Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

Close Reader

SUPREME COURT REPORTS ANNOTATED VOLUME 319

Information | Reference

Case Title:
SALVADOR ADORABLE and LIGAYA
ADORABLE, petitioners, vs. COURT
OF APPEALS, HON. JOSE O. RAMOS, 200 SUPREME COURT REPORTS ANNOTATED
FRANCISCO BARENG and
Adorable vs. Court of Appeals
SATURNINO BARENG, respondents.
Citation: 319 SCRA 200 *

More... G.R. No. 119466. November 25, 1999.

SALVADOR ADORABLE and LIGAYA ADORABLE,


Search Result petitioners, vs. COURT OF APPEALS, HON. JOSE O.
RAMOS, FRANCISCO BARENG and SATURNINO
BARENG, respondents.

Actions; Parties; Words and Phrases; „Real Party in Interest,‰


Explained; „Interest,‰ within the meaning of the rule on real party
in interest, should be material, directly in issue and to be affected
by the

________________

* SECOND DIVISION.

201

VOL. 319, NOVEMBER 25, 1999 201

Adorable vs. Court of Appeals

decree, as distinguished from a mere incidental interest in the


question involved.·A real party in interest is one who would be
benefited or injured by the judgment, or who is entitled to the
avails of the suit. „Interest,‰ within the meaning of this rule,
should be material, directly in issue and to be affected by the
decree, as distinguished from a mere incidental interest in the
question involved. Otherwise put, an action shall be prosecuted
in the name of the party who, by the substantive law, has the
right sought to be enforced.
Same; Same; Rescission; Sales; Loans; Creditors do not have
such material interest as to allow them to sue for rescission of a
contract of sale·theirs is only a personal right to receive payment
for the loan, not a real right over the property subject of the deed
of sale.·We hold that, as creditors, petitioners do not have such
material interest as to allow them to sue for rescission of the
contract of sale. At the outset, petitionersÊ right against private
respondents is only a personal right to receive payment for the
loan; it is not a real right over the lot subject of the deed of sale.
Same; Same; Same; Same; Same; Obligations; Words and
Phrases; A personal right is the power of one person to demand of
another, as a definite passive subject, the fulfillment of a
prestation to give, to do, or not to do, while a real right is the

http://www.central.com.ph/sfsreader/session/000001618adc0…03600fb002c009e/p/APD394/?username=Guest&device=ipad 13/02/2018, 12I32 AM


Page 1 of 9
power belonging to a person over a specific thing, without a
passive subject individually determined, against whom such right
may be personally exercised.·A personal right is the power of
one person to demand of another, as a definite passive subject,
the fulfillment of a prestation to give, to do, or not to do. On the
other hand, a real right is the power belonging to a person over a
specific thing, without a passive subject individually determined,
against whom such right may be personally exercised. In this
case, while petitioners have an interest in securing payment of
the loan they extended, their right to seek payment does not in
any manner attach to a particular portion of the patrimony of
their debtor, Francisco Bareng.
Same; Same; Same; Same; Prerequisites to an Action for Re-
scission of an Allegedly Fraudulent Sale.·The following
successive measures must be taken by a creditor before he may
bring an action for rescission of an allegedly fraudulent sale: (1)
exhaust the properties of the debtor through levying by
attachment and execution upon all the property of the debtor,
except such as are exempt by law from execution; (2) exercise all
the rights and actions of the debtor, save

202

202 SUPREME COURT REPORTS ANNOTATED

Adorable vs. Court of Appeals

those personal to him (accion subrogatoria); and (3) seek


rescission of the contracts executed by the debtor in fraud of
their rights (accion pauliana). Without availing of the first and
second remedies, i.e., exhausting the properties of the debtor or
subrogating themselves in Francisco BarengÊs transmissible
rights and actions, petitioners simply undertook the third
measure and filed an action for annulment of the sale. This
cannot be done.
Same; Same; Same; Same; An action for rescission is a
subsidiary remedy·it cannot be instituted except when the party
suffering damage has no other legal means to obtain reparation
for the same.·Indeed, an action for rescission is a subsidiary
remedy; it cannot be instituted except when the party suffering
damage has no other legal means to obtain reparation for the
same. Thus, Art. 1380 of the Civil Code provides: The following
contracts are rescissible: . . . . (3) Those undertaken in fraud of
creditors when the latter cannot in any other manner collect the
claims due them.
Same; Same; Same; Same; In order that one who is not
obligated in a contract either principally or subsidiarily may
maintain an action for nullifying the same, his complaint must
show the injury that would positively result to him from the
contract in which he has not intervened, with regard at least to
one of the contracting parties.·Nor do petitioners enjoy any
preference to buy the questioned property. In Aldecoa v.
Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, it was held that
in order that one who is not obligated in a contract either
principally or subsidiarily may maintain an action for nullifying
the same, his complaint must show the injury that would
positively result to him from the contract in which he has not
intervened, with regard at least to one of the contracting parties.
Postponements; Grave Abuse of Discretion; Words and

http://www.central.com.ph/sfsreader/session/000001618adc0…03600fb002c009e/p/APD394/?username=Guest&device=ipad 13/02/2018, 12I32 AM


Page 2 of 9
Phrases; The Supreme Court cannot find grave abuse of
discretion simply because a court decides to proceed with the trial
of a case rather than postpone the hearing to another day, because
of the absence of a party.·Petitioners contend that since their
counsel holds office in Makati, the latterÊs failure to appear at
the tria in Isabela at the scheduled date of hearing should have
been treated by the court with a „sense of fairness.‰ This is more
a plea for compassion rather than explanation based on reason.
We cannot find grave abuse of discretion simply because a court
decides to proceed with the trial of a case rather than postpone
the hearing to another day, because of the absence of a party.
That the absence of a party during trial

203

VOL. 319, NOVEMBER 25, 1999 203

Adorable vs. Court of Appeals

constitutes waiver of his right to present evidence and cross-


examine the opponentÊs witnesses is firmly supported by
jurisprudence. To constitute grave abuse of discretion amounting
to lack or excess of jurisdiction, the refusal of the court to
postpone the hearing must be characterized by arbitrariness or
capriciousness. Here, as correctly noted by the Court of Appeals,
petitionersÊ counsel was duly notified through registered mail of
the scheduled trials. His only excuse for his failure to appear at
the scheduled hearings is that he „comes from Makati.‰ This
excuse might hold water if counsel was simply late in arriving in
the courtroom. But this was not the case. He did not appear at
all.

PETITION for review on certiorari of a decision of the


Court of Appeals.

The facts are stated in the opinion of the Court.


Lopez Law Office for petitioners.
Ariel C. Vallejo for Francisco and Saturnino Bareng.
Virgilio T. Velasco for respondent Judge Jose O.
Ramos.

MENDOZA, J.:
1
This is a petition for review under Rule 45 of the decision
of the Court of Appeals, dated January 6, 1995, sustaining
the dismissal by Branch 24 of the Regional Trial Court,
Echague, Isabela, of the complaint filed by petitioners,
spouses Salvador and Ligaya Adorable, for lack of cause of
action.
The facts are as follows:
Private respondent Saturnino Bareng was the
registered owner of two parcels of land, one identified as
Lot No. 661-D-5-A, with an area of 20,000 sq.m., covered
by TCT No. T-162837, and the other known as Lot No. 661-
E, with an area of 4.0628 hectares, covered by TCT No. T-
60814, both of which are in San Fabian, Echague, Isabela.
Petitioners were lessees of a 200 sq.m. portion of Lot No.
661-D-5-A.

_________________

http://www.central.com.ph/sfsreader/session/000001618adc0…03600fb002c009e/p/APD394/?username=Guest&device=ipad 13/02/2018, 12I32 AM


Page 3 of 9
1 Per Justice Eugenio S. Labitoria and concurred in by Justices Pedro

A. Ramirez and Quirino D. Abad Santos, Jr.

204

204 SUPREME COURT REPORTS ANNOTATED


Adorable vs. Court of Appeals

On April 29, 1985, Saturnino Bareng and his son, private


respondent Francisco Bareng, obtained a loan from
petitioners amounting to twenty six thousand pesos
(P26,000), in consideration of which they promised to
transfer the possession and enjoyment of the fruits of Lot
No. 661-E.
On August 3, 1986, Saturnino sold to his son Francisco
18,500 sq.m. of Lot No. 661-D-5-A. The conveyance was
annotated on the back of TCT No. T-162873. In turn,
Francisco sold on August 27, 1986 to private respondent
Jose Ramos 3,000 sq.m. of the lot. The portion of land
being rented to petitioners was included in the portion sold
to Jose Ramos. The deeds of sale evidencing the
conveyances were not registered in the office of the register
of deeds.
As the Barengs failed to pay their loan, petitioners
complained to Police Captain Rodolfo Saet of the
Integrated National Police (INP) of Echague through
whose mediation a Compromise Agreement was executed
between Francisco Bareng and the Adorables whereby the
former acknowledged his indebtedness of P56,385.00 which
he promised to pay on or before July 15, 1987. When the
maturity date arrived, however, Francisco Bareng failed to
pay. A demand letter was sent to Francisco Bareng, but he
refused to pay.
Petitioners, learning of the sale made by Francisco
Bareng to Jose Ramos, then filed a complaint with the
Regional Trial Court, Branch 24, Echague, Isabela for the
annulment or rescission of the sale on the ground that the
sale was fraudulently prepared and executed.
During trial, petitioners presented as witness Jose
Ramos. After his testimony, the next hearing was set on
August 4 and 5, 1990. On said hearing dates, however,
petitioners were absent. The trial court therefore ordered
the presentation of evidence for petitioners terminated and
allowed private respondents to present their evidence ex
parte. On February 15, 1991, the trial court rendered
judgment dismissing the complaint for lack of cause of
action, declaring the contract of sale between Francisco
Bareng and Jose Ramos valid and ordering Francisco
Bareng to pay the amount he owed petitioners.

205

VOL. 319, NOVEMBER 25, 1999 205


Adorable vs. Court of Appeals

On appeal, the Court of Appeals affirmed the decision of


the Regional Trial Court, with modification as to the
amount of Francisco BarengÊs debt to petitioners.
Hence, this petition for review, raising the following
issues: (1) whether the Court of Appeals erred in
dismissing the complaint for lack of cause of action; (2)

http://www.central.com.ph/sfsreader/session/000001618adc0…03600fb002c009e/p/APD394/?username=Guest&device=ipad 13/02/2018, 12I32 AM


Page 4 of 9
whether petitioners enjoyed legal preference to purchase
the lots they lease; and (3) whether the Court of Appeals
erred in sustaining the lower courtÊs order terminating
petitionersÊ presentation of evidence and allowing private
respondents to present their evidence ex parte.
In sustaining the decision of the trial court dismissing
the complaint for lack of cause of action, the Court of
Appeals premised its decision on Rule 3, §2 of the former
Rules of Court which provided:

Parties in interest.·Every action must be prosecuted and


defended in the name of the real party in interest. All persons
having an interest in the subject of the action and in obtaining
the relief demanded shall be joined as plaintiffs. All persons who
claim an interest in the controversy or who are necessary to a
complete determination or settlement of the questions involved
therein shall be joined as defendants.

A real party in interest is one who would be benefited or


injured by the judgment, or who is entitled to the avails of
the suit. „Interest,‰ within the meaning of this rule, should
be material, directly in issue and to be affected by the
decree, as distinguished 2
from a mere incidental interest in
the question involved. Otherwise put, an action shall be
prosecuted in the name of the party who, by 3
the
substantive law, has the right sought to be enforced.
Petitioners anchor their interest on their right as
creditors of Francisco Bareng, as well as on their claim of
preference

____________________

2 1 VICENTE J. FRANCISCO, THE REVISED RULES OF COURT

IN THE PHILIPPINES 209 (1973).


3 Id., at 211.

206

206 SUPREME COURT REPORTS ANNOTATED


Adorable vs. Court of Appeals

4
over the sale of the contested lot. They contend that the
sale between Francisco Bareng and Jose Ramos prejudiced
their interests over the property as creditors of Francisco
Bareng. Moreover, they claim that, under Commonwealth
Act No. 539, they have a preferential right, as tenants or
lessees, to purchase the land in question.
The petition has no merit.
First. We hold that, as creditors, petitioners do not have
such material interest as to allow them to sue for
rescission of the contract of sale. At the outset, petitionersÊ
right against private respondents is only a personal right
to receive payment for the loan; it is not a real right over
the lot subject of the deed of sale.
A personal right is the power of one person to demand of
another, as a definite passive subject, the fulfillment of a
prestation to give, to do, or not to do. On the other hand, a
real right is the power belonging to a person over a specific
thing, without a passive subject individually determined,
against whom such right may be personally exercised.5 In
this case, while petitioners have an interest in securing
payment of the loan they extended, their right to seek

http://www.central.com.ph/sfsreader/session/000001618adc0…03600fb002c009e/p/APD394/?username=Guest&device=ipad 13/02/2018, 12I32 AM


Page 5 of 9
payment does not in any manner attach to a particular
portion of the patrimony of their debtor, Francisco Bareng.
Nor can we sustain petitionersÊ claim that the sale was
made in fraud of creditors. Art. 1177 of the Civil Code
provides:

The creditors, after having pursued the property in possession of


the debtor to satisfy their claims, may exercise all the rights and
bring all the actions of the latter for the same purpose, save
those which are inherent in his person; they may also impugn
the actions which the debtor may have done to defraud them.
(Emphasis added)

____________________

4Rollo, p. 10.
5 4 ARTURO M. TOLENTINO, COMMENTARIES AND
JURISPRUDENCE ON THE CIVIL CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES 94
(1991), citing 3 SANCHEZ ROMAN 6, 8.

207

VOL. 319, NOVEMBER 25, 1999 207


Adorable vs. Court of Appeals

Thus, the following successive measures must be taken by


a creditor before he may bring an action for rescission of an
allegedly fraudulent sale: (1) exhaust the properties of the
debtor through levying by attachment and execution upon
all the property of the debtor, except such as are exempt by
law from execution; (2) exercise all the rights and actions
of the debtor, save those personal to him (accion
subrogatoria); and (3) seek rescission of the contracts
executed by the debtor in fraud of their rights (accion
pauliana). Without availing of the first and second
remedies, i.e., exhausting the properties of the debtor or
subrogating themselves in Francisco BarengÊs
transmissible rights and actions, petitioners simply
undertook the third measure and filed an action for
annulment of the sale. This cannot be done.
Indeed, an action for rescission is a subsidiary remedy;
it cannot be instituted except when the party suffering
damage has6
no other legal means to obtain reparation for
the same. Thus, Art. 1380 of the Civil Code provides:

The following contracts are rescissible:


....
(3) Those undertaken in fraud of creditors when the latter
cannot in any other manner collect the claims due them.
Petitioners have not shown that they have no other means of
enforcing their credit. As the Court of Appeals pointed out in its
decision:

In this case, plaintiffs-appellants had not even commenced


an action against defendants-appellees Bareng for the
collection of the alleged indebtedness. Plaintiffs-appellants
had not even tried to exhaust the property of defendants-
appellees Bareng. Plaintiffs-appellants, in seeking for the
rescission of the contracts of sale entered into between
defendants-appellees, failed to show and prove that
defendants-appellees Bareng had no other property, either
at the time of the sale or at the time this action was filed,

http://www.central.com.ph/sfsreader/session/000001618adc0…03600fb002c009e/p/APD394/?username=Guest&device=ipad 13/02/2018, 12I32 AM


Page 6 of 9
out of which they could have collected this (sic) debts.

___________________

6 CIVIL CODE, Art. 1383.

208

208 SUPREME COURT REPORTS ANNOTATED


Adorable vs. Court of Appeals

Second. Nor do petitioners enjoy any preference to buy the


questioned property. In Aldecoa v. Hongkong and
7
Shanghai Banking Corporation, it was held that in order
that one who is not obligated in a contract either
principally or subsidiarily may maintain an action for
nullifying the same, his complaint must show the injury
that would positively result to him from the contract in
which he has not intervened, with regard at least to one of
the contracting parties.
Petitioners attempt to establish such legal injury
through a claim of preference created under C.A. No. 539,
the pertinent provision of which provides:

SEC. 1. The President of the Philippines is authorized to acquire


private lands or any interest therein, through purchase or
expropriation, and to subdivide the same into home lots or small
farms for resale at reasonable prices and under such conditions
as he may fix to their bona fide tenants or occupants or to
private individuals who will work the lands themselves and who
are qualified to acquire and own lands in the Philippines.

This statute was passed to implement Art. XIII, §4 of the


1935 Constitution which provided that „The Congress may
authorize, upon payment of just compensation, the
expropriation of lands to be subdivided into small lots and
conveyed at cost to individuals.‰ It is obvious that neither
under this provision of the former Constitution nor that of
C.A. No. 539 can petitioners claim any right since the
grant of preference therein applies only to bona fide
tenants, after the expropriation or purchase 8
by the
government of the land they are occupying. Petitioners are
not tenants of the land in question in this case. Nor has the
land been acquired by the government for their benefit.

_________________

722 Phil. 572 (1912).


8See Santiago v. Cruz, 98 Phil. 168 (1955); Juat v. Land Tenure
Administration, 110 Phil. 970 (1961); Antonel v. Land Tenure
Administration, 133 Phil. 530 (1968); Cruz v. Franco, 146 Phil. 554
(1970); Enriquez, et al. v. Panlilio, et al., 95 Phil. 403 (1954).

209

VOL. 319, NOVEMBER 25, 1999 209


Adorable vs. Court of Appeals

Third. Finally, we hold that no error was committed by the


Court of Appeals in affirming the order of the trial court
terminating the presentation of petitionersÊ evidence and

http://www.central.com.ph/sfsreader/session/000001618adc0…03600fb002c009e/p/APD394/?username=Guest&device=ipad 13/02/2018, 12I32 AM


Page 7 of 9
allowing private respondents to proceed with theirs
because of petitionersÊ failure to present further evidence
at the scheduled dates of trial.
Petitioners contend that since their counsel holds office
in Makati, the latterÊs failure to appear at the trial in
Isabela at the scheduled date of hearing should 9
have been
treated by the court with a „sense of fairness.‰
This is more a plea for compassion rather than
explanation based on reason. We cannot find grave abuse
of discretion simply because a court decides to proceed with
the trial of a case rather than postpone the hearing to
another day, because of the absence of a party. That the
absence of a party during trial constitutes waiver of his
right to present evidence and cross-examine the opponentÊs
10
witnesses is firmly supported by jurisprudence. To
constitute grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or
excess of jurisdiction, the refusal of the court to postpone
the hearing must be characterized by arbitrariness or
capriciousness. Here, as correctly noted by the Court of
Appeals, petitionersÊ counsel was duly 11
notified through
registered mail of the scheduled trials. His only excuse for
his failure to appear at the scheduled hearings is that he
„comes from Makati.‰ This excuse might hold water if
counsel was simply late in arriving in the courtroom. But
this was not the case. He did not appear at all.
WHEREFORE, the petition for review is DENIED, and
the decision of the Court of Appeals is AFFIRMED.
SO ORDERED.

Bellosillo (Chairman), Quisumbing, Buena and De


Leon, Jr., JJ., concur.

____________________

9Rollo, p. 17.
10 See De Rapisura v. Nicolas, 16 SCRA 798 (1966); Jalover v.
Ytoriaga, 80 SCRA 101 (1977).
11 Rollo, p. 44.

210

210 SUPREME COURT REPORTS ANNOTATED


Sea Commercial Company, Inc. vs. Court of Appeals

Petition denied; Reviewed decision affirmed.

Notes.·In proceedings to set aside an execution sale,


the real party in interest is the person who has an interest
either in the property sold or the proceeds thereof. (De
Leon vs. Court of Appeals, 277 SCRA 478 [1997])
One whose interest over land is a mere expectancy is
not a real party in interest. (Fortich vs. Corona, 289 SCRA
624 [1998])

··o0o··

http://www.central.com.ph/sfsreader/session/000001618adc0…03600fb002c009e/p/APD394/?username=Guest&device=ipad 13/02/2018, 12I32 AM


Page 8 of 9
© Copyright 2010 CentralBooks Inc. All rights reserved.

http://www.central.com.ph/sfsreader/session/000001618adc0…03600fb002c009e/p/APD394/?username=Guest&device=ipad 13/02/2018, 12I32 AM


Page 9 of 9