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The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international co-

operation and to create and maintain international order. A replacement for the ineffective League of
Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II with the aim of preventing
another such conflict. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The headquarters
of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are
situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary
contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security,
promoting human rights, fostering social and economic development, protecting the environment, and
providing humanitarian aid in cases of famine, natural disaster, and armed conflict. The UN is the largest,
most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the
world.[3]
The UN Charter was drafted at a conference between April–June 1945 in San Francisco, and was signed
on 26 June 1945 at the conclusion of the conference;[4][5] this charter took effect on 24 October 1945, and
the UN began operation. The UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades
by the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. The organization
participated in major actions in Korea and the Congo, as well as approving the creation of the Israeli state
in 1947. The organization's membership grew significantly following widespread decolonization in the
1960s, and by the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its
spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN took on major military and peacekeeping
missions across the world with varying degrees of success.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly (the main deliberative assembly); the Security
Council (for deciding certain resolutions for peace and security); the Economic and Social
Council (ECOSOC; for promoting international economic and social co-operation and development);
the Secretariat (for providing studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN); the International Court
of Justice (the primary judicial organ); and the UN Trusteeship Council (inactive since 1994). UN
System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food
Programme, UNESCO, and UNICEF. The UN's most prominent officer is theSecretary-General, an office
held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 2017. Non-governmental organizations
may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work.
The organization won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2001, and a number of its officers and agencies have also
been awarded the prize. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed. Some
commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while
others have called the organization ineffective, corrupt, or biased.

HISTORY

1 January 1942 || The name "United Nations" is coined


The name "United Nations", coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt was first used in
theDeclaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives
of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers.

24 October 1945 || The United Nations officially comes into existence


In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on
International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. Those delegates deliberated on the basis
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of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the
United States atDumbarton Oaks, United States in August-October 1944.
The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not
represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States.

The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified
by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and by a majority of other
signatories.United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October each year.

PREPARATORY YEARS - HISTORY OF THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER

June 1941
The Declaration of St. James' Palace

1943
Moscow and Teheran Conference

14 August 1941
The Atlantic Charter

1944-1945
Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta

1 January 1942
The Declaration of the United Nations

1945
San Francisco Conference

PRECEDING YEARS - FORERUNNERS OF THE UNITED NATIONS

1865 || 1874
States first established international organizations to cooperate on specific matters. The International
Telecommunication Union was founded in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union, and the Universal
Postal Union was established in 1874. Both are now United Nations specialized agencies.

1899 || 1902
In 1899, the International Peace Conference was held in The Hague to elaborate instruments for settling
crises peacefully, preventing wars and codifying rules of warfare. It adopted the Convention for the Pacific
Settlement of International Disputes and established the Permanent Court of Arbitration, which began work
in 1902.

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1919
The forerunner of the United Nations was the League of Nations, an organization conceived in similar
circumstances during the first World War, and established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles "to
promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security." The International Labour
Organization was also created under the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League. The
League of Nations ceased its activities after failing to prevent the Second World War.

MEMBERS:
Belarus 24-10-45
A
Belgium 27-12-45
Member State Date of Admission Belize 25-09-81
Afghanistan 19-11-46 Benin 20-09-60
Albania 14-12-55 Bhutan 21-09-71
Algeria 08-10-62 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 14-11-45
Andorra 28-07-93 Bosnia and Herzegovina 22-05-92
Angola 01-12-76 Botswana 17-10-66
Antigua and Barbuda 11-11-81 Brazil 24-10-45
Argentina 24-10-45 Brunei Darussalam 21-09-84
Armenia 02-03-92 Bulgaria 14-12-55
Australia 01-11-45 Burkina Faso 20-09-60
Austria 14-12-55 Burundi 18-09-62
Azerbaijan 02-03-92 C
B
Member State Date of Admission
Member State Date of Admission Cabo Verde 16-09-75
Bahamas 18-09-73 Cambodia 14-12-55
Bahrain 21-09-71 Cameroon 20-09-60
Bangladesh 17-09-74 Canada 09-11-45
Barbados 09-12-66 Central African Republic 20-09-60

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Chad 20-09-60 Equatorial Guinea 12-11-68

Chile 24-10-45 Eritrea 28-05-93

China 24-10-45 Estonia 17-09-91

Colombia 05-11-45 Eswatini 24-09-68

Comoros 12-11-75 Ethiopia 13-11-45

Congo 20-09-60 F

Costa Rica 02-11-45 Member State Date of Admission


Côte D'Ivoire 20-09-60 Fiji 13-10-70
Croatia 22-05-92 Finland 14-12-55
Cuba 24-10-45 France 24-10-45
Cyprus 20-09-60 G
Czech Republic 19-01-93
Member State Date of Admission
D
Gabon 20-09-60
Member State Date of Admission Gambia (Republic of The) 21-09-65
Democratic People's Republic of Korea 17-09-91 Georgia 31-07-92
Democratic Republic of the Congo 20-09-60 Germany 18-09-73
Denmark 24-10-45 Ghana 08-03-57
Djibouti 20-09-77 Greece 25-10-45
Dominica 18-12-78 Grenada 17-09-74
Dominican Republic 24-10-45 Guatemala 21-11-45
E Guinea 12-12-58

Member State Date of Admission Guinea Bissau 17-09-74

Ecuador 21-12-45 Guyana 20-09-66

Egypt 24-10-45 H

El Salvador 24-10-45 Member State Date of Admission

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L
Haiti 24-10-45
Member State Date of Admission
Honduras 17-12-45
Lao People’s Democratic Republic 14-12-55
Hungary 14-12-55

I Latvia 1 7-09-91

Lebanon 24-10-45
Member State Date of Admission
Lesotho 17-10-66
Iceland 19-11-46
Liberia 02-11-45
India 30-10-45
Libya 14-12-55
Indonesia 28-09-50
Liechtenstein 18-09-90
Iran (Islamic Republic of) 24-10-45
Lithuania 17-09-91
Iraq21-12-45
Luxembourg 24-10-45
Ireland 14-12-55
M
Israel 11-05-49
Member State Date of Admission
Italy 14-12-55

J Madagascar 20-09-60

Malawi 01-12-64
Member State Date of Admission
Malaysia 17-09-57
Jamaica 18-09-62
Maldives 21-09-65
Japan 18-12-56
Mali 28-09-60
Jordan 14-12-55
Malta 01-12-64
K
Marshall Islands 17-09-91
Member State Date of Admission
Mauritania 27-10-61
Kazakhstan 02-03-92
Mauritius 24-04-68
Kenya 16-12-63
Mexico 07-11-45
Kiribati 14-09-99
Micronesia (Federated States of) -09-91
Kuwait 14-05-63
Monaco 28-05-93
Kyrgyzstan 02-03-92

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Mongolia 27-10-61 Paraguay 24-10-45

Montenegro 28-06-06 Peru 31-10-45

Morocco 12-11-56 Philippines 24-10-45

Mozambique 16-09-75 Poland 24-10-45

Myanmar 19-04-48 Portugal 14-12-55

N Q

Member State Date of Admission Member State Date of Admission

Namibia 23-04-90 Qatar 21-09-71

Nauru 14-09-99 R

Nepal 14-12-55 Member State Date of Admission


Netherlands 10-12-45 Republic of Korea17-09-91
New Zealand 24-10-45 Republic of Moldova 02-03-92
Nicaragua 24-10-45 Romania 14-12-55
Niger 20-09-60 Russian Federation 24-10-45
Nigeria 07-10-60 Rwanda 18-09-62
Norway 27-11-45 S
O
Member State Date of Admission
Member State Date of Admission Saint Kitts and Nevis 23-09-83
Oman 07-10-71 Saint Lucia 18-09-79
P Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 16-09-80

Member State Date of Admission Samoa 15-12-76

Pakistan 30-09-47 San Marino 02-03-92

Palau 15-12-94 Sao Tome and Principe 16-09-75

Panama 13-11-45 Saudi Arabia 24-10-45

Papua New Guinea 10-10-75 Senegal 28-09-60

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Serbia 01-11-00 Trinidad and Tobago 18-09-62

Seychelles 21-09-76 Tunisia 12-11-56

Sierra Leone 27-09-61 Turkey 24-10-45

Singapore 21-09-65 Turkmenistan 02-03-92

Slovakia 19-01-93 Tuvalu 05-09-00

Slovenia 22-05-92 U

Solomon Islands 19-09-78 Member State Date of Admission


Somalia 20-09-60 Uganda 25-10-62
South Africa 07-11-45 Ukraine 24-10-45
South Sudan 14-07-11 United Arab Emirates 09-12-71
Spain 14-12-55 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland24-
Sri Lanka 14-12-55 10-45
Sudan 12-11-56 United Republic of Tanzania14-12-61
Suriname 04-12-75 United States of America 24-10-45
Sweden 19-11-46 Uruguay 18-12-45
Switzerland 10-09-02 Uzbekistan 02-03-92
Syrian Arab Republic 24-10-45 V
T
Member State Date of Admission
Member State Date of Admission Vanuatu15-09-81
Tajikistan02-03-92 Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of 15-11-45
Thailand 16-12-46 Viet Nam 20-09-77
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 08-04-93 Y
Timor-Leste 27-09-02
Member State Date of Admission
Togo 20-09-60
Yemen 30-09-47
Tonga 14-09-99
Z

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Member State Date of Admission

Zambia 01-12-64

Zimbabwe 25-08-80

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