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Physics 223 Midterm, Winter 2017 Page 1 of 14

University of Calgary
Faculty of Science Quiz
PHYSICS 223 ALL LECTURE SECTIONS

February 28, 2017, 7- 9 pm Time: 120 minutes

This is a closed-book exam worth a total of 30 points. Please answer all questions.

ONLY THE FOLLOWING ITEMS ARE ALLOWED ON YOUR DESK DURING THE EXAM:

1. THIS MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTION BOOKLET, which includes the multiple-choice exam


questions and the formula sheet (last page). THIS BOOKLET WILL NOT BE HANDED IN. Make sure
this booklet contains 14 pages (including formula sheet). If you are missing any pages, get a new booklet
from the exam supervisor.

2. A BUBBLE SHEET used to answer multiple-choice questions. IT WILL BE HANDED IN.

IMPORTANT: START by entering your ID NUMBER, NAME and COURSE ID on the bubble sheet. Using
a pen or a pencil, black out the corresponding numbers below your ID and name. DO THIS NOW. Then
wait for the Exam Supervisor to signal when to start the test.

All answers to the multiple-choice questions must be entered by blacking out the appropriate character (one
of a, b, c, d, e) beside the question number on the bubble sheet. Make sure you darken the entire interior of
the circle that contains the character.

3. A CALCULATOR, which can be anything that does NOT connect to wifi and does NOT communicate
with other devices. ACCEPTABLE calculators include: programmable and graphing calculators, Schulich
School of Engineering calculators, scientific calculators, etc. UNACCEPTABLE calculators include: cell
phones, tablets, laptops, etc.

4. A PEN OR PENCIL, used to black out your answers on the bubble sheet. If you are using a PEN, make
sure it is BLACK or BLUE in order to ensure the scanner reads your answers properly. PENCILS can also
be used, but make sure you press firmly when answering so the scanner reads your answer properly.

5. YOUR STUDENT ID CARD, used to check your identity during exam sign-in.

If you are missing anything from the above items, raise your hand and ask an exam supervisor to supply what
is missing. If you are missing an item that should have been brought by you (e.g., calculator, pen/pencil) there
is a limited supply of extras and are on a first come, first served basis.

Please note that you can leave the room at any time during the first 30 minutes of the quiz. Students remaining
after 90 minutes must remain seated for the duration of the exam until permitted to leave by the instructor.
Physics 223 Midterm, Winter 2017 Page 2 of 14

Quiz 1 Questions (Total: 30 marks, 1 mark for each question)

1. X and Y are two uncharged metal spheres on insulating stands, and are in contact with each
other. A positively charged rod R is brought close to X as shown in Figure (a)

Sphere Y is now moved away from X, as in Figure (b).

What are the final charge states of X and Y?

a) Both X and Y are neutral.


b) X is positive and Y is neutral.
c) X is neutral and Y is positive.
d) X is negative and Y is positive.

2. A thin metallic wire connects two spheres, one large with


radius 2𝑟 and one small with radius 𝑟, as shown in the
picture. The total charge on the system is 𝑄 and the
system is in electrostatic equilibrium. Which of the
following is true regarding the charge distribution across
the spheres:

1
a) 𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 > 𝑄𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑄𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 𝑄
3
1
b) 𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 > 𝑄𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑄𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 𝑄
4
2
c) 𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 < 𝑄𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑄𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 𝑄
3
3
d) 𝑄𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 < 𝑄𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑄𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑙 = 𝑄
4
Physics 223 Midterm, Winter 2017 Page 3 of 14

3. An electron is initially moving to the right when it enters a uniform electric field directed
upwards. Which trajectory shown below will the electron follow?

a) Trajectory W
b) Trajectory X
c) Trajectory Y
d) Trajectory Z

4. Which of the graphs represents a total energy (E) and electric potential energy (U) of two
negative particles of mass 𝑚 and charge −𝑞 launched towards each other from distance 𝑅 >
0 away with initial velocities of magnitude 𝑣𝑖 ?

Figure A Figure B

Figure C Figure D
a) Figure A
b) Figure B
c) Figure C
d) Figure D
Physics 223 Midterm, Winter 2017 Page 4 of 14

5. What is the electric potential at point P due to the two charges 𝑞𝐴 = 4.0𝜇𝐶 and 𝑞𝐵 = −2.0𝜇𝐶
placed as shown in the picture?

a) 𝑉𝑃 = 9000 𝑉
b) 𝑉𝑃 = 5400 𝑉
c) 𝑉𝑃 = 1620 𝑉
d) 𝑉𝑃 = 1260 𝑉

6. Figure below presents the circuit with a battery and some resistors. What is the potential
difference between points A and B and C and D, respectively.

a) 𝑉𝐴𝐵 = 24𝑉, 𝑉𝐶𝐷 = 24𝑉


b) 𝑉𝐴𝐵 = 9.6𝑉, 𝑉𝐶𝐷 = 14.4𝑉
c) 𝑉𝐴𝐵 = 14.4𝑉, 𝑉𝐶𝐷 = 9.6𝑉
d) 𝑉𝐴𝐵 = 12𝑉, 𝑉𝐶𝐷 = 12𝑉
Physics 223 Midterm, Winter 2017 Page 5 of 14

7. A device with a resistance of 200.0 kΩ is connected to a 9.0 V battery. How much power
does the device use?
a) 0.41 mW
b) 16 000 kW
c) 0.045 mW
d) 1800 kW

8. Which of the following statements about conductor in electrostatic equilibrium is false?

a) There is no net electric field inside the conductor.


b) Electric potential is the same everywhere on the surface of the conductor.
c) Electric field outside the conductor has the same magnitude everywhere.
d) Direction of the electric field outside the conductor is perpendicular to the surface of the
conductor.

9. A pair of charged conducting plates produces a uniform field of 12,000 N/C, directed to the
right, between the plates. The separation of the plates is 40 mm. An electron is projected
from plate A, directly toward plate B, with an initial speed 𝑣0 = 2.0 ∙ 107 m/s as shown in
the figure below. What is the final speed of the electron as it strikes plate B?

a) 𝑣𝑓 = 1.2 · 107 m/s


b) 𝑣𝑓 = 1.5 · 107 m/s
c) 𝑣𝑓 = 1.8 · 107 m/s
d) 𝑣𝑓 = 2.1 · 107 m/s
Physics 223 Midterm, Winter 2017 Page 6 of 14

10. In the circuit shown in the figure, four identical bulbs A - D, each of resistance 5.0 Ω, are
connected to a battery as shown in the figure below. What is the equivalent resistance of
this circuit?

a) 2.7 Ω
b) 8.3 Ω
c) 15 Ω
d) 20 Ω

11. In the figure, a ring 0.71 m in radius carries a charge of + 580 nC uniformly distributed
over it. A point charge Q is placed at the center of the ring. The electric field is equal to
zero at field point P, which is on the axis of the ring, and 0.73 m from its center. The point
charge Q is closest to:

a) –210 nC
b) –300 nC
c) +300 nC
d) +210 nC
Physics 223 Midterm, Winter 2017 Page 7 of 14

12. A positive particle is moving to the left in the magnetic field. Which figure correctly shows
the direction of the magnetic field around the particle?

Figure A Figure B

Figure C Figure D

a) Figure A.
b) Figure B
c) Figure C
d) Figure D

13. An unknown particle of unknown charge 𝑞 is moving in space with velocity 𝑣⃗. When particle
passes through the origin, the electric and magnetic field at point 𝑃 = (1𝑐𝑚, 0𝑐𝑚) are 𝐸⃗⃗ =
−𝐸𝑖̂ and 𝐵 ⃗⃗ = 𝐵𝑗̂, respectively. Which of the following is true about the sign and velocity
of the particle?

a) It is a positive particle moving in the positive 𝑘̂ direction.


b) It is a positive particle moving in the negative 𝑘̂ direction.
c) It is a negative particle moving in the positive 𝑘̂ direction.
d) It is a negative particle moving in the negative 𝑘̂ direction.
Physics 223 Midterm, Winter 2017 Page 8 of 14

Questions 14, 15 and 16 are all related to the following situation:


Three equal negative point charges of are 3.0 x 10-6 C are placed at three of the corners of a square of side d
as shown in the figure, where d = 0.042 m.

14. Which of the arrows represents the direction of the net electric field at the center of the
square?

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D

15. What is the magnitude of the electric field at the point in the center of the square?
a) 9.0 x 105 N/C
b) 3.0 x 107 N/C
c) 6.0 x 107 N/C
d) 9.0 x 107 N/C

16. If at a point located at infinity the potential is zero, what is the potential at the point located
at the center of the square?
a) -1.3 x 106 V
b) -9.0 x 105 V
c) -2.7 x 106 V
d) -6.0 x 107 V
Physics 223 Midterm, Winter 2017 Page 9 of 14

Questions 17, 18, 19 and 20 are all related to the following situation

In the circuit shown in the figure, all the lightbulbs are identical and each has a resistance of 2 . The
battery supplies a potential difference of 10 V.

17. Which of the following is the correct ranking of the brightness of the bulbs?

a) B and C have equal brightness, and A is the dimmest.


b) A and B have equal brightness, and C is the dimmest.
c) A is brightest, C is dimmest, and B is in between.
d) A is the brightest, and B and C have equal brightness but less than A.

18. What is the potential difference across bulb B?


a) 0.0 V
b) 2.0 V
c) 5.0 V
d) 10 V

19. What is the current flowing through bulb A?


a) 2.5 A
b) 5.0 A
c) 7.5 A
d) 10 A

20. What is the power dissipated by bulb B?


a) 12.5 W
b) 15.0 W
c) 20.0 W
d) 25.0 W
Physics 223 Midterm, Winter 2017 Page 10 of 14

Questions 21, 22 and 23 are all related to the following situation:


Two particles, 𝑄1 = 5.0𝑛𝐶 and 𝑄2 = −5.0𝑛𝐶 are placed along the y axis so that 𝑄1 is at
point 𝑀 = (0 𝑐𝑚, 1.0 𝑐𝑚) and 𝑄2 is at point 𝑁 = (0 𝑐𝑚, −1.0 𝑐𝑚), as shown in the
figure to the right.

21. What amount of work is required to bring a third particle 𝑄3 = +5.0 𝑛𝐶


from 𝑥 = −∞ to the origin?
a) W = 4.5 ⋅ 10−5 J
b) W = −4.5 ⋅ 10−5 J
c) W=0J
d) W = 2.25 ⋅ 10−5 J

22. Particle 𝑄3 = +5.0 𝑛𝐶 of mass 𝑚 = 4.0 ⋅ 10−26 𝑘𝑔 is launched with a


𝑚
velocity 𝑣𝑖 = −400 𝑗̂ from point P along y axis 𝑃 = (0, 5.0 𝑐𝑚). As the
𝑠
particle 𝑄3 approaches the other two particles, its potential energy and
force exerted on it changes. Which of the following is true?

a) Potential energy of particle 𝑄3 increases and the magnitude of the force exerted on it
decreases.
b) Potential energy of particle 𝑄3 increases and the magnitude of the force exerted on it
increases.
c) Potential energy of particle 𝑄3 decreases and the magnitude of the force exerted on it
increases.
d) Potential energy of particle 𝑄3 decreases and the magnitude of the force exerted on it
increases.

23. What is the correct statement about the potential energy of particle 𝑄3 when it stops?

a) The potential energy is zero.


b) The potential energy is equal to the potential energy of particle 𝑄3 at point P.
c) The potentail energy is equal to the kinetic energy of particle 𝑄3 at point P.
d) The potentail energy is equal to total energy of particle 𝑄3 at point P.
Physics 223 Midterm, Winter 2017 Page 11 of 14

Questions 24, 25, 26 and 27 are all related to the following situation:
A parallel plate capacitor of capacitance 2.0 𝑛𝐹 is charged with charge 𝑄 and shown in the figure below.

24. What is the charge stored at each plate of the capacitor?


a) 𝑄 = 4.0 ⋅ 10−6 C
b) 𝑄 = 1.0 ⋅ 10−6 C
c) 𝑄 = 4.0 ⋅ 10−12 C
d) 𝑄 = 1.0 ⋅ 10−12 C

25. What is the potential difference when moving from point A to point B?

a) 𝑉𝐴𝐵 = −1000 𝑉
b) 𝑉𝐴𝐵 = +1000 𝑉
c) 𝑉𝐴𝐵 = −600 𝑉
d) 𝑉𝐴𝐵 = +600 𝑉

26. If the potentials at the plates of the capacitors are indicated in the figure, what is the
expression for a change in potential when moving from point B to point C?

a) 𝑉𝐵𝐶 = −𝐸𝑟𝐵𝐶
b) 𝑉𝐵𝐶 = +𝐸𝑟𝐵𝐶
c) 𝑉𝐵𝐶 = 𝐸𝑟𝐴𝐵
d) 𝑉𝐵𝐶 = −𝐸𝑟𝐴𝐵

27. If the capacitor’s plates are metallic disks of radius r=0.16 m, distance d=0.0025 m apart,
what is the electric field inside the capacitor? Hint: You can use 𝑟 ≫ 𝑑 approximation.

𝑉
a) 𝐸⃗⃗ = −8.0 ⋅ 105 𝑖̂
𝑚
𝑉
b) 𝐸⃗⃗ = +8.0 ⋅ 105 𝑖̂
𝑚
𝑉
c) 𝐸⃗⃗ = −8.0 ⋅ 105 𝑗̂
𝑚
𝑉
d) 𝐸⃗⃗ = +8.0 ⋅ 105 𝑗̂
𝑚
Physics 223 Midterm, Winter 2017 Page 12 of 14

Questions 28, 29 and 30 are all related to the following situation:


An arrangement of source charges creates electric potential 𝑉 = −3000𝑥 2 + 2000𝑦 where 𝑥 and 𝑦
are in 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠 and 𝑉 is in 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑠, on the 𝑥𝑦 plane in certain region in space.
28. What is the expression for the electric field in that space?

a) 𝐸⃗⃗ (𝑥) = −6000𝑥𝑖̂ + 2000𝑗̂


b) 𝐸⃗⃗ (𝑥) = +6000𝑥𝑖̂ − 2000𝑗̂
c) 𝐸⃗⃗ (𝑥) = 1000𝑥 3 𝑖̂ − 1000𝑦 2 𝑗̂
d) 𝐸⃗⃗ (𝑥) = −1000𝑥 3 𝑖̂ + 1000𝑦 2 𝑗̂

29. What is the electric potential energy of a negatively charged fluoride ion (𝐹 − ) placed at point
𝐴(𝑥, 𝑦) = (−2.0 𝑚, +1.0 𝑚)?

a) 𝑈(𝑥, 𝑦) = −1.6 ⋅ 10−15 𝐽


b) 𝑈(𝑥, 𝑦) = 1.6 ⋅ 10−15 𝐽
c) 𝑈(𝑥, 𝑦) = 2.24 ⋅ 10−15 𝐽
d) 𝑈(𝑥, 𝑦) = −2.24 ⋅ 10−15 𝐽

30. What is the work done by electric field while moving the 𝐹 − ion from point A to the origin?

a) positive
b) negative
c) zero
d) not enough information is provided to determine.
Physics 223 Midterm, Winter 2017 Page 13 of 14

Formulae and Constants

Constants
𝑁𝑚2
𝑘𝑒 = 8.99 ⋅ 109 𝑒 = 1.602 ⋅ 10−19 𝐶 𝑚𝑃 = 1.67 ⋅ 10−27 𝑘𝑔 𝑚𝑒 = 9.11 ⋅ 10−31 𝑘𝑔
𝐶2
𝑇𝑚 𝐶2
𝜇0 = 4𝜋 ⋅ 10−7 𝜀0 = 8.85 ⋅ 10−12
𝐴 𝑁𝑚2

𝐽 𝐽 1𝐿 = 1000𝑐𝑚3
𝑘𝐵 = 1.38 ⋅ 10−23 𝑅 = 8.31
𝐾 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒 ⋅ 𝐾 = 10−3 𝑚3

𝐶𝑉(𝑆𝑇𝐸𝐴𝑀) 𝐶𝑃(𝑆𝑇𝐸𝐴𝑀) 𝐽
𝐽 𝐶𝑃(𝐴𝐼𝑅) = 29.1
𝐽 𝐽 𝐶𝑉(𝐴𝐼𝑅) = 20.8 𝑚𝑜𝑙 ⋅ 𝐾
= 27.5 = 36.5 𝑚𝑜𝑙 ⋅ 𝐾
𝑚𝑜𝑙 ⋅ 𝐾 𝑚𝑜𝑙 ⋅ 𝐾

𝑁𝐴 1𝑎𝑡𝑚 = 101.3 𝑘𝑃𝑎


1𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 4.186 𝐽 1𝑢 = 1.661 ⋅ 10−27 𝑘𝑔 = 6.022 ⋅ 10 23
𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑙𝑒𝑠
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒

𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔 𝑚
𝜌𝐻2 𝑂 = 1000 𝜌𝐼𝐶𝐸 = 917 𝑔 = 9.81
𝑚3 𝑚3 𝑠2

Kinematics and Dynamics


𝑣2 1
∑ 𝐹⃗ = 𝑚𝑎⃗ 𝑎𝐶 = 𝑊𝐶 = −Δ 𝑈 𝐾𝐸 = 𝑚𝑣 2
𝑟 2
1 𝑣02 sin(2𝜃)
𝑥𝑓 = 𝑥𝑖 + 𝑣𝑖 𝑡 + 𝑎𝑡 2 𝑣𝑓 = 𝑣𝑖 + 𝑎𝑡 𝑣𝑓2 = 𝑣𝑖2 + 2𝑎Δ𝑥 𝑑=
2 𝑎

Mathematical Formulae & Prefixes


4 3
⃗⃗⃗⃗
|𝐴 × ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐵| = 𝐴𝐵𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 𝐴𝐶𝐼𝑅𝐶𝐿𝐸 = 𝜋𝑅2 𝑉𝐶𝑌𝐿𝐼𝑁𝐷𝐸𝑅 = 𝜋𝑅2 ℎ 𝑉𝑆𝑃𝐻𝐸𝑅𝐸 = 𝜋𝑅
3

−𝑏 ± √𝑏 2 − 4𝑎𝑐 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑖 (𝑚) = 10−3 𝑛𝑎𝑛𝑜 (𝑛) = 10−9


𝑎𝑥 2 + 𝑏𝑥 + 𝑐 = 0 → 𝑥 = 𝑚𝑖𝑐𝑟𝑜 (𝜇) = 10−6 𝑝𝑖𝑐𝑜 (𝑝) = 10−12
2𝑎

1
∫ 𝑥 𝑛 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑥 𝑛+1 ∫ cos(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = sin(𝑥) ∫ sin(𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 = −cos(𝑥)
𝑛+1
𝑑𝑥 𝑥𝑑𝑥
∫ = ln(𝑥 2 + √𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 ) ∫ = √𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2
2
√𝑥 + 𝑦 2 √𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2
𝑑𝑥 𝑥 𝑥𝑑𝑥 1
∫ 2 = ∫ 3 =−
(𝑥 + 𝑦 2 )3/2 𝑦 2 √𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 (𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 )2 √𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2
Physics 223 Midterm, Winter 2017 Page 14 of 14

Electromagnetism
𝑘𝑒 𝑄𝑞 𝑘𝑒 𝑄 𝑘𝑒 𝑄𝑞 𝑘𝑒 𝑄
𝐹𝑒 = 𝐸= 𝑈= 𝑉=
𝑟2 𝑟2 𝑟 𝑟
𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉 𝜕𝑉
⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐹𝑒 = 𝑞𝐸⃗⃗ 𝐸⃗⃗ = − 𝑖̂ − 𝑗̂ − 𝑘̂ 𝑊 = −𝑈 Δ𝑈 = 𝑞Δ𝑉
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
𝜇0 𝐿𝐼1 𝐼2 1
𝐹⃗ = 𝑞𝑣⃗ × 𝐵⃗⃗ 𝐹⃗ = 𝐼𝐿⃗⃗ × 𝐵
⃗⃗ 𝐹= 𝑘𝑒 =
2𝜋𝑑 4𝜋𝜀0
𝜂 𝜂 2𝑘𝑒 |𝜆|
𝐸𝑃𝐿𝐴𝑁𝐸 = 𝐸𝐶𝐴𝑃𝐴𝐶𝐼𝑇𝑂𝑅 = 𝐸∞𝐿𝐼𝑁𝐸 =
2𝜀0 𝜀0 𝑟
𝑘𝑒 𝑧𝑄 𝐸𝐷𝐼𝑆𝐾𝑧
𝐸𝑅𝐼𝑁𝐺 𝑧 = 3 𝜂 𝑧
(𝑧 2 + 𝑅2 )2 = [1 − ]
2𝜀0 √𝑧 2 + 𝑅2
𝐵𝐿𝑂𝑂𝑃 𝐴𝑋𝐼𝑆
𝜇0 𝑞𝑣⃗ × 𝑟̂ 𝜇0 𝐼 𝜇0 𝐼𝑅2 𝜇0 𝑁𝐼
⃗⃗ =
𝐵 𝐵𝑊𝐼𝑅𝐸 = = 3 𝐵𝑆𝑂𝐿𝐸𝑁𝑂𝐼𝐷 =
4𝜋 𝑟 2 2𝜋𝑑 2(𝑅2 + 𝑧 2 )2 𝐿

𝑚𝑣⊥ 𝑞𝐵 𝜀
𝑟𝐶𝑌𝐶𝐿𝑂𝑇𝑅𝑂𝑁 = 𝑓𝐶𝑌𝐶𝐿𝑂𝑇𝑅𝑂𝑁 = 𝜀 = 𝑣𝐿𝐵 𝐼=
𝑞𝐵 2𝜋𝑚 𝑅
𝜌𝐿
𝑃 = 𝐼Δ𝑉 Δ𝑉 = 𝐼𝑅 𝑅=
𝐴
𝑁 𝑁 𝑁 𝑁
𝑆
1 1 1 1 𝑃
𝑅𝐸𝑄 = ∑ 𝑅𝑖 𝑃 = ∑𝑅 𝑆 = ∑𝐶 𝐶𝐸𝑄 = ∑ 𝐶𝑖
𝑅𝐸𝑄 𝑖 𝐶𝐸𝑄 𝑖
𝑖=1 𝑖=1 𝑖=1 𝑖=1
1
𝑈 = 𝐶(Δ𝑉)2 𝑄 = 𝐶Δ𝑉
2

Thermodynamics
𝑉𝑓
Δ𝐸𝑇𝐻 = 𝑊 + 𝑄 𝑊 = −𝑝Δ𝑉 𝑊 = −𝑛𝑅𝑇𝑙𝑛 [ ]
𝑉𝑖
Δ𝐸𝑡ℎ = 𝑛𝐶𝑉 Δ𝑇 𝑄 = 𝑛𝐶𝑉 Δ𝑇 𝑄 = 𝑛𝐶𝑃 Δ𝑇 𝐶𝑃 = 𝐶𝑉 + 𝑅
𝐶𝑃
𝑄 = 𝑀𝑐Δ𝑇 𝑄 = 𝑀𝐿𝑉 𝑄 = 𝑀𝐿𝑃 𝛾=
𝐶𝑉
𝛾 𝛾 𝛾−1 𝛾−1
Δ𝐸𝑇𝐻𝐶𝑌𝐶𝐿𝐸 = 0 𝑝𝑖 𝑉𝑖 = 𝑝𝑓 𝑉𝑓 𝑇𝑖 𝑉𝑖 = 𝑇𝑓 𝑉𝑓
1 3 5
𝐶𝑉 = 𝑓𝑅 𝐶𝑉 = 𝑅 𝐶𝑉 = 𝑅 𝐶𝑉 = 3𝑅
2 2 2
𝑄 𝑘𝑏 𝐴 𝑄
= Δ𝑇 = 𝑒𝜎𝐴𝑇 4
Δ𝑡 𝐿 Δ𝑡
1 2𝑁
𝜆= 3𝑘𝐵 𝑇 3
𝑁 𝑣𝑅𝑀𝑆 = √ 𝑝= 𝜀 𝜀𝐴𝑉𝐸 = 𝑘 𝑇
4√2𝜋 ( ) 𝑟 2
𝑉 𝑚 3 𝑉 𝐴𝑉𝐸 2 𝐵
𝑇(𝐾) 𝐹
𝑝𝑉 = 𝑛𝑅𝑇 = 𝑁𝑘𝐵 𝑇 𝑝 = 𝑝0 + 𝜌𝑔ℎ 𝑝=
= 𝑇(0𝑜 𝐶) + 273𝐾 𝐴