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Answer ALL Questions.

1. a) If time in New York (74ºW) is 10.00 a.m. What is the time at Wajir (40ºE). (2 Marks)
b) Give two effects of international date line on time. (2 Marks)

2. a) Give three reasons why the interior of the earth is hot. (3 Marks)
b) State three reasons why life is possible on planet earth and not on other planets in the
solar system (3 Marks)

3. a) What are the advantages of learning geography through field work? (3 Marks)
b) List three methods you would use to collect data during the field study. (3 Marks)

4. a) Give three characteristics of sedimentary rocks. (3 Marks)

b) State three types of metamorphosims. (3 Marks)

5. a) State where the following minerals are mined. (3 Marks)

b) Identify five ways in which mining contributes to the economy of Kenya. (5 Marks)

6. a) What is plate tectonic theory? (2 Marks)

b) State three types of plate tectonic boundaries. (3 Marks)

7. a) Differentiate between folding and faulting. (3 Marks)

b) State two fold mountains outside Africa. (2 Marks)

8. a) Using labeled diagrams, describe the formation of Rift Valley by tensional forces.

(8 Marks)
b) State three negative effects of faulting. (3 Marks)

9. a) Apart from Rift Valley, name any four features resulting from faulting. (4 Marks)
b) Differentiate between vulcanicity and volcanicity. (2 Marks)

10. a) Identify three intrusive features of vulcanicity. (3 Marks)

b) Name three natural causes of earthquakes. (3 Marks)
c) Identify any two types of earthquake waves. (2 Marks)

11. a) Name two methods of representing relief on maps. (2 Marks)

b) Identify three types of scales used on a topographical map. (3 Marks)

12. Draw and name the main parts of a photograph. (5 Marks)

13. a) State three advantages of using divided rectangles to present data. (3 Marks)
b) Apart from divided rectangles, state two other methods of presenting data. (2 Marks)

14. a) What is ITCZ. (2 Marks)

b) Give three characteristics of ITCZ. (3 Marks)

15. The diagram below represent natural vegetation zones on a mountain.

Bare rock and snow

- 5000m
- 4000m
- 3000m
- 2000m
- 1000m Z

Savanna grassland

a) Name the vegetation zones marked X, Y and Z. (2 Marks)

b) Give three reasons why mountain tops have no vegetation. (3 Marks)

16. Outline five problems facing forests and forestry in Kenya. (5 Marks)

17. Describe the characteristics of desert type of climate. (5 Marks)



1. a) Longitudinal difference = 74 + 40 = 114º

114 × 4
Time difference = = 7ℎ𝑟𝑠 36𝑚𝑖𝑛

Time at Wajir = 10.00 + 7.36 = 5.36 p.m. (2 Marks)

b) On crossing it Eastwards, one day is gained while when crossing it Westwards, one day is
lost. (2 Marks)

2. a) - Pressure of the overlying materials generate heat.

 Presence of radioactive minerals such as uranium which generate energy.
 The interior cooled at a slower rate than the outer layer of the earth thus it still retain the
original heat. (Any 3 x 1 = 3 Marks)

b) - The planet has the atmosphere with the right amount of oxygen that support life.
 It has water unlike other planets.
 Has enough warmth from the sun to support life, It is neither too hot nor too cold.
 The atmospheric pressure on planet earth is just right to allow animals and vegetation
to remain upright, firmly fixed on the ground.
(Any 3 x 1 Marks )

3. a) - Enables a student to verify theoretical knowledge / cross checking information

 Enables the students to make his own records.

 Increase interest in student through activities and field observations.
 Improves the student understanding of Geography.
 Enables students to develop skills like observation, measuring, evaluation, judging and
 Enables the students to learn through experience / first hand information.
Any 3 x 1 Marks
b) - Questionnaire - Collecting samples
- Observation - Sketch drawing
- Measuring / Counting - Photographing
- Interviews - Reading secondary materials
(Any 3 x 1 Marks)

4. a) - Some contain fossils

- Some are light in colour
- Rocks are non-crystalline
- Have cleavage / bending planes
- Are formed from weathered materials
- Are of external origin
- Forms horizontal layers / are stratified
- Some are loosely bound
- Contain joints that meets the bending planes at right angles
(Any 3 x 1 Marks)

b) - Dynamic metamorphism
- Contact / thermal metamorphism
- Regional / thermodynamic metamorphism
(Any 3 x 1 Marks)

5. a) - Fluorspar – Kerio Valley

- Diatomite – Kariandusi
- Limestone – Athi River and Bamburi
(3 Marks)

b) - Provides raw materials for manufacturing industrial / chemical building and
construction industries
 Mining stimulates development of transport / infrastructure / communication
 Promotes settlement opportunities leading to growth of towns.
 Generates employment opportunities thus raises their standards of living
 Earns foreign exchange used to improve other sectors of the economy
 Promotes agriculture by providing markets
(Any 5 x 1 Marks)

6. a) It is a theory that states that the crust is divided into blocks of land / plates that float and
moves towards away or parallel. (2 Marks)

b) - Extensional boundary
 Compressional boundary
 Tranform fault boundary
(3 x 1 Marks)

7. a) Folding involves bending of rocks of the earth’s crust while faulting is the fracturing /
cracking of rocks of the earth crusts. (3 Marks)

b) - Andes
- Rockies
- Alps
- Himalayas (Any 2 x 1 Marks)

8. a) i) Tension force pull

ii) Faults Appear

f f

iii) Side blocks are pushed apart .

Middle block sinks.

f f
Diagram (4 Marks)
Description (4 Marks)
 When the layers of rocks are subjected to tensional forces, lines of weakness occur
leading to development of adjacent normal faults.
 The central block eventually sinks or subsides as the side blocks are pulled apart.

b) - Disruption of communication lines, water, sewerage and pipes.

 Presence of fault scarps makes it difficult to construct roads and railways
through the scarps.
 Faulting leads to subsidence of land leading to loss of life and property damage.
 May change the course of rivers or make them disappear into faults.
 Block mountains reverse drainage.
(Any 3 x 1 Marks)

9. a) - Fault scarps
 Horsts / block mountains
 Fault steps
 Tilt blocks
(Any 4 x 1 Marks)

b) Vulcanicity is the process operating in the interior of the earth where gaseous, liquid and
solid materials are forced out of the interior into the earth’s crust or onto the surface of the
earth while volcanicity refers to the process where igneous materials reach the surface of
the earth. (2 Marks)
10. a) - Laccoliths
- Sills
- Dykes
- Batholiths
- Lapoliths (Any 3 x 1 Marks)

b) - Tectonic movements
- Vulcanicity
- Isostatic adjustment
- Gravitative pressure
- Energy release from mantle (3 Marks)

c) - Primary waves
- Secondary waves
- Long / Longitudinal waves (Any 2 x 1 Marks)

11. a) - Contours
- Spot heights
- Form lines
- Hill shading
- Hachures
- Trigonometrical stations (Any 2 x 1 Marks)

b) - Linear scale
- Statement scale
- Representative fraction / Ratio scale (Any 3 x 1 Marks)

12. .

Left back Middle back Right back
ground ground ground
Left middle Middle middle Right middle
ground ground ground
Left fore Middle fore Right fore
ground ground ground
13. a) - Easy to construct
 Easy to compare the components since they are side by side.
 They use less space.
 Each component proportion to the total can easily be seen at a glance.
 It gives a clear visual impression.
(Any 3 x 1 Marks)
b) - Comparative bar graphs
 Comparative line graphs
 Pie charts
 Proportional circles
 Windrose
 Simple bar and line graphs
(Any 2 x 1 Marks)

14. a) ITCZ – Is a low pressure belt at the equator which moves with the movements of the sun.
(2 Marks)
b) – Associated with high temperatures
 A zone of convergence of winds
 Receives / associated with high rainfall
 Associated / a belt of low pressure
 The zone migrates to the North and South depending on the movement of the sun
 Local wind systems develops due to low pressure
(Any 3 x 1 Marks)

Bare rock and snow

15. .
- 5000m
- 4000m
- 3000m
- 2000m
- 1000m Z
a) X – Hearth and moorland
Y – Bamboo
Z – Rain forests (3 Marks)

b) – Low temperatures
 Snow cover throughout the year
 Bare rock (Any 3 x 1 Marks)

16. – Over exploitation of forests.

 Seasonal rainfall where forests are affected by drought.
 Population encroachment leading to deforestation.
 Forest fires.
 Pests and diseases affecting the trees.
 Poor management of forests.
 Deforestation
 Government policy.
 Mixed species of trees.
 Location of forests in the interior increasing transport costs.
 Inadequate capital to buy machinery for effective exploitation of forests.
(Any 5 x 1 Marks)

17. – Low humidity.

 Evaporation rate is high.
 Rainfall is low about 250mm.
 Strong dry winds destructive.
 Clear skies due to high temperatures.
 Large annual range of temperatures about 26ºC in some deserts e.g. Sahara desert.

 High temperatures during the day and low temperatures at night.
(Any 5 x 1 Marks)