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Assignment No : 01

Module Code : EE4001

Module Title : Electrical Machines II
Name of the lecturer : Prof.J.P.Karunadasa
Date of submission : 20/08/2018


NAME : G. G. K. M. Ginnaliya
INDEX NO : 150455
1. Torque measurement of motors

Torque is a physical power which simply means twisting power. (Common symbols: τ, M). this
can be related to something very simple, when tightening a nut with a spanner. Torque is the
rotational equivalent of force. A motor’s torque rating is the measure of its ability to alter the
rotation of another object typically, its shaft and/or whatever is connected to it. Generally motor
torque is its driving force. Torque is a most important and critical mechanical parameter for the
electrical machines, building industry and varies types of engines and relevant in some other
applications. The precision is highly required in measurement of this mechanical parameter.
There involve main two type torque measurement methods which are Indirect and Direct
method. Direct method is the particular measurement of torque which measure physical values.
(Usually elastic strain) those can be varying according to torque value. And measure by using
sensing devices. In Indirect method it measures physical values which change can be calculated
into torque. Direct method is further classified into group by conceiving the type of detector in
used and the way of fixing the sensor.

Figure 1 general classifications of torque measurement


In this indirect method of Torque measurement is usually associated with determination of

mechanical power either power required to operate a machine or to determination the power
developed by the machine. But the final output power gives right measurements for determine
the torque due to the compensation of varies losses.

 Pony brake dynamometer

The construction of Pony brake dynamometer is that it consists of two wooden blocks placed
near a pulley to the shaft of the motor whose the power is required to be measured. And blocks
are clamped. A helical spring is provided between the nut and the upper block to adjust the
pressure of the pulley to control the speed. The upper block has a long lever attached to it carries
a weight W its outer end. A counter weight is placed at the other end of the leaver which
balances the brake when unloaded.

When the brake is to be operated the long lever is loaded with suitable weights W and nuts are
tightened until the shaft runs at a constant speed and the lever is in horizontal position. Therefore
the moment due to the weight W must balance the moment of frictional resistance between the
blocks and the pulley.

Figure 2Pony brake dynamometer configuration

 Rope Brake dynamometer

Figure 3 Rope Brake dynamometer configuration

This mechanism consists of one two or more ropes wound around the flywheel or rim of a pulley
fixed rigidly to the shaft of the motor or engine. The upper end is kept in position while the
lower end of the ropes is kept in position while the lower end of the ropes is kept in position by
applying a dead weight. In order to prevent the slipping of the rope over the flywheel, wooden
blocks are placed at intervals around the circumference of the flywheel.

When the brake is, the motor is made to run at a constant speed. The frictional torque due to
rope, must be equal to the torque being transmitted by the engine

 Epicyclic Train Dynamometer

Figure 4 Epicyclic Train Dynamometer configuration

It consists of a simple epicyclic train of gears, i.e. a spur gear. • The spur gear is keyed to the
engine shaft and rotates in anticlockwise direction. • The annular gear is also keyed to the driving
shaft and rotates in clockwise direction. • The pinion or the intermediate gear meshes with both
the spur and annular gears. The pinion revolves freely on a lever. • A weight w is placed at the
smaller end of the lever in order to keep it in position. • The tangential effort P exerted by the
spur gear on the pinion and the tangential reaction of the annular gear on the pinion are equal

2P  a = WL

R= pitch circle radius of the spur gear in meters

N= speed of the engine shaft in rpm

Torque transmitted

T= PR

 Eddy - Current Dynamometers

An eddy-current dynamometer is working on the following principle. When a conducting

material moves through a magnetic flux field, an voltage will be generated, which causes the
current to flow. If the conductor is a wire forming a part of a complete circuit, then current will
flow through that circuit, and with some form of communicating device either Ac. or Dc
generator may result. If the conductor is simply an isolated piece of material, such as a short bar
of metal and not a part of a complete circuit, voltages will still be induced.

An eddy-current dynamometer consists of a non-magnetic solid metallic rotor. The magnetic

field is produced by passing Dc. current through the coils which are attached to the dynamometer
housing. The housing is mounted on trunnion bearings. A machine whose torque has to be
measured is coupled to the rotor of the dynamometer. As the rotor rotates in the magnetic field,
eddy currents are generated, and the reaction with the magnetic field tends to rotate the complete
dynamometer housing in the trunnion bearings

Figure 5eddy current dynamometer configuration

DC Dynamometer

When Dc. machine is coupled to the machine under test which is a power generating machine, it
D.c. machine) is made to work as a generator. The generated power is dissipated in resistance
grids or may be recovered as useful power. Thus, the Dc. machine can act both as absorption
dynamometer and a transmission dynamometer. A torque arm is attached to the casing of the Dc.
machine for the measurement of force and torque.

Figure 6 DC


 The basic operation of a fluid brake dyno uses the principle of viscous coupling.

 Here the horsepower of the prime mover is converted into heat of the dynamometer fluid
mostly water.

 The stators and rotors successfully achieve this transfer of energy. Both the stators and rotors
have pockets built within them.


A torque transducer is a device for measuring the degree of rotational force that a system
experiencing. Torque transduces also known as torque sensors, which has ability to convert a
physical property of thing into a measurable signal
Commonly, torque sensors or torque transducers use strain gauges applied to a rotating shaft or
axle. With this method, a means to power the strain gauge bridge is necessary, as well as a means
to receive the signal from the rotating shaft. This can be achieved using slip rings, wireless
measurement, or rotary transformers. Newer types of torque transducers add conditioning
electronics and an Analog to digital converter to the rotating shaft. Stator electronics then read
the digital signals and convert those signals to a high-level analog output signals. There are
several types of torque transducers for motor torque measurement as follows.

Figure 7 classification of torque sensors

I. Inductive type Transducer

The transducer consists of a stator through which a bearing-mounted shaft passes. A certain
length of the shaft is utilized to convert the torque into a proportional torsional angle. This
torsional angle or angle of twist is measured between the two ends of this shaft length by an
inductive (wave-form) angular position measurement system. The inductive angular position
measurement system converts the angle of twist into a proportional electrical signal.

1. Rotating shaft

2. Encoder disk

3. Double-arm photoelectric barrier

4. Open-collector output (external pull-up resistor required)

II. Piezoelectric Accelerometers

The Piezo Electric measuring-procedure silicon crystals are elastically deformed, so that an
electric load appears on its defined outside surfaces. This load is found to be proportional to
the applied force.
Torque is measured using a ring-element. The single quartz disks are arranged in such a way
that an appearing tangential forces can be measured.

The transducer carries a high pre-load which allows it to transfer the appearing torque
through frictional resistance to the quartz elements. The single elements are arranged
parallel, so that the appearing load is proportionally to the transferred torque. Since the
insulation resistance of the charge amplifier and measuring instrument is of a certain size, the
occurring load flows only gradually. Piezo-electric transducers are therefore only marginally
suited for static measurement.

III. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) - this technology based on the sensors resonant frequency
changing due to deformation.

IV. Optical- two optical elements (discs) are placed at the opposite ends of the torsional
element. Due to the twisting relatively to each other, amount of light which goes through
both discs changes and it is measured by detector.

V. Strain gauges type, which based on changing of strain gauges resistance under the

VI. Magnetoelastic-.

The process involves measuring changes in the properties of remnant magnetic fields as the
mechanical characteristics change, such as shear stress, as external forces are applied onto
the sensor host. The technology is applied by directly magnetizing a mechanical member
instead of attaching additional elements, such as a ring. Highly sensitive fluxgate sensors
located in close proximity to the magnetized member sense the change in the magnetic-field
characteristics that are proportional to the applied force
The manufacturer used by Magtrol Inc, and they are the technology and market leader when
coming to measurements and testing overall control torque, power. Magtrol has several various
products to measure torque; some of them are as follows.

CTS Cogging Test System

The test system includes a precision geared motor, 5000 pulse encoder, TM Torque Sensor and
security clutch to avoid system overload by mishandling when not in use. And which provides
for measurements of motor Detent Torque, Cogging Torque and Friction Torque with 0.1 %
accuracy of rated torque

I. In-line Torque Transduces

This torque measuring system is based on the principle of a variable, torque-proportional

transformer coupling. The measuring system consists of two concentric cylinders, shrunk on the
shaft on each side of the shaft’s deformation zone, and two concentric coils attached to the

Both cylinders have a circularly disposed coinciding row of slots and rotate with the shaft inside
the coils. When torque is applied, the slots on the two cylinders do not overlap. Instead, the
deformation zone undergoes an angular deformation and the slots begin to overlap. Thus, a
torque-proportional EMF is induced in the secondary coil.

3. Mathematical calculation based on mutual flux measurement

By measuring the current on each phases and instantaneous flux on each phase it can determine
torque of the synchronous motor with help of following relation. In case of asynchronous
machine torque measurement we have to replace the flux by the integration of the terminal

4. Rotating transformer

This method uses a set of transformers, one to carry the excitation voltage onto the shaft, and the
other to transfer the signal off. They are called rotary transformers because one winding of each
transformer rotates relative to the other winding. Advantages of this approach include low noise
and no wearing parts in the electrical path. Because of the AC nature of transformers, AC carrier
amplifiers are required for the signal conditioning. Some rotary transformer torque transducers
include built-in signal conditioning, allowing for a standard DC supply voltage and a high-level
signal output.


measurement-of-force-and-torque-and-pressure-standards, Mohdshoaib [online], available at;


8/BA_8627_8628_863 EN.pdf

Tips-and-tricks-torque-measurement [online], available at; https://www.hbm.com/en/3706/

Torque-transducers , [online], available at; https://www.magtrol.com/product-category/ /

Pomianowski R Accesed 5.05.2016 http://www.sensorat.alpha.pl/momentomierze.html

2. Selection of the type of motor for a given application

Motor is a type of machine which converts Electrical Energy into Mechanical Energy. The
input/output parameters of motor could be varied owing to different aspects and discrete
conditions of this conversion such as operational, mechanical, and environmental issues. The
nature of the application nominates the characteristic of the motor to be selected simply for their
best performance in use. furthermore the selection of characteristics of motor in engineering
strategy leads to ensure the desired reliability and economy of the equipment.

For example the applications like constant or variable torque and horsepower, type of the load
motor is driving, the size of the load, required speed, and acceleration and deceleration and
additionally the requirement of type of motor compatible with the control system to be used are
must take into account when selecting the motor type. And also environmental and operational
issues as mentioned above has played major role while deciding rating of the motor. In today
Motor are involved with a broad range of application of industrial, commercial, residential and
automobile systems due to the improvement of electrification and many other electronic control
systems. Therefore selection of the type of motor for each application has become substantial
task. There are different motor selecting approaches has been developed from the inception. At
the present it has improved to use automated software tool for that motor selection process.

Selection procedure of motor type.

1. First identified the type of application whether it is constant torque application or variable
torque application while considering the load torque characteristics. Or application is
required position control.
Constant torque type of application such as conveyers and gear-pumps which torque constant
because load does not change and runs in a steady level of power. For this application
constant speed AC and DC motors are preferred and those can be selected at first. In spite of
that a servo or stepper motor also can be selected but comparing with performance
characteristic of the motor, the application may be simple. Therefore that selection would be
non-engineering decision.

The variable torque applications of centrifugal pump and fans which having variable power
loads with highest torque and typically carrying high speeds.
For variable speed application both ac and dc motors with the appropriate drives work well in
variable speed applications. A dc motor and drive configuration was the only variable speed
motor option for a long time and the components are developed and proven. Even now, dc
motors are popular in variable speed, fractional horsepower applications and are useful in
low-speed applications because they can provide full torque at low speed and constant torque
across a wide range of motor speeds.
For precise control and tight position applications stepper motor will be selected without any

2. Determines the drive mechanism which engaged with the motor. Simply it can be a belt
pulley and a rack-and-pinion. And it determines the mass or density of the load.
For an example for belt driven mechanism;

The following specifications are needed to be observed and calculated for belt driven mechanism
with selecting induction Motor.
 Total mass of belt and load
 External force
 Friction coefficient of sliding surface
 Roller diameter
 Roller mass
 Belt and roller efficiency
 Belt speed
 Motor power supply
 Operating time

The following specifications are need to be observed and calculated for belt driven mechanism
with selecting Low-Speed Synchronous Motors.

 Total mass of belt and load

 Roller diameter
 Mass of roller
 Frictional coefficient of sliding surfaces
 Belt and pulley efficiency
 Frequency of power supply

3. The equipment specifications are identified as pointing out in following items.

 Operating speed and operating time.
 Positioning distance and positioning time.
 Resolution stopping accuracy.
 Position holding
 Power supply voltage and frequency
 Operating environment

4. Calculate the load torque and load inertia of the motor drive shaft.

5. Select a motor type from standard AC motors, brushless motors or stepping motors based on
the required specifications.

6. Make a final determination of the motor after confirming that the specifications of the
selected motor and gearhead satisfy all of the requirements, such as mechanical strength,
acceleration time and acceleration torque.

Motor Performance

In these all kind of motor selecting procedures are generally endeavored to consider the factors
that can be directly effect on type of application. These factors can be listed as in following

I. Speed
Speed is main parameter of the application. Therefore identification of speed and type of
speed whether rated or constant speed and maximum or peak speed are important to progress
the work ahead.

However, when selecting a motor, motors’ data sheets give ratings for a “No-Load” speed
(n0) or the maximum rotational speed of the motor with nothing attached to it, i.e. having
“no-load.” The motor you select will require a rated “No-Load” speed greater than your

calculated operating speed because when a physical load is placed on the motor, the motor
speed will be reaching to slow down.

Speed control
Different drive operation task employed different speed, so speed control is one of the
important parameters for selection of motor. Historically, when an application required the
precise motor control and speed variation had been used DC Motor Drives however DC
motors are expensive and requires constant attention on maintenances than the AC motors.
Currently AC motors offer torque control and wide range of speed control due to the
progression of power electronics and many other new electronic advancements.

II. Torque

Torque is key motor characteristics that requiring to move the load applying on motor.
Torque is merely a turning effort or force acting through a radius and it helps to determine
the acceleration and deceleration with the mass of the load. There different value of torque
are interacted with the motor while it is operating therefore there must be constant of torque
between equipment and drive system of application and also the amount torque at worst
case scenario need to considered to ensure the reliability of the activity.

Figure 8 Torque -speed characteristics of DC Motor

Figure 9 Torque characteristics for Induction motor

III. Duty cycle.

The duty cycle is determined the required motor size for a given application. Motor will
generate heat while its operation and every motor is rated to run up to a certain temperature
as defined by the insulation class. This is why duty cycle is very important. If an application
requires continuous operation at a set load point, the motor will need to be able to stabilize at
a temperature within its temperature rating while running continuously. If the application is
intermittent duty there will be less heat to dissipate, generating space, weight, and cost
savings due to the use of a smaller motor.

Figure 10 Duty cycle chart

Availability of particular power (AC or DC) is needed to consider and the speed and torque
requirements you determined earlier are also used to determine a power requirement for your
motor. All motors are only able to output a maximum amount of power (Pmech, max). The power
output from a motor can be utilized in mainly two (desired) ways: spinning its output shaft faster
or spinning its output shaft with more torque

𝑃𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ = 𝑇𝑜𝑟𝑞𝑢𝑒 𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑

Voltage and Current

Once the electrical power needed is calculated, it is used to determine the rated voltage and
current requirements. Similar to mechanical power being comprised of two parts, speed and
torque, electrical power is also comprised of two parts, the voltage and the current.

Pel =Voltage current

In general, there is also a direct relationship between speed and voltage, and also between torque
and current. For a voltage controlled DC motor, the higher the input voltage, the higher the speed
and likewise, the higher the torque required, the higher the current draw. Therefore, it is
important to calculate the voltage and current requirements at:

1. maximum speed
2. Most often operating point
3. Maximum torque

Service Factor

Service factor is defined as the permissible amount of overload motor will handle within defined
temperature limits. When voltage and frequency are maintained at nameplate rated values, the
motor may be overloaded up to the horsepower obtained by multiplying the rated horsepower by
the service factor shown on the nameplate.

Environmental Constrains

Environment of given application determine the type of protection scheme of the motor to be
selected. The following tabulate environmental restrictions show the protection scheme.

I. Ingress protection

II. Motor Temperature

A major consideration in both motor design and application is heat. Excessive heat will
accelerate motor insulation deterioration and cause premature insulation failure. Excessive heat
may also cause a breakdown of bearing grease, thus damaging the bearing system of a motor.

The total temperature a motor must withstand is the result of two factors: external, or ambient
temperature; and internal, or motor temperature rise. An understanding of how these components
are measured

III. Motor Cooling

Surrounding environment, heat generated during motor operation will be transferred to the
ambient air. The rate of heat transfer affects the maximum load and/or the duty cycle of a
specific motor design. Therefore different kind of motor cooling methods have been being

Insulation Class

Insulation materials are arranged in 'Classes' according to the maximum permissible temperature
at which the material is suitable for continuous operation.

Figure 11 lEC Publication 85 (1957) VDE 0530, Part 1/1.69 BSS 2757: 1956


Cost is the one of most important factor need to be considered when selecting a motor. In
engineering always focusing optimum cost of both Capital and Running cost with a unique
design as for seen the motor options and parameters of the application.

Modified designs involve additions or alterations made to standard catalog motors. These are ideal
when slight adjustments need to be made or accessories need to be included in order to meet the
customer’s needs

Motor modifications can be done on standard motors or new designing motors to acquire special
requirement of the application with spending least cost and fast construction.

There are many different manufactures allows to do modification options with regarding
following points

A. Bearings
 Drive end high temperature lubricant
 Drive end seal
 Lead end high temperature lubricant
 Lead end seal

B. End Bells

 Drill and tap on edge

 Drill and tap for encoder, brake or special modifications
 Machine pilot

C. Shafts

 Dual output
 Drill and tap
 Additional flat
 Keyway – woodruff
 Keyway – straight
 Crosshole
 Thread – internal
 Thread – external
 Diameter

D. Terminal Boxes

 With or without terminal blocks

 Leads (12 inches standard)
 Grommets 2-core cord 3-core cord
 Extra length

E. Rectifiers

 115V
 230V

F. Mountings (Standard Flange Included)

 Special flange
 Foot mount

G. Nameplates

 Special marketing (CE)

 Customized nameplate

H. Miscellaneous

 Drain holes
 Environmental – IP rating
 Insulation
 Housings

Figure 12 Standard motor Comparison


ABB Motor specifications [available from] https://www.Abb.com

Electrical Machines - Questions and Answers Information courtesy of ALSTOM. [online] available from]

Industrial application of motors , [Online] available from]: https://www.controleng.com/single-


Alexa Loiskandl Ihow to choose the right motor [online], available from://www.design-engineering.com

Why-we-consider-while-selection-of-motor [online], available from ; https://www.quora.com/What-is-


NEMA Standards Publication No. MG1 Ð1993 National Electrical Manufacturers Association