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I.

Bobbit
1.An awakening education is everywhere coming to realize the
need of work-activitie as the only possible normal method of preparing
for the work of the world
The curriculum pag 21

2.Educational experiences must take place where they can be


normal.Frequently this is not at the schools
Pag 35
3.The curriculum may, therefore, be defined in two ways: it is the
entire range of experiences, both undirected and directed, concerned in
unfolding the abilities of the individual or it is the series of consciously
directed training experiences that the schools use for completing and
perfecting the unfoldment. Education must be concerned with both, even
though it does not direct both.
Pag 43

4.The objectives of education are not to be discovered within just


any kind or quality of human affairs.Occupational, civic, sanitary or
other activity may be poorly performed and productive of only meager
results
Pag 48
5.The central theory [of curriculum] is simple. Human life,
however varied, consists in the performance of specific activities.
Education that prepares for life is one that prepares definitely and
adequately for these specific activities. However numerous and diverse
they may be for any social class they can be discovered. This requires
only that one go out into the world of affairs and discover the particulars
of which their affairs consist. These will show the abilities, attitudes,
habits, appreciations and forms of knowledge that men need. These will
be the objectives of the curriculum. They will be numerous, definite and
particularized. The curriculum will then be that series of experiences
which children and youth must have by way of obtaining those
objectives. (1918: 42)
II.bloom

Taxonomy of Educational Objectives The Classification of


Educational Goals Book 1 Cognitive Domain Benjamin S. Bloom
EDITOR Longman, NY, 1956

1.Members of the taxonomy group spent considerable time in


attempting to find a psychological theory which would provide a sound
basis for ordering the categories of the taxonomy.” page 17

2.“By educational objectives, we mean explicit formulations of the


ways in which students are expected to be changed by the educative
process . . . change in their thinking, their feelings, and their actions.”
page 26
3.“What we are classifying is the intended behavior of students--
the ways in which individuals are to act, think, or feel as the result of
participating in some unit of instruction.” page 12
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives The Classification of
Educational Goals Book 2 Affective Domain David R. Krathwohl
EDITOR Longman, NY, 1964

4.“Perhaps a reopening of the entire question would help us to see


more clearly the boundaries between education and indoctrination, and
the simple dichotomy expressed above between cognitive and affective
behavior would no longer seem as real as the rather glib separation of
the two suggests.” page 18
5.“… the Taxonomy will provide a bridge for further
communication among teachers and between teachers and evaluators,
curriculum research workers, psychologists, and other behavioral
scientists.” page 23
III.Tyler
1.“The kinds of changes in behavior patterns in human beings
which the school seeks to bring about are its educational objectives. The
fundamental purpose of an education is to effect changes in the behavior
of the student, that is, in the way he thinks, feels, and acts. The aims of
any educational program cannot well be stated in terms of the content of
the program or in terms of the methods and procedures followed by
teachers, for these are only means to other ends. Basically, the goals of
education represent these changes in human beings which we hope to
bring about through education.. The kinds of ideas which we expect
students to get and to use, the kinds of skills which we hope they will
develop, the techniques of thinking we hope they will acquire, the ways
in which we hope they will learn to react to aesthetic experiences – these
are illustrations of educational objectives.”
from the 8-Year Study Vol. III in Adventures in Education (p. 102 in
Madaus)
2.“The purpose of a statement of objectives is to indicate the kinds
of changes in the student to be brought about so that the instructional
activities can be planned and developed in a way likely to attain these
objectives; that is to bring about these changes in students. Hence it is
clear that a statement of objectives in terms of content headings or
generalizations is not a satisfactory basis for guiding the further
development of the curriculum.” Pp. 45-6
3.“The most useful form for stating objectives is to express them in
terms which identify both the kind of behavior to be developed in the
student and the ... area of life which this behavior is to operate.” pp. 46-
7.
4.“By defining these desired educational results as clearly as
possible the curriculum-maker has the most useful set of criteria for
selecting content, for suggesting learning activities, for deciding on the
kinds of teaching procedures to follow, to carry on all the further steps
of curriculum planning.” P. 62.
5.“The term ‘learning experience’ is not the same as the content
with which a course deals nor the activities performed by the teacher.
The term ‘learning experience’ refers to the interaction between the
learner and the external conditions in the environment to which he can
react. Learning takes place through the active behavior of the student; it
is what he does that he learns, not what the teacher does. It is [thus]
possible for two students to be in the same class and for them to have
two different experiences.” P. 63

IV.dewey
1.One school fixes its attention upon the importance of the subject-
matter of the curriculum as compared with the contents of the child's
own experience...studies introduce a world arranged on the basis of
eternal and general truth.
Not so, says the other sect. The child is the starting point, the center, and
the end. His development, his growth, is the ideal...Not knowledge, but
self-realization is the goal...subject-matter never can be got into the child
from without. Learning is active.

2.From the side of the child, it is a question of seeing how his


experience already contains within itself elements - facts and truths - of
just the same sort as those entering into the formulated study...
From the side of the studies, it is a question of interpreting them as
outgrowths of forces operating in the child's life...
Abandon the notion of subject-matter as something fixed and ready-
made in itself, outside the child's experience; cease thinking of the
child's experience as also something hard and fast; see it as something
fluent, embryonic, vital; and we realize that the child and the curriculum
are simply two limits which define a single process. Just as two points
define a straight line, so the present standpoint of the child and the facts
and truths of studies define instruction. It is continuous reconstruction,
moving from the child's present experience out into that represented by
the organized bodies of truth that we call studies.
3.The case is of the Child. It is his present powers which are to
assert themselves; his present capacities which are to be exercised; his
present attitudes which are to be realized. But save as the teacher knows,
knows wisely and thoroughly, the race-expression which is embodied in
that thing we call the Curriculum, the teacher knows neither what the
present power, capacity, or attitude is, nor yet how it is to be asserted,
exercised, and realized.
4.If the subject-matter of the lessons be such as to have an
appropriate place within the expanding consciousness of the child, if it
grows out of his own past doings, thinkings, and sufferings, and grows
into application in further achievements and receptivities, then no device
or trick of method has to be resorted to in order to enlist "interest." The
psychologized is of interest - that is, it is placed in the whole conscious
life so that it shares the worth of that life. But the externally presented
material, conceived and generated in standpoints and attitudes remote
from the child, and developed in motives alien to him, has no such place
of its own. Hence the recourse to adventitous leverage to push it in, to
factitious drill to drive it in, to artificial bribe to lure it in.
5.There is no such thing as sheer self-activity possible - because all
activity takes place in a medium, in a situation, and with reference to its
conditions. But, again, no such thing as imposition of truth from without,
as insertion of truth from without, is possible. All depends upon the
activity which the mind itself undergoes in responding to what is
presented from without. Now, the value of the formulated wealth of
knowledge that makes up the course of study is that it may enable the
educator to determine the environment of the child, and thus by
indirection to direct. Its primary value, its primary indication, is for the
teacher, not for the child.
V.Jerome bruner - The Culture of Education

1. Education does not stand alone, and it cannot be designed as if it did. It


exists in a culture. ~ Jerome Bruner, The Culture of Education, p. 28
2. Knowledge helps only when it descends into habits. ~ Jerome Bruner,The
Culture of Education, p. 23, p. 152
3. Knowing and communicating are in their nature highly interdependent,
indeed virtually inseparable. ~ Jerome Bruner, The Culture of Education,
p. 3
4. In most matters of achieving mastery, we also want learners to gain good
judgment, to become self-reliant, to work well with each other. And such
competencies do not flourish under a one-way "transmission" regimen. ~
Jerome Bruner, The Culture of Education, p. 21
5. An educational enterprise that fails to take the risks involved becomes
stagnant and eventually alienating. ~ Jerome Bruner, The Culture of
Education, p. 15