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2116 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 22, NO.

4, OCTOBER 2007

Performance Comparison of Distance Protection


Schemes for Shunt-FACTS Compensated
Transmission Lines
Fadhel A. Albasri, Student Member, IEEE, Tarlochan Singh Sidhu, Fellow, IEEE, and Rajiv K. Varma, Member, IEEE

Abstract—This paper presents a comparative study of the per- The location of the shunt-FACTS device depends on the ap-
formance of distance relays for transmission lines compensated plication for which it is installed. Shunt compensation FACTS
by shunt connected flexible ac transmission system (FACTS) con- devices are installed at the end points of transmission lines
trollers/devices. The objective of this study is to evaluate the perfor-
mance of various distance protection schemes on transmission lines (buses) when used for applications, such as bus voltage regula-
with shunt-FACTS devices applied for midpoint voltage control. tion and improving HVDC link performance, etc. However, for
The impact of two types of shunt FACTS devices, static var com- increasing the power transfer capability of long transmission
pensator (SVC) and static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) lines (tie lines connecting two major grids) midpoint of the lines
on the transmission line distance protection schemes is studied for is the best location for shunt connected FACTS devices [1].
different fault types, fault locations and system conditions. The
power system elements and the shunt-FACTS devices with their For this reason, the application of shunt-FACTS for midpoint
associated controllers are modeled using RSCAD/RTDS software. compensation of transmission lines is considered in this paper.
The results are based on the performance of commercial distance Distance protection relays have been widely applied for pro-
relays using a real time digital simulator (RTDS). tecting transmission lines due to their simple operating principle
Index Terms—Distance channel aided schemes, distance protec- and capability to work independently under most circumstances
tion relay, flexible ac transmission system (FACTS), power system [5]. Therefore, it is important to study how these distance relays
protection, real time digital simulator, shunt compensation, static would perform when protecting a transmission line compen-
synchronous compensator (STATCOM), static var compensator
sated with FACTS controllers. The effect of series compensation
(SVC).
including series FACTS controllers on the performance of dis-
tance protection relays has been extensively studied [6]–[9]. On
I. INTRODUCTION the other hand, only few papers have studied the effect of shunt-
FACTS compensation devices like STATCOM [10], [11] for
HE use of flexible ac transmission system (FACTS) midpoint voltage control application in which only a software
T controllers in power system transmission has been of
worldwide interest in recent years for increasing the power
model of a single relay for stand-alone distance protection is
considered. Although the voltage controllers and the STATCOM
transfer capability and enhancing power system controllability are reasonably modeled in [11], the paper has not elaborated
and stability [1]–[3]. However, the implementation of FACTS on the effect of the FACTS Controller - characteristics, their
controllers in transmission systems introduces new power control systems (such as the effect of the balanced firing) and
system issues in the field of power system protection, in partic- transients behavior during fault on the relay performance. This
ular the line protection that must be considered and analyzed, paper has also not studied the impact of shunt-FACTS on the
such as, rapid changes in line impedance, power angle, load performance of distance protection schemes. It is very impor-
currents, and the transients introduced by the fault occurrence tant to consider the reaction of the FACTS Controller to the fault
and the associated control action [4]. Furthermore, the response when studying the effect on the distance relay performance as
time of FACTS controllers is fast and might overlap with the the shunt FACTS controllers (SVC and STATCOM) have fast
response time. This paper considers elaborate models of the
protective device operating time. Therefore, the performance
of a protection system should be carefully analyzed in the FACTS controllers along with their control systems.
presence of FACTS controllers. The present work is a continuation to an ongoing research
in this area, part of which was published in [12] and [13]. In
[12], the impact of midpoint shunt-FACTS compensated line on
Manuscript received August 8, 2006; revised October 10, 2006. Paper no.
TPWRD-00457-2006.
the performance of only a stand-alone single distance relay is
F. A. Albasri is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, studied using EMTDC/PSCAD. In addition, some results for
at the University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B9, Canada, on leave the performance of a single commercial relay at one bus ter-
from the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of
Bahrain, Bahrain.
minal are presented for only SVC compensated system. In [13],
T. S. Sidhu and R. K. Varma are with the Department of Electrical and Com- the performance of only one channel-aided scheme was studied
puter Engineering, at the University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B9, with no consideration for the communication channel delay. In
Canada. both [12], [13], the effect of the fault resistance was ignored. The
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. objective of this paper is to present the issues that could affect
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRD.2007.900283 the performance of stand-alone and five channel-aided schemes
0885-8977/$25.00 © 2007 IEEE
ALBASRI et al.: PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF DISTANCE PROTECTION SCHEMES 2117

Fig. 2. Simplified faulted network for the study system in Fig. 1.

is employed in their characteristic. The FACTS controllers are


connected to the transmission system via an interfacing trans-
Fig. 1. Single line diagram of the study system. former as shown in Fig. 1.
A three phase balanced firing scheme is adopted for the
FACTS controllers. This implies that all the three phases are
of distance protection when applied for midpoint shunt-FACTS fired at the same angle but 120 apart. Necessary filters have
compensated transmission line using modern commercial re- been provided in the FACTS controllers to limit the effects of
lays at the two line ends, and test relay performance using real system resonance and other harmonics [1], [2]. The SVC and
time digital simulator (RTDS/RSCAD) [14]. The effects of both STATCOM are operated in voltage control mode to maintain
communication channel delay and the fault resistance are con- the voltage at their point of connection at 1 per unit voltage
sidered in this paper. during normal operating conditions.
The paper is organized as follows. First, a brief description of Due to the RTDS hardware limitation, it was not possible
the system model is given in Section II. Section III provides a to model the 24-pulse voltage source converter (VSC) for the
description of the testing setup for evaluating the performance STATCOM and, hence, the dead period is set at 7.5 in order
of the distance commercial relays using RTDS. The impedance to minimize the total harmonic distortion and get an output that
calculation in the presence of shunt compensation is described is comparable to the 24-pulse VSC [13].
in Section VI. The results of the performance of the commercial
relays in the presence of the shunt-FACTS controllers are given
in Sections V and VI for the non-pilot and five standard channel C. FACTS Controller Tuning
aided distance schemes, respectively. Finally, the conclusion is
presented in Section VII. A proportional-integral (PI) controller is used as a voltage
regulator for voltage control application. The parameters of the
PI controller are selected based on the step response perfor-
II. SYSTEM MODEL mance of the controllers for a step in the reference voltage. The
design requirements of the PI controllers is to achieve an over-
The effect of the dynamics of the SVC and STATCOM shoot of less than 15%, a rise time of less than 1 cycle and a
FACTS controllers including their associated control systems settling time of 2 to 3 cycles [2]. In this study, the control circuit
on the performance of distance relays are studied using the is tuned for both the weak and strong system conditions to give
RSCAD/RTDS software. The study system, and the modeling reasonable performance for each system condition. This is done
and tuning of the shunt-FACTS controllers are described in this to ensure that the FACTS controllers perform best for the two
section. tested system configurations (weak and the strong). A step re-
sponse of 10% change in the controller voltage reference is used
A. Study System for tuning the PI controller of the STATCOM and SVC. Under
the weakest system condition, the maximum percentage over-
A power system model with the facility to vary the system shoot is 10.6% and 11.5% of the step change for the STATCOM
strength, fault location, type of fault, load flow and direction of and SVC controllers, respectively. The settling time at which the
load is used so that all possible conditions can be simulated and error reduced to a value within 1% of the steady state value is
studied. Fig. 1 shows the single line diagram of such a system 2.8 cycles and 3.4 cycles for STATCOM and SVC, respectively.
model considered for the analysis. The distance relays are lo-
cated at station A and B, on Line I. The FACTS Controller is
connected at the midpoint of the transmission line I. The system III. IMPEDANCE CALCULATION WITH SHUNT COMPENSATION
data is shown in Table VIII.
This section presents the mathematical analysis of the ef-
B. FACTS Controller Model fect of shunt compensation on the apparent impedance seen by
the relay for midpoint shunt compensation transmission system.
For the dynamic simulation study, 12 pulse SVC/STATCOM Fig. 2 shows the simplified network of the study system given in
is considered. The power rating of the FACTS controllers is se- Fig. 1 for a fault at the second section of the compensated line
lected from load flow studies such that it can regulate the mid- (line 1). The apparent impedance seen by the distance relay will
point voltage at 1 p.u. and provide sufficient compensation for be derived for both single-phase-to-ground (SLG) and three-
all conditions of loading and system strength. A slope of 3% phase faults in the following subsections.
2118 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 22, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2007

A. Single Phase–Ground Fault (SLG) for brevity


The sequence voltages at the relay point for SLG fault after
the shunt compensator device (fault location, ) can be
expressed as
(6)
(1) where is the line voltage and is the corresponding
line current.
where
C. Apparent Impedance Error
1, 2, or 0; a suffix denotes the sequence component;
sequence voltage at the relay location ( , , Examining (5) and (6), the first term represents the
); line impedance to the fault point for solid fault with no mid-
fault location from the relay to the fault point in point shunt compensation. Therefore, the error in the apparent
per unit of the total line length; impedance introduced as a result of the shunt compensation and
sequence current of the shunt device;
the fault resistance is given as
sequence currents at the relay location;
sequence current in the fault resistance;
(7)
fault resistance;
sequence components of the line impedance.
The first term in (7) represents the error in the measurement of
The voltage at the relay location is obtained by adding the the apparent impedance due to the shunt FACTS device whereas
three sequence components from left-hand side of (1) which the second term represent the error due to the fault current in
lead to (2) after simplification the fault resistance. The error due to the shunt-FACTS is pro-
portional to the fault location and the ratio of the current
in the shunt FACTS device and the relay . The posi-
(2)
tive value of this current ratio, as a result of current injection
where and is the
by the FACTS device, would lead to higher impedance seen by
zero sequence current compensation factor. The line positive
the relay, which would result in relay under-reach. As a result,
and negative sequence impedances are assumed equal
the STATCOM is expected to introduce a larger under-reaching
.
effect compared to that due to the SVC. This is because of the
The ground measuring unit of a distance relay uses the
inherent capability of the STATCOM to provide its maximum
phase voltage at the relay location and the corresponding
current at any system voltages down to 0.15 pu, in contrast to
phase current suitably compensated by the zero-sequence cur-
the SVC, which can supply a diminishing output current at low
rent , so that it correctly measures the positive sequence
system voltage determined by its capacitive reactance. On the
impedance of the line. As a result, the apparent impedance seen
other hand, the negative value of the current ratio would result
by the ground distance unit is given as
in relay seeing fault at a closer location than the actual fault loca-
tion and hence would lead to an overreaching effect. This would
(3) occur if the shunt-FACTS absorbed the reactive current instead
of injecting current.
where . The shunt-FACTS device would also affect the second term
Therefore, using (2) and (3), the apparent impedance seen by in (7) because the fault current is comprised of the shunt-
the ground distance unit of the relay is given by FACTS current in addition to the currents of the two end
sources, ( , ). As a result, a higher contribution of the current
injection of the shunt-FACTS in the fault current would result in
a higher impedance error given by (7) leading to a higher degree
(4) of relay under-reaching effect. This would affect the operation
The zero-sequence current of the shunt compensation device of the relays at the two end-terminals of the shunt-compensated
shown in (1) can be eliminated due to the fact that there line. The relay at the remote end of the line will be only af-
will be no zero-sequence current injection as a result of using fected by the fault resistance, the second term of (7). The effect
delta connection at one side of the coupling transformer for the of the fault resistance on the performance of commercial relays
shunt FACTS devices (SVC and STATCOM). Therefore, (4) can in the presence of shunt-FACTS compensation will be also high-
be reduced to (5) lighted in Section V.
The directionality is not an issue for midpoint shunt compen-
(5) sated lines as compared to series capacitor compensated lines.
This is because the security margin against voltage reversal is
further enhanced by half of the line impedance in addition to
B. Three-Phase Faults the source impedance behind the relay in case of memory and
Similarly, the apparent impedance seen by the relay for three- cross-polarization of directional elements or polarized mho re-
phase fault can be derived and only the final equation is given lays.
ALBASRI et al.: PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF DISTANCE PROTECTION SCHEMES 2119

Fig. 3. Commercial relay testing setup using RTDS.

IV. REAL TIME DIGITAL SIMULATION (RTDS) STUDY


Fig. 4. Case of over-reaching condition for a STATCOM-compensated weak
The simulation results shown here are based on the system operating at a 40 prefault load angle in the reverse direction.
performance of commercial distance relays for midpoint
shunt-FACTS compensated transmission lines under different
fault and system conditions using RTDS. The RTDS simu- It should be noted that the reach Zone 3 element at each line
lator is a fully digital electromagnetic transient power system terminal is set in the reverse direction and overreaches the Zone
simulator used for conducting closed loop testing of physical 2 elements at the opposite line terminal by a sufficient margin.
devices and control equipment. The performance of both the This is to ensure that the local Zone 3 element detects all faults
basic distance (non-pilot) and five standard channel-aided that are detected by the remote end Zone 2 and issues a blocking
distance schemes are tested using commercial relays. signal in case of DCB scheme.
A. Test Setup Using Commercial Relays
C. Performance Criterion
The experimental setup is shown in Fig. 3. The power system
shown in Fig. 1 and the FACTS controllers associated with their The impact of shunt compensation of the SVC and
control systems are modeled in the RTDS using RSCAD soft- STATCOM FACTS controllers on the performance of the
ware. distance protection will be evaluated under different testing
The distance relays can be connected to the RTDS through conditions using the following performance criterion.
the inputs and outputs interfaces of the RSCAD. Relays re- • Reach Accuracy: The amount of over-reaching or under-
ceive signals of the three phase currents and voltages at the reaching effect as a result of the shunt compensation.
corresponding bus from the RTDS test system. Each relay re- • Speed: The relay operating time may be affected as a result
turns a trip contact input to the RTDS test system, which causes of the transient behavior of the shunt compensation device.
the corresponding circuit breaker within the RTDS model to • Phase selection and directionality: The relay performance
open and thereby affecting the simulation in real time. In ad- in indicating the correct fault type and directionality of the
dition, other internal elements in the relays, such as status of fault.
the asserted zones and the channel-keying signals (permissive/
D. Notations and Symbols
blocking), were connected to the digital inputs of the RTDS by
using the available relay outputs. This facilitates monitoring of The symbols and notations in the tables and figures shown in
these signals in real time along with the other signals such as Sections V and VI are defined here.
the voltages, currents; circuit breakers status and the relay op- • Zone: The relay zone of operation at which it tripped, is
erating time in the RTDS simulation environment as shown in represented by “I”, “II”, “C” or “X” for Zone 1, Zone 2,
Fig. 4. Channel aided or no relay operation cases, respectively.
All faults are applied for a duration of 500 ms (30 cycles) to • Fault Calculation: This represent the fault location calcu-
accommodate enough time for the relay to detect faults, Zone lated by the commercial relay from the relay location to the
2 time delay and circuit breakers operation delay. The fault is fault point in percentage of the total length of the line (300
cleared by the operation of the line circuit breakers. The circuit km).
breakers operation delay is set for 3 cycles (50 ms). If the com- • LA: Pre-fault load angle between the two-end power
mercial relay fails to give a trip signal within the maximum fault sources in electrical degrees.
duration (500 ms), the relay is declared as failed to operate. • , : Represent respectively, the resistive and reactive
components of the apparent impedance in Ohms.
B. Relay Settings • R1, R2: Relay 1 and Relay 2, respectively which are con-
The relay was programmed with three mho zones. The reach nected at the two ends of the compensated line of Fig. 1.
of the instantaneous Zone 1 is set at 80% (240 km) and Zone 2 • LG, LL, 3PH: stands for line-to-ground, line-to-line and
set at 120% (360 km) with time delay of 20 power cycles. The three phase faults, respectively.
reverse looking Zone 3 is set at 50% (150 km) for the Blocking • PT, BT: stands for permissive trip and blocking trip signals
scheme and 25% (75 km) for other schemes. respectively.
2120 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 22, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2007

TABLE I TABLE II
COMMERCIAL RELAY PERFORMANCE WITH NONPILOT COMMERCIAL RELAY PERFORMANCE WITH NONPILOT SCHEME FOR 3-PHASE
SCHEME FOR DIFFERENT FAULT LOCATIONS EXTERNAL FAULT IN A STATCOM COMPENSATED WEAK SYSTEM

2) Over-Reach Effect: There was no case of relay


over-reaching condition noted for the SVC regardless of the
system strength, pre-fault loading and fault conditions. Relay
over-reaching was observed only for STATCOM compensated
weak system at a condition of 3-phase faults at high pre-fault
V. PERFORMANCE OF NONPILOT DISTANCE PROTECTION
loading condition (40 and 60 ). Fig. 4 shows the performance
The performance of the commercial relays operating with of the distance relays for non-pilot scheme with STATCOM
basic distance scheme (non-pilot) is shown in this section. The compensated weak system for a 3-phase fault at 125% of
following subsection summaries the results and the issues en- the compensated line (out-of-section fault) and operating at a
countered. pre-fault power angle of 60 in the reverse direction. In this
case, relay 1 overtripped on zone 1 in 40 ms. This is a severe
A. No Shunt-FACTS Compensation over-reach condition which can also lead to relay over tripping
for external faults even for relays with channel aided schemes
The performance of the commercial relays, which have been
as it will be shown in the next section. Table II show some
used in the testing setup, is examined first for the condition of
cases of relay 1 over-reach condition for 3-phase faults under
no shunt-FACTS compensation device in the system to make
STATCOM compensated weak system and a pre-fault power
sure they perform correctly for all the type of faults and fault
in the reverse direction. The relay operating time in which the
locations. The relays showed correct operation of asserted zone,
relay overtripped is 37 ms to 40 ms, whereas the fault location
fault type and reasonable operating time (1 to 1.5 cycles for
estimated by the relay was in the range from 73 to 81%
faults within zone 1 reach). The relays have also the feature of
3) Effect of Shunt-FACTS Transients: The shunt-FACTS
indicating the estimated fault location. The comparison of the
Controller will influence both the steady state impedance seen
fault location given by the relay compared to the actual fault
by the relay as well as the transient trajectory of the impedance
location showed an acceptable error for all the tested conditions.
seen by the distance relay. The steady state effect results in
It was observed that the error in fault location varied with a
over and under-reach error with respect to the settings of the
maximum error of 5% of the line length for faults applied at
relay zone reach. Whereas, the transient effect could cause
the end of the line.
either delayed pickup of the impedance elements of the relay
or cause a series of pickup and drop-off of the relay impedance
B. Shunt-FACTS Compensation
elements, both of which may lead to relay delayed operation,
The commercial relays at the terminals of line 1 are set to as it will be explained in the following paragraphs.
operate as in nonpilot scheme. Fig. 5 shows the digital signals and the per-unit midpoint
1) Under-Reach Effect: The under-reach effect of the SVC voltage at the SVC location for BC external fault at 105% of the
and the STATCOM shunt compensation on the relay perfor- compensated line for a weak system. The digital signals show
mance is evident from the results of the commercial relay that only zone 2 element picks up. However, it undergoes a tran-
as shown in Table I. Relay 2 operated on zone 1 for all the sition of short pickup and drop-off for several times before it
cases shown in Table I and hence not shown. The result shows resets completely once the SVC boosts the midpoint voltage to
that relay 1 under-reached which resulted in no operation of the set point and hence changes the voltage at the relay location.
relay 1 for all AG faults for the SVC and STACOM com- The operating time of the distance relay is also impacted by
pensated system in both weak and strong system condition. the shunt-FACTS operation at the midpoint of the transmis-
The results also demonstrates the higher under-reach impact sion system for both SVC and STATCOM compensated sys-
of the STACOM compared to that of the SVC compensated tems. An example of delayed tripping is observed for both SVC
system, which agrees with the mathematical analysis given in and STATCOM compensated weak system operating at prefault
Section III. This is indicated by no relay operation for all fault loading condition of 60 in the reverse power direction and with
types at 100% of the line in case of STATCOM compensated AG faults at 65%. In this case, relay 1 takes 102 ms to trip on
system whereas it tripped on zone 2 for both phase-phase and zone 1 for the SVC case whereas it takes 147 ms for similar
3-phase faults in case of SVC compensated system. However, condition at STATCOM compensated system. This represents
when fault extended to 107% of the line, relay 1 did not operate about 6 to 8 cycles of relay operating time which is absolutely
for all type of faults in case of SVC compensated weak system. unacceptable for zone 1 operation. A similar case of delayed
This can be attributed to the nature of the STATCOM - tripping of zone 1 for relay 1 operation is shown in Fig. 6 for a
characteristics compared to that of the SVC as explained in STATCOM compensated weak system in which relay 1 trips on
Section III-C. zone 1 after 115 ms. Other cases of delayed tripping on zone 2
ALBASRI et al.: PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF DISTANCE PROTECTION SCHEMES 2121

TABLE III
EFFECT OF FAULT RESISTANCE ON THE COMMERCIAL RELAYS PERFORMANCE
FOR LINE-GROUND FAULTS AT 60% OF LINE 1

Fig. 5. Relay operation and the midpoint voltage for the BC fault at 105% in C. Effect of Fault Resistance
an SVC-compensated weak system operating at a 40 prefault load angle.
The performance of the commercial relays is also tested for
fault conditions involving fault resistance for shunt-FACTS
compensated strong and weak systems. The fault resistance is
varied from 0 to 50 ohms and a line-to-ground fault is applied
at 60% from relay 1 location (i.e., within zone 1 reach of the
two end relays) and for 20 prefault load angle (LA) in forward
and reverse power flow directions. The performance of the
commercial relays is shown in Table III.
Fig. 6. Case of delayed tripping of zone 1 for a BC fault at 65% in a STATCOM When the shunt-FACTS is not installed as indicated by the
compensated weak system for a prefault load angle of 40 .
row with FACTS device “OFF”, the relays at the two ends of
the compensated line tripped on zone 1 for range of fault re-
are also observed. An example is a case of LL fault with weak sistance from 0 to 50 ohm. However, when the shunt-FACTS
system loaded at 20 degree and compensated with STATCOM device is connected in the circuit, the operation of the com-
wherein the relay 1 took 424 ms to trip on zone 2 which is more mercial relays at the two ends gets affected due to the in-feed
than 5 cycles of delay compared to the setting of zone 2 time current of shunt-FACTS in the fault resistance. This results in
(20 cycles). In this case, zone 2 of relay 1 picked up first for 54 larger apparent impedance seen by the relay at both the ends
ms and then dropped off for 11 ms and then picked up again for of the compensated line. Hence, the shunt-FACTS current in-
396 ms during which Zone 2 time elapsed and relay 1 tripped jection results in under-reaching wherein both relay either fail
on zone 2. In some other case, a delay of more than 9 cycles was to operate or tripped on zone 2 in some cases as the fault re-
also observed in the tripping of zone 2. sistance increased. It can be seen that relay 2 tripped on zone
4) Phase Selection: There were several cases of incorrect 2 as indicated by the highlighted cells in Table III. This will
phase selection indicated by the commercial relay compared affect the relay operations for channel-aided schemes incorpo-
to the applied fault type. The relay gave incorrect phase selec- rating the under-reaching zone for keying such as PUTT and
tion for some cases for which the shunt-FACTS Controller is DUTT scheme. It is also noted that the impact on relay 2 is less
present in the fault loop and during high prefault loading con- because the impedance error is only due to the fault resistance
dition with unsymmetrical faults. However, no case of incorrect given by the second term of (7). This result supports the anal-
phase selection was observed for relay 2, which is located at ysis given in Section III on the effect of fault resistance with the
the remote end. Most of incorrect phase selection was observed presence of shunt-FACTS.
for unsymmetrical faults. This may be attributed to the balanced
three-phase firing technique employed in the voltage controllers VI. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF
THE PILOT PROTECTION SCHEMES
of the shunt FACTS devices in which control system acts on
a dc voltage equivalent to the measured three-phase voltage. The commercial relays are connected by a communica-
Thus for unsymmetrical faults, in which faulty phases experi- tion link and set to operate under five channel-aided schemes
ence a severe undervoltage compared to the healthy phases, the namely: the direct under-reach transfer trip (DUTT), permissive
FACTS device would provide equal compensation for all the under-reach transfer trip (PUTT), the permissive over-reach
three phases. This means that healthy phase(s) voltages can in- transfer trip (POTT), directional comparison blocking (DCB),
crease due to this equal compensation. As a result, the overcom- and the directional comparison unblocking (DCUB) schemes.
pensation of the healthy phases can result in an increased reac- In practice, the time delay introduced by the communication
tive current in healthy phases. This would increase the possi- channel varies depending on the type of the channel. As a re-
bility of incorrect phase selection for unsymmetrical faults, par- sult, the performance of the five channel-aided schemes is tested
ticularly if the relay installed uses current based phase selection. for 0, 0.5 and 1 cycles of communication channel delay. More
No case of relay phase selection was observed for light prefault than 3600 test cases were performed to test the performance
load of 20 . of the channel-aided schemes, considering three type of faults
2122 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 22, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2007

TABLE IV TABLE VI
RELAY 1 OPERATION FOR INTERNAL FAULTS AT 20 (FORWARD) RELAY 1 OPERATION FOR EXTERNAL FAULTS

TABLE VII
SUMMARY OF THE NUMBER OF NO RELAY OPERATIONS OF RELAY
1 FOR INTERNAL FAULTS BEYOND THE SHUNT-FACTS DEVICE

TABLE V
RELAY 1 OPERATION FOR INTERNAL FAULTS AT 40 (REVERSE)

A. Influence of Internal Faults


As it was mentioned in Section V that the shunt-FACTS cause
either short time pickup or no pickup of the distance elements
even for some internal faults within zone 1 reach, which caused
the failure of the relay to trip, or trip after zone 2 time delay.
Unlike the non-pilot scheme, which would fail to trip if the
zone 1 element did not pickup or if the zone 2 element picked
up for a time shorter than its settable time delay, the channel
aided schemes performed better under such conditions. As a re-
sult, the overall performance of the channel-aided schemes is
much improved compared to that of the stand-alone distance
protection. Among the five channel-aided schemes, the DUTT
performed well compared to the other schemes for the internal
faults. This is because the shunt-FACTS has no effect on the
remote end relay (R2) for internal solid faults located after the
shunt-FACTS Controller with respect to relay 1 (i.e., between
(LG, LL and 3PH), different pre-fault loading condition (20 the shunt-FACTS location and relay 2). For these fault loca-
and 40 ), two power directions (forward and reverse), different tions, relay 2 tripped correctly on zone 1 and hence initiated
fault locations (internal and external faults), three communica- direct transfer trip to relay 1. This shows that DUTT provides
tion channel delays (0, 0.5, and 1 cycle), two system strength high dependability compared to the other schemes. However,
conditions (strong and weak systems) for both STATCOM and the DUTT can also fail to trip under high fault resistance as
SVC compensated systems. shown in Table III in which zone 1 of relay 2 did not pickup.
The performance of the commercial relay 1 for the five Similarly, the performance of the PUTT will be affected for
channel aided schemes are shown in Tables IV–VII for dif- faults involving fault resistance as it uses the under-reaching
ferent fault type, fault location, pre-fault loading, system zone 1 for keying compared to the other schemes. In such fault
strength and power directions. The tabulated results show only condition, zone 1 might not pickup (as indicated in Table III)
the status of relay 1 operation for channel delay of 0.5 and 1 and hence the remote end relay will not operate accordingly. In
cycles for the sake of simplicity due to pace limitation. For all addition, the DUTT scheme has the lowest security as it is does
the tested cases shown in the table, relay 2 operated correctly not provide additional verification of faults and hence suscep-
on zone 1 for the internal faults, and hence not shown in the tible to incorrect tripping for channel noise or incorrect transfer
results. We have only shown the zone of operation at which trip signal from the remote end. Extending the reach of zone 2
the relay tripped and other results such as relay trip time, fault from 120% to 150% would solve some of the cases for which
location estimated by the relay, and the fault type indicated by relay 1 did not operate for LG faults in schemes utilizing the
the relays are not shown due to the space limitation. overreaching Zone 2 element for channel keying, such as POTT
ALBASRI et al.: PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF DISTANCE PROTECTION SCHEMES 2123

and DCUB. However, this was not sufficient to clear faults at D. Influence of Shunt-FACTS Device Type
the end of the line in which relay 1 also failed to operate.
It is noted that the under-reach effect due to SVC is less as
compared to that with the STATCOM. As a result, there are
B. Influence of External Faults more cases of no relay operation for system with STATCOM
compensated system compared to that with the SVC compen-
Table VI shows the results for external faults for both 0.5 and sated system. The over-reaching effect, which is observed for
1 cycle channel delays. All the schemes showed similar per- STATCOM compensated weak system, caused overtripping for
formance for external faults. However, the main concern is the external faults. As expected, this led to incorrect relay opera-
over-reach effect of the STATCOM, which causes relay 1 to trip tion regardless of the schemes used. Under such condition, ad-
on zone 1 for 3-phase fault at the adjacent line taking about 40 ditional security measures should be considered or zone 1 ele-
ms to trip as shown in Table VI for the 40 loading. This leads ment should be either restrained or time delayed with additional
to maloperation of relay 1 regardless of the protection scheme cross check signals. The over-reaching was also noted for in-
used. Relay 2 did not operate because the fault occurred behind ternal 3-phase faults at the end of the line. An example of this
its forward zones. case is the tripping of relay 1 on Zone 1 for 3-phase fault at
The under-reach effect of the shunt-FACTS device also influ- 95% for STATCOM compensated weak system under 1 cycle
enced the backup distance protection (Zone 2). It is noted from channel delay, whereas it tripped on channel-aided scheme for
Table VI that for fault at 100% of line 1, relay 1 did not trip SVC compensated system as shown in Table VI.
for all types of faults in case of STATCOM compensated strong
system whereas it did not trip for LG faults in case of SVC com- E. Influence of Relay Location
pensated system. Similarly, for the weak system condition, relay The results show that relay performance is affected only
1 did not operate for faults within zone 2 reach (for fault at 105% whenever the shunt-FACTS devices fall in the faulted loop.
of line 1) for all types of fault in case of STATCOM compen- As a result, relay 1 on the local end (station A) is impacted by
sated line whereas it did not operate for both LG and 3-phase the shunt-FACTS for faults located beyond the shunt-FACTS
fault in case of SVC compensation as shown in Table VI. For device (beyond the 50% of the compensated line). Whereas for
faults beyond 108% of line 1, relay 1 did not operate regardless similar faults, relay 2 operated correctly as the shunt-FACTS
of the fault type, prefault load, and the shunt-FACTS device. device does not fall within its fault loop at a condition of zero
fault resistance. Hence, the performance of relays under the
DUTT scheme superseded the performance of other schemes.
C. Influence of Fault Type
F. Influence of Channel Delay
It is observed that relay 1 did not operate for most of the LG
faults indicating severe under-reaching effect compared to the It is mentioned earlier that there are several cases in which
other fault types. This causes no pickup of the over-reaching el- the Zone 2 picks up for short time during the transient period
ement Zone 2 and hence results in the failure of protective relay of the impedance trajectory. In DCB scheme, the instantaneous
to clear the faulted line for all the schemes except the DUTT Zone 2 at a local terminal is delayed by a settable communica-
scheme, which does not require a local qualifying signal upon tion channel coordination time delay to allow time for a possible
the receipt of a transfer trip signal from the remote end relay. remote blocking signal to get transmitted to the local terminal.
For the line-to-line (LL) faults, the five protection schemes This settable time delay could affect the relay performance in
clear the faulted line successfully for all the tested cases for SVC case such short pickup of Zone 2 element occurs. So, if the
compensated system. Whereas for similar fault in a STATCOM pickup time of Zone 2 is less than this setting, the relay will
compensated system, several cases of no relay operations are not operate under the DCB scheme whereas it would operate on
observed at fault locations 75% and beyond for weak system other schemes, which do not require such setting. This can be il-
and from 85% for the strong system as shown in Tables IV and lustrated in Fig. 7 in which Zone 2 of Relay 1 (R1:Z2) pickup for
V. These conditions of relay failure to trip for internal LL faults short time in DCUB scheme which initiated a channel-assisted
are observed for all the schemes except the DUTT. tripping of relay 1 whereas it did not trip for DCB scheme due
Although not shown in the results of Tables IV–VII, very few to the settable communication channel delay time of the DCB
cases of no relay operations are noted for the three-phase in- scheme, which is set to 1.25 cycles in this case. In addition, the
ternal faults. There are six such fail operations which occurred carrier coordination time of the DCB scheme results in a longer
only in a STATCOM compensated strong system protected with fault clearing time compared to the other schemes.
the DCB scheme and with channel delay of 0.5 and 1 cycles. The short time pickup of Zone 2 element due to the
These cases are shown in Table VII, which give the summary of shunt-FACTS devices can also impact the operation of the other
all cases of no relay operation for the internal faults. These cases schemes when communication delay is increased. Fig. 8 illus-
occurred for 3-phase faults at the end of the line (99%) when the trates a condition in which relay 1 operated on channel assisted
channel coordination time delay is set at 1.25 cycle. When the tripping in POTT scheme when there is no communication
communication coordination time is reduced from 1.25 cycles delay, whereas, it did not operate for similar condition when
to 0.75 cycles, the relay cleared the fault by channel-assisted the channel delay increased to 0.5 and 1 cycle. It is noted from
tripping. This shows the impact of the communication coordi- Fig. 8 that the difference between the pickup of zone of Relay
nation time setting of the relay in DCB scheme. 1 (R1:Z2) and the assert of the received permissive trip signal
2124 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 22, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2007

additional verification at the local end to trip once a direct trip


signal is received from the remote end.

H. Performance of the Distance Relays on Adjacent Lines


The performance of the distance relays of the adjacent line
(line 2 in Fig. 1) is also tested. The relay operated correctly re-
gardless of the schemes used for all the internal faults. For ex-
ternal faults (faults at the compensated line, line 1), the distance
relay performed correctly

I. Overall Performance
The performance of the five schemes in terms of the number
of cases at which each scheme failed to clear the internal
solid fault is summarized in Table VII. It summaries all cases
including those shown in Tables IV–V. It gives the summary of
no trip cases encountered during different operating condition;
namely, two prefault loading conditions (20 and 40 ), two
power directions, two systems (weak and strong), three channel
delay conditions (0, 0.5 and 1 cycles) and five different fault
locations (from 65% to 99%).
As can be seen from Table VII, the majority of cases of no
relay operation occurred during the LG faults followed by LL
faults. The only cases of relay failure to operate for 3-phase in-
ternal fault were observed in the DCB scheme as a result of the
communication coordination time delay setting of its instanta-
neous Zone 2 element.
The performance of the DUTT schemes is the best among the
schemes as it does not require a qualifying signal locally and
Fig. 7. AG fault at 75% of a STATCOM compensated strong system operating just depends on the tripping of the remote relay which is less af-
at power angle 20 (reverse) and with half cycle channel delay. (a) DCUB Scheme
(R1 tripped on channel assisted). (b) DCB scheme (R1 did not trip). fected by the shunt-FACTS device for fault beyond the FACTS
location. The DCB scheme is most affected by the shunt-FACTS
compared to the other schemes, as it requires a delay of the in-
stantaneous Zone 2 element, which is not required by the other
schemes. The PUTT, POTT and DCUB schemes have almost
the same number of unsuccessful fault clearing conditions be-
cause they use the overreaching Zone 2 element for qualifying
the received permissive signal. However, the performance of the
PUTT scheme is most affected by the fault resistance compared
to the other schemes as it uses the under-reaching Zone 1 for
keying. Similarly, the DUTT scheme will be affected by the
fault resistance as it also uses Zone 1 for transfer trips to the
other relay. The STATCOM caused larger under-reach, which is
manifested as higher number of no relay operations for internal
faults in the STATCOM case as compared to the SVC case.

VII. DISCUSSION
Fig. 8. Digital signals for AG fault at 65%, STATCOM compensated weak
system, 20 (forward), POTT scheme with no channel delay. Although this paper considers the influence of midpoint lo-
cated shunt-FACTS devices, it is expected that installing shunt-
FACTS at the end of the line would reduce the severity of the im-
(R:PT) is 5 ms. As a result, the relay did not operate when the pact on distance relays in particular for channel-aided schemes
channel delay is set to 0.5 cycle (8 ms). for internal faults. This is because the shunt-FACTS device will
not be included in the faulted loop for internal faults and the cur-
G. Influence of Transient Response of the Shunt-FACTS rent of the shunt-FACTS device can be easily compensated at
The presence of shunt-FACTS in the fault loop of a distance the relay location where the FACTS device is connected. How-
relay also influences the relay response. The transient response ever, for STATCOM compensated lines, care should be given
of the shunt-FACTS is the main factor in delaying the relay re- for the possible overreach as this could lead to relay overtrip-
sponse. As expected, the DUTT offered the shortest tripping ping for external faults. The impact will be more on the Zone 2
time compared to the other schemes as it does not require any and Zone 3 reach of the distance relays.
ALBASRI et al.: PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF DISTANCE PROTECTION SCHEMES 2125

TABLE VIII [2] R. M. Mathur and R. K. Varma, Thyristor-Based FACTS Controllers


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[3] IEEE Guide for a Detailed Functional Specification and Application
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[5] Network Protection & Automation Guidethird ed. ALSTOM, 2002.
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[7] B. Bachmann, D. Novosel, D. Hart, Y. Hu, and M. M. Saha, “Appli-
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Generally, the basic principle of most commercial distance re- tion,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Intelligent Systems Applications to Power Sys-
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[8] P. K. Dash, A. K. Pradhan, G. Panda, and A. C. Liew, “Digital pro-
may have additional features and logics that distinguish them tection of power transmission lines in the presence of series connected
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weak infeed echo feature in POTT scheme would perform much 23–27, 2000, vol. 3, pp. 1967–1972.
[9] W. Wang, Y. Xianggen, Y. Jiang, D. Xianzhong, and C. Deshu, “The
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VIII. CONCLUSION [11] K. El-Arroudi, G. Joos, and D. T. McGillis, “Operation of impedance
protection relays with the STATCOM,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol.
The results presented in this paper show the adverse ef- 17, no. 2, pp. 381–387, Apr. 2002.
fect of the midpoint shunt-FACTS controllers, SVC and [12] T. S. Sidhu, R. K. Varma, P. K. Gangadharan, F. A. Albasri, and G.
STATCOM, on the performance of distance relays for both R. Ortiz, “Performance of distance relays on shunt—FACTS compen-
sated transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 20, no. 3, pp.
stand-alone and channel-aided schemes. The impact of the 1837–1845, Jul. 2005.
midpoint shunt-FACTS compensation on the distance relay [13] F. A. Albasri, T. S. Sidhu, and R. K. Varma, “Impact of shunt- FACTS
performance results in errors in the impedance measurement on distance protection of transmission lines,” in Proc. Power Systems
Conf., Clemson, SC, Mar. 14–17, 2006.
(under/overreaching), delayed response and incorrect phase [14] “Real-Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) User’s Manual Set,” RTDS
selection. Although, the relay with the channel-aided schemes Technologies Inc., 2001.
performed better as compared to the stand-alone scheme, it fails
to provide reliable operation for all types of faults in midpoint Fadhel A. Albasri (S’94) received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in electrical
engineering from the University of Bahrain, Bahrain, in 1992 and 1997, respec-
shunt-FACTS compensated transmission system. The DUTT tively, and is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree in power system protection at
scheme showed the best overall performance as compared to the University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
the other schemes whereas, the largest number of no relay In 1994, he joined the University of Bahrain as a Teaching and Research As-
sistant.
operations was encountered for the DCB scheme due to the
channel delay. The over-reaching effect of the STATCOM
caused relay overtripping for external faults regardless of the
distance scheme. The transient introduced by the shunt-FACTS Tarlochan Singh Sidhu (M’90–SM’94–F’04) received the B.E. (Hons.) degree
from the Punjabi University, Patiala, India, in 1979 and the M.Sc. and Ph.D.
controllers affected relay response time and the phase selec- degrees from the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, in 1985
tion of the distance relay which are two important factors for and 1989, respectively.
system stability and single pole tripping applications. There- He was with the Regional Computer Center, Chandigarh, India, Punjab State
Electricity Board, India, and Bell-Northern Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON, Canada.
fore, it is necessary to find practical solutions to these issues From 1990 to 2002, he was with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Uni-
when applying distance protection for protecting transmission versity of Saskatchewan, where he was Professor and Graduate Chairman of the
line with midpoint shunt-FACTS devices. The impact of the Department. Currently, he is Professor and Chair of the Electrical and Computer
Engineering Department at the University of Western Ontario, London. He is
shunt-FACTS devices can be mitigated by many methods, also the Hydro one Chair in Power Systems Engineering. His areas of research
such as, modifying the logic in the existing channel-aided interest are power system protection, monitoring, and control.
schemes, modifying the input voltage and current at the relays Dr. Sidhu is a Fellow of the Institution of Engineers (India) and a Fellow of
the Institution of Electrical Engineer (U.K.). He is also a Registered Professional
to compensate for the effect of the current of the shunt-FACTS, Engineer in the Province of Ontario and a Chartered Engineer in the U.K.
detecting remote end breaker operation, etc. The detailed
corrective measures and recommendations will be presented in
another paper.
Rajiv K. Varma (M’96) received the B.Tech. and Ph.D. degrees from the Indian
Institute of Technology (IIT), Kanpur, in 1980 and 1988, respectively.
REFERENCES He was a Faculty Member with IIT Kanpur from 1989 to 2001. He subse-
[1] N. G. Hingorani and L. Gyugyi, Understanding FACTS: Concepts & quently moved to the University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada,
Technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems. New York: Wiley, where he is an Associate Professor. His research interests are flexible ac trans-
1999. mission systems (FACTS), power system stability, and wind power systems.