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PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

Alain Auriault

1
FIELDS DEVELOPMENT

Données
geological
géologiques
data
petrophysical
Mesures
Cartes
maps PVT
Analyse
analysis
PVT Essais
Well testing
des puits
pétrophysiques
measurements
Logs
VR, φ, Swi
Swi φ, K,
k, Pc,
Pc, Kr,
kr , Cr
Cr Bo,
Bo , Bg,
Bg , Co,
Co , Cw,
Cw , Rs
Rs Pi,
Pi, T, K,
k, S
S (skin)

ÉVALUATION
HYDROCARBON
DE L'ACCUMULATION
IN PLACE
MÉCANISMES
PRODUCTIONDE
MECANISMS
DRAINAGE
Expansion Expansion
of fl.ds/ pore shr.
Force
Aquifer
de l’aquifère
activity
Dissolved
Expansiongas gazexpansion
dissous
Coning
Coning(gas/water)
(gaz/eau)
Gas cap expansion
Activité Gas cap
Imbibition
Aquifer
Activité influx
de l’aquifère
Subsidence / compaction
Water or
Injection gas ou
d’eau injection
de gaz COMPLÉTION
WELL COMPLETION
DES PUITS
PERFORMANCE
WELL PERFORMANCE
DES PUITS

Configuration
Well configuration
des puits : Complétion :
Completion Écoulement
Flow :
vertical open hole flowing
éruptif
deviated
dévié gravel pack pompage
pumping
horizontal cased
cimenté
hole gas lift

Nombre
Number de
of wells
puits
PRÉVISIONS
PRODUCTION
DE PRODUCTION
FORECAST
Débit
Field
du rate
champ

ARCHITECTURE
FIELD ARCHITECTURE
du champ

Pipes Séparateurs
Separators Plateformes
Platforms
2
OBJECTIVES

• To know and to understand what are the main mechanisms


involved in the production of a reservoir

• To be able to perform simple material balance calculations, to


know how the principles of what is implemented in softwares
like MBAL

• To have a qualitative understanding of the main issues


involved in an injection process and to be able to use "rules of
thumb" to quantify the impact of injection

• To know the main EOR processes and the typical environment


in which they are typically used

3
PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

• Introduction to production mechanisms

• Natural drainage

• Secondary recovery

• Enhanced Oil Recovery

4
Introduction to production
mechanisms
PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

PRIMARY RECOVERY Conventional oil recovery

NATURAL DRAINAGE LIFT / HORIZONTAL DRILLING

SECONDARY
WATER INJECTION RECOVERY
PRESSURE
GAZ INJECTION
MAINTENANCE
GAS CYCLING

Enhanced oil recovery


TERTIARY
RECOVERY

THERMAL GAS CHEMICAL BACTERIA

• Vapor • Miscible Hydrocarbons • Polymer


• In situ • CO2 • Surfactant
combustion
• N2 • Soda

6
PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

• Natural drive (or primary recovery): the field is produced


thanks to its own energy

• Immiscible fluid injection (or secondary recovery): energy is


provided to the field through injection
– Water injection
– Gas injection

• Enhanced oil recovery methods (or tertiary recovery):


energy for production is provided through complex methods
– Miscible process
– Chemical process
– Thermal process

7
PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

• Primary production mechanisms have to be understood/


evaluated as early as possible in the field history
- Gas cap
- Active aquifer
- Reservoir pressure vs. Pb

• Definition/ optimization and implementation of secondary


and/or tertiary production mechanisms are key issues in
the field development strategy (when required)

8
MATERIAL BALANCE

Principles
• the reservoir pore volume is 100% filled-up with fluids
• At reservoir conditions, adjustment of volumes (Mass
conservation law):
initial HC Volume = Remaining HC Vol. + Net Water and/or
gas entries (+ Pore Vol. change + connate water Vol.
change)

It represents the equation of continuity for the considered


reservoir/ part of reservoir for a finite time interval
Can be described as the simplest reservoir simulation model
(1 cell !)

9
MATERIAL BALANCE

Initial conditions After production

Producing well
Producing well

Gas cap expansion


Released gas volume
Remaining oil
Water expans. and PV shrink.

Pi, Boi, Bgi & Rsi


P, Bo, Bg & Rs

10
MATERIAL BALANCE

• Two possible uses


- Evaluation/ calculation of Original Hydrocarbon In Place
(OHIP) from production history
- Field behavior forecast for a given production mechanism
(production/recovery for different reservoir pressures or pressure
vs. cumulative production)

• Needed data
- Petrophysic data of the reservoir (rock characterization)
- PVT data (fluid characterization)
- Production data ( productions, cumulative productions,
pressure)

11
MATERIAL BALANCE – Main symbols and units

Fluid volumes
Fluid Oil Gas Water
Accumulation N G W
Cumulative production Np Gp Wp
Cumulative injection - Gi Wi
water influx - - We

All volumes are expressed in standard conditions (15°C, 1 Atm),


except We (res. cond.)

Material balance is done in reservoir conditions

Units: stm3 or stb for liquid


stm3 or scf for gas
12
MATERIAL BALANCE – Main symbols and units

Production rates
Fluid Oil Gas Water
Initial rate Qoi or qoi Qgi or qgi Qwi or qwi
Current rate @ time t Qo or qo Qg or qg Qw or qw
(or pressure P)

Field units stb/d or stbo/d scf/d stb/d or stbw/d

SI units 3
stm /d
3
stm /d
3
stm /d

reservoir rate = standard rate * FVF

13
MATERIAL BALANCE – Main symbols and units

Fluids

Fluid Oil Gas Water


Initial FVF Boi Bgi Bwi
Current FVF Bo Bg Bw
FVF @ Pb Bb - -
Field units rb/stb rcf/scf or rbl/scf rbw/stbw
SI units 3
m /m
3 3
m /m
3 3
m /m
3

FVF symbol : B or b

14
MATERIAL BALANCE – Main symbols and units

Rock/ fluid data

Saturation - initial: Soi, Swi, Sgi


- @ time t: So , Sw , Sg
unit: no dimension

Compressibilities co cw cf (or cr or cp)


field unit: psi-1
SI unit : bar-1

15
MATERIAL BALANCE – Main symbols and units

Pressure
• Initial Pi
• Current (at time t) P or Pr
• Bubble or saturation Pb
• Flowing Pwf (or FBHP)
• Well head Pwh
• Separator Psep
• Atmospheric Patm
• Absolute (above zero)
• Gauge (above atmospheric press.)

Units ?

16
MATERIAL BALANCE

Pressures

Pwh
Pwh
Patm Patm
Pr = Reservoir Pressure

Pwf= Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure

Pwh = Well Head Pressure

Patm= Atm pressure (Tank @ Patm)

Pwf Pr > Pwf > Pwh > Patm


Pr
Pwf
Pr

17
MATERIAL BALANCE - PVT DATA

Evolution with pressure of main reservoir properties


Bo
Rs Bo
µo
Rs

µo

INITIAL
BUBBLE POINT RESERVOIR PRESSURE

PRESSURE

18
RESERVES - Basic definitions

Accumulation = Hydrocarbons initially in place


(OOIP,OGIP, OHIP)

Reserves = Recoverable hydrocarbons

Reserves
Recovery factor R =
Accumulation

Oil fields 10 % < RF < 50 %

Gas fields 50 % < RF < 95 %

19
RESERVES

• Estimate Ultimate Reserves (EUR): cumulative


production at abandonment conditions or at a fixed
date
– Abandonment conditions = Minimum Field Economic Oil Rate
(either limiting water cut or high GOR or low PReservoir)
– The individual wells are progressively shut-in as they reach the
limiting conditions

• Remaining Reserves @ time t = EUR - Cumulative


Production at time t

20
RESERVES - Probability approach - Some Standards

Qualitative Quantitative
Judgement Probability
Certainty 0.99
Proved 0.90/0.95
Very Likely 0.90
Likely 0.70
Probable Equally Likely / Unlikely 0.50
Unlikely 0.30
Very Unlikely 0.10
Possible 0.10/0.05
Excluded 0.01

21
PROBABILISTIC APPROACH TO RESERVES

22
RESERVES

• Reserves are attached to a geological model, scenario of


development,calculation methodology, economics, laws and contracts

• Reserves are associated to a production profile

23
PETROLEUM RESSOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

• A new Petroleum Resources Management System was approved by the


Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Board of Directors in March 2007
(collaboration: SPE, the World Petroleum Council (WPC), the American Association of
Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers
(SPEE)).

24
PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

• Introduction to production mechanisms

• Natural drainage

• Secondary recovery

• Enhanced Oil Recovery

25
Natural drainage
NATURAL DRAINAGE or PRIMAY RECOVERYXXX

Different production mechanisms can occur

• Fluid expansion and pore shrinkage


• Solution gas drive
• Gas cap expansion
• Natural water influx
• (Gravity drainage)
• (Compaction drive)

27
NATURAL DRAINAGE OR PRIMARY RECOVERY

Pb is Bubble Point Pressure

• Pi > Pb (undersaturated oil reservoir) one phase fluid (oil)


- Oil and connate water expansion
- Pores shrinkage

• Pi ≤ Pb (saturated oil reservoir)


- Solution gas(expansion of liberated gas)
- Gas cap expansion

Aquifer expansion

The field development strategy will take into account the strength
of the aquifer, relative permeabilities, etc

28
ISOTHERMAL COMPRESSIBILITY

• Pore shrinkage and fluids expansion. Definition of compressibility: the relative


volume change of matter per unit pressure change under conditions of
constant temperature
c: coef of isothermal compressibility
1 ⎛ δV ⎞ units: [1/P], always a positive value
c=− ⎜ ⎟ Order of magnitude
V ⎝δP ⎠ • co= 1 to 3 10-4 bar-1 Lab data
• cw= 0.4 to 0.6 10-4 bar-1 Literature
• cp= 0.3 to 1.5 10-4 bar-1 Lab data or Hall
correlation
• cg # 1/P (P in bars, ex cg=30.10-4 bar-1 for
P=300 bars)

• Usually petroleum reservoirs can be considered as being isothermal


- Increasing pressure causes volume of material to decrease (compression)
- Decreasing pressure causes volume of material to increase (expansion)

29
COMPRESSIBILITY- DEFINITIONS

• Matrix compressibility (Cm): relative change in volume of solid rock


material (grain volume) per unit pressure change (usually Cm # 0)
• Pore (or formation) compressibility Cf : relative change in pore
volume per unit pressure change
• Bulk compressibility (Cb): relative change in bulk volume per unit
pressure change (usually ∆Vb # ∆Vp )

• Impact
- Formation compressibility can have a significant impact of
production mechanisms
- Subsidence (due to decrease of bulk volume) can have a
significant impact on environment

30
FORMATION COMPRESSIBILITY

• Under static conditions, downward overburden force is balanced by


upward forces of the matrix and the fluid in the pores

F O

Fo= Fm+Ff
F M F F
and Po= Pm+ P
P fluid pressure in the
pores

• As fluids are produced in the reservoirs, fluid pressure (P) usually


decreases while overburden is constant and:
- Force on matrix increases (net compaction pressure or net
overburden pressure Pm=Po-P)
- Bulk and pore volume decrease
- Fluid volume increases (=> production mechanism)
31
FORMATION COMPRESSIBILITY

Overburden

Pore Pressure Effective Pressure

Abnormal effective
overburden
Subnormal pore
pressure
Subnormal effective
overburden

Depth
Abnormal pore pressure
Hydrostatic pressure
32
NATURAL DRAINAGE - UNDERSATURATED OIL

Rocks and fluids expansion - Compressibilities

Demonstrate the relation between Co and Bo


(for P>Pb)
Bo − Boi
co = -
Boi ⋅ ( P − Pi )
Oil compressibility is given by:
1 dVo
co = - ⋅ , Voi = V st ⋅ B oi and V o = V st ⋅ Bo
V oi dP
hence ∆ V o = V st ⋅ Bo − V st ⋅ Boi = V st ⋅ ( Bo − Boi )
1 V st ⋅ ( Bo − Boi ) 1 Bo − Boi
co = - ⋅ =- ⋅
V st ⋅ B oi P − Pi B oi P − Pi

33
NATURAL DRAINAGE - UNDERSATURATED OIL

Material balance in the case: no water entry

Produced volume = Increase of oil volume


+
Increase of volume of water
+
Decrease of pore volume

Those variations of volumes are related to compressibilities.


Compressibilities of oil, water and rock being generally pretty low, the
expected recovery factor is low.

34
NATURAL DRAINAGE - UNDERSATURATED OIL

Material balance in the case: no water entry


For a pressure drop ∆P from Pi to P with P>Pb

• Oil volume increases by (Vp ⋅ Soi ) ⋅ co ⋅ ∆P


• Water volume increases by (Vp ⋅ Swi ) ⋅ cw ⋅ ∆P
• Pore volume shrinks by (Vp ) ⋅ c p ⋅ ∆P
Material balance: the rock and fluids volume changes of the reservoir is
equal to Np (cumulative production in standard conditions) converted in
reservoir conditions.

(
N p Bo = V p ⋅ ∆P ⋅ co Soi + cw S wi + c p )

35
NATURAL DRAINAGE - UNDERSATURATED OIL

Material balance in the case: no water entry


Cumulative production = Sum of the 3 terms

(
N p ⋅ Bo = Vp ⋅ ∆P ⋅ co ⋅ Soi + cw ⋅ S wi + c p )
co ⋅ Soi + cw ⋅ S wi + c p
N p ⋅ Bo = Vp ⋅ Soi ⋅ ∆P ⋅
Soi

co ⋅ Soi + cw ⋅ S wi + c p
ce = is called the equivalent compressibility
Soi

N p ⋅ Bo = (Vp ⋅ Soi ) ⋅ ce ⋅ ∆P = ( N ⋅ Boi ) ⋅ ce ⋅ ∆P

For a ∆P pressure drop from Pi to P, P being greater that Pb


N .Boi
• Cumulative oil production (*) Np = .c .∆P
Bo e
• Recovery Factor Np B
R= = oi .ce .∆P
(*) Standard conditions N Bo 36
NATURAL DRAINAGE - UNDERSATURATED OIL

Material balance in the case: no water entry


Numerical example
FIELD A… without water entry

Cumulative production is given Np =1,17 . 10+6stb and Wp =0 (clean oil)

Swi = 14%
c w = 3,28 . 10−6 psi−1 cp = 4,36 . 10−6 psi−1
Pi = 4740 psia Boi = 1,3905
Bo = 1,4168
P = 3686 psia

What is the corresponding accumulation (OOIP)?

37
NATURAL DRAINAGE

Solution gas drive

• Reservoir pressure decreases under Pb (bubble point


pressure)
• Part of the gas dissolved in the oil is liberated in the
reservoir
• Quick increase of the produced gas

• Fluids and rock compressibility effects can be


neglected vs. expansion of the liberated gas (gas
compressibility is much bigger)

38
NATURAL DRAINAGE - SOLUTION GAS DRIVE

Prod. Prod. Prod.

O+G+W
- Pr < Pb
- Inactive aquifer Swirr 100%/Sw
W VP = VO + VGF + VW W
(VP)i = (VP)t
at Pi ¿ VP = Voi + Vw
Voi = Vor + Vgf
at P ¿ VP = Vor + Vw + Vgf

39
NATURAL DRAINAGE - SOLUTION GAS DRIVE

Saturated oil-Phase diagram


Pressure

Critical point

Tres, Pres
t1

t2

Separator

Tc
Temperature

40
SOLUTION GAS DRIVE – Depletion below Pb

• Critical Gas Saturation


- Definition : Sg < Sgc krg = 0
- Use of kr from displacement process = unreliable
- P > PSgc : monophasic flow (oil)
- P < PSgc : diphasic flow ( oil + free gas)

• Development of Gas Phase


- Nucleation: supersaturation + nucleation sites (energy)
- Coalescences: diffusion + supply
- Formation of an elongated gas channel (or "gas finger")
- Gas production

41
SOLUTION GAS DRIVE – Gas liberated in the reservoir

• Gas immobile as long as Sg<Sgc. (Only monophasic oil is produced).


PI affected (kro effect). Only solution gas is produced at surface.
Qg = GOR x Qo GOR = Rs

• At Sgc, part of liberated gas becomes mobile. Diphasic flow. Both


solution gas and liberated gas are produced at surface. Production
GOR (Rp) increases.
Qg = GOR x Qo GOR > Rs

Remark on Gas oil ratio definitions :


Rs : solution (or dissolved) gas oil ratio
GOR : production gas oil ratio
Rp : cumulative gas oil ratio = Gp/Np

42
SOLUTION GAS DRIVE – Gas liberated in the reservoir

• Part of the gas liberated in the reservoir below Pb may


move up, due to gravity forces-to create a secondary gas-
cap or supply an existing one - (balance between
gravity,capillary and viscous forces)

Gas (top reservoir)

Gas
(well)
Oil

43
NATURAL DRAINAGE - SOLUTION GAS DRIVE

Material balance
• Initial oil volume = remaining oil at P + released solution gas
( ) ( ( ) )
N ⋅ Boi = N − N p ⋅ Bo + NRsi − N − N p Rs − G p ⋅ Bg

Gp can be expressed in function of Np: G p = R p ⋅ Np

Performances
P GOR
GOR

Pb
Psgc

Np/N
44
SOLUTION GAS DRIVE – Typical use

Historical part: Np,Gp,P are measured Î N is evaluated

Forecast
• N is known, for a given value of one of the one of the 3 others
parameters, the 2 others are calculated, ex for a given ∆P, what will
be Np and Gp?
• In can be demonstrated that Rp=f(P,So) and So=f(Np) Î iterative
method:
- ∆P being given Rp is estimated
- Np is calculated by material balance equation
- then So is calculated
- then Rp=f(So) is calculated
- if the initial Rs guess is with 1% equal to the final Rs calculation: OK, if
not iteration
Î this is now done within softwares

45
SOLUTION GAS DRIVE – Typical use

Forecast – Some equations


Qg Qo Rs + Qgfree Qgfree
• Rp is a function of So,P: GOR = R p = = = Rs +
Qo Qo Qo
2π hko ∆P
Qo = ⋅
µo Bo r
k g µo Bo kg
ln e
rw GOR = Rs + is a function of So
ko µ g Bg ko
2π hk g ∆P
Qg = ⋅
µ g Bg r
ln e Rs is a function of P
rw

• So is a function of Np (VP is approximated as cst)


VP Soi = NBoi
- Initial oil volume @ Pi :
- Oil volume @ P: (
VP So = N − N p Bo )
⎛ N p ⎞ Bo
So = Soi ⎜ 1 − ⎟
=>
⎝ N ⎠ Boi
46
NATURAL DRAINAGE - SOLUTION GAS DRIVE

• Recovery from 5 to 25 %

• The field / well production is shut-down when GOR is


to high

• Sgc, critical gas saturation is a very important


parameter:

High Sgc High recovery

47
NATURAL DRAINAGE

Gas cap expansion

• Gas cap is located in the upper part of the reservoir

• Reservoir Pressure (Pr) is below Pb

• When Pr decreases, the gas volume of the gas cap


increases

48
NATURAL DRAINAGE

Gas cap expansion

1 /1 9 3 8

1 /1 9 3 7

1 /1 9 3 6

1 /1 9 3 3

s
ied
2200
2100

Example of evolution with


0p
0
230

240
00
00

time of the GOC (Gas Oil


16

19 0
17

0
18

00

Contact)
00
20

(Mite Six field)


49
NATURAL DRAINAGE - GAS CAP EXPANSION

r Prod.r Prod.r
Prod.

GcBgi
m= G+W
NiBoi G?

Possible
(GOC)i Pi = Pb at GOC
Pwf
gas coning
Pwf Pwf < Pb

O+W

Possible water coning


(OWC)i
W W

Gp = Gps + Gpf + Gpc


50
NATURAL DRAINAGE - GAS CAP EXPANSION

Material balance
Initial oil volume = remaining oil vol at P + gas cap expansion
+ free solution gas

( ) (( ) ) ( ( )
N ⋅ Boi = N − N p ⋅ Bo + G − G pc Bgc − GB gci + NRsi − N − N p Rs − G ps ⋅ Bg )
were G, Gpc, Bgc and Bgci refer to the gas cap and Gps, Bg refer to the dissolved gas

Performance
P GOR
GOR

Np/N
51
NATURAL DRAINAGE - GAS CAP EXPANSION

Material balance
The initial volume of the gas cap is often expressed in function of the initial
volume of the oil pool, using the m ratio
volume of the initial gas cap G ⋅ Bgi
m= ( reservoir conditions ) =
volume of the initial oil in place NBoi

If the gas of the gas cap and the dissolved gas are not differentiated:
Bg=Bgc and Gp=Gpc+Gps , MBAE becomes:

( ) ( ) ( ( ) )
N ⋅ Boi = N − N p ⋅ Bo + GBg − GB gi + NRsi − N − N p Rs ⋅ Bg − G p Bg

52
NATURAL DRAINAGE - GAS CAP EXPANSION

Depth

Rsi

Material Balance
• Necessity to know the evolution of Rsi versus depth (sampling at
different depths)
• While producing, if kv important, good gas segregation and GOR
not impacted by gas from gas cap
• A good gas segregation maintains pressure in the reservoir
• Recovery can reach high values, up to 40 %OOIP

53
NATURAL DRAINAGE - ACTIVE AQUIFER

• The impact of an active aquifer is function of it size


and characteristics

• Bottom water drive (k vertical, coning,…)

• Edge water driver (k horizontal, fingering)

54
MATERIAL BALANCE - ACTIVE AQUIFER

Water production

• The field production does not stop at water break through


• Following economics environment, fields can be produced
up to very high water cut (Qw/Qtotal): 98-99%
• One main issue: produced water disposal system
• The rising of OWC should be continuously monitored
(logging, observation wells, behavior of production wells)

55
NATURAL DRAINAGE - ACTIVE AQUIFER

SEALING FAULT

OIL
3

W
6

A
T

TE
UL

R
FA

C
8

O
2
G

NT
IN

A
AL

CT
1
SE

0
70

50
4
7 AQUIFER ??

7
0
80
0
85
S EA
L IN G
FA U
LT

WOC: Water Oil Contact

56
NATURAL DRAINAGE - ACTIVE AQUIFER

Producer
Observation well

OIL

WATER
Producer

Bottom water drive


Observation well

In the case of an active aquifer,


Recovery Factor is in average between
25 to 50 % (up to 65% in very favorable cases)
Maximum theoretical: (1-Swi-Sor)/(1-Swi) Edge water drive

(Which is obtained in a core)

57
NATURAL DRAINAGE - ACTIVE AQUIFER

Calculation of potential recovery in the case of water entry

For a pressure drop from Pi to P with an oil production Np


We consider the simplified case where P>>Pb (undersaturated oil)

a- oil volume expands


b- water volume expands
c- pore volume shrinks
d- aquifer expands and generates a water influx in the reservoir: We
e- water production: Wp

Oil production is given by a+b+c+d-e

i.e. Np Bo = N Boi ce (Pi - P) + We - Wp Bw

! in MBE, "We" is the only cumulative quantity expressed in reservoir volumes


58
ACTIVE AQUIFER – WATER INFLUX CALCULATION

Np Bo = N Boi ce (Pi - P) + We - WpBw

Simplified approach:
Let's consider the case were the aquifer size is small enough and the
connection between the oil pool and the aquifer very good so that when the
pressure in the oil pool decreases by ∆P=Pi-P, the aquifer pressure also
decreases instantaneously by the same ∆P value.

If Vw, volume of the aquifer is known, We could be calculated as follows:

• We = Vw (cw + cp) (Pi - P)


This gives what would be the maximum impact of an aquifer of o given size

59
WATER INFLUX CALCULATION -Example

Np Bo = N Boi ce (Pi - P) + We - WpBw

Let’s take an aquifer with a volume Vw = 10 time pore volume of the oil zone
which expands totally from Pi to P

• We = Vw (cw + cp) (Pi - P) = [10 . N Boi / (1 - Swi)] (cw + cp) (Pi - P)


• R = Np / N = (Boi / Bo) . Ce (Pi - P) + We / (N Bo)
• R = (Boi / Bo) (Pi - P) [ce + 10 . (cw + cp) / (1 - Swi)]
• Numerical example: cw = cp = 1/3 co et Swi = 20 %
R = Np / N = (Boi / Bo) (Pi - P) [6,55 ce]

Theoretical recovery is 6,5 time higher in the case active aquifer


than in the case non aquifer.

It is important to know the size and the activity of an aquifer.

60
WATER INFLUX CALCULATION -Example

Material balance in the case: field with water influx

Numerical example
Cumulative oil production is Np = 13,5.106stb (and Wp =0)

• co = 1,79 . 10-5 psi-1 cw = 3,28 . 10-6 psi-1 cp = 4,36 . 10-6 psi-1


• Pi = 4740 psia and Boi = 1,3905
• P = 3686 psia and Bo = 1,4168

What is the minimum volume of aquifer?

N being estimated at 48 106 stb

61
ACTIVE AQUIFER – WATER INFLUX CALCULATION

For large aquifers, a time dependent model is necessary since the pressure
decrease of the aquifer is not instantaneous
We can represent an oil reservoir rounded by an aquifer as a "big diameter well'

Producer

We look at the rate


Oil water contact
and pressure at the
interface aquifer – oil
pool (horizontal in the
field, vertical in the
ro model)

re

Aquifer models have been developed depending on the fluid flow characteristics
62
FLUID FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA (reminder)

P(r,t) P(r,t)

transient flow Late transient flow


no limit has been reached some limits have been reached

or
⎛ ∂P ⎞ ⎛ ∂P ⎞
t↑ ⎜ ⎟ = cte ⎜ ⎟ =0
⎝ ∂t ⎠r ⎝ ∂t ⎠ r

pseudo steady-state flow steady-state flow


All limits are reached the pressure profile is stable
The pressure profile goes down during time

63
FLUID FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA (reminder)

Case no flow boundary


Pi
t1

t2
Producing face pressure

t3

t4

t5
Pmini

Log distance
Producing No flow
64
face boundary
FLUID FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA (reminder)

Case no flow boundary


Pi
t1
Transient flow (USS)
t2 t2
Producing face pressure

ow
st ate fl t3 t3
dy
stea
seudo
P t4

Unsteady state flow


t5
Pmini

Log distance
Producing No flow
65
face boundary
FLUID FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA (reminder)

The typical problem to solve is: for a given production rate at the wellbore what is
the corresponding pressure profile in the reservoir as a function of distance
from the wellbore and time, P=f(t,r).

The solution found for P(t,r) depends on the following items:


Fluid Type of flow Geometry of flow
Liquid (incompressible) Steady state Linear
Gas (compressible) Pseudo Steady state Radial
Unsteady state
At this stage, let's consider an incompressible fluid and a radial flow.
The most general case (and more complex to solve) is the unsteady state case.
In this case the diffusivity equation has to be solved:
δ 2 p 1 δp ϕµc δp
+ =
δr 2
r δr k δt
Solution have been developed for the following conditions at limits:
@ ro @ re
- constant pressure – no flow boundary
- constant rate – cste pressure boundary 66
ACTIVE AQUIFER – AQUIFER MODELS

Typical models are:


• For steady state flow: Schilthuis'model
• For pseudo steady state model: Fetkovitch's model
• For unsteady state: Hurst& Van Everdingen's model
- in this case diffusivity equation has been solved with the hypothesis than
Pressure is constant at the inner boundary (interface Oil/ water)
- it corresponds to a limited aquifer (no flow at the outer boundary)

Unsteady state being the most general case, Hurst& Van Everdingen can be
applied in a lot of cases. But:
- it should be use from the beginning
- as, in the field , pressure can decrease, the time history is divided in time
steps during which pressure can be estimated as constant, then
superposition principle is applied

67
ACTIVE AQUIFER – WATER INFLUX CALCULATION

Hurst & Van Everdingen method (unsteady state water influx in radial circular
model)
We: cumulative water influx due to a pressure drop of ∆P at ro and time=0
We = U ⋅ ∆P ⋅ WD (t D )

With U=aquifer constant for radial geometry: U = 2π f ϕ hct ro 2


φ,h,ct=cr+cw aquifer characteristics
f = encroachment angle/360°
Θ°
ro
re

And WD(tD) dimensionless cumulative water influx function function of rD and tD

re kt
rD = and t D = Cte ⋅
ro ϕµ ct ro 2

68
ACTIVE AQUIFER – WATER INFLUX CALCULATION

Hurst & Van Everdingen method –units

Darcy Units Field Units


kt kt
tD = t D = Cst ⋅
ϕµ ct ro 2 ϕµ ct ro 2
Cst = 0.000264 (t in hours)
t is in second = 0.00634 (t in days)
=2.309 (t in years)

U = 2π f ϕ hct ro 2 (cc/atm)
U = 1.119 f ϕ hct ro 2 (bbl/psi)

69
ACTIVE AQUIFER – WATER INFLUX CALCULATION

System units

Parameter Darcy Oilfield Units European Metric Canadian Metric SI

r h cm ft m m m

k darcy mD mD mD m2

t s h h h s

µ cp cp cp cp Pa.s

p atm psia bara kPa Pa

V cm3 ft3 m3 m3 m3

q(oil) cm3/s bbl/d m3/d m3/d m3/s

q(gas) cm3/s MMcf/d m3/d m3/d m3/s

70
ACTIVE AQUIFER – WATER INFLUX CALCULATION

Hurst & Van Everdingen method – example of curve WD=f(tD,rD)

71
L.P Dake Fundalmentals of res eng
ACTIVE AQUIFER – WATER INFLUX CALCULATION

Hurst & Van Everdingen (continue)

Time steps are selected to have P # Cste n


The superposition method gives: We = U ⋅ ∑ ∆P i ⋅WDi (t Di )
i =0

For instance in the example shown here


below:

∆P0 is applied during t3


∆P1 is applied during t3-t1
∆P2 is applied during t3-t2

72
ACTIVE AQUIFER – WATER INFLUX CALCULATION

Hurst & Van Everdingen method – Prediction of future performances

The additional production being given, what will be the corresponding reservoir
pressure P ?

There are 2 unknowns We and P


2 equations will be used: the material balance equation and the unsteady state
flow equation, it is a trial an error process:
- time increment is used (can be the same as the one used during the historical
period)
- the pressure at the end of the first period is estimated
- using this P, We is calculated by material balance and by Hurst & Van
Everdingen's method
- if the 2 estimate are close enough (1%) => end
- if not P at the end of the time step is modified (if We by material balance is
greater than We by H&VE method decrease P)

Today: use of softwares as MBAL (Petroleum expert)


73
MATERIAL BALANCE - GENERAL EXPRESSION

Rock and
Original Freed Gas Net
Present oil connate Injected
volume = oil – solution – cap – water – water – volumes
volume gas expansion influx
expansion
(N − N p )Bo = N(Boi ) −

[
(Bg )s N ( Rs )i − (N − N p )Rs − (G p )s ) − ]
[(G − (G ) )(B ) − G(B ) ]−
p c g c g i

[We −WpBw ] −
⎡ c f + S wi cw ⎤
N(Boi ) (1 + m) ∆P ⎢ ⎥−
⎣ 1 − S wi ⎦
[W inj Bw + Ginj Bg ]

N=
( ) [( ) ][ ]
N p Bo − Rs (Bg )s + (G p )s (Bg )s − G − (G p )c (Bg )c − G (Bgi ) − We − W p Bw − Winj Bw − Ginj Bg
⎡ c f + S wi cw ⎤
(Bo − (Boi )) + ((Rsi ) − Rs )(Bg )s + (Boi )∆P ⎢ ⎥ (1 + m )
⎣ 1 − S wi ⎦
74
MATERIAL BALANCE EXPRESSED AS A LINEAR EQUATION

Let's re-arrange, the general MBE, with the following simplifications


- Winj=Ginj=0
- Bgc=Bgs et Gpc=0 (Gps=Gptotal=Rp*Np)

We got :
⎛ Bg ⎞
( (
N p Bo + R p − Rs Bg ) ) (
+ W p Bw = N Bo − Boi + Bg ( Rsi − Rs ) + mNBoi ⎜
⎜ Bgi )
− 1⎟ +

⎝ ⎠
⎛ cf + Swi ⋅ cw ⎞
+NBoi (1+ m) ∆P⎜ ⎟ +We
⎝ 1 − S ⎠
Where: wi

( ( ) )
F = N p Bo + R p − Rs Bg + W p Bw = withdrawal in reservoir conditions

(F = N p (B + (R
o p − Rs ) Bg ) + W p Bw − W
inj Bw.inj − Ginj Bg .inj ) if Winj and G inj were taken into account

Eo = Bo − Boi + Bg ( Rsi − Rs ) term decribing the expansion of the oil and its original dissolved gas
⎛ Bg ⎞
Eg = Boi ⎜ − 1⎟ which describes the expansion of the gas cap
⎜ Bgi ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎛ c f + S wi ⋅ cw ⎞
E f , w = Boi (1 + m ) ∆P ⎜ ⎟ describes the expansion of connate water and the pore
⎝ 1 − S wi ⎠ volume shrinkage in the O+G zones 75
MATERIAL BALANCE EXPRESSED AS A LINEAR EQUATION

MBE becomes :
F = N ( Eo + mEg + E f , w ) + We

Havlena and Odeh have shown that in many cases, this equation can be
expressed as a linear function
For instance in we consider the case where there is no gas cap and were connate water
expansion and pore volume shrinkage can be neglected vs. the other production
mechanisms
F/Eo

F = NEo + We

F W 45 °
or: =N+ N
Eo Eo
We/Eo

A simple check can allow to validate that the field data are in line with the
production mechanisms which have been determined in the field (history
match process)
76
DRIVE INDICES

In is interesting to describe a field behavior by identifying the contribution of each


mechanisms to the production (field withdrawal)

F = N ( Eo + mEg + E f , w ) + We can be written as:

NEo NmEg NE fw We
1= + + +
F F F F
NEo/F : depletion index drive
NmEg/F : segregation drive index/gas cap expansion index
NEf,w/F : expansion drive index
We/F : water drive index

Typically software represent the evolution of those indices with time

77
DRIVE INDEXES

Example of production mechanisms history through drive indexes evolution

Drive mechanisms – Mature Reservoir


1

0.75

0.50

0.25

0
28/02/1977 16/05/1983 31/07/1989 16/10/1995 31/12/2001

Time (date d/m/y)

78
GRAVITY DRAINAGE

• Expansion of a gas-cap (initial or secondary) creates a


gas invaded zone where So decreases leading to high oil
recovery due to gravity drainage.

• Gravity drainage is a recovery process in which the gravity


forces are the main mechanism
gravity forces sup. to capillary forces:
h ∆ρogg > 2 σog cosθ / r

• Gravity drainage must be efficient within an economical


time scale good permeability - say sup 100mD -

79
GRAVITY DRAINAGE: MICROSCOPIC EFFICIENCY

Formation of gas-oil interfaces


and oil mobilization

GAS OIL WATER

80
GRAVITY DRAINAGE

Forces acting upon oil film

Forces applied by
upwards
ROCK flowing gas
PARTICLES
Gravity forces

WATER OIL GAS

81
GRAVITY DRAINAGE IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

Case oil/Gas in fractured reservoirs


Gravity drainage is a key production mechanism:
Qg

Pc Single Block

Pd=∆ρ.g.H0

Sorg So
Qo

• Oil is stored in the matrix, gas is in injected in the fractures


• By gravity oil from the matrix will flow into the fractures
• Capillary forces counterbalance partially gravity forces
• Threshold pressure represent the minimum pressure for gas to penetrate the
matrix
82
GRAVITY DRAINAGE

• Driving force is due to the differences of densities between


gas and oil - (more or less) ever present phenomenon

• Reservoir factors affecting the process:


- high mobility to oil
- high formation dip. or thick reservoir
- lack of stratification rock
- fractured rock
- high density contrasts

Further information in the course gas injection

83
GRAVITY DRAINAGE

• Oil recovery up to 70% of O.I.P.


• Recovery by gravity drainage >> recovery by solution gas
drive because :

Gas
Gravity drainage Oil (well)

Gas
(well)
Solution gas drive Oil

84
COMPACTION DRIVE - SUBSIDENCE

• In some specific cases, rock compressibility can be very high with the
consequences of:
- a high RF due to pore shrinkage (+)
- a compaction of the reservoir which can result into subsidence in the
surface (-)
∆Vb ∆h
= cb ⋅ ∆P = with cb = φ ⋅ c f + (1 − φ ) cm ≈ φ ⋅ c f
Vb h
index b refers to bulk/total, f to formation/pore, m to matrix/grain

• This is normally expected in shallow reservoirs with potentially


unconsolidated reservoir (cf high), easy deformation transmission
between reservoir and surface.

• In forecast studies, the issues are


- measuring/ estimating cf in the case of unconsolidated reservoir (inelastic
and non reversible deformation)
- the evaluation of subsidence to compaction ratio

85
SUBSIDENCE – Case Ekofisk

• Ekofisk was discovered in the


Norwegian North sea in 1969 (Phillips
Petroleum Co.).
• Water depth: 72 m
• top of the reservoir at: 2840 ssm
• Elongated anticline 6.8x9.3 km
• 2 reservoirs (fine-grains chalk
essentially) separated by a tight zone 1978
Ekofisk formation
- net pay thickness 100 to 150 m
- Ф = 10 to 20%
- low k in the matrix
Upper Tor formation
- net pay thickness 75 to 150 m
- Ф = 30 to 40%
- low k in the matrix
Extensive natural fracturing 1986
86
SUBSIDENCE – Case Ekofisk

•1971: production started, a large


gravity based structure (GBS) was
installed (other installations built later)
•1975: gas start being injected partially
•1976: peak production 350 000 bopd
•1984: unexpected production-related
subsidence was discovered (3 m)
•1987: all the platforms were raised by 1978
6 m in 1987, a protective seawall was
installed around the GBS in 1989
•1987: in addition to gas injection water
injection start to prevent
depressurization
•1989 and 1990: expansion of water
injection

1986
87
SUBSIDENCE – Case Ekofisk

•Seabed subsidence was closely


monitored and show continuous
evolution (10 to 40 cm/year depending
on the location in the field)
•The current subsidence underneath
the GBS is 9 m
•Initially, due to the depth of the
reservoir, the subsidence risk was not
considered (although compaction was 1978
evaluated)
•Part of the problem is related to the
reservoir lithology (chalk) and to it
observed "water weakening" (chalk
strength decreases substantially in the
presence of water compared to its strength
when oil-saturated).

1986
88
Example of field data
RESERVOIR PRESSURE EVOLUTION WITH PRODUCTION

Example
4500

4300

4100

J101
Depletion (psia)

J102
3900
J103G drilling
J104
J105
3700
J106 drilling
J107 drilling
J108 drilling
3500

3300

Pression de saturation
3100
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
Cumulated production (Mbbls)
90
OWC EVOLUTION WITH PRODUCTION

Example
(psia)
3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700
2400

2450

2500

2550
(mv/SL)

2600

2650

NEW WOC J107


INITIAL WOC
2700

2750

2800 91
EXAMPLE OF MATERIAL BALANCE

N (Mbbls) 216 P Np Wp Bo Co We Np (closed) N Ø 0.13


Boi 1.3905 (psia) (Mbbls) (Mbbls) (Mbbls) (Mbbls) (Mbbls) Area (km2) 6.6
Pi (psi) 4 455.0 4455 0.00 0.00 1.3905 1.27E-05 0.00 Soi 0.92
Bob 1.4496 4407 1.30 0.00 1.3927 1.28E-05 1.5 0.19 216.0 Sorw 0.34
Pb (psi) 3159 4370 1.61 0.00 1.3944 1.29E-05 1.8 0.34 216.0 N/G 0.35
Cw (1/psi) 3.28E-06 4266 3.71 0.00 1.3991 1.30E-05 4.2 0.74 215.5
Cp (1/psi) 4.36E-06 4130 6.57 0.05 1.4053 1.33E-05 7.5 1.23 210.5
Coi (1/psi) 1.27E-05 3947 11.25 0.17 1.4137 1.36E-05 13.3 1.85 203.0
Cob (1/psi) 1.50E-05 3922 11.83 0.18 1.4148 1.36E-05 14.0 1.94 203.0
Swi (%) 13 3878 13.51 0.18 1.4168 1.37E-05 16.2 2.10 204.0
Ct (1/psi) 1.82E-05 CALCUL D'ENTREE D'EAU APRES J 107 h (m) 14.8

Measured Closedreservoir Water entries

4500 18

16
4400 J... Field - Material Balance match
14
4300
12
4200 10

4100 8

6
4000
4
3900
2

3800 0
0 2 4 6 Np 8 10 12 14 92
Natural drainage
Gas Fields
PHASE ENVELOP OF A MIXTURE OF HYDROCARBONS

Gas reservoirs with


condensation
retrograde
œ  Ÿ
Oil reservoirs with
P dissolved gases Cricondenbar
Gas reservoirs without
retrograde condensation
rve ž
u Critical point
n tc
oi
lep
bb Cricondentherm
Zone œ : No or poor
Bu Liquid + gas contribution of
dissolved gases
Dry gas Zone  : Appreciable
100% contribution of
75% dissolved gases
50% 30%
20% Zone ž : Retrograde
10% cu rve with liquid deposit in
t
5% p o in the reservoir
0% De w
Zone Ÿ : Dry or wet gas

T 94
GAS PVT: Bg CALCULATION

For a given quantity of gas: P⋅V


= Cste
Z⋅T

V Z ⋅T P
Hence Bg can be calculated: Bg = res = res res ⋅ st
V P Z ⋅T
st res st st

Field Units (US): Pst=14.7 psia, Tst=520 °R, Bg = 0.02827 ZT/P


Metric Units: Pst=1.01325 bara, Tst=288 °K, Bg = 0.00352 ZT/P
SI Units: Pst=101325 Pa, Tst=288 °K, Bg = 351.8 ZT/P

Volume of one mole of gas in standard conditions=23.63 liters

95
CLASSIFICATION OF GAS FIELD

•DRY GAS is in gas phase


from the reservoir conditions A
C
(P,T) to the separator 25
conditions
B
50

PRESSURE

RESERVOIR TEMPERATURE
75

Séparateur Tc Tcc
TEMPERATURE

96
CLASSIFICATION OF GAS FIELD

A
•WET GAS is in gas phase in
C
the reservoir conditions (P,T),
a liquid fraction appears in the 25 B
separator
50

PRESSURE

RESERVOIR TEMPERATURE
Séparateur Tc Tcc
TEMPERATURE

97
CLASSIFICATION OF GAS FIELD

A
•GAS CONDENSATES:
following pressure drop in the C
25
reservoir, there is
condensation of a fraction of
B
liquid in the reservoir. This
75
condensation is retrograde as 50

PRESSURE
after a peak it percentage may

RESERVOIR TEMPERATURE
decrease with pressure.

Séparateur Tc Tc
c
TEMPERATUR
E
98
GAS FIELD - DRY GAS

Case: no active aquifer


In reservoir conditions:
- rock and water compressibilities (cp,cw) can be neglected compared
to gas compressibility cg
- Vgas initial @ Pi= Volume of remaining gas @ P
- i.e G.Bgi=(G-Gp).Bg or Gp.Bg=G.(Bg-Bgi)
- by definition Bgi/Bg=(Zi/Pi).(P/Z)
- Hence ⎛ Z P⎞ P P ⎛ G ⎞
G p = G ⋅ ⎜1 − i ⋅ ⎟ = ⋅ ⎜1 −
i p
or ⎟
⎝ Pi Z ⎠ Z Zi ⎝ G ⎠

Cumulative Gas production is a linear function of P/Z

Material balance in case of water influx


- Gp.Bg=G.(Bg-Bgi)+We-Wp.Bw
99
GAS FIELD - DRY GAS

Gas reservoirs typical behaviour


Curve P/Z vs. Gp very often used:
=> It is a straight line for closed reservoirs (i.e. no aquifer)
=> The straight line becomes exponential in case of active aquifer

P
Z

we ≠ 0

active aquifer

relatively inactive aquifer


we = 0

no aquifer

Gas produced Gp
100
GAS FIELD - RECOVERY FACTOR

Gas compressibility being high


Recovery Factor is high

• without aquifer RF depends of abandonment pressure (Pa)


RF = 1-(Pa/Za)/(Pi/Zi)
RF = 80 to 90% (ex: Lacq in France)

• with aquifer RF depends of Sgrw , Gas residual saturation


after displacement by water
R < (1-Swi-Sgrw)/(1-Swi)
RF = 50 to 70% (ex: Frigg in Norway)

101
GAS FIELD - RECOVERY FACTOR

Gas condensate fields

• Gas fraction RF depends of abandonment pressure


(C1-C4) RF=80 to 90% without aquifer
LPG (C3-C4) can be sold separately

• Liquid fraction GCR= Gas Condensate Ratio


(C5+) GCR is constant until Ps is reached, and
decreases afterward
Part of the condensate is trapped closed to the
wellbore, hence the well performances are
degraded
R=50 to 60%

102
Oil rate (Sbbl/d) Gas rate (MM Scft/d)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1 000
1 100

0
5 000
10 000
15 000
20 000
25 000
30 000
35 000
40 000
45 000

janv-2000
janv-2000

janv-2002
janv-2002

janv-2004
janv-2004

janv-2006
janv-2006

janv-2008
janv-2008

janv-2010
janv-2010

janv-2012
janv-2012

janv-2014
janv-2014
time

time

janv-2016
janv-2016
EXAMPLE OF GAS CONDENSATE FIELD

Gas Production

janv-2018
janv-2018
Np
Condensate Production

janv-2020
janv-2020
Gp

janv-2022
Gas rate

janv-2022
Condensate rate

janv-2024
janv-2024

janv-2026
janv-2026

janv-2028
janv-2028

janv-2030
janv-2030
0
0,00
1,00
2,00
3,00
4,00
5,00
6,00
7,00
8,00
9,00

50
10,00
11,00

103
100
150
200
250
300
350
400

Np (MM Sbbl) Gp (Tcf)


EXAMPLE OF GAS FIELD DATA PRODUCTION DATA

Date Duration Pressure [bar] Z Gp P/Z


[days] W #1 W #2 W #3 W #4 W #5 W #6 @ -3750 mSL [GNm3] [bar]
janv 83 447,8 447,8 447,8 447,8 447,8 447,8 447,8 1,1492 0,000 389,7
févr 83 0,5 443,7 443,7 1,1455 0,128 387,4
févr 83 0,4 443,3 438,1 440,6 1,1426 0,164 385,6
juil 83 35 429,7 433,2 426,8 429,8 1,1329 0,390 379,4
août 83 5 425,7 430,3 424,3 426,6 1,1301 0,466 377,5
juil 84 18 387,0 390,9 379,9 385,8 1,0948 1,500 352,4
juil 85 3 339,9 347,3 333,7 341,2 340,3 1,0585 2,779 321,5
juin 86 20 301,5 309,0 298,0 302,7 302,6 1,0315 4,006 293,4
juin 88 36 243,7 248,7 241,3 244,4 244,0 244,7 244,4 0,9969 6,286 245,1
juin 89 8 224,3 228,1 222,4 223,1 224,6 224,4 224,4 0,9876 7,172 227,3
août 90 8 191,4 197,2 192,7 190,7 192,6 191,3 192,6 0,9757 8,400 197,4
août 91 10 164,9 173,0 166,5 163,3 165,8 164,4 166,3 0,9691 9,524 171,6
août 92 16 146,2 152,7 146,7 144,6 148,6 145,5 147,3 0,9662 10,420 152,5
juin 93 130,1 136,4 132,5 126,6 131,4 0,9651 11,168 136,1
avr 94 126,7 122,3 118,9 122,7 0,9650 11,701 127,2
mai 95 8 110,8 113,3 111,9 111,9 0,9654 12,216 116,0
août 96 16 100,8 98,7 99,8 0,9664 12,834 103,2

104
EXAMPLE OF GAS FIELD DATA

Pressure vs Time
500,00

450,00 W#1
W#2
400,00
W#3
350,00 W#4
300,00 W#5
W#6
[b ar]

250,00
@ -3750 mSL
200,00

150,00

100,00

50,00

0,00
janv janv janv janv janv janv janv janv janv janv janv janv janv janv janv janv janv
83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99

105
EXAMPLE OF GAS FIELD DATA

Dynamic IGIP
400,0

300,0

Linear Regression Linear Regression


p/Z [bar]

First-Last Points Last Three Points


200,0
IGIP = 17.458 GNm3 IGIP = 17.716

Linear Regression
100,0 All Points
IGIP = 17.289 GNm3

0,0
0,000 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000
Gp [GNm3]

106
EXAMPLE OF GAS FIELD DATA

Dynamic IGIP per Well


400,00
W #1
W #2
W #3
W #4
300,00 W #5
W #6
A1 = 3.563 GNm3
A2 = 2.757 GNm3
p/Z [bar]

A3 = 3.058 GNm3
200,00 A4 = 2.753 GNm3
A5 = 2.465 GNm3
A6 = 2.623 GNm3

100,00

IGIP tot [GNm3]= 17,220


0,00
0,000 0,723 1,447 2,170 2,894 3,617 4,341
Gp [GNm3]

107
MBE - limits

Very simplified model, 1 block: no geometry effects, no heterogeneities


Only connected or active accumulations are seen

Give semi-quantitative indications which can guide for further studies:


- check production data consistency
- validate geological hypothesis: accumulation, size of the aquifer, the
gas cap
- understand the main production mechanisms early in a field,
evaluate secondary methods
- make simple/ quick sensitivities (in history match a and in forecast)

Can be pretty reliable in some specific cases: dry gas field without aquifer

108
MBE – limits : Volatile oil & Gas condensate

So far all the MBE have been written for "black oil" and dry gas, which means:
two hydrocarbon components: stock tank oil and surface gas
• the surface gas can be dissolved in the reservoir oil or gas phase
• stock tank oil can't be volatilized in the gas phase
There is no compositional effects and Bo, Rs and Bg are only dependant of
pressure and temperature
For volatile oil or condensate gas, MBE should be adapted as those reservoirs
produce liquid from the vapor phase

Typical volatile oil


• Rsi >200 m3/m3
• Bo > 2 V/V
• gravity > 45°API
• high reservoir temperature (close to Tc)

109
NATURAL DRAINAGE

• Implementation : Just open the well


(or lift the well)

• Performances : given by the follow-up of reservoir


pressure, rates (Oil,Gas,Water,or GOR, WOR ) versus time

• Limitations : - Pressure decline


(economical rate) - Limiting water - cut
- Limiting GOR

110
RECOVERY FACTORS FOR NATURAL DRAINAGE

Reservoir kind Recovery factor


Undersaturated oil Pa > Pb < 10 %
Oil+ dissolved gas drive Pa < Pb 5 to 25 %
Oil + gas cap 10 to 40 %
Oil + aquifer 10 to 60 %

Gas 60 to 95 %
Gas condensates 40 to 65 %

==> for Oil Reservoirs, in a lot of cases other


mechanisms have to be initiated
111