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Reservoir engineering, natural drainage

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Alain Auriault

1

FIELDS DEVELOPMENT

Données

geological

géologiques

data

petrophysical

Mesures

Cartes

maps PVT

Analyse

analysis

PVT Essais

Well testing

des puits

pétrophysiques

measurements

Logs

VR, φ, Swi

Swi φ, K,

k, Pc,

Pc, Kr,

kr , Cr

Cr Bo,

Bo , Bg,

Bg , Co,

Co , Cw,

Cw , Rs

Rs Pi,

Pi, T, K,

k, S

S (skin)

ÉVALUATION

HYDROCARBON

DE L'ACCUMULATION

IN PLACE

MÉCANISMES

PRODUCTIONDE

MECANISMS

DRAINAGE

Expansion Expansion

of fl.ds/ pore shr.

Force

Aquifer

de l’aquifère

activity

Dissolved

Expansiongas gazexpansion

dissous

Coning

Coning(gas/water)

(gaz/eau)

Gas cap expansion

Activité Gas cap

Imbibition

Aquifer

Activité influx

de l’aquifère

Subsidence / compaction

Water or

Injection gas ou

d’eau injection

de gaz COMPLÉTION

WELL COMPLETION

DES PUITS

PERFORMANCE

WELL PERFORMANCE

DES PUITS

Configuration

Well configuration

des puits : Complétion :

Completion Écoulement

Flow :

vertical open hole flowing

éruptif

deviated

dévié gravel pack pompage

pumping

horizontal cased

cimenté

hole gas lift

Nombre

Number de

of wells

puits

PRÉVISIONS

PRODUCTION

DE PRODUCTION

FORECAST

Débit

Field

du rate

champ

ARCHITECTURE

FIELD ARCHITECTURE

du champ

Pipes Séparateurs

Separators Plateformes

Platforms

2

OBJECTIVES

involved in the production of a reservoir

know how the principles of what is implemented in softwares

like MBAL

involved in an injection process and to be able to use "rules of

thumb" to quantify the impact of injection

in which they are typically used

3

PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

• Natural drainage

• Secondary recovery

4

Introduction to production

mechanisms

PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

SECONDARY

WATER INJECTION RECOVERY

PRESSURE

GAZ INJECTION

MAINTENANCE

GAS CYCLING

TERTIARY

RECOVERY

• In situ • CO2 • Surfactant

combustion

• N2 • Soda

6

PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

thanks to its own energy

provided to the field through injection

– Water injection

– Gas injection

energy for production is provided through complex methods

– Miscible process

– Chemical process

– Thermal process

7

PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

evaluated as early as possible in the field history

- Gas cap

- Active aquifer

- Reservoir pressure vs. Pb

and/or tertiary production mechanisms are key issues in

the field development strategy (when required)

8

MATERIAL BALANCE

Principles

• the reservoir pore volume is 100% filled-up with fluids

• At reservoir conditions, adjustment of volumes (Mass

conservation law):

initial HC Volume = Remaining HC Vol. + Net Water and/or

gas entries (+ Pore Vol. change + connate water Vol.

change)

reservoir/ part of reservoir for a finite time interval

Can be described as the simplest reservoir simulation model

(1 cell !)

9

MATERIAL BALANCE

Producing well

Producing well

Released gas volume

Remaining oil

Water expans. and PV shrink.

P, Bo, Bg & Rs

10

MATERIAL BALANCE

- Evaluation/ calculation of Original Hydrocarbon In Place

(OHIP) from production history

- Field behavior forecast for a given production mechanism

(production/recovery for different reservoir pressures or pressure

vs. cumulative production)

• Needed data

- Petrophysic data of the reservoir (rock characterization)

- PVT data (fluid characterization)

- Production data ( productions, cumulative productions,

pressure)

11

MATERIAL BALANCE – Main symbols and units

Fluid volumes

Fluid Oil Gas Water

Accumulation N G W

Cumulative production Np Gp Wp

Cumulative injection - Gi Wi

water influx - - We

except We (res. cond.)

stm3 or scf for gas

12

MATERIAL BALANCE – Main symbols and units

Production rates

Fluid Oil Gas Water

Initial rate Qoi or qoi Qgi or qgi Qwi or qwi

Current rate @ time t Qo or qo Qg or qg Qw or qw

(or pressure P)

SI units 3

stm /d

3

stm /d

3

stm /d

13

MATERIAL BALANCE – Main symbols and units

Fluids

Initial FVF Boi Bgi Bwi

Current FVF Bo Bg Bw

FVF @ Pb Bb - -

Field units rb/stb rcf/scf or rbl/scf rbw/stbw

SI units 3

m /m

3 3

m /m

3 3

m /m

3

FVF symbol : B or b

14

MATERIAL BALANCE – Main symbols and units

- @ time t: So , Sw , Sg

unit: no dimension

field unit: psi-1

SI unit : bar-1

15

MATERIAL BALANCE – Main symbols and units

Pressure

• Initial Pi

• Current (at time t) P or Pr

• Bubble or saturation Pb

• Flowing Pwf (or FBHP)

• Well head Pwh

• Separator Psep

• Atmospheric Patm

• Absolute (above zero)

• Gauge (above atmospheric press.)

Units ?

16

MATERIAL BALANCE

Pressures

Pwh

Pwh

Patm Patm

Pr = Reservoir Pressure

Pr

Pwf

Pr

17

MATERIAL BALANCE - PVT DATA

Bo

Rs Bo

µo

Rs

µo

INITIAL

BUBBLE POINT RESERVOIR PRESSURE

PRESSURE

18

RESERVES - Basic definitions

(OOIP,OGIP, OHIP)

Reserves

Recovery factor R =

Accumulation

19

RESERVES

production at abandonment conditions or at a fixed

date

– Abandonment conditions = Minimum Field Economic Oil Rate

(either limiting water cut or high GOR or low PReservoir)

– The individual wells are progressively shut-in as they reach the

limiting conditions

Production at time t

20

RESERVES - Probability approach - Some Standards

Qualitative Quantitative

Judgement Probability

Certainty 0.99

Proved 0.90/0.95

Very Likely 0.90

Likely 0.70

Probable Equally Likely / Unlikely 0.50

Unlikely 0.30

Very Unlikely 0.10

Possible 0.10/0.05

Excluded 0.01

21

PROBABILISTIC APPROACH TO RESERVES

22

RESERVES

development,calculation methodology, economics, laws and contracts

23

PETROLEUM RESSOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Board of Directors in March 2007

(collaboration: SPE, the World Petroleum Council (WPC), the American Association of

Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers

(SPEE)).

24

PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

• Natural drainage

• Secondary recovery

25

Natural drainage

NATURAL DRAINAGE or PRIMAY RECOVERYXXX

• Solution gas drive

• Gas cap expansion

• Natural water influx

• (Gravity drainage)

• (Compaction drive)

27

NATURAL DRAINAGE OR PRIMARY RECOVERY

- Oil and connate water expansion

- Pores shrinkage

- Solution gas(expansion of liberated gas)

- Gas cap expansion

Aquifer expansion

The field development strategy will take into account the strength

of the aquifer, relative permeabilities, etc

28

ISOTHERMAL COMPRESSIBILITY

volume change of matter per unit pressure change under conditions of

constant temperature

c: coef of isothermal compressibility

1 ⎛ δV ⎞ units: [1/P], always a positive value

c=− ⎜ ⎟ Order of magnitude

V ⎝δP ⎠ • co= 1 to 3 10-4 bar-1 Lab data

• cw= 0.4 to 0.6 10-4 bar-1 Literature

• cp= 0.3 to 1.5 10-4 bar-1 Lab data or Hall

correlation

• cg # 1/P (P in bars, ex cg=30.10-4 bar-1 for

P=300 bars)

- Increasing pressure causes volume of material to decrease (compression)

- Decreasing pressure causes volume of material to increase (expansion)

29

COMPRESSIBILITY- DEFINITIONS

material (grain volume) per unit pressure change (usually Cm # 0)

• Pore (or formation) compressibility Cf : relative change in pore

volume per unit pressure change

• Bulk compressibility (Cb): relative change in bulk volume per unit

pressure change (usually ∆Vb # ∆Vp )

• Impact

- Formation compressibility can have a significant impact of

production mechanisms

- Subsidence (due to decrease of bulk volume) can have a

significant impact on environment

30

FORMATION COMPRESSIBILITY

upward forces of the matrix and the fluid in the pores

F O

Fo= Fm+Ff

F M F F

and Po= Pm+ P

P fluid pressure in the

pores

decreases while overburden is constant and:

- Force on matrix increases (net compaction pressure or net

overburden pressure Pm=Po-P)

- Bulk and pore volume decrease

- Fluid volume increases (=> production mechanism)

31

FORMATION COMPRESSIBILITY

Overburden

Abnormal effective

overburden

Subnormal pore

pressure

Subnormal effective

overburden

Depth

Abnormal pore pressure

Hydrostatic pressure

32

NATURAL DRAINAGE - UNDERSATURATED OIL

(for P>Pb)

Bo − Boi

co = -

Boi ⋅ ( P − Pi )

Oil compressibility is given by:

1 dVo

co = - ⋅ , Voi = V st ⋅ B oi and V o = V st ⋅ Bo

V oi dP

hence ∆ V o = V st ⋅ Bo − V st ⋅ Boi = V st ⋅ ( Bo − Boi )

1 V st ⋅ ( Bo − Boi ) 1 Bo − Boi

co = - ⋅ =- ⋅

V st ⋅ B oi P − Pi B oi P − Pi

33

NATURAL DRAINAGE - UNDERSATURATED OIL

+

Increase of volume of water

+

Decrease of pore volume

Compressibilities of oil, water and rock being generally pretty low, the

expected recovery factor is low.

34

NATURAL DRAINAGE - UNDERSATURATED OIL

For a pressure drop ∆P from Pi to P with P>Pb

• Water volume increases by (Vp ⋅ Swi ) ⋅ cw ⋅ ∆P

• Pore volume shrinks by (Vp ) ⋅ c p ⋅ ∆P

Material balance: the rock and fluids volume changes of the reservoir is

equal to Np (cumulative production in standard conditions) converted in

reservoir conditions.

(

N p Bo = V p ⋅ ∆P ⋅ co Soi + cw S wi + c p )

35

NATURAL DRAINAGE - UNDERSATURATED OIL

Cumulative production = Sum of the 3 terms

(

N p ⋅ Bo = Vp ⋅ ∆P ⋅ co ⋅ Soi + cw ⋅ S wi + c p )

co ⋅ Soi + cw ⋅ S wi + c p

N p ⋅ Bo = Vp ⋅ Soi ⋅ ∆P ⋅

Soi

co ⋅ Soi + cw ⋅ S wi + c p

ce = is called the equivalent compressibility

Soi

N .Boi

• Cumulative oil production (*) Np = .c .∆P

Bo e

• Recovery Factor Np B

R= = oi .ce .∆P

(*) Standard conditions N Bo 36

NATURAL DRAINAGE - UNDERSATURATED OIL

Numerical example

FIELD A… without water entry

Swi = 14%

c w = 3,28 . 10−6 psi−1 cp = 4,36 . 10−6 psi−1

Pi = 4740 psia Boi = 1,3905

Bo = 1,4168

P = 3686 psia

37

NATURAL DRAINAGE

pressure)

• Part of the gas dissolved in the oil is liberated in the

reservoir

• Quick increase of the produced gas

neglected vs. expansion of the liberated gas (gas

compressibility is much bigger)

38

NATURAL DRAINAGE - SOLUTION GAS DRIVE

O+G+W

- Pr < Pb

- Inactive aquifer Swirr 100%/Sw

W VP = VO + VGF + VW W

(VP)i = (VP)t

at Pi ¿ VP = Voi + Vw

Voi = Vor + Vgf

at P ¿ VP = Vor + Vw + Vgf

39

NATURAL DRAINAGE - SOLUTION GAS DRIVE

Pressure

Critical point

Tres, Pres

t1

t2

Separator

Tc

Temperature

40

SOLUTION GAS DRIVE – Depletion below Pb

- Definition : Sg < Sgc krg = 0

- Use of kr from displacement process = unreliable

- P > PSgc : monophasic flow (oil)

- P < PSgc : diphasic flow ( oil + free gas)

- Nucleation: supersaturation + nucleation sites (energy)

- Coalescences: diffusion + supply

- Formation of an elongated gas channel (or "gas finger")

- Gas production

41

SOLUTION GAS DRIVE – Gas liberated in the reservoir

PI affected (kro effect). Only solution gas is produced at surface.

Qg = GOR x Qo GOR = Rs

solution gas and liberated gas are produced at surface. Production

GOR (Rp) increases.

Qg = GOR x Qo GOR > Rs

Rs : solution (or dissolved) gas oil ratio

GOR : production gas oil ratio

Rp : cumulative gas oil ratio = Gp/Np

42

SOLUTION GAS DRIVE – Gas liberated in the reservoir

move up, due to gravity forces-to create a secondary gas-

cap or supply an existing one - (balance between

gravity,capillary and viscous forces)

Gas

(well)

Oil

43

NATURAL DRAINAGE - SOLUTION GAS DRIVE

Material balance

• Initial oil volume = remaining oil at P + released solution gas

( ) ( ( ) )

N ⋅ Boi = N − N p ⋅ Bo + NRsi − N − N p Rs − G p ⋅ Bg

Performances

P GOR

GOR

Pb

Psgc

Np/N

44

SOLUTION GAS DRIVE – Typical use

Forecast

• N is known, for a given value of one of the one of the 3 others

parameters, the 2 others are calculated, ex for a given ∆P, what will

be Np and Gp?

• In can be demonstrated that Rp=f(P,So) and So=f(Np) Î iterative

method:

- ∆P being given Rp is estimated

- Np is calculated by material balance equation

- then So is calculated

- then Rp=f(So) is calculated

- if the initial Rs guess is with 1% equal to the final Rs calculation: OK, if

not iteration

Î this is now done within softwares

45

SOLUTION GAS DRIVE – Typical use

Qg Qo Rs + Qgfree Qgfree

• Rp is a function of So,P: GOR = R p = = = Rs +

Qo Qo Qo

2π hko ∆P

Qo = ⋅

µo Bo r

k g µo Bo kg

ln e

rw GOR = Rs + is a function of So

ko µ g Bg ko

2π hk g ∆P

Qg = ⋅

µ g Bg r

ln e Rs is a function of P

rw

VP Soi = NBoi

- Initial oil volume @ Pi :

- Oil volume @ P: (

VP So = N − N p Bo )

⎛ N p ⎞ Bo

So = Soi ⎜ 1 − ⎟

=>

⎝ N ⎠ Boi

46

NATURAL DRAINAGE - SOLUTION GAS DRIVE

• Recovery from 5 to 25 %

to high

parameter:

47

NATURAL DRAINAGE

increases

48

NATURAL DRAINAGE

1 /1 9 3 8

1 /1 9 3 7

1 /1 9 3 6

1 /1 9 3 3

s

ied

2200

2100

0p

0

230

240

00

00

16

19 0

17

0

18

00

Contact)

00

20

49

NATURAL DRAINAGE - GAS CAP EXPANSION

r Prod.r Prod.r

Prod.

GcBgi

m= G+W

NiBoi G?

Possible

(GOC)i Pi = Pb at GOC

Pwf

gas coning

Pwf Pwf < Pb

O+W

(OWC)i

W W

50

NATURAL DRAINAGE - GAS CAP EXPANSION

Material balance

Initial oil volume = remaining oil vol at P + gas cap expansion

+ free solution gas

( ) (( ) ) ( ( )

N ⋅ Boi = N − N p ⋅ Bo + G − G pc Bgc − GB gci + NRsi − N − N p Rs − G ps ⋅ Bg )

were G, Gpc, Bgc and Bgci refer to the gas cap and Gps, Bg refer to the dissolved gas

Performance

P GOR

GOR

Np/N

51

NATURAL DRAINAGE - GAS CAP EXPANSION

Material balance

The initial volume of the gas cap is often expressed in function of the initial

volume of the oil pool, using the m ratio

volume of the initial gas cap G ⋅ Bgi

m= ( reservoir conditions ) =

volume of the initial oil in place NBoi

If the gas of the gas cap and the dissolved gas are not differentiated:

Bg=Bgc and Gp=Gpc+Gps , MBAE becomes:

( ) ( ) ( ( ) )

N ⋅ Boi = N − N p ⋅ Bo + GBg − GB gi + NRsi − N − N p Rs ⋅ Bg − G p Bg

52

NATURAL DRAINAGE - GAS CAP EXPANSION

Depth

Rsi

Material Balance

• Necessity to know the evolution of Rsi versus depth (sampling at

different depths)

• While producing, if kv important, good gas segregation and GOR

not impacted by gas from gas cap

• A good gas segregation maintains pressure in the reservoir

• Recovery can reach high values, up to 40 %OOIP

53

NATURAL DRAINAGE - ACTIVE AQUIFER

and characteristics

54

MATERIAL BALANCE - ACTIVE AQUIFER

Water production

• Following economics environment, fields can be produced

up to very high water cut (Qw/Qtotal): 98-99%

• One main issue: produced water disposal system

• The rising of OWC should be continuously monitored

(logging, observation wells, behavior of production wells)

55

NATURAL DRAINAGE - ACTIVE AQUIFER

SEALING FAULT

OIL

3

W

6

A

T

TE

UL

R

FA

C

8

O

2

G

NT

IN

A

AL

CT

1

SE

0

70

50

4

7 AQUIFER ??

7

0

80

0

85

S EA

L IN G

FA U

LT

56

NATURAL DRAINAGE - ACTIVE AQUIFER

Producer

Observation well

OIL

WATER

Producer

Observation well

Recovery Factor is in average between

25 to 50 % (up to 65% in very favorable cases)

Maximum theoretical: (1-Swi-Sor)/(1-Swi) Edge water drive

57

NATURAL DRAINAGE - ACTIVE AQUIFER

We consider the simplified case where P>>Pb (undersaturated oil)

b- water volume expands

c- pore volume shrinks

d- aquifer expands and generates a water influx in the reservoir: We

e- water production: Wp

58

ACTIVE AQUIFER – WATER INFLUX CALCULATION

Simplified approach:

Let's consider the case were the aquifer size is small enough and the

connection between the oil pool and the aquifer very good so that when the

pressure in the oil pool decreases by ∆P=Pi-P, the aquifer pressure also

decreases instantaneously by the same ∆P value.

This gives what would be the maximum impact of an aquifer of o given size

59

WATER INFLUX CALCULATION -Example

Let’s take an aquifer with a volume Vw = 10 time pore volume of the oil zone

which expands totally from Pi to P

• R = Np / N = (Boi / Bo) . Ce (Pi - P) + We / (N Bo)

• R = (Boi / Bo) (Pi - P) [ce + 10 . (cw + cp) / (1 - Swi)]

• Numerical example: cw = cp = 1/3 co et Swi = 20 %

R = Np / N = (Boi / Bo) (Pi - P) [6,55 ce]

than in the case non aquifer.

60

WATER INFLUX CALCULATION -Example

Numerical example

Cumulative oil production is Np = 13,5.106stb (and Wp =0)

• Pi = 4740 psia and Boi = 1,3905

• P = 3686 psia and Bo = 1,4168

61

ACTIVE AQUIFER – WATER INFLUX CALCULATION

For large aquifers, a time dependent model is necessary since the pressure

decrease of the aquifer is not instantaneous

We can represent an oil reservoir rounded by an aquifer as a "big diameter well'

Producer

Oil water contact

and pressure at the

interface aquifer – oil

pool (horizontal in the

field, vertical in the

ro model)

re

Aquifer models have been developed depending on the fluid flow characteristics

62

FLUID FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA (reminder)

P(r,t) P(r,t)

no limit has been reached some limits have been reached

or

⎛ ∂P ⎞ ⎛ ∂P ⎞

t↑ ⎜ ⎟ = cte ⎜ ⎟ =0

⎝ ∂t ⎠r ⎝ ∂t ⎠ r

All limits are reached the pressure profile is stable

The pressure profile goes down during time

63

FLUID FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA (reminder)

Pi

t1

t2

Producing face pressure

t3

t4

t5

Pmini

Log distance

Producing No flow

64

face boundary

FLUID FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA (reminder)

Pi

t1

Transient flow (USS)

t2 t2

Producing face pressure

ow

st ate fl t3 t3

dy

stea

seudo

P t4

t5

Pmini

Log distance

Producing No flow

65

face boundary

FLUID FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA (reminder)

The typical problem to solve is: for a given production rate at the wellbore what is

the corresponding pressure profile in the reservoir as a function of distance

from the wellbore and time, P=f(t,r).

Fluid Type of flow Geometry of flow

Liquid (incompressible) Steady state Linear

Gas (compressible) Pseudo Steady state Radial

Unsteady state

At this stage, let's consider an incompressible fluid and a radial flow.

The most general case (and more complex to solve) is the unsteady state case.

In this case the diffusivity equation has to be solved:

δ 2 p 1 δp ϕµc δp

+ =

δr 2

r δr k δt

Solution have been developed for the following conditions at limits:

@ ro @ re

- constant pressure – no flow boundary

- constant rate – cste pressure boundary 66

ACTIVE AQUIFER – AQUIFER MODELS

• For steady state flow: Schilthuis'model

• For pseudo steady state model: Fetkovitch's model

• For unsteady state: Hurst& Van Everdingen's model

- in this case diffusivity equation has been solved with the hypothesis than

Pressure is constant at the inner boundary (interface Oil/ water)

- it corresponds to a limited aquifer (no flow at the outer boundary)

Unsteady state being the most general case, Hurst& Van Everdingen can be

applied in a lot of cases. But:

- it should be use from the beginning

- as, in the field , pressure can decrease, the time history is divided in time

steps during which pressure can be estimated as constant, then

superposition principle is applied

67

ACTIVE AQUIFER – WATER INFLUX CALCULATION

Hurst & Van Everdingen method (unsteady state water influx in radial circular

model)

We: cumulative water influx due to a pressure drop of ∆P at ro and time=0

We = U ⋅ ∆P ⋅ WD (t D )

φ,h,ct=cr+cw aquifer characteristics

f = encroachment angle/360°

Θ°

ro

re

re kt

rD = and t D = Cte ⋅

ro ϕµ ct ro 2

68

ACTIVE AQUIFER – WATER INFLUX CALCULATION

kt kt

tD = t D = Cst ⋅

ϕµ ct ro 2 ϕµ ct ro 2

Cst = 0.000264 (t in hours)

t is in second = 0.00634 (t in days)

=2.309 (t in years)

U = 2π f ϕ hct ro 2 (cc/atm)

U = 1.119 f ϕ hct ro 2 (bbl/psi)

69

ACTIVE AQUIFER – WATER INFLUX CALCULATION

System units

r h cm ft m m m

k darcy mD mD mD m2

t s h h h s

µ cp cp cp cp Pa.s

V cm3 ft3 m3 m3 m3

70

ACTIVE AQUIFER – WATER INFLUX CALCULATION

71

L.P Dake Fundalmentals of res eng

ACTIVE AQUIFER – WATER INFLUX CALCULATION

The superposition method gives: We = U ⋅ ∑ ∆P i ⋅WDi (t Di )

i =0

below:

∆P1 is applied during t3-t1

∆P2 is applied during t3-t2

72

ACTIVE AQUIFER – WATER INFLUX CALCULATION

The additional production being given, what will be the corresponding reservoir

pressure P ?

2 equations will be used: the material balance equation and the unsteady state

flow equation, it is a trial an error process:

- time increment is used (can be the same as the one used during the historical

period)

- the pressure at the end of the first period is estimated

- using this P, We is calculated by material balance and by Hurst & Van

Everdingen's method

- if the 2 estimate are close enough (1%) => end

- if not P at the end of the time step is modified (if We by material balance is

greater than We by H&VE method decrease P)

73

MATERIAL BALANCE - GENERAL EXPRESSION

Rock and

Original Freed Gas Net

Present oil connate Injected

volume = oil – solution – cap – water – water – volumes

volume gas expansion influx

expansion

(N − N p )Bo = N(Boi ) −

[

(Bg )s N ( Rs )i − (N − N p )Rs − (G p )s ) − ]

[(G − (G ) )(B ) − G(B ) ]−

p c g c g i

[We −WpBw ] −

⎡ c f + S wi cw ⎤

N(Boi ) (1 + m) ∆P ⎢ ⎥−

⎣ 1 − S wi ⎦

[W inj Bw + Ginj Bg ]

N=

( ) [( ) ][ ]

N p Bo − Rs (Bg )s + (G p )s (Bg )s − G − (G p )c (Bg )c − G (Bgi ) − We − W p Bw − Winj Bw − Ginj Bg

⎡ c f + S wi cw ⎤

(Bo − (Boi )) + ((Rsi ) − Rs )(Bg )s + (Boi )∆P ⎢ ⎥ (1 + m )

⎣ 1 − S wi ⎦

74

MATERIAL BALANCE EXPRESSED AS A LINEAR EQUATION

- Winj=Ginj=0

- Bgc=Bgs et Gpc=0 (Gps=Gptotal=Rp*Np)

We got :

⎛ Bg ⎞

( (

N p Bo + R p − Rs Bg ) ) (

+ W p Bw = N Bo − Boi + Bg ( Rsi − Rs ) + mNBoi ⎜

⎜ Bgi )

− 1⎟ +

⎟

⎝ ⎠

⎛ cf + Swi ⋅ cw ⎞

+NBoi (1+ m) ∆P⎜ ⎟ +We

⎝ 1 − S ⎠

Where: wi

( ( ) )

F = N p Bo + R p − Rs Bg + W p Bw = withdrawal in reservoir conditions

(F = N p (B + (R

o p − Rs ) Bg ) + W p Bw − W

inj Bw.inj − Ginj Bg .inj ) if Winj and G inj were taken into account

Eo = Bo − Boi + Bg ( Rsi − Rs ) term decribing the expansion of the oil and its original dissolved gas

⎛ Bg ⎞

Eg = Boi ⎜ − 1⎟ which describes the expansion of the gas cap

⎜ Bgi ⎟

⎝ ⎠

⎛ c f + S wi ⋅ cw ⎞

E f , w = Boi (1 + m ) ∆P ⎜ ⎟ describes the expansion of connate water and the pore

⎝ 1 − S wi ⎠ volume shrinkage in the O+G zones 75

MATERIAL BALANCE EXPRESSED AS A LINEAR EQUATION

MBE becomes :

F = N ( Eo + mEg + E f , w ) + We

Havlena and Odeh have shown that in many cases, this equation can be

expressed as a linear function

For instance in we consider the case where there is no gas cap and were connate water

expansion and pore volume shrinkage can be neglected vs. the other production

mechanisms

F/Eo

F = NEo + We

F W 45 °

or: =N+ N

Eo Eo

We/Eo

A simple check can allow to validate that the field data are in line with the

production mechanisms which have been determined in the field (history

match process)

76

DRIVE INDICES

mechanisms to the production (field withdrawal)

NEo NmEg NE fw We

1= + + +

F F F F

NEo/F : depletion index drive

NmEg/F : segregation drive index/gas cap expansion index

NEf,w/F : expansion drive index

We/F : water drive index

77

DRIVE INDEXES

1

0.75

0.50

0.25

0

28/02/1977 16/05/1983 31/07/1989 16/10/1995 31/12/2001

78

GRAVITY DRAINAGE

gas invaded zone where So decreases leading to high oil

recovery due to gravity drainage.

forces are the main mechanism

gravity forces sup. to capillary forces:

h ∆ρogg > 2 σog cosθ / r

time scale good permeability - say sup 100mD -

79

GRAVITY DRAINAGE: MICROSCOPIC EFFICIENCY

and oil mobilization

80

GRAVITY DRAINAGE

Forces applied by

upwards

ROCK flowing gas

PARTICLES

Gravity forces

81

GRAVITY DRAINAGE IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

Gravity drainage is a key production mechanism:

Qg

Pc Single Block

Pd=∆ρ.g.H0

Sorg So

Qo

• By gravity oil from the matrix will flow into the fractures

• Capillary forces counterbalance partially gravity forces

• Threshold pressure represent the minimum pressure for gas to penetrate the

matrix

82

GRAVITY DRAINAGE

gas and oil - (more or less) ever present phenomenon

- high mobility to oil

- high formation dip. or thick reservoir

- lack of stratification rock

- fractured rock

- high density contrasts

83

GRAVITY DRAINAGE

• Recovery by gravity drainage >> recovery by solution gas

drive because :

Gas

Gravity drainage Oil (well)

Gas

(well)

Solution gas drive Oil

84

COMPACTION DRIVE - SUBSIDENCE

• In some specific cases, rock compressibility can be very high with the

consequences of:

- a high RF due to pore shrinkage (+)

- a compaction of the reservoir which can result into subsidence in the

surface (-)

∆Vb ∆h

= cb ⋅ ∆P = with cb = φ ⋅ c f + (1 − φ ) cm ≈ φ ⋅ c f

Vb h

index b refers to bulk/total, f to formation/pore, m to matrix/grain

unconsolidated reservoir (cf high), easy deformation transmission

between reservoir and surface.

- measuring/ estimating cf in the case of unconsolidated reservoir (inelastic

and non reversible deformation)

- the evaluation of subsidence to compaction ratio

85

SUBSIDENCE – Case Ekofisk

Norwegian North sea in 1969 (Phillips

Petroleum Co.).

• Water depth: 72 m

• top of the reservoir at: 2840 ssm

• Elongated anticline 6.8x9.3 km

• 2 reservoirs (fine-grains chalk

essentially) separated by a tight zone 1978

Ekofisk formation

- net pay thickness 100 to 150 m

- Ф = 10 to 20%

- low k in the matrix

Upper Tor formation

- net pay thickness 75 to 150 m

- Ф = 30 to 40%

- low k in the matrix

Extensive natural fracturing 1986

86

SUBSIDENCE – Case Ekofisk

gravity based structure (GBS) was

installed (other installations built later)

•1975: gas start being injected partially

•1976: peak production 350 000 bopd

•1984: unexpected production-related

subsidence was discovered (3 m)

•1987: all the platforms were raised by 1978

6 m in 1987, a protective seawall was

installed around the GBS in 1989

•1987: in addition to gas injection water

injection start to prevent

depressurization

•1989 and 1990: expansion of water

injection

1986

87

SUBSIDENCE – Case Ekofisk

monitored and show continuous

evolution (10 to 40 cm/year depending

on the location in the field)

•The current subsidence underneath

the GBS is 9 m

•Initially, due to the depth of the

reservoir, the subsidence risk was not

considered (although compaction was 1978

evaluated)

•Part of the problem is related to the

reservoir lithology (chalk) and to it

observed "water weakening" (chalk

strength decreases substantially in the

presence of water compared to its strength

when oil-saturated).

1986

88

Example of field data

RESERVOIR PRESSURE EVOLUTION WITH PRODUCTION

Example

4500

4300

4100

J101

Depletion (psia)

J102

3900

J103G drilling

J104

J105

3700

J106 drilling

J107 drilling

J108 drilling

3500

3300

Pression de saturation

3100

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000

Cumulated production (Mbbls)

90

OWC EVOLUTION WITH PRODUCTION

Example

(psia)

3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700

2400

2450

2500

2550

(mv/SL)

2600

2650

INITIAL WOC

2700

2750

2800 91

EXAMPLE OF MATERIAL BALANCE

Boi 1.3905 (psia) (Mbbls) (Mbbls) (Mbbls) (Mbbls) (Mbbls) Area (km2) 6.6

Pi (psi) 4 455.0 4455 0.00 0.00 1.3905 1.27E-05 0.00 Soi 0.92

Bob 1.4496 4407 1.30 0.00 1.3927 1.28E-05 1.5 0.19 216.0 Sorw 0.34

Pb (psi) 3159 4370 1.61 0.00 1.3944 1.29E-05 1.8 0.34 216.0 N/G 0.35

Cw (1/psi) 3.28E-06 4266 3.71 0.00 1.3991 1.30E-05 4.2 0.74 215.5

Cp (1/psi) 4.36E-06 4130 6.57 0.05 1.4053 1.33E-05 7.5 1.23 210.5

Coi (1/psi) 1.27E-05 3947 11.25 0.17 1.4137 1.36E-05 13.3 1.85 203.0

Cob (1/psi) 1.50E-05 3922 11.83 0.18 1.4148 1.36E-05 14.0 1.94 203.0

Swi (%) 13 3878 13.51 0.18 1.4168 1.37E-05 16.2 2.10 204.0

Ct (1/psi) 1.82E-05 CALCUL D'ENTREE D'EAU APRES J 107 h (m) 14.8

4500 18

16

4400 J... Field - Material Balance match

14

4300

12

4200 10

4100 8

6

4000

4

3900

2

3800 0

0 2 4 6 Np 8 10 12 14 92

Natural drainage

Gas Fields

PHASE ENVELOP OF A MIXTURE OF HYDROCARBONS

condensation

retrograde

Oil reservoirs with

P dissolved gases Cricondenbar

Gas reservoirs without

retrograde condensation

rve

u Critical point

n tc

oi

lep

bb Cricondentherm

Zone : No or poor

Bu Liquid + gas contribution of

dissolved gases

Dry gas Zone : Appreciable

100% contribution of

75% dissolved gases

50% 30%

20% Zone : Retrograde

10% cu rve with liquid deposit in

t

5% p o in the reservoir

0% De w

Zone : Dry or wet gas

T 94

GAS PVT: Bg CALCULATION

= Cste

Z⋅T

V Z ⋅T P

Hence Bg can be calculated: Bg = res = res res ⋅ st

V P Z ⋅T

st res st st

Metric Units: Pst=1.01325 bara, Tst=288 °K, Bg = 0.00352 ZT/P

SI Units: Pst=101325 Pa, Tst=288 °K, Bg = 351.8 ZT/P

95

CLASSIFICATION OF GAS FIELD

from the reservoir conditions A

C

(P,T) to the separator 25

conditions

B

50

PRESSURE

RESERVOIR TEMPERATURE

75

Séparateur Tc Tcc

TEMPERATURE

96

CLASSIFICATION OF GAS FIELD

A

•WET GAS is in gas phase in

C

the reservoir conditions (P,T),

a liquid fraction appears in the 25 B

separator

50

PRESSURE

RESERVOIR TEMPERATURE

Séparateur Tc Tcc

TEMPERATURE

97

CLASSIFICATION OF GAS FIELD

A

•GAS CONDENSATES:

following pressure drop in the C

25

reservoir, there is

condensation of a fraction of

B

liquid in the reservoir. This

75

condensation is retrograde as 50

PRESSURE

after a peak it percentage may

RESERVOIR TEMPERATURE

decrease with pressure.

Séparateur Tc Tc

c

TEMPERATUR

E

98

GAS FIELD - DRY GAS

In reservoir conditions:

- rock and water compressibilities (cp,cw) can be neglected compared

to gas compressibility cg

- Vgas initial @ Pi= Volume of remaining gas @ P

- i.e G.Bgi=(G-Gp).Bg or Gp.Bg=G.(Bg-Bgi)

- by definition Bgi/Bg=(Zi/Pi).(P/Z)

- Hence ⎛ Z P⎞ P P ⎛ G ⎞

G p = G ⋅ ⎜1 − i ⋅ ⎟ = ⋅ ⎜1 −

i p

or ⎟

⎝ Pi Z ⎠ Z Zi ⎝ G ⎠

- Gp.Bg=G.(Bg-Bgi)+We-Wp.Bw

99

GAS FIELD - DRY GAS

Curve P/Z vs. Gp very often used:

=> It is a straight line for closed reservoirs (i.e. no aquifer)

=> The straight line becomes exponential in case of active aquifer

P

Z

we ≠ 0

active aquifer

we = 0

no aquifer

Gas produced Gp

100

GAS FIELD - RECOVERY FACTOR

Recovery Factor is high

RF = 1-(Pa/Za)/(Pi/Zi)

RF = 80 to 90% (ex: Lacq in France)

after displacement by water

R < (1-Swi-Sgrw)/(1-Swi)

RF = 50 to 70% (ex: Frigg in Norway)

101

GAS FIELD - RECOVERY FACTOR

(C1-C4) RF=80 to 90% without aquifer

LPG (C3-C4) can be sold separately

(C5+) GCR is constant until Ps is reached, and

decreases afterward

Part of the condensate is trapped closed to the

wellbore, hence the well performances are

degraded

R=50 to 60%

102

Oil rate (Sbbl/d) Gas rate (MM Scft/d)

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1 000

1 100

0

5 000

10 000

15 000

20 000

25 000

30 000

35 000

40 000

45 000

janv-2000

janv-2000

janv-2002

janv-2002

janv-2004

janv-2004

janv-2006

janv-2006

janv-2008

janv-2008

janv-2010

janv-2010

janv-2012

janv-2012

janv-2014

janv-2014

time

time

janv-2016

janv-2016

EXAMPLE OF GAS CONDENSATE FIELD

Gas Production

janv-2018

janv-2018

Np

Condensate Production

janv-2020

janv-2020

Gp

janv-2022

Gas rate

janv-2022

Condensate rate

janv-2024

janv-2024

janv-2026

janv-2026

janv-2028

janv-2028

janv-2030

janv-2030

0

0,00

1,00

2,00

3,00

4,00

5,00

6,00

7,00

8,00

9,00

50

10,00

11,00

103

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

EXAMPLE OF GAS FIELD DATA PRODUCTION DATA

[days] W #1 W #2 W #3 W #4 W #5 W #6 @ -3750 mSL [GNm3] [bar]

janv 83 447,8 447,8 447,8 447,8 447,8 447,8 447,8 1,1492 0,000 389,7

févr 83 0,5 443,7 443,7 1,1455 0,128 387,4

févr 83 0,4 443,3 438,1 440,6 1,1426 0,164 385,6

juil 83 35 429,7 433,2 426,8 429,8 1,1329 0,390 379,4

août 83 5 425,7 430,3 424,3 426,6 1,1301 0,466 377,5

juil 84 18 387,0 390,9 379,9 385,8 1,0948 1,500 352,4

juil 85 3 339,9 347,3 333,7 341,2 340,3 1,0585 2,779 321,5

juin 86 20 301,5 309,0 298,0 302,7 302,6 1,0315 4,006 293,4

juin 88 36 243,7 248,7 241,3 244,4 244,0 244,7 244,4 0,9969 6,286 245,1

juin 89 8 224,3 228,1 222,4 223,1 224,6 224,4 224,4 0,9876 7,172 227,3

août 90 8 191,4 197,2 192,7 190,7 192,6 191,3 192,6 0,9757 8,400 197,4

août 91 10 164,9 173,0 166,5 163,3 165,8 164,4 166,3 0,9691 9,524 171,6

août 92 16 146,2 152,7 146,7 144,6 148,6 145,5 147,3 0,9662 10,420 152,5

juin 93 130,1 136,4 132,5 126,6 131,4 0,9651 11,168 136,1

avr 94 126,7 122,3 118,9 122,7 0,9650 11,701 127,2

mai 95 8 110,8 113,3 111,9 111,9 0,9654 12,216 116,0

août 96 16 100,8 98,7 99,8 0,9664 12,834 103,2

104

EXAMPLE OF GAS FIELD DATA

Pressure vs Time

500,00

450,00 W#1

W#2

400,00

W#3

350,00 W#4

300,00 W#5

W#6

[b ar]

250,00

@ -3750 mSL

200,00

150,00

100,00

50,00

0,00

janv janv janv janv janv janv janv janv janv janv janv janv janv janv janv janv janv

83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99

105

EXAMPLE OF GAS FIELD DATA

Dynamic IGIP

400,0

300,0

p/Z [bar]

200,0

IGIP = 17.458 GNm3 IGIP = 17.716

Linear Regression

100,0 All Points

IGIP = 17.289 GNm3

0,0

0,000 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000

Gp [GNm3]

106

EXAMPLE OF GAS FIELD DATA

400,00

W #1

W #2

W #3

W #4

300,00 W #5

W #6

A1 = 3.563 GNm3

A2 = 2.757 GNm3

p/Z [bar]

A3 = 3.058 GNm3

200,00 A4 = 2.753 GNm3

A5 = 2.465 GNm3

A6 = 2.623 GNm3

100,00

0,00

0,000 0,723 1,447 2,170 2,894 3,617 4,341

Gp [GNm3]

107

MBE - limits

Only connected or active accumulations are seen

- check production data consistency

- validate geological hypothesis: accumulation, size of the aquifer, the

gas cap

- understand the main production mechanisms early in a field,

evaluate secondary methods

- make simple/ quick sensitivities (in history match a and in forecast)

Can be pretty reliable in some specific cases: dry gas field without aquifer

108

MBE – limits : Volatile oil & Gas condensate

So far all the MBE have been written for "black oil" and dry gas, which means:

two hydrocarbon components: stock tank oil and surface gas

• the surface gas can be dissolved in the reservoir oil or gas phase

• stock tank oil can't be volatilized in the gas phase

There is no compositional effects and Bo, Rs and Bg are only dependant of

pressure and temperature

For volatile oil or condensate gas, MBE should be adapted as those reservoirs

produce liquid from the vapor phase

• Rsi >200 m3/m3

• Bo > 2 V/V

• gravity > 45°API

• high reservoir temperature (close to Tc)

109

NATURAL DRAINAGE

(or lift the well)

pressure, rates (Oil,Gas,Water,or GOR, WOR ) versus time

(economical rate) - Limiting water - cut

- Limiting GOR

110

RECOVERY FACTORS FOR NATURAL DRAINAGE

Undersaturated oil Pa > Pb < 10 %

Oil+ dissolved gas drive Pa < Pb 5 to 25 %

Oil + gas cap 10 to 40 %

Oil + aquifer 10 to 60 %

Gas 60 to 95 %

Gas condensates 40 to 65 %

mechanisms have to be initiated

111

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