáx
10 (MPa.m The critical rate of strain energy release
Beam (N/m) (N/m) (J/m2)
m1/2) for propagation of a crack extension unit was
11 28.45 + 22.37 + 22.38 + 329.76+
PCC_25 obtained by:
12 5.10 6.59 6.59 55.59
13 46.08 + 68.12 + 68.14 + 443.14+
GCC_25 (3)
14.82 23.31 23.32 151.09
14 GCC- 38.72 + 56.03 + 56.04 + 576.37+
15 20FA_25 3.96 11.41 11.41 147.01
16 GCC-
50.17 + 44.60 + 44.62 + 543.90+
20FA-
17 RHA_25
5.98 4.55 4.55 135.32 where KIc is the stress intensity factor in the
18 37.01 + 40.36 + 40.37 + 146.93+ critical state and E, the modulus of elasticity
PCC_40
Fo
19 4.22 10.73 10.73 12.88
38.60 + 29.46 + 29.47 + 358.15+ calculated by the following [14]:
20 GCC_40
5.29 11.92 11.93 93.70
21 GCC- 38.50 + 41.91 + 41.93 + 386.17+ (4)
22 20FA_40 2.91 14.95 14.96 115.76
r
GCC-
23 20FA-
61.18 + 50.21 + 50.23 + 454.15+
24 8.06 6.46 6.47 56.27 where S is the span, equal to 400 mm, d is
RHA_40
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25 the height of the beam, equal to 100 mm and


26 Observing the KIc parameters, there was b is the width of the beam, equal to 100 mm.
27 loss of toughness of the geopolymer class 25 The parameter V1(α0) was calculated from
28 with the substitution of metakaolin with FA, the following equation [14]:
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29
but there was an increase when the RHA
30
31 silicate was used. In small beams in class 40, (5)
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32 the superiority of geopolymer relative to


33 Portland concrete was observed. The fracture  
34 toughness, KIcs, of GCC-20FA-RHA_40 was where: α0 =



 0.5

35 higher by 65.3%, 58.5% and 58.9% than that


36
The initial compliance, or initial
of PCC_40, GCC_40 and GCC-20FA_40,
flexibility, was calculated by the following:
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37 respectively.
38
39 4 General formulation (6)
40
41
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4.1 Critical stress intensity factor for mode I where the CMODi is provided by the clip
42
43 crack propagation, KIc gauge, in a load acting on the elastic phase,
44 Pi.
45 The critical stress intensity factor in the mode
46 I of crack opening, called KIc, was 4.3 Resistance to fracture, RI
47 determined when a = ac, by [18]:
48 Obtaining curves RI (resistance to
49 fracture) was proposed by Ouyang & Shah
50 (1) [19]
from KIc and CTODc and expressed by:
51
where P is the active load, a a is the notch (7)
52
53 extension and equal to 50 mm, b is the width
54 of the small beam and equal to 100 mm, d is
55 the height of the notch equal to 100 mm, F3 where a0 is the initial notch length of 50 mm;
56 (a/d) is a function given by: The coefficients α (equation 8) and β
57 (equation 9) are determined from the
58 biparametric model of fracture:
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3 instantaneous load and δ is the displacement
4 (8) of the point of application of the load.
5
6
(17)
7
8 (9) The Jmax is obtained when U = Umax,
9 form P = Pmax and δ = δmax [10].
10
11 The coefficient µ is calculated as follows:
5. Conclusions
12
13
(10) The analysis of the fracture properties of
14
15 the concrete notched beams allowed the
16 verification that for the same class of
17 where E is the tangent modulus of elasticity, compressive strength, the geopolymer
18 cement concrete is tougher than the Portland
f1 and f2 are equal to 1.123 and 1.420,
Fo
19 equalivant. Replacing the metakaolin with
20 respectively, tabulated for notched beam in
the center of the span, under 3-point bending 20% volume fly ash (GCC-20FA) and rice
21 rusk ash based silicate (GCC-20FA-RHA)
22 and with span/height ratio equal to 4.
further improved the performance of the
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23
24 The roots of the equation, d1 and d2, are concrete. The fracture toughness of GCC-
20FA and GCC-20FA-RHA were measured
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25 given by equation 11:


26 from parameters such as KIc, J-Integral and
27 R-curves, and showed values 100% higher
(11)
28 than the Portland Cement Concrete.
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30 So,
31
6. Acknowledgment
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32
33 (12)
34 The authors thank the Structural and
35 Construction Materials Laboratories of UFF /
36 (13) Niterói and CAPES for their financial
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37 support.
38
(14)
39 7. References
40
41 (15)
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42 1. Vargas, A. S.; Dal Molin, D. C. C.; Vilela A. C. F.;


43 Silva, F. J.; Pavão, B. Veit, H. The effects of
44 Na2O/SiO2 molar ratio, curing temperature and age
45 4.4 J-Integral on compressive strength, morphology and
microstructure of alkali-activated fly ash-based
46 geopolymers. Cement & Concrete Composites, 33
47 A J-integral was determined according to (2011), pp 653–660.
48 the equation below:
49 2 Silva, F. J.; Barbosa, V. F. F.; Thaumaturgo, C. Use
50 of Environmental Scanning Microscopy (ESEM)
(16) for Study of Alkali-Activated Pulverized Fly Ash.
51
where d represents the width of the specimen In: 6th Brazilian Conference on Microscopy of
52
Materials, Águas de Lindóia. ACTA
53 and (d - a0) represents the height of the MICROSCÓPICA - Anais of 6th Brazilian
54 ligament, a0 is the crack length equal to 50 Conference on Microscopy of Materials, 1998. v.
55 mm, U is the work performed during loading, 7. p. 133-136.
56 calculated by integrating the area under the
57 3 Barbosa, V.F.F., Mackenzie, K.J.D., Thaumaturgo,
P-δ, (equation 17), where P is the C. Synthesis and characterization of materials
58
59
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3 based on inorganic polymers of alumina and sílica: 13 Bazant, Z. P.; Kazemi, M. T. Determination of
4 sodium polysialate polymers. International fracture energy, process zone length and brittleness
5 Journal of Inorganic Materials, v. 2, p. 309-317, number from size effect, with application to rock
2000. and concrete. International Journal of Fracture, V.
6
44, n. 2, 1990, pp. 111-131.
7 4 Xu, H.; Deventer, J. S. F. V. The geopolymerization
8 of alumino-silicate mínerals. International miner. 14 RILEM Committee on Fracture Mechanics of
9 process. V. 59, 2000, p. 247 – 266. Concrete – Test Methods. Determination of the
10 fracture parameters (KIcs e CTODc) of plain
5 Xu, H.; Deventer, J. S. F. V. Geopolymerization of
11 concrete by three-point bend tests. Materials and
multiple minerals. 15 1131-1139, 2002
12 Structures, V. 23, 1990, pp. 457-460.
6 Duxon, P., Fernandez-jimenez, A., Provis, J.L.,
13 15 Shinde S. S.; Dhamejani C. L. Literature Review
Lukey, G.C., Palomo, A., van Deventer, J.S.J.
14 Geopolymer technology: the current state of the
on Fracture Toughness and impact toughness.
15 International Journal of Innovations in Engineering
art, Journal of Materials Science, v. 42, 2007, p.
16 Research and Technology, Volume 2, Issue 11,
2917-2933
17 Nov.-2015.
18 7 Davidovits, J. Geopolymers inorganic polymeric
16 Irwin, G. R. Analysis of stress and strains near the
Fo
19 new materials. Journal of Thermal Analysis. Vol.
end of a crack traversing a plate. J. of Applied
37, p. 1633 –1656, 1991.
20 Mechanics, A.S.M.E, New York. 1957.
21 8 Davidovits, J. High-alkali cements for 21stcentury
17 Rice, J. R. A path independent integral and the
22 concretes, conrete technology, past, present and
approximate analysis of strain concentration by
r

23 future, ACI SP-114, American Concrete Institute,


notches and cracks. J Appl Mech Trans, V.35,
24 pp.383-398, 1994
375-386, 1968.
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25 9 Davidovits, J. Geopolymer Chemistry and


18 REINHARDT, H. W., SHILANG, XU. Crack
26 Applications. Terceira edição. Institut
extension resistance and fracture properties of
27 Géopolymère. 2011.
quasi-brittle softening materials like concrete
28 10 Bittencourt, T. N. Fraturamento do concreto based on the complete process of fracture.
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29 estrutural: aspectos teóricos, computacionais e International Journal of Fracture. V. 92, 1998, pp.
30 experimentais, e suas aplicações. Tese concurso de 71-99.
31 Livre Docência. Universidade de São Paulo.1999
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32 19 Ouyang, C.; Mobasher, B.; Shah, S. P. An R-curve


11 Hillerborg, A.; Modeer, M.; Petersson, P. E. approach for fracture of quasi-britlle materials.
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Analysis of crack formation an crack growth in Cement and Concrete Research, V. 20, n. 4, 1990,
34 pp. 901-916.
concrete by means of fracture mechanics and finite
35 elements. Cement and Concrete Research. Vol.6,
36 n.6, pp. 773-781, 1976.
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38 12 Jenq, Y. S.; Shah, S. P. A two parameter fracture
39 model for concrete. Journal of Engineering
Mechanics, V. 111, n. 4, 1985, pp. 1227-1241
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8 I declare for the proper purpose that the article entitled: “FRACTURE PROPERTIES OF
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GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE BASED ON METAKAOLIN, FLY ASH AND RICE RUSK ASH”, presented
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11 for publication in the journal Materials Research, is unpublished.
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Rio de Janeiro, 11 de dezembro de 2016.
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3 Table 1. Concrete design parameters of Class 25 and 40 MPa
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5 Parameters Class 25 Class 40
6 Compressive strength characteristic, fck 25 MPa 40 MPa
7 Compressive strength of design, fcj 35 MPa 49 MPa
Standard deviation of design, Sd 5.5 MPa 5.5 MPa
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Water/Cement ratio, w/c 0.457 0.357
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Consumption of binder / m3 of concrete 459.52 kg 640.75 kg
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Proportion (by mass) 1 : 2.00 : 1.57 : 0.46 1 : 1.26 : 0.99 : 0.36
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14 Notched Beam KIc (MPa.mm1/2)
GIc RIc Jmáx
15 (N/m) (N/m) (J/m2)
PCC_25 28.45 + 5.10 22.37 + 6.59 22.38 + 6.59 329.76+ 55.59
16 GCC_25 46.08 + 14.82 68.12 + 23.31 68.14 + 23.32 443.14+ 151.09
17 GCC-20FA_25 38.72 + 3.96 56.03 + 11.41 56.04 + 11.41 576.37+ 147.01
18 GCC-20FA-RHA_25 50.17 + 5.98 44.60 + 4.55 44.62 + 4.55 543.90+ 135.32
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PCC_40 37.01 + 4.22 40.36 + 10.73 40.37 + 10.73 146.93+ 12.88
19 GCC_40 38.60 + 5.29 29.46 + 11.92 29.47 + 11.93 358.15+ 93.70
20 GCC-20FA_40 38.50 + 2.91 41.91 + 14.95 41.93 + 14.96 386.17+ 115.76
21 GCC-20FA-RHA_40 61.18 + 8.06 50.21 + 6.46 50.23 + 6.47 454.15+ 56.27
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